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# Example Problem1-4 Define the variable, and convert the units, of the following quantities

from the BG system of units to the SI system of units: (a) 3 knot (nautical mph). (b) 60 gallon.
(c) 90 ton. (d) 4 Btu. (e) 30
o
R.
The conversions from the BG system of units to the SI system of units, for some common
variables, are given inside the cover of this textbook (and some are also available in Mathcad).
(a) The velocity is converted from BG to SI as follows:
1knot 1.688
ft
s
1ft 0.305m
3 knot 1.688
ft
sec
1
1 knot

0.305 m
1ft
1.545
m
sec

(b) The volume is converted from BG to SI as follows:
1gal 0.134 ft
3
1ft ( )
3
0.028 m
3
60 gal
0.134 ft
3

1 gal

0.028 m
3

1ft
3
0.225 m
3

(c) The weight is converted from BG to SI as follows:
1ton 2 10
3
lb lb 4.44 N : 90 ton
2000 lb
1 ton

4.44 N
1 lb
7.992 10
5
N
(d) The energy is converted from BG to SI as follows:
Btu 777.649ft lb : 1ft lb 1.353J
4 Btu
777.649ft lb
1 Btu

1.353 J
1ft lb
4.209 10
3
J
(e) The temperature is converted from BG to SI as follows. The conversion formula from inside
the cover is as follows:
( ) K R
o o
5
9

## . The direct computation using Mathcad is as follows:

30R 16.667K
Example Problem 1-5 Define the variable, and convert the units, of the following quantities
from the SI system of units to the BG system of units: (a) 90 Pa. (b) 4 L. (c) 80 J. (d) 96 W. (e)
45
o
C.
The conversions from the SI system of units to the BG system of units, for some common
variables, are given inside the cover of this textbook (and some are also available in Mathcad).
(a) The pressure is converted from SI to BG as follows:
1Pa 1
N
m
2
1m 3.281ft N 0.225 lb :
90 Pa 1
N
m
2

1
Pa

0.225 lb
1N

1m ( )
2
3.281 ft ( )
2
1.881
lb
ft
2

## (b) The volume is converted from SI to BG as follows:

1L 1 10
3
m
3
1m 3.281ft 4 L 1 10
3

1m ( )
3
1L

3.281 ft ( )
3
1m ( )
3
0.141ft
3

(c) The energy (or work or quantity of heat) is convened from SI to BG as follows:
J 1N m : N 0.225 lb : 1m 3.281ft
80J
1N m
1J

0.225 lb
1N

3.281ft
1m
59.058ft lb
(d) The power is converted from SI to BG as follows:
W 1
N m
sec
: N 0.225 lb : 1m 3.281ft
96 W 1
N m
sec

1
1W

0.225 lb
1N

3.281ft
1m
70.87
ft lb
sec

(e) The temperature is converted from SI to BG as follows. The conversion formula from inside
the cover is as follows:
( ) C F
o o
5
9
32 +
. The direct computation using Mathcad is as follows:
45 C 113F
Example Problem 1-13 A body has a mass of 4 slug. (a) Determine the weight of the mass.
(a) In order to determine the weight (gravitational force) of the mass, Newton's second law of
motion is applied as follows:
slug 1 lb
sec
2
ft
: M 4 slug : g 32.2
ft
sec
2
: W M g 128.8lb :
Example Problem 1-14 A body weighs 80 N. (a) Determine the mass of the body.
(a) In order to determine the mass of the body, Newton's second law of motion is applied as
follows:
N kg
m
sec
2
: W 80 N : g 9.81
m
sec
2
: M
W
g
8.155kg :
Example Problem 1-19 Using Table A-2 in Appendix A and Table A-3 in Appendix A,
respectively, to read the fluid specific weight: (a) Determine the volume of 13 lb of water at 100
o
F. (b) Determine the weight of 60 m
3
of air at 200
o
C.
(a) The volume of 13 lb of water at 100
o
F is determined by applying Eq. 1-41 as follows:
W 13 lb : 62.00
lb
ft
3
: V
W

0.21ft
3
:
(b) The weight of 60 m
3
of air at 200
o
C is determined by applying Eq. 1-41 as follows:
N kg
m
sec
2
: V 60 m
3
: 7.33
N
m
3
: W V 439.8N :
Example Problem 1-26 The space between two very long parallel plates separated by distance,
0.35 m is filled with glycerin at room temperature (20
o
C), as illustrated in Figure EP 1-26. The
lower plate is held stationary, while a continuous tangential (shear) force, F
V
is applied to the
upper plate, thus moving the plate with a constant velocity of 0.25 m/sec. The dimensions of the
upper plate are 2 m by 1 m. (a) Determine if the flow is laminar or turbulent. (b) Graphically
illustrate the velocity profile at the cross section of flow. (c) Graphically illustrate the shear stress
at the cross section of flow. (d) Determine the magnitude of the shear force required to keep the
plate moving at the given constant velocity.
(a) The fluid properties for glycerin at room temperature (20
o
C) are read from Table A-4 in
Appendix A. In order to determine if the flow is laminar or turbulent, the Reynolds number, R is
computed from Eq. 1-48 as follows:
N kg
m
sec
2
: 1258
kg
m
3
: 1494 10
3
N
sec
m
2
:
v
plate
0.25
m
sec
: D 0.35 m :
R
v
plate
D

73.678 :
Thus, because R = 73.678 < 2000, the flow between the two long parallel plates is laminar.
(b) Because the flow between the two long parallel plates is laminar, the velocity profile is
assumed to be linear, and is evaluated by applying Eq. 1-55 as follows:
y
D
v
y v
plate
) (
v y ( )
v
plate
D
y :
A graphical illustration of the velocity profile at the cross section of flow is given as follows:
0 0.1 0.2
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
Plot of Linear Velocity Profile
m/sec
my
v y ( )
(c) The shear stress is evaluated by applying evaluated by Applying Newton's law of viscosity
for laminar flow, Eq. 1-58 as follows:
dy
dv

v y ( )
v
plate
D
y :
y
v y ( )
d
d
simplify
0.714
sec

y ( )
0.714
sec
:
A graphical illustration of the shear stress at the cross section of flow is given as follows:
0 0.5 1
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
Plot of Uniform Shear Stress Profile
N/ sq m
my
y ( )
N
m
2
y 0 m : y ( ) 1.067
N
m
2

y 0.35 m : y ( ) 1.067
N
m
2

Note that the shear stress function, (y) was divided by N/m
2
in order to properly display the
correct values for this function. Mathcad plots values in its default (base) units. The base units
for pressure (or shear stress) in the SI system of units is N/m
2
, so Mathcad saves them in N/m
2
.
Thus, in order to properly display the values in N/m
2
, one may divide the shear stress by N/m
2

which essentially removes the units and displays only the values.
(d) The magnitude of the shear force required to keep the plate moving at the given constant
velocity is determined by applying Eq. 1-54 as follows:
b 1 m : L 2 m : A b L 2m
2
:
0.35 m ( ) 1.067
N
m
2
F
V
0.35 m ( ) A 2.133N :
Example Problem 1-28 Glycerin at room temperature (68
o
F) flows at a flowrate of 89 cfs in a 5
ft diameter pipe for a length of 10 ft, as illustrated in Figure EP 1-28. (a) Determine if the flow is
laminar or turbulent. (b) Graphically illustrate the velocity profile at the pipe cross section. (c)
Graphically illustrate the shear stress at the pipe cross section.
(a) The fluid properties for glycerin at room temperature (68
o
F) are read from Table A-4 in
Appendix A. In order to determine if the flow is laminar or turbulent, the Reynolds number, R is
computed from Eq. 1-48 as follows:
slug 1 lb
sec
2
ft
: 2.44
slug
ft
3
: 31200 10
6
lb
sec
ft
2
:
Q 89
ft
3
sec
: D 5 ft : A
D
2

4
19.635ft
2
: v
Q
A
4.533
ft
s
:
R
v D

1.772 10
3
:
Thus, because R = 1.772 x 10
3
< 2000, the pipe flow is laminar.
(b) Because the pipe flow is laminar, the velocity profile is assumed to be parabolic, and is
evaluated by applying Eq.1-71 as follows:
1
1
]
1

,
_

2
max
1
o
r
r
v v
where v
max
is evaluated by applying Eq.1-69 as follows:
L
pr
v
o
4
2
max

and where p for laminar pipe flow is evaluated by applying Poiseuille's law Eq.1-70 as
follows:
4
128
D
QL
p

L 10 ft : p
128 Q L
D
4

1.807 psf : r
o
D
2
2.5ft :
v
max
p r
o
2

4 L
9.065
ft
s
: v r ( ) v
max
1
r
r
o

,
2

1
1
1
]
:
A graphical illustration of the velocity profile at the pipe cross section is given as follows:
0 2 4 6 8
2
1
0
1
2
Plot of Parabolic Velocity Profile
ft/sec
f
t
r
v r ( )
(c) The shear stress is evaluated by applying Newton's second law of motion for either laminar or
turbulent flow Eq.1-53 as follows:
o
r
r
max

where
max
is evaluated by applying Eq.1-50 as follows:
L
p r
o
w

2
max

and where p for laminar pipe flow was already evaluated by applying Poiseuille's law Eq. 1-70
in (b) above.

max
r
o
2
p
L
0.226 psf : r ( )
max
r
r
o
:
A graphical illustration of the shear stress at the pipe cross section is given as follows:
0 0.1 0.2
2
1
0
1
2
Plot of Linear Shear Stress Profile
lb/sq ft
f
t
r
r
r ( )
psf
Note that the shear stress function, (r) was divided by psf in order to properly display the
correct values for this function. Mathcad plots values in its default (base) units. The base units
for pressure (or shear stress) in the BG system of units is psi, so Mathcad saves them in psi.
Thus, in order to properly display the values in psf, one may divide the shear stress by psf, which
essentially removes the units and displays only the values. Alternately, because the pipe flow is
laminar, the shear stress may also be evaluated by Applying Newton's law of viscosity for
laminar flow, Eq. 1-58 as follows:

,
_

dr
dv
dy
dv

v
max
9.065
ft
sec
r
o
2.5ft 31200 10
6
lb
s
ft
2
:
v r ( ) v
max
1
r
r
o

,
2

1
1
1
]
:
r
v r ( )
d
d

2.901 r
ft s
r ( )
2.901 r
ft s
:
A graphical illustration of the shear stress at the pipe cross section is given as follows:
0 0.1 0.2
2
1
0
1
2
Plot of Linear Shear Stress Profile
lb/sq ft
f
t
r
r
r ( )
psf
Example Problem 1-29 Crude oil at room temperature (68
o
F) flows at a depth of 0.35 ft and a
maximum velocity of 0.5 ft/sec over a solid boundary, as illustrated in Figure EP 1-29. (a)
Determine if the flow is laminar or turbulent. (b) Graphically illustrate the velocity profile at the
cross section of flow. (c) Graphically illustrate the shear stress at the cross section of flow.
(a) The fluid properties for crude oil at room temperature (68
o
F) are read from Table A-4 in
Appendix A. In order to determine if the flow is laminar or turbulent, the Reynolds number, R is
computed from Eq. 1-48 as follows:
slug 1 lb
sec
2
ft
: 1.66
slug
ft
3
: 150 10
6
lb
sec
ft
2
:
D 0.35 ft : v
max
0.5
ft
sec
: R
v
max
D

1.937 10
3
:
Thus, because R =1.937 x 10
3
< 2000, the flow over the solid boundary is laminar.
(b) Because the flow over the boundary is laminar, the velocity profile is assumed to be
parabolic, and is evaluated by applying Eq. 1-83 as follows:
( ) y D y
D
v
v 2
2
max
v y ( )
v
max
D
2
y 2 D y ( ) :
A graphical illustration of the velocity profile at the cross section of flow is given as follows:
0 0.2 0.4
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
Plot of Parabolic Velocity Profile
ft/sec
f
t
y
v y ( )
(c) The shear stress is evaluated by applying evaluated by Applying Newton's law of viscosity
for laminar flow, Eq. 1-58 as follows:
dy
dv

v
max
0.5
ft
sec
D 0.35ft 150 10
6
lb
sec
ft
2
:
v y ( )
v
max
D
2
y 2 D y ( ) :
y
v y ( )
d
d
simplify
2.857 ft 8.163 y
ft sec

y ( )
2.857 ft 8.163 y
ft sec
:
A graphical illustration of the shear stress at the cross section of flow is given as follows:
0 1 10
4
2 10
4
3 10
4
4 10
4

0
0.1
0.2
0.3
Plot of Linear Shear Stress Profile
lb/sq ft
f
t
y
y ( )
psf
y 0 ft : y ( ) 4.278 10
4
psf