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Improvement in the bulk of continuous-filament yarns is generally achieved by texturing, a process that introduces crimps, coils, loops and

wrinkles to modify the geometry of the constituent filaments to make the yarn more voluminous. Apart from the improvements in the bulk characteristics of fabrics made from textured yarns, there are other added advantages like improved pill resistance, crease resistance, dimensional stability, durability, flexibility, cover and appearance. The textured-yarn fabrics are easy to wash and dry. They also retain strength, abrasion resistance and toughness of the continuous-filament yarn. Air-jet textured yarns partially simulate the spun yarns, because of their surface loops. The structure of an air-jet-textured yarn depends on the texturing parameters: air pressure, overfeeds of core and effect components, filament denier, number of filaments and positioning of coarse and fine filaments in core or sheath and vice versa While keeping the same core and sheath overfeed of filaments. The higher air pressure used during air-jet texturing of yarn create more air turbulence and form more number of core and sheath loops, compared to yarn produced with low air pressure. Higher air turbulence also leads to disorientation of filaments core and loops, hence the yarn with high air pressure is loose and bulky compared to yarn produced with low / optimum air pressure. 1) For the same Core and Effect and same Overfeed ration with higher Air Pressure give bulky yarn due the bigger loops of filaments and give loose yarn structure. 2) The value of bending rigidity (Bwt) increases with decrease in air pressure. Higher air pressure during texturing creates turbulence to disturb the axial orientation of the filaments; hence the filament yarn textured with lower air pressure carries filaments, which are comparatively flat and aligned to the yarn axis. As the parallel filaments work together to resist bending moment, the fabric carrying yarn with less Air pressure gives higher value of bending rigidity (Bwt). 3) The yarn produced with higher Air pressure carrying disorientated filaments with higher number of loops are less compact, hence will offer higher yarn-yarn friction, because of shearing of more contacting areas. Yarn produced with less Air Pressure carrying flat and orientated filaments than are more compacted and behave cohesively, hence offer higher inter-filament friction. 4) Yarn produced with with slightly lower overfeed of sheath with same over feed of Core; formed fine loops on yarn surface, which are entangled with more loops of core filaments (higher core overfeed). These compacted textured yarns formed with fine sheath loops entangled with dense core loops favours the distribution compressive forces, which in turn also lead to higher values of LC [Latent crimp] and RC [Residual crimp]. 5) Fabric made from coarser filament textured yarn has higher values of bending rigidity (Bwt) than fabric made from finer filaments.

6) Fabrics containing textured weft yarn made from coarser filaments, comparing with weft yarn of fabric consists of more number of finer filaments. Finer filaments are less rigid than coarser filaments under compression, but during texturing they form many smaller loops than coarser filaments, which have higher compressional stability than the bigger loops of coarser filaments. Further, finer filaments are more in number; hence this favours for higher linearity of compression and compression energy of fabric compare to coarser filaments. The higher loop density and smaller loops of textured yarn with finer filaments leads to more entanglements among themselves than the coarser filament with lower loop density and larger loops of yarn, hence the retention properties of yarn with finer filament is better 7) Increase in turbulence with increase in the air pressure decreases the axial orientation of the filaments, resulting in increase in fabric thickness and decrease in bending rigidity, linearity of compression, compression energy and compression resilience. 8) Differential change in core and sheath overfeed (higher increase in core overfeed than decrease in sheath overfeed) causes no change in fabric thickness, but increases bending rigidity, linearity of compression, compression energy and compression resilience. 9) Increase in filament fineness increases bending rigidity, compression resilience, decreases thickness, linearity of compression and compression energy of fabrics. 10) yarn tenacity decreases as the overfeed of the effect yarn is increased from 2230 % As the overfeed of the effect yarn is increased, the yarn modulus (cN/den) also decreases 11) changes in the overfeed percentage has a very little effect on the elongation of the textured yarn. 12) The tenacity of the textured seems to decrease as the air pressure is increased inside the jet nozzle. 13) the modulus of the textured yarn increases with increase in pressure inside the nozzle. 14) the elongation of the yarn decreases as the pressure is increased. 15) with the increase in the take up speed of the textured yarn, the tenacity appears to decrease up to a certain limit and increases further on. 16) Elongation of the yarn marginally increases with increase in the take up speed

17) the modulus of the yarns textured at different temperatures are almost constant. This shows that temperature with which the yarns are pre-drawn has a very minimal effect on the modulus of the resultant textured yarn. 18) very little change in the tenacity of the yarn with respect to change in the temperature value. 19) the elongation of the textured yarns decreases with increase in temperature. 20) the tenacity of the textured yarn slightle increases with the increase in the posttexturing stretch. 21) The denier of the yarns decreases as the stretch is increased since the looser fiber loops are tightened and locked. 22) The increasing trend in modulus with the increasing the post-texturing stretch. 23) the elongation of the yarn decreases with increase in post texturing stretch. 24) the fine yarns can be textured at high speeds very effectively 25) the tenacity and modulus of textured yarn is much less than that of flat un-textured yarn. While the tensile strength of the textured yarn is less, the elongation is always higher than the flat un-textured yarn. 26) It is claimed that the tenacity of the yarn and the quality of texturing [in terms of physical bulk] is inversely proportional. 27) ATY produced from the FDY will give low boiling water shrinkage compare to produced form POY. 28) Low coreyarn overfeed in water/air-jet textured yarn leads to higher strength in the textured yarn than can be obtained by conventional air-jet textured yarns which use higher core yarn overfeeds.