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Voltage Stability Improvement in Power Systems using Facts Controllers: State-of-theArt Review

Sandeep Gupta, Prof. R. K. Tripathi, Member, IEEE, and Rishabh Dev Shukla

ABSTRACT--Flexible AC Transmission Systems (FACTS) devices have been used in power systems since the 1970s for the improvement of its dynamic performance. This paper presents a review on the research and developments in the voltage stability improvement by using FACTS controllers. In this paper several technical issues related to FACTS installations have been highlighted and performance comparison of different FACTS controllers have been discussed. In addition, real-world installations and semiconductor technology development have been reviewed and summarized. This paper also includes the main causes of voltage instability and power scenario in India. In order to deal with the voltage stability problem, the solutions with FACTS-controllers provide voltage support and/or appropriately co-ordinated control actions. Authors strongly believe that this survey article will be very much useful to the researchers for finding out the relevant references in the field of voltage stability improvement by using FACTS controllers in power system environments. Index Terms--FACTS, IPFC, SVC, STATCOM, SSSC, TCSC, TCPS, UPFC, voltage stability.

I. INTRODUCTION

N recent years, along with the rapid increasing electric power requirement, the reconstruction of India's urban and rural power network is more and more urgent. There will be huge demand for reactive power compensation to improve the efficiency and stability of AC transmission systems during transmission upgrade process. Given a profit-driven, deregulated electric power industry coupled with increased load growth, the power transmission infrastructure is being stressed to its upper operating limits to achieve maximum economic returns to both generator and transmission system owners. In such an environment, system stability problems such as inadequate voltage control and fast regulation must be

resolved in the cost-effective manner to improve overall grid security and reliability. Voltage stability is one of the biggest problems in power systems. The series and shunt compensation are able to increase the maximum transfer capabilities of power network [1]. Concerning to voltage stability, such compensation has the purpose of injecting reactive power to maintain the voltage magnitude in the nodes close to the nominal values, besides, to reduce line currents and therefore the total system losses [2]. At the present time, thanks to the development of sophisticated and versatile power electronic devices named Flexible AC Transmission Systems (FACTS), which are used to adjust the magnitude of voltage in power system with proper control. Fast advances in computer analysis of power systems have enabled appearance of extensive knowledge related to general power system control and stability. Number of IEEE standards [3], [4] and books [5]-[8] cover modelling issues in depth. Some of them directly concern the voltage stability problem [9], [10]. Useful definitions of terms related to stability are provided within several taxonomies in [11]-[13]. A large number of scientists and engineers have been attracted by the voltage stability problem. Their attention has resulted with a number of papers being published in magazines and conference proceedings. Extensive bibliography [14] treats the most referenced ones among them. Load behavior is recognized as one of the main driving forces of the voltage collapse. Bibliography [15] covers main references, which are related either to modeling techniques [16]-[19] or to field measurements and identification [20][23]. A. Principal Causes of Voltage Stability Problems Some of the main causes for occurrence of voltage instability are i.Due to unsuitable locations of FACTS controllers. ii.High Reactive Power Consumption at Heavy Loads. iii.Occurrence of Contingencies. iv.Reverse Operation of ON Load Tap-Changer (OLTC). v.Voltage sources are too far from load centers. vi.Poor coordination between multiple FACTS controllers.

Sandeep Gupta, Research Scholar in Department of Electrical Engineering of Motilal Nehru National Institute of Technology, Allahabad (U.P.)-211004 INDIA (e-mail: jecsandeep@gmail.com). Dr. R.K. Tripathi, Professor in Department of Electrical Engineering of Motilal Nehru National Institute of Technology, Allahabad (U.P.)-211004 INDIA (e-mail: rktripathi@mnnit.ac.in). Rishabh Dev Shukla, Research Scholar in Department of Electrical Engineering of Motilal Nehru National Institute of Technology, Allahabad (U.P.)-211004 INDIA (e-mail: shukla.rishabhdev@gmail.com).

978-1-4244-8542-0/10/$26.00 2010 IEEE

vii.Presence of Constant Power Loads. viii.Difference in Transmission of Reactive Power under Heavy Loads. B. Prevention of Voltage Instability Some of the prevention of voltage instability by following: i.Placement of Series and Shunt Capacitors. ii.Generation Rescheduling. iii.Placement of FACTS Controllers. iv.Under-Voltage Load Shedding. v.Blocking of Tap-Changer under Reverse Operation. vi.Coordination of Multiple FACTS Controllers. vii.Installation of Synchronous Condensers. II. OVERVIEW OF FACTS DEVICES Instability in power system could be relieved or at least minimized with the help of most recent developed devices called Flexible AC Transmission System (FACTS) controllers [24], [25]. The use of Flexible AC Transmission System (FACTS) controllers in power transmission system have led to many applications of these controllers not only to improve the stability of the existing power network resources but also provide operating flexibility to the power system. In addition, with relatively low investment compared to new transmission or generation facilities, these FACTS technology allows the industries to better utilize the existing transmission and generation reserves, while enhancing the power system performance. They clearly enhance power system performance, improve quality of supply and also provide an optimal utilization of the existing resources [26]. FACTS devices are a family of high-speed electronic devices, which can significantly increase the power system performance by delivering or absorbing real and/or reactive power [24]-[26]. There are two generations for realization of power electronics-based FACTS controllers: the first generation employs conventional thyristor-switched capacitors and reactors, and quadrature tap-changing transformers, the second generation employs gate turn-off (GTO) thyristor-switched converters as voltage source converters (VSCs). The first generation has resulted in the Static Var Compensator (SVC), the Thyristor- Controlled Series Capacitor (TCSC), and the Thyristor-Controlled Phase Shifter (TCPS) [26], [27]. The second generation has produced the Static Synchronous Compensator (STATCOM), the Static Synchronous Series Compensator (SSSC), the Unified Power Flow Controller (UPFC), and the Interline Power Flow Controller (IPFC) [28][30]. The two groups of FACTS controllers have distinctly different operating and performance characteristics. They can be connected to power system at any appropriate location, in series, in shunt or in a combination of series and shunt. The SVC and STATCOM are connected in shunt, whereas TCSC and SSSC are connected in series. UPFC is connected in a combination of both shunt and series. Number of research papers present development status of this technology from the early years up to date [24], [31]-[40]. So far, only one book thoroughly covers component and

system wise aspects of the FACTS technology [24]. The deregulation (restructuring) of power networks will probably imply new loading conditions and new power flow situations. Also, some concerns are raised as to show FACTS capabilities in open access environment [41], [42]. This is certainly an additional challenge to be faced by the FACTS. Analysis of a power system with embedded FACTS controllers calls for development of adequate models [43][45]. Models largely depend on a type of the analysis, which is generally either component or system orientated. In the component orientated analysis, individual physical elements of a FACTS-controller are concerned. On the other side, the system orientated analysis needs answers on achievements that could be possibly gained by using a FACTS-controller. This research work is solely concerned with system wise aspects of the FACTS technology. In general form, system wise aspects are related either to the improvements of security and economics [46]-[50] or to the enhancements of transmission network capability [51]-[53]. III. INTEREST MEASURE FOR FACTS For the purpose of this review, a literature survey has been carried out including two of the most important and common databases, namely, the IEEE/IEE electronic library and Science Direct electronic databases. The survey spans over the last 19 years from 1991 to 2009. For convenience, this period has been divided to three sub-periods; 19911998, 1999 2004, and 20052009. The number of publications discussing FACTS applications to different power system studies has been recorded. The results of the survey are shown in Fig. 1. It is clear that the applications of FACTS to different power system studies have been drastically increased in last five years. This shows more interest for the VSC-based FACTS applications. The potential of FACTS controllers to enhance power system stability has been discussed by Noorozian and Anderson [54], where a comprehensive analysis of damping of power system electromechanical oscillations using FACTS was presented. Wang and Swift [55] have discussed the damping torque contributed by FACTS devices, where several important points have been analyzed and confirmed through simulations. IV. FACTS APPLICATIONS By the 1970s, the voltage and current rating of thyristor had been increased significantly making them suitable for applications in high voltage power systems [33], [56]. This made construction of modern Static Var Compensators (SVCs), Thyristor Controlled/Switched Series Capacitors (TCSCs/TSSCs) and Thyristor Controlled Phase Shifter Regulators (TCPSs). A fundamental feature of the thyristor based switching controllers is that the speed of response of passive power system components such as a capacitor or a reactor is enhanced, but their compensation capacity is still solely determined by the size of the reactive component.

Number of Publications (General)

UP F C SSSC S TATC OM
2005-09 1999-2004 1991-98

TC S C S VC 0 200 400 600 800 1000

Fig. 1. Statistics for FACTS applications to different power system studies Number of different techniques have been reported in the literature regarding the effect of FACTS devices "SVC, TCSC, and TCPS" on power system stability [57]-[81]. Wang and Swift [57] developed a novel unified PhillipsHeffron model for a power system equipped with a SVC, a TCSC and a TCPS. Damping torque coefficient analysis has been performed, based on the proposed model, to study the effect of FACTS controllers damping for different loading conditions. Abido & Abdel-Magid [58] investigated the effectiveness of PSS and FACTS-based controllers on power stability enhancements. For the proposed stabilizer design problem, an eigenvalue-based objective function to increase the system damping was developed. Then the genetic algorithm (GA) used to search for the optimal stabilizer parameters. In [52], the late E. W. Kimbark pointed out that with shunt capacitor voltage support at the mid-point of the transmission line (which he proved to be the optimum location), it is possible to transmit twice the power of the uncompensated line. Many controllers of Flexible AC Transmission Systems (FACTS), such as the STATCOM, the Unified Power Flow Controller (UPFC), the PWM asynchronous dc link, the Thyristor-Controlled Series Capacitor (TCSC) and the PWM Series Static VAR compensator have stabilized ac voltage support. According to the objectives of installing SVCs, such as increasing operation efficiency, ensuring certain security level and improving service quality, SVC planning can be formulated into an optimization problem. [82] proposes a two-stage optimization method using an expert system and simulated annealing (SA) to solve SVC placement and develops a computer package based on SA for multi-objective SVC planning of large-scale power systems. In [83], a hierarchical approach is presented for VAR optimization in system planning. In the above methods, the attention has been focused upon the losses, voltage deviations and expenditure. Relatively little effort has been directly involved with voltage stability improvement. One conceptually simple method of SVC planning for voltage stability enhancement is based on modal analysis around a critical operating point of the power system. With this method, eigenvalue analysis of the system Jacobean matrix near the critical point is exploited to identify buses which are vulnerable to voltage collapse and buses best located for VAR injections [84]. Obviously, this method depends upon critical mode selection and can meet difficulties in capacity apportionment for multiple SVC placements. The SVC is a shunt compensation component. It is originally designed for voltage maintenance in power systems. Much as the TCSC, the SVC is also capable of flexible adjustment. It can serve as an alternative equipment to improve transient stability and the damping performance for the power systems. SVCs are proposed in [85], [86] to increase the damping performance of the system with fixed series compensation. STATCOM previously referred to as STATCON, ASVC or ASVG, resembles in many respects a rotating machine used for reactive power compensation. The principles of a STATCOM can be found in [87]. There are diverse publications regarding to model the STATCOM, for example, steady state studies [88], or transient stability ones [89]. There are other ones applied to voltage control problem using novel technical [90]. Among the tools used for the power systems analysis, three-phase power flow is so important, in order to simulate realistic conditions. There are three-phase transmission lines unbalanced in high-voltage transmission network and, there

are one-phase or two phase lines in some distribution network [91]. Application of STATCOM for stability improvement has been discussed in the literature [92]-[101]. A comparative study between the conventional SVC and STATCOM in damping power system oscillation is given in [92]. The results show the superiorly of STATCOM-based controller over SVC-based controller in increasing the damping of low frequency oscillations. A STATCOM with energy storage system can control both the reactive and the active power, thus providing more flexible power system operation [97]. The overall steady-state characteristics of the STATCOM are described in the form of a volt current (VI) curve, as illustrated in [102]. In [103], Shunt Flexible AC Transmission System (FACTS) devices, when placed at the mid-point of a long transmission line, play an important role in controlling the reactive power flow to the power network and hence both the system voltage fluctuations and transient stability. This paper deals with the location of a shunt FACTS device to improve transient stability in a long transmission line with predefined direction of real power flow. In [104], two types of controllable reactive power generator are discussed. One is static var compensator (called as SVC) and the other is static synchronous compensator (called as STATCOM) whose performance is higher than SVC at a view point of a continuous controllability of reactive power and response time. In this paper, basic principle of STATCOM operation and the functions of each component are explained. Paper [105] has described the real-time and off-line simulation tools and the three simulation methods available in PSB are efficient techniques for design and analysis of complex control systems found in FACTS and custom power controllers. Improvement of dynamic performance of a power system by using a UPFC has been investigated in a number of articles [106]-[111]. In [107], the effect of Series Compensation (SC) and FACTS devices on transient stability are discussed. The essence of improving the dynamic performance of a power system is the dynamic control of machine output power and that can be achieved by placing a UPFC at appropriate location. Reference [112] investigated the improvement of transient stability and damping of a power system for three different modes of operation of the series converter of a UPFC: impedance control mode, perpendicular voltage control mode and voltage angle control mode. Detail investigations in [112] revealed that the perpendicular voltage control of the series converter is the simplest and most practical mode of operation of a UPFC. Continuous and discontinuous controls of FACTS devices are very commonly used to improve the dynamic performance of a power system [113]-[116]. For small disturbances, continuous control is usually enough to improve damping of the system. However, for large disturbances, a full control or bang-bang control is needed to improve the first swing stability limit. Reference [117] used a combination of full and continuous controls of shunt FACTS devices to improve the

stability limit as well as damping of a power system. Table I describe the technical benefits of the main FACTS devices.
TABLE I

TECHNICAL BENEFITS OF MAIN FACTS DEVICES

V.

FACTS T ECHNOLOGY IMPLEMENTATION

In the emerging deregulated power systems, FACTS controllers will provide several benefits at existing or enhanced levels of reliability such as balancing the power flow in parallel networks over a wide range of operating conditions, alleviating unwanted loop flow, mitigating interarea power oscillations, and enhancing the power-transfer capacity of existing transmission corridors [118]. In addition to the several successful installations of the first generation, the second generation of FACTS controllers which uses GTO-based VSC configurations is expected to evolve into another mature family of FACTS controllers as several power utilities worldwide have started installing such controllers. In 1991, a 80 MVAR STATCOM developed by Kansai Electric Power Co. (KEPCO) and Mitsubishi Motors was installed at Inuyama Switching Station to improve the stability of a 154 kV system [119]. A Static Var Compensator (SVC) supplied by ABB Power Systems has been operating since 1993 in BC Hydro's power transmission network at Dunsmuir 500/230/132 kV substation on Vancouver Island in western Canada [137]. In [138], the design and type testing aspects of thyristor valves of Thyristor Controlled Series Capacitor (TCSC) scheme for Kanpur-Ballabhgarh 400kV line are discussed. In 1995, a 100 MVAR STATCOM was commissioned for the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) [120]-[122]. The TVA STATCOM is the first of its kind, using GTO thyristor valves, to be commissioned in United States. In 1997, American Electric Power (AEP) has selected its Inez substation in eastern Kentucky for the location of the world's first UPFC installation [123], [124]. The UPFC is comprised of two 160 MVA GTO thyristor-based inverters, this installation is the highest power GTO based FACTS device ever installed. EPRI and Siemens also developed a 200 MVAR convertible static compensator (CSC), which was installed at Marcy 345 kV substation in 2001 to provide strong dynamic voltage support and to control the power flow. Depending on the transmission control need, the installed CSC can provide four control modes where it can be controlled to operate as STATCOM, SSSC, UPFC, and IPFC [125]. A 75 MVAR STATCOM developed by ALSTOM, the first cascade multilevel-inverterbased STATCOM in the world, entered commercial service at

National Grid Company (NGC) East Claydon, England in flexibility and controllability in system operator. In view of 2001 [126]. A +133/-41 MVAR STATCOM system has been the various power system limits, FACTS provides the most installed at the Vermont Electric Power Company's Essex 115 reliable and efficient solution. FACTS also helps to better kV substation since May 2001, to compensate for heavy utilize the existing transmission resources, where the utilities increases in summertime electric usage [127]. A three-level are facing the problem of transmission expansion because of 100 MVAR STATCOM is installed by San Diego Gas & the strict environmental constraints. This all indicates that Electric (SDG&E) at Talega substation, California in October there is a great potential for its application in the years to 2002, and is to be extended to a Back-To-Back system [128]. come. After analyzing the above literature survey it can be ABB has installed six STATCOM systems (also named SVC said that the FACTS devices are capable of solving the voltage Light) since 1997; two installations in USA and one stability problems at the power system. Authors strongly installation in Sweden, Germany, Finland, and France [129]. believe that this survey article will be very much useful to the A 250 KVAR prototype D-STATCOM was designed and researchers for finding out the relevant references as well as installed for the first time [130]. The Bharat Heavy Electric the previous work done in the field of voltage stability Limited (BHEL), India was successful in developing improvement by using FACTS controllers in multi-machine distribution scale STATCOM also known as D-STATCOM power systems. So that further research work can be carried which has successfully been installed in industry [131]. The out. most recent new technology of STATCOM is developed by VIII. REFERENCES Power-one Micro Systems Pvt. Ltd., India [132]. More FACTS installations to improve the performance of different [1] C. A. Canizares and Z. T. Faur, Analysis of SVC and TCSC Controllers in Voltage Collapse, IEEE Trans. on Power Systems, Vol power system utilities can be found in [133]. VI. P OWER SCENARIO IN INDIA Indian power sector is the third largest in Asia after China and Japan. Government of India has ambitious plans of adding new generation capacities of 77577 MW in the XIth five-year plan (2007 to 2012) and another 82000MW is projected to be added during the XIIth five-year plan (ending 2017). The associated transmission systems for evacuation of power have been planned and inter-regional transmission capacity has been planned to be enhanced to 37150 MW by end of XIth plan i.e. March 2012. POWERGRID, the Central Transmission Utility in the country is also planning to move to next higher voltage for the grid by setting up the first 1200KV transmission line by 2012-13. POWERGRID has projected that by 2025-26 there shall be around 35 nos. 1200KV substations having 100,000 MVA transformation capacity [134], [135]. Along with the rapid development, there are some problems in power systems; inadequate reliability, high line losses and unsatisfactory power quality. FACTS devices are greatly needed to solve this problem. In recent a STATCOM, consisting of non intrusive shunt type active filter configuration, DSP based controller with IGBT technology, 5 milliseconds response time for load changes, reactive & harmonic power compensation, rated at 30 KVAR to 1000 KVAR, is manufactured by Power-one Micro Systems Pvt. Ltd., India [136]. VII. CONCLUSIONS In this review, the essential features of FACTS controllers and their potential to improve system stability is addressed. In recent years, along with the rapid increasing electric power requirement, the reconstruction of India's urban and rural power network is more and more urgent. With the history of more than three decades and widespread application in recent years, FACTS controllers has established itself as a proven and mature technology. In the changing utility environment, FACTS is one of the most important tool for the operational

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