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1.6 Contour integration (pp.

61-79; 86-88)
Notation A line in the complex plane can be B smooth
A

piecewise smooth closed * simple closed


A

not simple closed


A

A contour is a simple closed curve with a positive (counterclockwise) orientation. Contour deformation: The process used to remove singularities from inside a contour.

1.6.1 Contour integrals


If C is a piecewise smooth curve in the

z = x + jy complex plane with

f ( z ) = u ( x; y ) + jv( x; y ) , we use
C C

and

f ( z )dz = [u ( x, y ) + jv( x, y )](dx + jdy )

The integral is called a complex line integral. Example 1 2 Evaluate

2 + j 2

( z 2 + 3z )dz

along C where C is the curve shown in the sketch.

1.6.2 Cauchys theorem


If f(z) is an analytic function with derivative f '(z) that is continuous at all

points inside and on a simple closed curve C, then No singularities in C! The integral is called a contour integral. Example 2 Evaluate
C

f ( z )dz = 0

z e dz C

where C is the curve in the sketch. Example 3 Evaluate

dz 2 z 5z + 6 C
where C is the unit circle.

Cauchy integral theorem: p. 69 USE PARTIAL FRACTIONS!


Let f(z) be analytic within and on a simple closed curve C. Then
3

f ( z) dz = 2 j f ( z0 ) z z0 C

f ( z )dz = ( z z0 )2 jf ( z0 )
C

for z0 a simple pole and

2 j ( n ) dz = f ( z ) 0 n + 1 n! C ( z z0 ) f ( z)
n +1 C

f ( z )dz = ( z z0 )
for z0 a pole of order n + 1. Example 4 Evaluate

2 jf

(n)

( z0 )

ez dz z2 C
for each of the following contours. a) C is any contour enclosing z = 2 b) C is any contour excluding z = 2
4

Example 5 Evaluate

2 zdz C (2 z 1)( z + 2)
for the given contour C. z =1 a) C: b) C: z = 3 Example 6 Evaluate

z3 + z dz 3 (2 z + 1) C
where C is the unit circle. Example 7 Evaluate
4z dz 2 ( z 1)( z + 2) C

where C is the curve

z =3
5

1.6.4 The residue theorem: p. 73


DONT USE PARTIAL FRACTIONS! If f(z) is an analytic function within and on a simple closed curve C, apart from a finite number of poles, then

f ( z )dz
C

= 2j [sum of residues of f(z) at the poles inside C]


Example 8 Evaluate
dz 2 ( z 1) ( z 3) C

where C is the circle z = 2 Example 9 Evaluate

2z + 6 dz 2 z +4 C

C: z j = 2 .
6

Example 10 Evaluate

dz 2 ( z 1) ( z 3) C
1 z = 2 a) C:
b) C: Example 11 Evaluate

for each contour C.

z =2

dz 3 ( z + 1) ( z 1)( z 2) C
where C is the rectangle with vertices j and 3 j .

1.6.5 Evaluation of definite real integrals


y

Type 1: Infinite real integrals


-R O

x -R

- C consists of the real axis between R and R, and the semicircle in the upper half of the complex plane. - In calculations R is chosen to include all poles in the upper half plane. Example 12 Evaluate
dx ( x 2 + 1)( x 2 + 9

using contour integration.

Example 13 Evaluate

Example 14 Evaluate dx 0 ( x 2 + 1)( x 2 + 4)2


8

dx x 4 + 1, x

Type 2: Integrals of trig. functions Suppose G = G (sin , cos ) is a function containing sin and cos . To evaluate

Gd

j z = e , 0 2 . , let
j

Thus,

dz dz dz = je d d = j = je jz . Furthermore, p.30

1 j 1 j 1 cos = ( e + e ) = ( z + Z ) 2 2
and

1 j 1 j 1 sin = e e = z ( Z) ( ) 2j 2j
Substitute these expressions and then

Gd = f ( z )dz
C
9

where C is the unit circle. Example 15 Using contour integration, evaluate

d 2 + cos C

Example 16 Show that

d = 2 2 cos

Work through every example from p 61 up to and including p 79. Then do the exercises on p 71 (#53(b), 54(b), 56, 57, 58, 59), p 78 79 (#60 65) and pp 87 88 (#7, 8, 11 16,19 24).

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