Sie sind auf Seite 1von 3

Chapter 48: Somatic nervous system control skeletal muscles. Neuroglia assists cells that surround neurons.

NT cross a synapse. Saltatory conduction: process where AP only occur @ Nodes.of.Ravier. Chapter 50: Ca2+ required for tropomyosin to shift position. Cross.bridge: myosin head of the sarcomere binds actin. Sarcomere: thick filament,myosin,tropomyosin,actin. Chapter 42: time of diffusion proportional to distance2. Open circulatory system fluid: hemolymph. Atria: not a blood vessel. Pacemaker cells @ SA node. Arteries have thickest blood vessels. Capillaries: blood flow slowest. Interstitial fluid returned to blood thru lymph. Platelets: responsible for blood clot. Alveoli: site of gas exchange with blood (HUMANS). BPG, pH, CO2 conc. O2 conc. Affect affinity to Hb. Chapter 44: Nitrogenous waste of animals: Urea, Uric Acid, NH3. Glomerulus located @ Renal Cortex. Hydrostatic pressure drives filtration. ADH increases aquaporin. ANP released from heart atria. Nervous System: Na in: channel. Na out: pump, leaky channels= steady state of membrane permeability. Change in membrane permeability: needs stimulus: signaling chemic. binds, cause conformation change: open channel. Membrane potential: difference in charge or volt: Graded potential: depolar-EPSP. Hyperpol-IPSP, action potential. Potentials occur @ dendrites soma EPSP, IPSP. @ axon hillock to terminal- action potential. @axon terminal- Ca2+ flux and NT release. Membrane protein: when resting, no channels open. +NT=open channel. Vice versa. More NT = more EPSP/IPSP. Synaptic cleft: fluid space separates presynaptic & postsynaptic neurons. Prevent nerve impulse to directly pass from 1 neuron to other. Transmission across synaptic cleft: chemical event, release,diffusion& binding of NT and removal of NTs. NTs: ACh:degrade by AChase. Amines: dopamine, norepinephrine, serotonin: degrade by monoamine oxidase (MAO). Drugs; MAOInhibitor, SSRI. NTs effects: excitatory (depol) or inhibitory (hyperpol)determine by receptor type of postsynaptic neuron. Ach: excitatory @ neuromuscular junction of skeletal muscle Inhibitory @ cardiac musc. Direct action: NT bind to channel link receptor & opens ion channel, promote rapid responses. Indirect action: NT binds to G protein link receptor & acts through 2nd messenger, promotes long lasting effect. Cells communicate by chemical messenger. Local signaling: paracrine, synaptic. Long signaling: hormones> chem messenger secreted into vascular sys, transported to long distance target thru blood vessel. Cell signaling: reception, transduction & response. Reception: signal molecule (ligand) bind to receptor protein, change shape (early transduction), signal receptors are plasma membrane proteins. 3main membrane receptor: G protein-coupled receptor, receptor tyrosine kinases, ion channel receptor. Intracellular receptor: found in cytosol. Nucleus of target cell, ex: steroids chemical cross membrane & activate receptor. Transduction: cascades of molecular interactions relay signals from receptors to target molecules in cell. Signal amplification, signal cascade. 2nd messenger in pathways initiated by G-protein coupled receptors & tyrosine kinases receptor. Ex. Cyclic AMP & ca2+. Response: regulation of cellular activities, turning genes on or off, gene alteration. Termination: signal molecule leave receptor receptor inactive. Reflex: knee jerk example. Muscles: Classification of receptors: stimulus type- Mechanoreceptor: touch, atm., thermoreceptor: temp., photoreceptor: light, sight, chemoreceptor: chemical, osmoreceptor: change in osmotic pressure. Sensory neuron send info to the CNS from organs, motor neurons carry info from CNS to organs, glands & muscles. Sensory receptors: activation results in graded potentials trigger nerve impulses. characteristics of all muscles: locomotion (skeletal), blood pump (cardiac), BP maintain, squeeze substance through organs (smooth). Generate heat. Skeletal: voluntarily, overall body motility, Smooth: Special characteristics of musc. tissue, excitability: receive & respond to stimuli *Ach. Contractility: ability to shorten when stimulated, extensibility: ability to stretch, elasticity: ability to recoil to resting length. Many mitochondrias, glycosomes for glycogen storage, myoglobin for O2 storage. Sarcomere: contractile unit, region of myofibril btw 2 successive Z discs. Neuromuscular junction: midway along the length of muscle fiber, neuron releases ACh. Energy source of muscles: has ATP, with Ca2+ troponin changes shape pulls tropomyosin off of actin. More Ca2+ =more open binding sites, =more myosin pulling =more tension force effort. Contraction: crossbridge formation, powerstroke, crossbridge detachment, cocking. Muscle type-speed & energy. 1: slow oxidative, IIa: fast oxidative, IIb: fast glycolytic (strongest). Twitch: tension from 1AP, reflects Ca2+ buildup. More fiber= more strength, larger motor unit = bigger increase. Smooth: walls of hollow organs, forces food through internal channel, involuntary, contractions may be caused by stimulation from neurons in ANS. Usually 2 layers, long & circular. Persistalsis: alternating contraction & relaxations of smooth muscle layers that mix & squeeze substance through lumen of hollow organs. Long layer contract: organ dialate and shorten, circular layer contract, organ constrict and elongate.

Cardiac muscle generates AP w/o neural input, not voluntary, contracts at rate set by hearts pacemaker, no twitch. Heart sound: AV valves closing: lub sound. Sound of systole. SL valves closing: dub sound: beginning of ventricular diastole. SA node: generates impulses, pacemaker begins, AP begins here. Pacemaker cells: autorythmic (steady): Due to hyperpol causing AP. EKG:P = atrial depol. P to Q is atrial systole = atrial contraction. QRS = ventricular depol = beginning of ventricular contraction results in lub sound as contraction beginsalso when atrial diastole begins QRS to the next P is atrial diastole. S to T = ventricular contraction. T = ventricular repol = end of vent. contraction or beginning of relaxation = beginning of diastole = dub sound. T to next QRS = vent. diastole. Heart: pressure gradient: driving force that keeps blood moving from high low pressure areas. High change in BP increase blood flow. High cross section area decreased flow rate. Arteries: high change in BP, low area: high vol. fast blood velocity. Capillaries: low change in BP, high area= slow blood velocity- ideal for exchange, low pressure gradient. Veins: low change in BP, high area= needs muscle milking to compensate. Lymph: fluid; what does not return to capillary indirectly returns to blood through lymphatic sys. returns fluid that leaks out in capillary beds. Vasoconstriction: contraction of smooth muscle in the walls of arterioles, increases BP. Vasodilation: relaxation of smooth muscles in the arterioles, decrease BP. Regulation of blood flow & pressure: heart: ANS neural: parasympathetic- ACh- decreases H.R, sympatheticnorepinephrine- increases H.R and strength. Hormonal: Epindephrine (adrenal medulla) increase H.R and strength. Open circulatory sys: uses hemolymph: general body fluid, bathes the organ, open ended vessels flow out among the cells. Closed circulatory sys: use blood confined to vessels, heart pumps, blood flows back to heart. Single circulation: blood enerts atrium and pumped out by ventricle. 2 chambered heart. Double circulation: oxygen poor and oxygen rich blood pumped separately from right and left side of heart. Blood vs. Hemolymph: blood is closed circ. In blood vessels. Hemolymph is in open circ. General body fluid (blood + interstitial fluid). Respiratory: large moist respiratory surface for exchange of gas btw cells and respiratory medium: air or water. In a given volume, less O2 in water than air, thats why O2 from water requires greater efficiency than air breathing. Water animals have outfoldings= greater surface for gas exchange. Gastrovascular cavity: diffusion is sufficient to reach all cells, short distance only. Ventilation moves the respiratory medium over the respiratory surface. Ventilation: controlled by pH *more pH = more ventilation. Tracheal system of insects: branching tubes that penetrate the body, supply O2 directly to body cells. Lungs are infolds. Breathing ventilates the lungs. Amphibian ventilate it lungs by (+) pressure breathing, forces air down the trachea. Birds breathe by airsacs. Alveoli in lungs, open pores, connect adjacent alveoli; allow air pressure throughout the lung to be equalized. Loading and unloading of O2 is facilitated by change in shape of Hb. If O2 binds, Hb affinity for O2 increases vice versa. Rate of laoding and unloading of O2 is regulated by Pressure O2, Temp, blood pH, PCO2, conc of BPG. Increase O2 => less CO2 = lower pH => low temperature => lower BPG (glycolysis intermediate: muscles). Very low level of O2 will increase ventilation even though CO2 levels dont change. Urinary system: osmoregulation homeostasis control of blood, salt and H2O. regulates solute concentration and balances the gain & loss of water. Controls movement of solutes between internal fluids and external environment. Excretion: getting rid of nitrogenous metabolites and other waste products. Ammonia waste: animals needs lots of water (fish), Urea waste: mammals: convert ammonia to less toxic urea, the conversion is energetically expensive. Uric acid (reptiles birds), largely insoluble in water, secreted as paste, more energetically expensive to produce than urea. Flame cells: of planaria, network of

dead end tubules conncected to external openings, smallest brances with flame bulb. The tubules excrete a dilute fluid & function in osmoregulation Metanephridia: open ended, collect coelomic luid and produce dilute urine for excretion *earthworm. Malpighian tubules: arthropods: produce dry waste matter. Excretory process Filtration: pressure filtering of body fluids, Reabsorption: reclaiming valuable solutes, Secretion: adding toxins and other solutes from the body fluids to the filtrate. Nutrients reabsorbed by cotransport with Na+. some minerals and others by passive diffusion. Loop of henle and collecting duct form a complex countercurrent system. Na/ K- pumps, establish concentration gradient of medulla.