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Jirarach Srijunngam ; Oct 2007

Dept. Biology, Chulalongkorn University

Photosynthesis and cellular respiration


provide energy for life.
In photosynthesis, the energy of sunlight is used to rearrange the atoms of CO2 and H2O to produce glucose and O2. In cellular respiration, O2 is consumed as glucose is broken down to CO2 and H2O. The cell captures energy released in ATP. Chemicals are recycled.
Jirarach Srijunngam ; Oct 2007 Dept. Biology, Chulalongkorn University

Cellular Respiration
Cellular respiration banks energy in ATP
molecules.
Cells use O2 in harvesting energy from the sugar glucose. In the process, glucose releases chemical-bond energy, which the cell stores in the chemical bonds of ATP.

Jirarach Srijunngam ; Oct 2007

Dept. Biology, Chulalongkorn University

Cells tap energy from electrons falling from


organic fuels to oxygen.
During cellular respiration, electrons are transferred to oxygen. The movement of electron from one molecule to another is an oxidation-reduction reaction, or redox reaction.

As glucose loses electrons and becomes oxidized and O2 gains electron and becomes reduced, energy is released.
Jirarach Srijunngam ; Oct 2007 Dept. Biology, Chulalongkorn University

Two key players in glucose oxidation are an enzyme dehydrogenase and a coenzyme NAD+ (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide). NAD+ is used to shuttle electrons.

NAD+ picks up 2 electrons and is reduced to NADH.


Jirarach Srijunngam ; Oct 2007 Dept. Biology, Chulalongkorn University

NADH delivers 2 electrons to the rest an electron transport chain. The steps in the chain are electron carrier molecules built into the inner membrane of mitochondria.

O2 is the final electron acceptor.

Jirarach Srijunngam ; Oct 2007

Dept. Biology, Chulalongkorn University

Cellular respiration occurs in 3 main stages.


Cellular respiration consists of a sequence of steps divided into:

Jirarach Srijunngam ; Oct 2007

Dept. Biology, Chulalongkorn University

Glycolysis harvests chemical energy by


oxidizing glucose to pyruvate.
Glycolysis occurs in the cytoplasmic fluid of the cell. It begins with a single glucose (6 carbons) passes through 9 chemical steps, each catalyzed by its own enzyme, then end-ups with 2 molecules of pyruvate (3 carbons).

Jirarach Srijunngam ; Oct 2007

Dept. Biology, Chulalongkorn University

The cell reduces 2 molecules of NAD+, forming 2 NADH, and produces 2 molecules of ATP by substrate-level phosphorylation.

The net gain to the cell is 2 ATP molecules for each glucose molecule that enter glycolysis.

Jirarach Srijunngam ; Oct 2007

Dept. Biology, Chulalongkorn University

Pyruvate is chemically groomed for the citric acid


cycle.
A carbon atom is removed from pyruvate and released in CO2 The 2-carbon compound is oxidized while NAD+ is reduced to NADH. Coenzyme A joins with 2-carbon group to form a molecule called acetyl coenzyme A acetyl CoA.

Jirarach Srijunngam ; Oct 2007

Dept. Biology, Chulalongkorn University

The citric acid cycle completes the oxidation


of organic fuel, generating many NADH and FADH2 molecules.
Step 1: The acetyl combines with oxaloacetate forming 6-carbon molecules, citrate. Step 2-3: NADH, ATP, and CO2 are generated during redox reactions. Step 4-5: Redox reactions generate FADH2 and NADH. The cycle completes by regenerating oxaloacetate. Each cycle (1 acetyl) makes 1 ATP and 4 other energyrich molecules: 3 NADH and 1 FADH2.
Jirarach Srijunngam ; Oct 2007 Dept. Biology, Chulalongkorn University

Jirarach Srijunngam ; Oct 2007

Dept. Biology, Chulalongkorn University

Most ATP production occurs by oxidative


phosphorylation.
Oxidative phosphorylation involves the electron transport chain and chemiosmosis. Electron flows from the shuttle molecules NADH and FADH2 through the electron transport chain to O2 then H2O is formed. The protein complexes use the energy to actively transport H+ across the membrane.

Jirarach Srijunngam ; Oct 2007

Dept. Biology, Chulalongkorn University

The resulting H+ gradient drives back H+ through the channel of ATP synthase and spins the channel protein complex. The rotation activates the synthase to phosphorylate ADP to ATP 32 or 34 ATP per glucose.
Jirarach Srijunngam ; Oct 2007 Dept. Biology, Chulalongkorn University

The fuel for respiration ultimately comes from


photosynthesis.
Almost all heterotrophs, including humans, depend on photoautotrophs for food and oxygen.

Jirarach Srijunngam ; Oct 2007

Dept. Biology, Chulalongkorn University

Photosynthesis
Photosynthesis occurs in chloroplast.
Built into the thylakoid membranes are the chlorophyll molecules that capture light energy. The thylakoid membranes also house much of the machinery that converts light energy to chemical energy.

Jirarach Srijunngam ; Oct 2007

Dept. Biology, Chulalongkorn University

Photosynthesis is a redox reaction, as is


cellular respiration.
Plant produce O2 gas by splitting water. When water molecules are split apart, yielding O2, they are actually oxidized. Meanwhile, CO2 is reduced to sugar.

Jirarach Srijunngam ; Oct 2007

Dept. Biology, Chulalongkorn University

Photosynthesis occurs in 2 stages linked by ATP


and NADPH.
Light reaction Calvin cycle

Jirarach Srijunngam ; Oct 2007

Dept. Biology, Chulalongkorn University

Light reactions include the steps that convert


The light reactions occur in thylakoid membranes.

light energy to chemical energy and produce O2 as a waste product.

Light energy absorbed by chlorophyll is used to: Make ATP from ADP and phosphate, Drive a transfer of electrons from water to NADP+. Enzymes reduce NADP+ to NADPH by adding a pair of light-excited electrons and H+. The water is split and O2 is released. The chemical energy from light reactions stores in ATP and NADPH.
Jirarach Srijunngam ; Oct 2007 Dept. Biology, Chulalongkorn University

Photosystems capture solar power in the light


reaction.
Chlorophyll molecules are organized along with other pigments and proteins into clusters called photosystems. A photosystem consists of light-harvesting complexes surrounding a reaction center. These complexes have chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, and carotenoid pigments.

Jirarach Srijunngam ; Oct 2007

Dept. Biology, Chulalongkorn University

The pigments absorb photons and pass the energy from molecule to molecule until it reaches the reaction center. The reaction center passes a light-excited electron to an electron transport chain.

Jirarach Srijunngam ; Oct 2007

Dept. Biology, Chulalongkorn University

In the light reactions, electron transport chains


and chemiosmosis generate ATP and NADPH.

Jirarach Srijunngam ; Oct 2007

Dept. Biology, Chulalongkorn University

ATP and NADPH power sugar synthesis in the


Calvin cycle.
Calvin cycle occurs in the chloroplast stroma. CO2 from the air, ATP and NADPH from the light reactions are input. The Calvin cycle constructs an energy-rich 3-carbon sugar, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate (G3P). A plant cell can use G3P to make glucose and other organic molecules.

Jirarach Srijunngam ; Oct 2007

Dept. Biology, Chulalongkorn University

Step 1: Carbon fixation Step 2: Reduction Step 3: Release of 1 G3P Step 4: Regeneration of RuBP
Jirarach Srijunngam ; Oct 2007 Dept. Biology, Chulalongkorn University

The starting material is RuBP (ribulose biphosphate) and 3 molecules of CO2. In carbon fixation step, the enzyme rubisco attaches CO2 to RuBP. In reduction step, NADPH reduces 3-PGA to G3P using ATP. In step 3, one G3P molecule is released as product. The last step, ATP is used to regenerate 3 molecules of RuBP.
Jirarach Srijunngam ; Oct 2007 Dept. Biology, Chulalongkorn University