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INDUSTRIAL STEAM TURBINES Many industrial plants require both electric power and process steam at the same

time. If the steam is utilized for generating power before being consumed for process, the cost of electricity thus generated will be very low. Optimum economy is achieved by the full electrical demand can be met by the steam required for thermal process. The industrial turbosets supply process steam at the required pressure in addition to developing the power. These turbosets are mainly used in sugar, paper, refinery and petro-chemicals, fertilizer, synthetics, chemicals and other industrial applications to improve overall efficiency of the systems. These sets also serve as captive power plants to meet the power requirements of individual industries where uninterrupted power supply is a must and failure in the grid and supply is likely to cause damage to the equipment. Industrial turbosets are being manufactured by BHEL in collaboration with SKODAEXPORT of Czechoslovakia based on the designs of first BRNO Engineering Works. In June 1974, BHEL entered in to collaboration with SIEMENS, West Germany for the manufacture of high speed industrial and drive turbines. BHELs range of industrial turbines covers back pressure turbines, extraction back pressure turbines, condensing turbines and extraction condensing turbines. The rating in each series are graded to suit the market requirement. All components are of established design, with a high degree of reliability. The basic parameters of different series of high speed industrial turbines of medium steam conditions are given in the following pages of the pamphlet. In addition the manufacturing range at Hyderabad also includes turbines with high steam parameters up to 140 ata, 540 c, the types being: MG, EMG, HG, EHG, HNK, EHNK and WK. BHEL solicits Enquirer for other specific requirements for their study and development. BACK PRESSURE TURBINES Back pressure turbines are used in those industrial plants where the heat requirements are approximately the same as the electrical demand. The heat required to produce energy in back pressure operation is but little more than the theoretical heat equivalent of 860 kcal for the production of kilowatt-hour. In addition, it is only necessary to make good the mechanical losses as the generator and radiation losses. The turbine normally operates against a constant back pressure, demand fluctuations being compensated by parallel operation with the public power system . In solitary operation, the set is governed according to the actual load. If the exhaust steam is then insufficient for the heat consumers, a steam is passed to an auxiliary condenser or blown off to atmosphere.

BACK PRESSURE TURBINE WITHIN UNCONTROLLED EXTRACTION A back pressure turbine with uncontrolled extraction is particularly suitable when two steam systems operating at different pressures are to be supplied and the extraction flow. According to the extraction pressure, the steam is bled drum section of the turbine. The pressure at the extraction depends on the steam flow through the rest of the turbine and fluctuates with the load. If the pressure at the drum extraction drops too much at low turbine loads a transfer extraction drops too much at low turbine loads a transfer extraction can be provided. The steam system concerned is then supplied from the wheel chamber in the lower load range. The transfer can be performed automatically. The operating pressure for the steam consumer can be kept constant within certain limits by fitting a reduced valve. EXTRACTION BACK PRESSURE TURBINES

Where the extraction steam flow is relatively high compared to the exhaust steam flow and the extraction steam system is subject to considerable fluctuation, extraction back pressure turbines used. The blading of these turbines is divided into two expansion ranges for each of which separate control valve are provided. The steam pressure at the extraction remains constant at all turbine loads. These extraction remains constant at all turbine loads. These extraction back pressure turbines can be made with a single casing or with two separate back pressure turbines in tandem.

CONDESING TURBINES The main field of application for condensing turbines in industrial plants is where cheap fuel is available in the form of waste products or waste heat derived from the manufacturing process. Condensing turbines are used increasingly as prime mover for turbo compressor. The turbines and compressor can be designed for the same speeds over a wide power range and are, therefore, suitable for direct coupling. Condensing turbines have high efficiencies, even at part loads, which make them such ideal prime movers for compressors.

Extraction Condensing Turbines When back pressure and condensing operations are combined in a single ratio, the result is an extraction condensing tube. The steam is expanded in two, three or more steps according to the number of extractions. The condensing path is made of only such a size the with minimum extraction steam requirements, the plant power demand can be met by the additional output of the condensing part.

STEAM TURBINE: The steam turbine is a prime mover which continuously converts the energy of high pressure, high temperature steam supplied by a steam generator into shaft work with the low temperature steam exhausted to a condenser. This energy conversion essentially occurs in two steps, they are: 1:The high-pressure, high temperature steam first expanded in nozzles and comes out at a high velocity. 2:The high velocity steam impinges on the curved blades which change the flow direction of steam causes a force to be exerted on the blades fixed on a rotor and power is developed due to the movement of these blades. The steam turbine is universally used as prime-movers in all steam power plants. CLASSIFICATION OF TURBINES:- Turbines may be classified in many ways. They are: 1.Based on direction of flow 2.Based on heat supply 3.Based on heat rejection 4.Based on cylinder arrangements 1.Based on direction of flow :The turbines are a) Radial flow turbine b) Tangential flow turbine c) Axial flow turbine a) Radial flow turbine: 1.It is invented by B. and F. LJUNGSTROM of Sweden. 2. It incorporates two shafts end to end, each driving separate generator. 3.Each shaft carries a disc to which are fixed rings of 50% reaction radial flow blading , the two sets of blading rotating counter to each other. 4.In this way a relative speed of twice the running speed is achieved and every blade row is made to work. 5.The final stages may be of axial flow design in order to achieve a larger area of flow. 6.This type of turbine is very successful in the smaller sizes and, because it can be warmed and started quickly ,it is very suitable for use at times of loads. b)Tangential flow turbine :1.It is a very robust but not particularly efficient machine, some times used for driving power station auxiliaries. 2.A nozzle directs steam tangentially into buckets milled in the periphery of a single wheel, and on exit the steam turns through a reversing chamber re-entering a bucket further round the periphery. 3.This process is repeated several times, the steam following a helical path. Several nozzles with reversing chambers may be used around the wheel periphery.

Axial flow turbine: The axial flow turbine design is the most suitable for large turbo generators and all that follows refers to axial flow turbines.

2.Based on heat supply :l (a) Single pressure turbine; 2.(b) Dual( or) Mixed pressure turbine; 1.The single pressure turbine has a single source of steam, where as a double pressure turbine has a two sources of steam. 2.The dual pressure turbine is found in industrial plant where there are two supplies of steam. 3.The use of one supply is more economic than the other because the latter being admitted only when necessary. During its passage through the turbine steam may be taken out to be reheated and returned at a high temperature. In a doublereheat machine, this is done twice.

3.Based

on heat rejection :-

a)Pass out or Extraction turbine. b)Regenerative turbine c)Condensing turbine . d)Back pressure or Topping turbine

1.Passout or extraction turbine a considerable portion of the steam is extracted from some point in the turbine for industrial use, the remainder continuing through the turbine. 2.The latter flow is controlled by separate valve-gear to meet the difference between the pass out steam and electrical load requirements. Double pass-out turbines are some times used. 3.The regenerative turbine incorporates a number of extraction branches, through which small proportions of the steam are continuously extracted for the purpose of heating the boiler feed water. 4.The condensing turbine allows the steam to expand to the lowest possible pressure before being condensed. 5.The back pressure or topping turbine rejects the steam before it is fully expanded. A back pressure turbine generally provides low pressure steam for heating apparatus, where as a topping turbine exhausts into a turbine designed for lower steam conditions.

4.Based on cylinder arrangements: A turbine may have one cylinder, or if the length is such that additional bearings are required to support the shaft, it may be divided into several cylinders. A cylinder may be designed for single flow ,double flow or reversed flow. SAFETY VALVES: Safety valves are used to protect boilers against excessive steam pressure by opening automatically at a desired pressure and allowing the steam to escape. The number and size of safety valves for a given boiler are usually specified by city or state legislation or by insurance companies. DRAINS:All steam piping must be fitted with ample drains for removal of condensate when warming up. This is helped by running horizontal pipes with a fall preferably in the same direction as the steam flow. The board has standardized on 5/4 inch and 3/4 inch drains for main steam piping and at each drain take off point a thermo couple is fitted with indication in the control room. When the drain pocket is above saturation temperature the operator can close the drain valve remotely and prevent the passage of super heated steam to the blow down vessel. With the re heat steam circuit the drains are taken to the condenser flash box so that vacuum is not lost via the i . p cylinder connection during warning up, but the condenser manufacture will required the drain capacity to be strictly limited by means of an orifice plate at the flash box nozzle. This limited drain flow rate can not be specified because it is dependent on flash vessel designs drains from feed heaters and other plants. It is necessary there fore to review the total expected drainage under cold starting conditions and to ample capacity so that start up time is not extended or flooding back could not take place. Account must be taken of the superior re heat steam pressure that could build at in the drain system. FLASH STORAGE TANK: This consists of a steel box with a vapour connection at the top and a drain water connection at the bottom. The entering drain water at the side is fitted with an orifice plate to ensure that flashing may occur in the drain pipe itself, and cause serious erosions, such as occurs after the orifice plate. All drains collecting into flash boxes are fitted with orifice plates designed to limit the rate of drainage and in turn limit the flow rate of bleed steam. STEAM NOZZLES:A steam nozzle may be classified as a passage of varying crosssection, through which heat energy of steam is converted to kinetic energy. Its major function is to produce a steam jet with high velocity to drive steam turbines. A turbine nozzle performs two functions: 1. It transforms a portion of energy of steam into kinetic energy. 2. In the impulse turbine it directs the steam jet of high velocity against blades, which are free to move in order to convert kinetic energy into shaft work. COOLING TOWERS: -

In power plants the hot water is cooled in cooling water, so that it can be reused in condenser for condensation of steam. In a cooling tower water is made to trickle down drop by drop so that it comes in contact with the air moving in the opposite direction. As a result of this some water is evaporated and is taken away with air. In evaporation the heat is taken away from the bulk of water, which is thus cooled. FACTORS AFFECTING COOLING WATER IN A COOLING TOWER:They are 1.Temperature of air. 2.Humidity of air. 3.Temperature of hot air. 4.Size and height of tower. 5.Velocity of air entering tower. 6.Accessibility of air to all parts of water. 7.Degree of uniformity in descending water. 8.Arrangement of plates in tower. CLASSIFICATION OF COOLING TOWERS: These are classified in many ways, According to the material of which these are made, as follows: (a)Timber (b)Concrete(Ferro-concrete, multi deck concrete hyperbolic) (c)Steel duct type. TIMBER TOWERS:These towers are rarely used due to the following disadvantages:(1)Due to exposure to sun, wind, water etc., timber rots easily. (2)Short life. (3)High maintenance charges. (4)The design generally does not facilitate proper circulation of water. (5)Limited cooling capacity. b) CONCRETE TOWERS:The concrete towers posses the following advantages: (1)Large capacity sometimes of the order of 5000m3/hr. (2)Improved draft and air circulation. (3)Increased stability under air pressure. (4)Low maintenance. (c) STEEL DUCT Duct type cooling their small capacity. The cooling towers (a)Natural TYPE :towers are rarely incase of modern power plants owing to may also be classified as follows: draught cooling towers

(b)Mechanical draught cooling towers: (1)Forced draught cooling towers (2)Induced draught cooling towers. (a) NATURAL DRAUGHT COOLING TOWERS: In this type of tower, the hot water from the condenser is pumped to the nozzles situated near the bottom . Through spray the water falls in the form of droplets into a pond situated at the bottom of the water. The air enters the cooling tower from air opening provided near the base, rises upward and takes up the heat of falling water. (b) MECHANICAL DRAUGHT COOLING TOWERS:In these towers the draught of air cooling the tower is produced mechanically by means of propeller fans. These towers are usually built in cells or units, the capacity depending upon the number of cells used. Forced draught cooling tower is similar naturally draught tower as far as interior construction is concerned, but the sides of the tower are closed and form an air and water tight structure, expect of air and vapour. There are hoods at the base projecting from the main portion of the tower where the fans are placed for forcing the air, into the tower. Induced draught cooling towers, the fans are placed at the top of the tower and they draw the air in through louvers extending all around the tower at its base. DRY COOLING TOWERS: The necessity of using dry cooling towers has been felt due to the following reasons: (1)Natural water sources can be used for dissipating heat in power plants but thermal pollution problem in this system. (2)In evaporating cooling system due to continuous evaporation of water, the concentration of impurities goes on increasing and so the disposal of tower blow down may become a serious problem at some times. Besides this make up water tower use is limited in some areas. Thus the use of dry cooling towers in power plants is the only alternative. The dry system rejects the heat directly to the atmosphere which is the largest heat sink available. MAINTENANCE OF COOLING TOWERS:The regular maintenance of cooling towers is very essential to achieve the desired cooling and to reduce the depreciation costs. The maintenance of cooling owers includes the following: 1.The fans, motors housings etc. should be inspected from time to time. 2. Motor bearings should be greased and gear boxes oiled. At unusual noise or vibrations in them should be corrected immediately. 3. At least once in a year motors gear boxes should be checked for structural weakness.

4. The circulating water should be tested for hardness and should be kept free from impurities to avoid scale formations and to avoid corrosive action of water. 5. The water spraying nozzles should be inspected regularly for clogging.

What exactly is "Steam Turbine" ?


Steam Turbine is an excellent prime mover to convert heat energy of steam to mechanical energy. Steam Turbine is one of such well-known prime movers as Gasoline Engines, Diesel Engines, GasTurbines, Jet Engines,etc.

STEAM TURBINES
1. INTRODUCTION: Of all heat engines and prime movers the steam turbine is nearest to the ideal and it is widely used in power plants and in all industries where power and/or heat is needed for processes. These include: pulp mills, refineries, petro-chemical plants, food processing plants, desalination plants, refuse incinerating and district heating plants. Advantages include: Ability to utilize high pressure and high temperature steam. High efficiency. High rotational speed. High capacity/weight ratio. Smooth, nearly vibration-free operation. No internal lubrication. Oil free exhaust steam. Can be built in small or very large units (up to 1200 MW). Disadvantages are: For slow speed application reduction gears are required. The steam turbine cannot be made reversible. The efficiency of small simple steam turbines is poor. OPERATION PRINCIPLES Impulse Turbine In principle the impulse steam turbine consists of a casing containing stationary steam nozzles and a rotor with moving or rotating buckets. The steam passes through the stationary nozzles and is directed at high velocity against the rotor buckets causing the rotor to rotate at high speed. The following events take place in the nozzles:

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steam pressure decreases. enthalpy of the steam decreases. steam velocity increases volume of the steam increases. There is a conversion of heat energy to kinetic energy as the heat energy from the decrease in steam enthalpy is converted into kinetic energy by the increased steam velocity. The nozzles may be convergent nozzles or they may be convergent-divergent nozzles. Convergent nozzles are used for smaller pressure drops where the minimum exit pressure is 0.577 x the inlet pressure (the critical pressure for nozzles.) If the exit pressure is less than 0.577 x inlet pressure, eddycurrents are developed and the exit velocity will be less than calculated. The convergent-divergent nozzles prevent eddy-currents and the calculated velocity will be obtained even at large pressure drops. The purpose of the bucket or moving blade on the rotor is to convert the kinetic energy of the steam into mechanical energy. If all kinetic energy is converted the steam exit velocity will be 0 rn/s. This is not possible but it shows that the rotor blades must bring the steam exit velocity near 0 rn/s. The Impulse Principle If steam at high pressure is allowed to expand through a stationary nozzle, the result will be a drop in the steam pressure and an increase in steam velocity. In fact, the steam will issue from the nozzle in the form of a high-speed jet. If this high velocity steam is applied to a properly shaped turbine blade, it will change in direction due to the shape of the blade. The effect of this change in direction of the steam flow will be to produce an impulse force on the blade causing it to move. If the blade is attached to the rotor of a turbine, then the rotor will revolve. Force applied to the blade is developed by causing the steam to change direction of flow (Newton's 2nd Law - change of momentum). The change of momentum produces the impulse force. In an actual impulse turbine there are a number of stationary nozzles and the moving blades are arranged completely around the rotor periphery. Shows the nozzle and blade arrangement in a simple impulse turbine and the graph in the figure indicates how the pressure and the velocity of the steam change as the steam passes through first the stationary nozzles and then the moving blades. Note that the pressure drops and the velocity increases as the steam passes through the nozzles. Then as the steam passes through the moving blades the velocity drops but the pressure remains the same. The fact that the pressure does not drop across the moving blades is the distinguishing feature of the impulse turbine. The pressure at the inlet to the moving

The The The The

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blades is the same as the pressure at the outlet from the moving blades. If the moving blades of a turbine are shaped in such a way that the steam expands and drops in pressure as it passes through them, then a reaction will be produced which gives a force to the blades. This reaction effect can be illustrated by considering a container filled with high-pressure steam. If there is no escape opening or nozzle for the steam, then the pressure will be the same on all walls of the container and the container will remain at rest. If, however, the container has an escape opening or nozzle, then steam will expand through the opening and drop in pressure. Therefore there will be an unbalanced pressure on the wall opposite to the opening and a reaction force R will be produced causing the container to move reaction Effect of this principle applied to a turbine drive. A reaction turbine has rows of fixed blades alternating with rows of moving blades. The steam expands first in the stationary or fixed blades where it gains some velocity as it drops in pressure. It then enters the moving blades where its direction of flow is changed thus producing an impulse force on the moving blades. In addition, however, the steam upon passing through the moving blades, again expands and further drops in pressure giving a reaction force to the blades. This sequence is repeated as the steam passes through additional rows of fixed and moving blades. The blade arrangement and the pressure and velocity changes of the steam in a reaction turbine. Note that the steam pressure drops across both the fixed and the moving blades while the absolute velocity rises in the fixed blades and drops in the moving blades. The distinguishing feature of the reaction turbine is the fact that the pressure does drop across the moving blades. In other words there is a pressure difference between the inlet to the moving blades and the outlet from the moving blades. Special Aspects of Reaction Turbines: There is a difference in pressure across the moving blades. The steam will therefore tend to leak around the periphery of the blades instead of passing through them. Blade clearances therefore must be kept to a minimum. Also, due to pressure drop across the moving blades, an unbalanced thrust will be developed upon the rotor and some arrangement must be made to balance this. Impulse Turbine Staging In order for the steam to give up all its kinetic energy to the moving blades in an impulse turbine, it should leave the blades at zero absolute velocity. This condition will exist if the blade velocity is equal to one half of the steam velocity. Therefore, for good efficiency the blade velocity should be about one half of the steam velocity. If the steam was expanded from admission pressure down to final exhaust pressure in a single set of nozzles (single stage) then the velocity of

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the steam leaving the nozzles might he in the order of 1100 m per second. In order to have good efficiency the blade velocity would have 10 be about 550 m per second, which would require excessively high rev/mm of the turbine rotor and failure due to centrifugal force could result. In addition to this objection, excessively high steam velocity will cause high friction losses in nozzles and blading. In order to reduce steam velocity and blade velocity, the following methods may be used: Pressure compounding. Velocity compounding. Pressure-velocity compounding. Pressure Compounding. The expansion of steam from boiler pressure to exhaust pressure is carried out in a number of steps or stages. Each stage has a set of nozzles and a row of moving blades. The rows of moving blades are separated from each other by partitions or diaphragms, into which the nozzles are set. As only a portion of the velocity available is developed in each set of nozzles, the blade velocity is kept down to a reasonable amount.

This type of compounding is known as the Rateau method and the nozzle and blade arrangement for a pressure compounded impulse turbine. In this arrangement, the pressure of the steam drops in each set of nozzles as indicated by the pressure graph. The steam velocity is increased by each pressure drop and then decreases again in each row of moving blades, as the velocity graph shows. Velocity Compounding: This design consists of one set of nozzles in which the steam is expanded from initial to exhaust pressure. The velocity of the steam resulting from this expansion is absorbed in two or more rows of moving blades. Rows of fixed or guide blades, attached to the casing, are set between rows of moving blades and receive and redirect the steam to the next row of moving blades. As the velocity is absorbed in more than one row of moving blades, the blade speed is less than if the velocity was all absorbed in one row of blades. This type of compounding is known as the Curtis method and the blade and nozzle arrangement for a velocity compounded impulse turbine. The pressure drops from inlet pressure to exhaust pressure in the single set of nozzles as the pressure graph shows. This large single pressure drop produces high steam velocity, which is absorbed in the two rows of moving blades. Note that there is no pressure or velocity drop in the fixed guide blades.

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Pressure-Velocity Compounding : This is a combination of the first two methods of compounding, namely pressure compounding and velocity compounding. The steam is expanded in two or more sets of nozzles in series, each set having velocity compounded blades to receive the steam issuing from the nozzles. The steam pressure drops in each set of nozzles and the resulting velocity increase in each case is absorbed by in two rows of moving blades having a row of stationary blades between them. The methods of reducing rotor speeds, namely, pressure compounding, velocity compounding, and pressure-velocity compounding have all applied to impulse turbines. In the case of the reaction turbine, it is not necessary to make special blade arrangements to reduce rotor speed. This is because the pressure drops across each row of moving blades as well as across each row of fixed blades and consequently the pressure drops in even stages and small amounts all through the machine. This requires, however, a large number of alternate rows of fixed and moving blades resulting in a long machine. Therefore, in order to reduce the number of blade rows necessary, reaction turbines frequently have a velocity compounded impulse stage at the inlet end of the machine. TYPES OF TURBINES: 1.Condensing Turbines : With the condensing turbine, the steam exhausts to the condenser and the latent heat of the steam is transferred to the cooling water. The condensed steam is returned to the boiler as feedwater 2.Condensing-Bleeder Turbines The condensing-bleeder turbine reduces the condenser losses as steam is bled off at several points of the turbine. The bleedsteam is used for feedwater heating; up to 20% of the total steam flow may be bled off. 3.Back-Pressure Turbines Back-pressure turbines are often used in industrial plants, the turbine acts as a reducing station between boiler and process steam header. The process steam pressure is kept constant and the generator output depends on the demand for process steam. The backpressure turbine may also have bleed points and is then called a back-pressure-bleeder-turbine. 4.Extraction Turbines Extraction turbines are turbines where steam is extracted at one or more points at constant pressure. Extraction turbines may be single or double-extraction-condensing turbines or single-or double-

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extraction back-pressure turbines. The extraction turbines may, besides extraction points, have bleed points for feedwater heating. 5.Topping Turbines Topping turbines have been used when old boilers are replaced with new high pressure boilers. The turbine is a backpressure turbine exhausting to the old boiler header still supplying steam to the old lower pressure turbines. 6.Mixed Pressure Turbines Mixed pressure turbines are used where excess steam from process is available for the low pressure part of the turbine, while steam at boiler pressure may be added to the high pressure part of the turbine when more load is applied to the turbine. 7.Cross Compound Turbines Cross compound turbines are large turbines with parallel shafts with a generator on each shaft. The steam flows through the high pressure turbine, then is crossed-over to the low pressure turbine. 8.Tandem Compound Turbines Tandem compound turbines are large turbines consisting of two or more turbines in series coupled together as one shaft and applied to one generator. TURBINE PARTS: 1.Turbine Casings Casings or cylinders are of the horizontal split type. This is not ideal, as the heavy flanges of the joints are slow to follow the temperature changes of the cylinder walls. However, for assembling and inspection purposes there is no other solution. The casings are heavy in order to withstand the high pressures and temperatures. It is general practice to let the thickness of walls and flanges decrease from inlet- to exhaust-end. Large casings for low-pressure turbines are of welded plate construction, while smaller L. P. casings are of cast iron, which may be used for temperatures up to 230C. Casings for intermediate pressures are generally of cast carbon steel able to withstand up to 425C. The high temperature high-pressure casings for temperatures exceeding 550C are of cast alloy steel such as 3 Cr iMo (3% Chromium + 1% Molybdenum.)The reason for using different casing materials is that materials at the given maximum temperatures and under constant pressure continue to deform with very slowly increasing strain of the material; this phenomenon is called "Creep".The casing joints are made steam tight, without the use of gaskets, by matching the flange faces very exactly and very smoothly. The boltholes in the flanges are drilled for smoothly fitting bolts, but dowel pins are often added to secure exact alignment of the flange joint. The assembled casing is then machined off inside on a boring-mill, where grooves are made for the diaphragms (for

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impulse turbines) or for the stationary blades (reaction turbines). Borings are also made for shaft seals and in many cases for the bearings also. For high-pressures the flanges of the casings must be very heavy and will heat up much slower than the casing walls. Flange heating, by steam through machined channels between the flanges or holes drilled axially through the upper and lower flanges, is often applied. Double casings are used for very high steam pressures. The high pressure is applied to the inner casing, which is open at the exhaust end, letting the turbine exhaust to the outer casings the pressure is divided between the casings, and most important, the temperature is also divided of the flange and is forced to flow round the bolt by means of baffle and thermal stresses on casings and flanges are greatly reduced. Radiation losses are also decreased. The inner casing may be assembled with shrink rings giving an ideal casing without flanges. 2.Turbine Rotors The design of a turbine rotor depends on the operating principle of the turbine. The impulse turbine with pressure drop across the stationary blades must have seals between stationary blades and the rotor. The smaller the sealing area, the smaller the leakage; therefore the stationary blades are mounted in diaphragms with labyrinth seals around the shaft. This construction requires a disc rotor. The reaction turbine has pressure drops across the moving as well as across the stationary blades and the use of a disc rotor would create a large axial thrust across each disc. The application of a drum rotor eliminates the axial thrust caused by the discs, but not the axial thrust caused by the differential pressure across the moving blades. 3.Disc Rotors All larger disc rotors are now machined out of a solid forging of nickelsteel; this should give the strongest rotor and a fully balanced rotor. It is rather expensive, as the weight of the final rotor is approximately 50% of the initial forging. Older or smaller disc rotors have shaft and discs made in separate pieces with the discs shrunk on the shaft. The bore of the discs is made 0.1% smaller in diameter than the shaft. The discs are then heated until they easily are slid along the shaft and located in the correct position on the shaft and shaft key. A small clearance between the discs prevents thermal stress in the shaft. 4. Drum Rotors: The first reaction turbines had solid forged drum rotors. They were strong, generally well balanced as they were machined over the total surface. With the increasing size of turbines the solid rotors got too heavy and the hollow drum rotor was introduced. This rotor is made of two or more pieces. For good balance the drum must be machined both outside and inside and the drum must be open at one

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end. The second part of the rotor is the drum end cover with shaft. The end cover is made with a shrink fit and welded. Hollow Drum Rotor fairly light and rigid drum rotor may be manufactured from discs welded together to form a drum. Before welding, the rotor is heated by induction heating, then the welding is performed with automatic welding machines for the "Argon-arc" process, where the arc burns in an argon atmosphere. Most rotors are now made of nickel alloy-steels with elastic limits of around 300 x 10 pascals Rotors for high outputs and high temperatures are generally made of chromium-nickel-molybdenum steels with elastic limits of 600 - 700) x 106 pascals. Turbine Bearings Journal Bearings

The bearings for small turbines are often self-aligning spherical ball or roller-bearings or they may be ring lubricated sleeve bearings with bronze or babbitt lining. Thrust Bearings: The main purposes of the thrust bearing are: 1, to keep the rotor in an exact position in the casing. 2, to absorb any axial thrust on the rotor.From the thrust bearing the shaft must be free to expand in either direction, thus a shaft can have only one thrust bearing. The thrust bearing should be located at the steam inlet, where the blade clearances are most critical. When shafts of a tandem compound turbine are joined together with solid couplings, only one thrust bearing can be applied. If flexible couplings take up the axial expansion, each shaft must have a thrust bearing. The axial thrust is very small for impulse turbines as the pressure is equal across the rotor discs ensured by equalizing holes in the discs. A simple thrust bearing such as a ball bearing for small turbines and radial babbitt facing on journal bearings for larger turbines is very common. The pressure drop across the moving blades of reaction turbines creates a heavy axial thrust in the direction of steam flow through the turbine and a thrust bearing suitable for heavy axial loading is needed. The tilting pad Kingsbury or Michel thrust bearings operating on the same principle as the tilting pad journal bearing are generally applied. The axial thrust in impulse turbines does not require tilting pad thrust bearings, but due to their excellent performance, they are the most common thrust bearing for large impulse turbines. The axial thrust in reaction turbines can be nearly eliminated by the use of balance or dummy pistons. With the correct size of a dummy piston exposed to two different bleed point pressures, the thrust is nearly equalized, There is a small leakage across the

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labyrinth seal of the dummy piston as steam leaks from the high to the lower bleed point. The axial position of the rotor is very important and an axial position indicator is often applied to the thrust bearing. It may be a large dial micrometer with alarm setting for an axial movement of 0.4 millimetre and shutdown at 0.8 millimetre, An oil pressure gage connected to an oil leak-off device may also be used as an axial position indicator. With the position indicator the oil is supplied at say 500 KPa, flows through an orifice and leaks off through a nozzle The pressure between orifice and nozzle depends on the distance between the nozzle and shaft thrust collar; the larger the distance the lower the pressure. The pressure gage can be calibrated in millimetre clearance and may have alarm and shutdown settings. 5.Turbine Seals: i.Blade Seals The efficiency of reaction turbines depends to a large extent on the blade seals; radial as well as axial seals are often part of the shroud with the seal clearances kept as small as possible. As protection for the axial seals some manufacturers apply an adjustable thrust bearing. The whole thrust block is cylindrical and fits like a piston in the cylinder with the whole thrust block able to be axially adjusted. During startup the thrust block is pushed against a stop in the direction of exhaust for maximum seal clearances. When the turbine is heated up and has been on load for a short time the thrust block is pulled forward against a forward stop for minimum seal clearance and maximum blade efficiency.

ii.Shaft Seals: Shaft seals must be provided in order to prevent or at least reduce steam leakage where the shafts extend through the casings. Also when low pressure turbines are under vacuum the seals must prevent air from leaking into the casing. Ordinary soft packing may be used for shaft sealing in small turbines. Carbon rings are also very common for small turbines. The carbon ring is made up of three segments butting together tightly under the pressure of a garter spring. The ring has a few hundreds of a millimetre clearance around the shaft and is prevented from turning by a locking pin. The ring has a slight side clearance in the housing allowing it to move freely in radial directions. Carbon rings are self-lubricating but have a tendency to corrode the shaft when the turbine is shut down. The presence of moisture accelerates the corrosion. The carbon rings are from 10 to 25 millimetres wide and may cause heating when they ride on the shaft.

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They are, for that reason, limited to shafts less than 150 millimetres in diameter. For larger diameter shafts where the surface speed is high, labyrinth seals are applied. The labyrinth seal consists of a number of rings (a) 1 - 2 millimetres thick fixed to the shaft, tapered at the outer periphery to nearly knife-sharp with a clearance to the casing of a few hundreds of a millimetre. The rings are of brass or stainless steel, the sharp edge gives better sealing and rubs off easily without excessive heating in case of a slightly eccentric shaft. Some labyrinth seals are very simple, others are complicated. iii.Carbon Ring Seal: High pressure turbines operating at 12 090 to 15 000 kPa cause a sealing problem, as a straight labyrinth seal for that pressure would be extremely long or have lots of steam leaking through. The problem is solved by a series of steam pockets between sets of labyrinth seals. The high pressure steam leaks through 100 - 200 millimetres of labyrinth seal into the first pocket, which is connected to the H. P exhaust, thus any steam leaking through the seal is used in the I P. Turbine. After the first pocket the steam leaks through the second seal 75 -150 millimetres long and into the second pocket connected to an H.P. feedwater heater. Then steam leaks through the third labyrinth seal to the third pocket connected to the I P. exhaust. The steam then leaks through the fourth seal into the fourth pocket, which is connected to the L. P shaft seals supplying them with sealing steam. On the steam line between pocket number 4 and the L. P. seals are two connections with pressure control valves. One is a spill-over valve to the condenser, which will open to the condenser if the gland steam exceeds the set point of a few centimetres of water above atmospheric pressure. The other connection has a control valve to supply gland steam when the pressure decreases to near atmospheric pressure. This valve operates during start-ups and low loads.Neither the carbon nor the labyrinth shaft seals prevent all leakage. If a positive or leak-proof seal is needed, a water seal may be installed. The water seal consists of an impeller on the turbine shaft which rotates in a waterfilled casing and water thrown out from the impeller forms a leak-proof water barrier. Water seals are mainly applied to L. P glands to guard against air leakage, but they may also be applied as the final seal for H.P. and I. P. glands. The water seal cannot operate properly at low speed and gland steam must be applied for sealing during start-up until the turbine speed is approximately 2000 rev/mm. Water seals are supplied with clean cool condensate from the extraction pump. It may be supplied directly or via a head tank with automatic level-control. The diaphragms of impulse turbines have labyrinth seals at the shaft. These seals are made of brass of stainless steel and are in six

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segments, each segment is spring loaded and kept against a stop allowing a very small clearance between seal and shaft. In case of a bent shaft, the shaft may push the segment back against the spring pressure, preventing serious damage to shaft or seal Turbine Couplings The purpose of couplings is to transmit power from the prime mover to the driven piece of machinery. For heavy loads the solid flange coupling is used. The flanges are generally integral parts of the shafts, but they may be separate parts for smaller turbines. In this case each coupling part has a tapered bore and key way to fit the tapered end of the shaft. Following the taper the shaft has a large thread allowing the coupling to be secured tightly with a large nut. The friction between the coupling halves and the shear force of the bolts transmits the power. For maximum shear stress the bolts must be fitted ( i~e they must fit in the holes without clearance at the shear point. The coupling bolts should be undercut, that is machined off to a diameter slightly less than the bottom diameter of the thread to avoid any strain on the thread. In some cases the couplings must compensate for axial expansion and contraction of the rotors and in this case a flexible coupling is applied. The outer half has internal gears, while the inner part has matching external gears. The coupling works like the spline on a driveshaft for a car.The couplings for very large shafts will need a large diameter if the bolts are used to transmit the power. The bolts can be much smaller if they are not allowed to trasnsmit power. In the coupling shear pins carry the load. The area exposed to shear is the shear pin diameter x length x number of shear pins. This design allows the shear pins to be located at a large radius from the shaft centre. The coupling bolts are not fitted as they are exposed to tensile stress only. 6.Turbine Blades The efficiency of the turbine depends more than anything else on the design of the turbine blades. The impulse blades must be designed to convert the kinetic energy of the steam into mechanical energy. The same goes for the reaction blades, which furthermore must convert heat energy to kinetic energy. The later years' increase in blade efficiency is due to increased aerodynamic shape calculated by computers and the milling of blades on automatic milling machines. It is not always possible to give the blades the theoretically best profile, as several other considerations must be taken. The blade must be made strong enough to withstand high temperatures and stresses from heavy, often pulsating steam loads. There is also the stress due to centrifugal force ( for large L.P blades the centrifugal

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force on a single blade may exceed 200 tonnes ) Vibrations and resonant vibrations in particular must be taken into account and finally there is erosion and corrosion. The material that comes closest to the ideal for all mentioned considerations is a chromium-nickel steel, for instance 17 Cr'13 Ni - steel. 7.Stationary Blades and Nozzles : The first set of nozzles for an impulse turbine is the control set and is divided into three to six sections with each section having a steam control valve. For smaller turbines all sections may be located in the upper half of the casing, while the sections for larger turbines cover the entire circumference. All stages following the control stage have the nozzles located in diaphragms. The diaphragms are in halves and fitted into grooves in the casing. Locking pieces in the upper part of the casing prevent the diaphragm from turning. All modern diaphragms are of an allwelded construction. The stationary blades in reaction turbines are fitted into grooves in the casing halves; keys lock the blades in place. In some cases, the blades have keys or serration on one side of the root and a caulking strip on the other side of the root is used to tighten the blades solidly in the grooves. The blades are often supplied with a shroud band with radial and/or axial sealing strips to minimize leakage losses.The stationary blades for a Curtis wheel are attached to the casings, as are the stationary blades for reaction turbines. When a turbine is left cold and at standstill, the weight of the rotor will tend to bend the rotor slightly. If left at standstill while the turbine is still hot, the lower half of the rotor will cool off faster than the upper half and the rotor will bend upwards "hog". In both cases, the turbine would be difficult if not impossible to start up. To overcome the problem the manufacturer supplies the larger turbines with a turning or barring gear consisting of an electric motor which through several sets of reducing gears turns the turbine shaft at low speed. The first turning gears turned the shaft at approximately 20 rev/mm, later increased to 40 and up to 60 rev/mm as proper lubrication is difficult to obtain at low speed; the same goes for the hydrogen seals of generators. Some turning gears, electric or hydraulic, turn the shaft 1 800 at set times over a period of 24 hours. Before a cold turbine is started up it should be on the barring gear for approximately three hours. When a turbine is shut down, it should be barring for the next 24 hours. If a hydrogen cooled generator is involved the turbine should be kept on barring gear to prevent excessive loss of hydrogen, All barring gears are interlocked with a lubricating oil pressure switch and an engagement limit switch operated by the engagement handle.

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Large turbines with heavy rotors are generally equipped with a jacking oil pump, supplying the lower part of the bearings with oil at approximately 10 000 kPa, thereby lifting the shaft and supplying lubricating oil.The jacking oil is applied before start-up of the turning gears and for slow rev/mm the oil is left on, but for high rev/mm (50 60 rev/mm) it is generally shut down as soon as the turning gear is up to speed. 8.STEAM TURBINE GOVERNING Nozzle Governing: With nozzle governing a series of nozzle valves open in sequence as the load increases. This type of governing is most efficient and is used for impulse turbines. Throttle Governing With throttle governing a single large control valve controls the load from 0% to 100%. For large turbines two control valves operating in parallel replace a large single valve. When steam is throttled, the superheat increases and the turbine exhaust steam is drier, reducing the turbine blade erosion, but with the drier steam entering the condenser, the condenser losses increase. Throttling of steam through a valve is an isenthalpic (constant enthalpy) process and no heat is lost. The so-called throttling losses occur in the condenser. By-pass Governing or Overload Governing : This system is used on impulse as well as reaction turbines, An extra set of control valves admit steam to the space behind the Curtis wheel or for a reaction turbine to an annular space behind the first 8 - 12 stages. By-passing part of the turbine increases the turbine capacity (overloads the turbine) but at a reduced efficiency. The bypass valves are smaller than the regular governor valves, as too much by-pass steam may starve the by-passed stages rotating in steam at very high density and the blades may overheat. Turbine Governors The two general types of governors used are the speed sensitive governor and the pressure sensitive governor. Speed sensitive governors are applied to all kinds of turbines, Pressure sensitive governors are applied to back pressure and extraction turbines in connection with the speed sensitive governor. Speed Governing The frequency of 60 Hz is used as the set point or balance between supply and demand of an electric network, Any over supply of

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energy will increase the frequency and an under supply will decrease the frequency. The supply must at any time be equal to the demand in order to keep the frequency at exactly 60 Hz. The speed governor is a proportional-action controller, each change in power causes a change in the turbine speed. The governor controls the opening of the control valves as a function of this speed change. Because of the governor speed droop, the frequency is not constant over the full range of load without external adjustment. Governor speed droop is the percent change in speed required for a load change equal to the rated capacity of the turbine. It is the same as % proportional band for controllers. The speed sensitive governor may be: a)Mechanical b)Mechanical-hydraulic c)Electro-hydraulic A turbine manufacturer may use all three types depending on the size of ~e turbine; he may furthermore use several systems for each type. It is therefore impossible to describe more than a single example, such as the standard mechanical-hydraulic system applied to most Parsons turbines. 9.Overspeed Trip The high rotational speed of steam turbines creates large centrifugal forces, as these forces increase with the square of the speed. Therefore an absolute reliable overspeed protection must be provided.The overspeed trip in Fig. 44 is mechanical-hydraulic and shows clearly the operating principle of all overspeed trips for turbines with hydraulic governor systems. The springloaded tripping bolt located in the turbine shaft has the centre of gravity slightly off the centre of the shaft in direction of the bolt head The nut at the end of the bolt provides a stop for the bolt in tripped position and for the tripping speed adjustment. During normal operation the main spring holds the relay rod against the tripping lever; piston A has closed the oil drain and H.P. oil passes between pistons A and B to the stop valve. When turbine speed increases to the trip setting, usually 110% of operating speed, the centrifugal force overcomes the bolt spring, the bolt moves to the tripping position, strikes the tripping lever, unlatching the relay rod and the main spring moves the relay to the tripped position in which piston A opens the stop valve oil-port to drain, while piston B closes off the H.P. oil inlet port.For all hydraulic systems the overspeed trip closes off for H.P. oil and opens the stop valve oil cylinder to drain allowing the valve to close under spring force.

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WORKING PRINCIPLE OF STEAM POWER PLANT The main components of power plants are boiler-generating steam of more or less parameters of a steam turbine and an electrical generator having mutual shaft line with turbine that is connected to a transformer to an electrical grid of power system. First the coal delivered is unloaded in to the storage piles, then conveyed to the plant, crushed into pieces of approximately 1" and brought to coal silo. From the coal silo it is sent to mill, where it is pulverized. The forced drought (draft) fan supplies the mills with the hot air, heated in the boilers airheater. The hot air is mixed with the pulverized coal and forwarded through the boiler burners in to the furnace, a chamber where fuel is burned. The burned fuel forms fire jets with temperature s over 1500o C (2730oF ) as a might source of radiant and heat energy. Some of the water is lightly reheated in economizer. In these tubes feed water is heated and partially evaporated. Then exits so called drum type boiler, where drum is used for separation of water and steam. Steam flow go into the boiler super heater, where steam temperature and consequently heat energy is rise. High parameter steam is brought through the main steam lines in to the turbine. Expanding the steam works and makes the turbine rotate together with the generator coupled with the turbine .In this mechanical energy is converted in to the electrical energy. After the furnace and super heater, the furnace flue gas passes the economizer tubes. The fuel gas comes in to the air heater where gas temperature reduces to 140-160oC. The down steam the air heater, the fuel gas directed in to the stack with the help of the induced draught fans. The precipitates, installed in this way, have to catch the dry fly ash from the gas.

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Steam system:Main steam from main steam inlet to turbine Aux steam upto desuperheater From control station to turbine glands,dump to condenser Gland steam upto vent Desuperheater to control station From vent to GSC Extraction 1 (turbine to HP heater) Extraction 2 (turbine to deaerator) Extraction 3 (turbine to LP heater) GSC ejector exhaust GSC drains : P22 ( SA335 P22) : P11 ( SA335 P11) : P11 ( SA335 P11) : P11 ( SA335 P11) : CS : CS : CS : CS : CS : CS : CS (SA106 Gr B) (SA106 Gr B) (SA106 Gr B) (SA106 Gr B) (SA106 Gr B) (SA106 Gr B) (SA106 Gr B)

Condensate system:CEP suction from pump upto level control valve outlet CEP minimum recirculation Air ecacuation system from condenser Ejector and Gland steam drains Vaccum breaker Ejector exhaust : CS : CS : CS : CS : CS : CS (SA106 Gr B) (SA106 Gr B) (SA106 Gr B) (SA106 Gr B) (SA106 Gr B) (SA106 Gr B)

Feed water system:From level control valve (After GSC)upto deaerator, excess dump to DM tank deaerator overflow to condensate condensate normal drain and overflow drain : CS : CS : CS (SA106 Gr B) (SA106 Gr B) (SA106 Gr B)

Heater drain and Vent flow diagram:Hp heater drain to deaerator, heater alternate drain to flash tank Hp heater vent to deaerator Lp heater drain to drain cooler via condenser : CS : CS : CS (SA106 Gr B) (SA106 Gr B) (SA106 Gr B)

Cooling water system:-

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Cooling water (inlet/outlet) Cooling water (inlet/outlet) to auxiliaries

: CS : CS

(SA672 Gr B) (SA106 Gr B)

Lube oil system:Mop/Aop/Eop suction Mop/Aop discharge upto coolers via filters, governing system upto valve Oil from filters to header via bearings & OHT Eop Discharge From valve to governing system Oil drains Oil fans suction/discharge Oil centrifuge : CS (SA106 Gr B) : CS (SA106 Gr B) : SA 312 TP 321 : SA 312 TP 321 : SA 312 TP 321 : CS (SA106 Gr B) : CS (SA106 Gr B) : CS (SA106 Gr B)

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Steam and Drain System In Power Plants


Turbines: Auxiliary Steam PRDS(Pressure Desuperheating System): Auxiliary steam system is intended to provide steam to turbine auxiliaries, during start up, low loads and also during normal operation. From the main steam line to turbine line , a tap-off is taken for Aux. steam PRDS. The steam is tapped from main and reduced required pressure with the pressure control valve and the temparature is reduced to the required temperature through a de-superheating station (by cooling it with spray water taken from boiler feed pump discharge and pressure of spray water is reduced through the pressure control valve(PCV) and flow is controlled by a temperature control valve(TCV). A safety valve (PSV) is provided to protect the downstream system against excessive pressure rise. The system provides the steam to the following utilities: Turbine Gland Sealing Steam jet ejectors : During start up and low loads : To create vaccum

Deaerator :when turbine extractions is not available Pegging Steam is used and during the startup conditions initial heating is done. Process (not cupulsary) Parameters: Flow : To use for some external purpose.

Temperature Pressure

Extraction Steam: The turbine is a single cylinder machine which offers the following extractions

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Extraction I

: Uncontrolled Extraction to LP Heater

Extraction II : Uncontrolled Extraction to Deaerator Extraction III : Uncontrolled Extraction to LP Heater Extraction I : The steam is extracted from turbine casing and connected to LP Heater. Where the condensate can be heated at some required parameters and send to the LP heater. The turbine extraction line is provided with a two non return valves (QCNRV(Hydralic operated valve) & other one is flap NRV) connected at the turbine end and a Motorised isolating valve connected at LP Heater end. Extraction II : The steam is extracted from turbine casing and connected to Deaerator. In the extraction line there are two non return valves(hydraulic operated valves) at the end of the turbine. A motorized operated valve are also provided in the extraction line at the deaerator end. When the extraction steam is not taken then deaerator is supplied steam from auxiliary steam. Extraction III : The steam is extracted from turbine casing and connected to HP Heater. Where the condensate can be heated at some required parameters and send to the BFP via. Boiler,So that the efficiency of boiler increases. The turbine extraction line is provided with a two non return valves (QCNRV(Hydralic operated valve) & other one is flap NRV) connected at the turbine end and a Motorised isolating valve connected at HP Heater end. The power assisted check valves are hooked up to the turbine governing system to make them close with every trip of the turbine. These nrv and motorized operated valve closes under interlock action when the water level reaches High-High level set point in Heaters. To safeguard the turbine against water ingress into turbine which may cause lot of damage to turbine we use non return valves. The drains are mainly connected inbetween NRVs and Motorised isolating valve. During the start up of the turbine, entire extraction steam piping up to the isolation valve is to be drained. The drain valves are closed only after extablishing steam flow through the line. Parameters: Flow

Temperature Pressure

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Exhaust drains system

Gland Steam : From the clearance between rotor and turbine glands the steam tries to escape, So inorder to seal this glands we use gland steam (from the main steam a tap-off is taken and set at required parameters). The purpose of the gland steam system is to seal the inner compartments against the atmosphere by admitting the steam to front and rear glands at a pressure slightly above atmosphere.If the glands are not sealed the air tries to enter through the glands and this may lead to loss of vaccum and thereafter vaccum cannot be established in the condenser. So, it is necessary to seal the glands. Pressure and temperature indications are provided on the balance piston leak-off line to known the excessive leakages through the glands. Whenever these are exceeding the valves mentioned in first commissioning report, the glands is to be replaced after taking shut-down. The steam is supplied through a control valve(PCV) at a constant pressure of 1.1 ata from the Auxiliary steam header. During running of turbine the excess leakage from the turbine glands is dumped to condenser through control valve(PCV). GSC bypass to atmosphere is provided which will be used when GSC is taken out for maintenance.

Parameters: Flow

Temperature Pressure

Gland steam condenser :The excess leakage from the turbine glands and the steam used for gland sealing is removed from the front and rear glands of the turbine and connected to the gland steam condenser where the gland steam is condensed using condensate as cooling medium. This shall prevent steam oozing out from the glands and heating the bearings pedestrals.Gland steam ejectors are used to create vaccum in the condenser. Vaccum Breaker : In case of turbine trip, vaccum is deliberately broken in the condenser by admitting air into the condenser through a motor operated valve. This shall shorten the coasting down time of turbine.

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Parameters: Flow

Temperature Pressure

Exhaust hood system : It is necessary to run the turbine in no load conditions for prolonged period. During this period, the exhaust hood temperature rises beyond the safe limit, especially in material point of view. Hence it is necessary to limit the temperature by spraying the condensate through nozzles (the solenoid valve) fitted in the exhaust hood. The spray water is taken from condensate extraction discharge pump. The solenoid valve opens automatically when the temperature switch exceeds the preset value and when temperature returns to safe limit the solenoid valve closes automatically thus stopping the spray water supply. Parameters: Flow

Temperature Pressure

Turbine Drains : All drains from the turbine are connected to surge pipe arranged adjacent to the condenser which are under high pressure and temp. The top of the surge pipe is connected to steam space and bottom to the hotwell of the condenser. The hot drains may thus flash out in the surge pipe without endangering the condenser tubes. The inlet of the surge pipe must be minimum of 250mm above the max. water level in the condenser. The HP drain lines should be connected nearer to hotwell and LP drain lines should be connected nearer to steam space on the surge pipe.

Motor Operated Gate Valve : The gate valve is provided in the live steam line to isolate the turbine during the shut-down period. By-Pass Valve : During startup , steam is admitted steadily through the bypass valve for warming up the pipe line. After attaining the required parameters the motor operated gate valve is opened and by pass valve is closed. Wet Steam Washing System : This system is envisaged to clean unwanted salts deposited on the turbine blades. A pressure measurement is provided in the wheel

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chamber zone which helps in knowing about the salt deposited on turbine blading during the course of turbine running. Emergency stop valve : To stop the live steam entering into the turbine when a problem arises in turbine. Governing Valve : The function of the valve is to control the steam inlet of the turbine. Balance piston leak off : It control the excess enlargement of rotor near the thrust bearings by extracting the steam and this steam is connected to the controlled extractions. Check valves (QCNRV) : These check valves are located on the extractions that are taken from the turbine in order to stop the back flow from the concerned equipments. Steam trap : PCV : used to control the pressure TCV : used to control the temperature. Flow element : Drains are provided in the valve block(emergency valve and governing valve) and turbine casing which will be opened during stratup and closed only after warming up period, these valve shall be kept opened during the shut-down period.

Condensate System In Power Plants


The condensate systeam is used to condense the steam. (This works under the principle of shell and tube On the shell side steam enters from the turbine ie to be condensed and on tube side waters acts as the coolant to condense the steam. The coolant is taken from cooling water tank . The cooling water is pumped with high pressures and connected to the condenser. The pump is designed is such a way that it should recover all the losses and pr. Drop). The condensate is drawn from the main condenser hotwell by one of the two 100% extraction pumps. In case of pump failure, the standby pump comes into existence automatically. The pump is designed in such a way that it can recover the overall pressure drop (sjae+gsc+lp+deaerotor+losses). From the pump discharge the condensate passes through the ejector condenser, GSC, LP and deaerator where it is employed as cooling medium. From the deaerator it is unruffled to BFP there after it is unperturbed to the HP via boiler with required pressure from the BFP. Hot-well : From the hotwell, the condensate is send to the concerned equipments as the cooling medium. Normal level in the hotwell is maintained by recirculating the minimum flow requirements to the concerned equipments. An LCV is positioning in the hotwell. When the level exceeds the normal level, the dump control valve opens to increase the flow from the hotwell and maintains the constant level in the hotwell. Condensate Extraction Pumps: The condensate is drawn from the main condenser hotwell by one of the 2 x 100% extraction pumps. In case of pump failure, the standby pump comes into existence automatically . a) The following shall be ensured for starting of the pump:

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Suction valve is open Hot level should not be low Minimum recirculation valve should be fully open When pressure at the discharge of the pump is more than a preset value, the following shall be done Opening the discharge valve standby condensate pump shall be switched ON automatically when level in the hotwell rises to HIGH LEVEL or the discharge pressure of pump falls below a preset valve. pump shall trip when any of the following conditions exists: hot well level falls below a preset very low level. Motor protection circuit operated. Bypass valves for cep discharge valves are provided only for initial priming of system. These valves are kept normally closed. Air ejector system : The air ejector system is used to create the vaccum in the condenser. It consists one hogging ejector and two main ejectors one in working condition and other as standby. To create vaccum during starting in the short time, hogging ejector is used when the vaccum reaches 500-550mm of the column and after stabilization of main ejector, hogging ejector shall be manually stopped. Motive steam for the starting ejector & running ejector is taken from auxiliary steam header. To create vaccum during startup in the short time, hogging ejector is put into service by first opening the steam side valve (to create vaccum in the ejector) and then the air side valve (which is above the atmospheric pressure ). Limit switch in the valve shall be used to ensure that the valve is open before the ejector is put into service. When condenser vaccum reaches 500mm hg, one of the two ejectors is brought into service by opening the respective steam side valve. When the condenser reaches 600mm hg, starting ejector is taken out of services by first closing the air side valve and then closing steam side. CONTROL AND INTERLOCKING FUNTIONS: Hot-Well Level Controls :

For initiating alarms, interlocks, controls and actions following are provided on the hot well. VERY LOW LEVEL (LSLL):

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Two level switches in 1 out of 2 logic shall be annunciated in the control room and condensate pump shall trip under interlock action. LOW LEVEL (LSL): One level switch shall annunciated in the control room HIGH LEVEL (LSH): One level switch shall annunciated in the control room and standby pump shall be started automatically. Level Transmitters (LT) :

Two level transmitters to select the average level in the hot well. HIGH HIGH LEVEL (LSHH): One level switch annunciated in the control room. NORMAL LEVEL: This shall be used for START PREMISSIVE for condensate extraction pump. Normal level in the hot well is maintained by hot well level controlled by positioning the excess dump control valve(LCV1) and make up control valve(LCV2). As the hot well level rises, the dump control valve opens to increase the flow from the hot well and maintains the constant level in the hot well. When the hot well level falls, the make up control valve opens to maintain the constant level in the hot well. MINIMUM RECIRCULATION CONTROL: Minimum recirculation control valve(LCV1) along the deaerator level control valve(LCV2) maintains a minimum flow of condensate through CEP at all modes of operation. Two flow transmitters installed across the flow orifice downstream of GSC in one of the two mode to feed signal to controller which modulates minimum recirculation control valve. Here the control valves(LCV1 &LCV2) is operated by flow controller.

Feed Water System In Power Plants


The feeding heating system consists of one LP heater, one Deaerator, One HP heater. LP heater :The LP heater is condensing heater with an external drain cooler. The header and drain cooler are horizontally designed. An extraction is taken from the turbine and connected to the shell side to heat the condensate and condensate is taken

34

from the hotwell. Normal drains of LP heater are cascated to condenser. Afer passing through the LP heater it enters the deaerator feed storage tank via deaerator. Deaerator : Deaerator is used to remove the air bubbles in the condensate so that no oxide are formed in the condensate. Deaerator is designed to operate under constant pressure mode Heating system bled from turbine. During the startup conditions intial heating process is done by taking from an external source i.e auxiliary steam header at required parameters. When turbine extraction is not available, deaerator is pegged from an external source i.e, auxiliary steam header through deaerator pegging control station. A nrv is used to stop the back flow. Boiler Feed Pump : The condensate is drawn from the Deaeratorl by one of the 2 x 100% extraction pumps. In case of pump failure, the standby pump comes into existence automatically . a) The following shall be ensured for starting of the pump:

Suction valve is open b) When pressure at the discharge of the pump is more than a preset value, the following shall be done Opening the discharge valve standby condensate pump shall be switched ON automatically when discharge pressure of pump falls below a preset valve. pump shall trip when any of the following conditions exists: When Deaeratorl level falls below a preset very low level. Motor protection circuit operated. HP heater :HP heater is condensing heater with a flash tank(under high level conditions,the alternative path provided on heater diverts the drains directly to the flash tank). The header and drain cooler are horizontally designed. An extraction is taken from the turbine and connected to the shell side to heat the condensate and condensate is taken from the hotwell. Normal drains of LP heater are cascated to condenser. Afer passing through the LP heater it enters the deaerator feed storage tank via deaerator.

CONTROL AND INTERLOCKING FUNTIONS:


Deaerator level control : For initiating alarms, interlocks, controls and actions following are provided on the hot well. VERY LOW LEVEL (LSLL):

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Three level switches shall be annunciated in the control room and boiler feed pump shall trip under interlock action. LOW LEVEL (LSL): One level switch shall annunciated in the control room HIGH LEVEL (LSH): Highlevel in the feed storage tank shall be shall annunciated in the control room. One level switch at 50mm above HIGH LEVEL(LSH) for deaerator overflow valve open interlock and annunciated in the control room. One level switch at 50mm below HIGH LEVEL(LSH) for deaerator overflow valve closes interlock and annunciated in the control room. Level Transmitters (LT) :

Two level transmitters to select the average level in the Deaerator. HIGH HIGH LEVEL (LSHH): One level switch annunciated in the control room. Closing the motor operated valve and then the qcnrv & nrv that are located on the steam supply line from deaerator to turbine. Closing of deaerator pegging control valve(PCV) located on the steam supply line to deaerator from auxiliary steam header. Repeatedly opening the motor operated drain valve. Closing the motor operated valve on incoming condensate to deaerator. NORMAL LEVEL: This shall be used for START PREMISSIVE for Boiler Feed Pump.

Lubrication System In Power Plants


Through there are many rotating equipments in a power plant the heart of a power plant is lube oil system. The oil system is so designed that each bearing under consideration is supplied with oil to the required parameters of pressure, temperature and flow and the outlet oil from all the bearings is drained properly back to the system so that the lubrication system shall be a closed cut lubrication system.

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Oil from the Main oil tank will b pumped by the main oil pump (driven by a.c) to the bearings in the system through coolers and filters. Thus cool and filtered oil will enter into the bearings in the required/designed qualities at the designed pressure. This oil will form as a wedge/hydrodynamic oil film in between and the shaft on which the shaft rotates, thus eliminating metal to metal contact. The oil after taking away the heat in the bearings will flow in between bearings and comes back to the main oil tank, making the system as a closed circuit one. Since a highly reliable and continuous lubricatin of the bearings is of the utmost importance, sufficient redundancy is provided in the lubricating system. In case of any problem with Main oil pump/ Auxiliary oil pump will take over and in case auxiliary oil pump also develops problem. Emergency oil pump (run by dc) will come into operation. However emergency oil pump operation is only to ensure proper lubrication during the coasting down period. If Emergency oil pump also fails., which is last possible than oil from over head oil tank will be supplied to the bearings for coasting down period. In certain cases when rotor are heavy jacking oil is provided . It ensure that during startup to lift the rotor rating metal to metal contact. The jacking oil pump will stop as soon as the film is formed. Jacking oil is required for all the cases. It will be used where the bearings specific pressure is high Main Oil Tank : The oil tank is located on the ground. The oil tank serves for storing the oil volume required for governing and lubricating system. It allows the impurities to be deposited at the bottom of the tank along with the oils sludge. A gradient is provided at the bottom of the tank to enable the impurities to be collected for easy drain-off. Baffle plates are provided to give a longer time in the tank, so that the entrapped air is effectively released. Level gauge and level transmitter indicate the level in the tank. The oil vapor extraction tanks mounted on the oil tank top plate evacuate oil vapors accumulated in the oil tank. The exhaust is led to safe location outside the hall. The oil tank is provided with connection for oil centrifusion. The oil centrifuge inlet connection provided in the oil tank is of loop configuration in order to prevent entering of the oil. Tank in case of leakage in the oil purification circuit. The top of the loop is in line with minimum oil level in the oil tank. If the oil level in the tank falls below min. level, flow to centrifuge circuit is interrupted as air enters into the loop through the hole provided at the top of the loop. The low and high levels, are annunciated in the control room. When ever the level falls below minimum oil level, the level shall be raised to normal operating level by adding clarified oil. Mostly we use servo prime 46 as the lubricating oil. Lube Oil Pump :The lube oil pump is a single stage centrifugal pump driven by A.C motor. The delivers the total oil required for governing and lubricating oil system. The oil which flows through the governing system is known as leak oil and the oil which flows through the coolers side is known as lube oil. Tap-off for governing

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circuit is taken immediately after pump discharge. For lubricating purpose, oil is taken down stream the oil cooler after suitable pressure reduction using an adjustable throttle. Main Oil Pump And Auxiliary Pumps :The main oil pump is invariably ac motor driven centrifugal pumps to ensure maximum reliability .It may also provide high pressure oil for the relay system at a pressure of 150kg/cm2. By raising all the oils to this pressure, the lubricating oil being drain off through a reduction valve. Although this method is often adopted because of its simplicity and because the relays automatically close the stop valve, if the lubricating oil supply falls it is wasted of pumping energy. The quantity of oil used makes it economically to incorporate a centrifugal pump driven directly to the bearings. It is self priming and requires oil ejector to over come the suction head both when starting and during running a governing hydraulic systems is used. The pumps may be mounted directly in the main oil tank with their inlets submerged below the oil level thus obviating the need for an oil ejector. Note: The auxiliary pump is automatically brought into operation by a relay when the oil pressure falls below a certain value. A check valve in the pump discharge ensures safety of the pump against reverse rotation when the pump is kept as stand by. If the pump discharge pressure falls below 6.5kg/cm2, the stand by pump will be started through pressure switch. If the stand by pump also fails, the turbine will be tripped set at 0.8kg/cm2. Emergency Oil Pumps :During coasting down of turbine, when lube oil pump is not available, lubricating oil is provided by emergency oil pump. The emergency oil pump is driven by D.C. motor. The E.O.P. will cut in automatically by lube oil pressure switch set at 0.7kg/cm2. In order to ensure positive supply of oil to the bearings, this pump is connected directly to the lube oil with out going through cooler and filter. Jacking Oil Pump :A positive displacement pump unit provides the supply of high-pressure oil to the bottom side of the individual shaft journal, an oil pump unit is provided. The pump is driven by A.C motor and from the pump the lifting oil passes to the various bearings and from the bearings the oil returns to the drain header. When a turbine is started up the shaft journal are in contact with the white metal of the bearings due to the weight of the rotor. The low pressure of the lubricating oil supply when the set is stationary is insufficient to stop the metal to metal contact between journal and bearing shells. So the starting and stopping in the presence of metal to metal contact would result in increase to wear of the white metal surface. So in order to prevent the metal to metal contact between journal and bearings shells during startup and shutdown, an oil pocket machine into the bottom shell of the journal bearing is supplied with oil under high pressure. This lifts the shafting the shafting system slightly and it

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floats on a film of the oil. Only a small volume of oil is needed to perform the lifting of the shaft. The lifting oil pressures required are set individually with the throttling valves at each bearing. Pressure gauges provided down stream of these throttles shall be referred for setting the throttle position. The check valves fitted between the throttling valves and the bearings prevent oil from the bearings flowing back into the jacking oil system when the turbine is running and jacking oil system has been shutdown.

Oil Coolers

:Twin coolers shall be provide and shall be piped in a parallel arrangement using a continuous flow transfer valve.The main factor of the cooler is to freeze the water and an oil-bypass line around the cooler being included to regulate the oil supply temperature. To regulate lube oil temperature the control valves are provided to by-pass around the cooler. The control valve shall be sized to handle all oil flow passing through the cooler with a pressure drop equal to or less than the pressure drop in the cooler. The coolers are usually mounted vertically for easy removal of the tubbiest and water passing upwards through the tubes ensures complete flooding at all times. Oil enters at the top and passes across the tubes in a zigzag manner, guided by the fins. The oil and water passes are arranged in counter flow. The arrangement reduces the amount of sludge precipitation. In the cooler as the hot oil entering the cooler does not strike the coldest part of the cooler tube. In the coolers the efficiency of a centrifugal pump may be of the order of 55% and the remaining 45% of the pump input energy generates heat in the oil. The oil absorbs a large amount of heat from the bearing friction and shaft conduction. To remove this heat the oil is passed through coolers which reduces the temperature to that required for the bearings. Both the water side and the oil side of the cooler shall be self-venting and self-draining or shall be completely drainable. Each cooler are divided into three types, They are: Water cooled Shell and tube Air cooled A removable bundle design is required for shell and tube coolers. Removable bundle coolers are constructed with a removable channel cover. Note: To prevent the oil from being contaminated if coolers fails, the oil side operating pressure shall be higher than the water side operating pressure. Specification: Oil Filter :Twin full flow filters with replaceable elements or cartridges with filtration of 10microns nominal or finer shall supplied. The filter shall be located down

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stream of the coolers and shall be piped in a parallel arrangement using a continuous flow transfer valve. Filter cases and heads shall be suitable for operation at the maximum discharge pressure. The filter shall not be equipped with relief valves are other valves which can cause by-pass of unfiltered oil around the filter elements. The pressure drop for clean filtered elements are cartridges shall not exceed 15% of the total allowable dirty pressure drop at an operating temperature of 38C. Features: Oil flow from the outside inward towards the centre of the filter element. Adequate support of the filter elements to prevent them from rupturing or unfiltered oil from bypassing the elements and reaching the equipment. to prevent

Minimum exposure of non stainless steel filter casing surface to the oil down stream of the filter elements. Adequate support and maintainable alignment of staged filter cartridges. Proper sealing at the ends of the cartridges, including cartridges to casing sealing and sealing between stacked cartridges. The ability to completely drain oil from the filter housing while avoiding contamination of the downstream side with unfiltered oil during replacement of the filter elements. Consideration of the use of guard elements to capture debris in case of filter element deterioration or failure. Over Head Oil Tank :When E.O.P. also fails, as a last resort to protect bearings, an over head oil tank is provided. The tank is kept at an elevation of 6.5m to provide lubricating oil by gravity. The tank is filled using lube oil pump during initial startup. Overflowing oil through flow glass indicates the oil filling completion. Once the tank is full, the inlet valve is closed and a small amount of oil is allowed to continuously over flow through the tank.

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EQUIPMENT-LAYOUT In a power plant station the equipment are arranged as shown in the figure. In the 15MW TG power plant the length of TG hall is 47000 mm and TG hall span is 27000mm. The ground floor elevation is 0.0m. The mezzanine floor elevation is 4.0m. The operating floor elevation is 9.0m. The de-aerator floor elevation is 14.0m. GROUND FLOOR: In the floor the following equipments are placed. They are BFPS. CEPS. Boiler house. Oil tank. Oil coolers. Oil filters. Oil pumps. Oil Centrifuse. Condensers. Flash tank. Generator air cooler elements. NGR. MEZZANINE FLOOR: It is the floor lie in between the ground floor & operating floor. The following equipments were kept on this floor. Steam jet air ejector. Gland steam condenser. HP heater (Horizontal). LP heater (Horizontal). OPERATING FLOOR: This is above the mezzanine & ground floors. The following equipments were placed on the TG deck at operating floor elevation. Turbine. Gearbox. Generator.

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The control room is adjacent to TG hall were turbine control panel, generator control panel are placed. Above control room the de-aerator is placed on the de-aerator floor. While placing the equipment care is to be taken that sufficient walk around space is available. At the time of operation or maintenance this is very much required for all equipments. The equipments are arranged in logical manner so that when the piping is done there is no back tracking or criss crossing of pipes. The tube removal of equipments shell is also marked in the equipment layout so that no piping or equipment come in that space earmarked for maintenance. All the equipments shall be kept on a pedestal. The equipment layout for 15MW STG is enclosed.

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PUMP: In general pump may be defined as a mechanical device which when interposed in a pipe line, converts the mechanical energy into hydraulic energy and transfers the same to the liquid through the pipe line, there by increasing the energy of the flowing fluid. EXTRACTION PUMPS: -

The most important function in extraction pump design is the avoidance of the excess of oxygen into the condensate system .This can be carried out in a number of ways , they are Two stage extraction pumps Two stage extraction pump with internal bearing . Three stage extraction pump alternative arrangements. In Two stage design the gland at the left hand side adjacent to the first stage impeller is under vacuum ,when the pump is in service .The gland is therefore scaled by leading a condensate supply to it from the second stage discharge pipe ,care must be taken to ensure that the gland connections to the stand by pump are isolated from the pump in operation . This results in a somewhat complicated small board piping system with the necessary operational requirements of changing over the sealing connections when bringing the stand by pump into service. The water being rotated by the action of the shaft when the pump is in use, forming a helix . The air then leaks into the pump between the water streams which form the helix. One partial solution is to fit an internal bearing at the suction end of the Pump. But this bearing must be water lubricated and may ,therefore ,be damaged by suspended matter. The vertical spindle arrangement is particularly vulnerable to this damage during the commissioning or after the overhaul period. Probably the best arrangement , where the hydraulic characteristics allow is to mount the first stage impeller on the shaft between two impellers running in parallel on a two stage design and in series for a three stage duty. The arrangement is slightly more expensive ,but it does ensure positive pressure on the pump glands. Recently we used reentry type extraction pumps. The extractions pumps become integrated with the generator coolers and auxiliary cooler system .This limits maximum design pressure needed for the auxiliary coolers. FEED PUMP:The feed pump is a pump which is used to deliver feed water to the boiler. It is a desirable that the quantity of water supplied should be at least equal to that evaporated and supplied to the engine. Two types of pumps which are commonly used as feed pumps are 1.Reciprocating pump

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2.Rotory pump The reciprocating pump consists of a pump cylinder and a piston. Inside the cylinder reciprocates a piston which displaces water. The reciprocating pump may be of two types. They are 1.Single acting pump 2.double acting pump In a single acting pump , the water is displaced by one side of the piston only and so the water is discharged in alternate strokes. In a double acting pump, the water is discharged in each stroke of the piston, since the water is displaced by both the sides of the piston. The reciprocating feed pumps are continuously run by steam from the the same boiler to which water is to be fed. In a double direct acting steam pump, there are two single steam cylinders placed side by side. Slide valves distribute the steam in each cylinder The slide valve in each cylinder steam chest is operated by the crosshead on the piston rod of the opposite cylinder, through, an arrangement of rods and rocker arms. The feed pump is generally double acting. On each side of the pump plunger there are suction and discharge valves. The pumps work alternately and consequently continuous flow of water is maintained double feed pump is commonly employed for medium size boilers. Rotary feed pumps are of centrifugal type and are commonly run either by a small steam turbine or by an electro motor. A rotary pump consists of a casing and a rotating element known as impeller, which is fitted over a shaft. It utilizes the centrifugal force of the rotating impeller for pumping the liquid from one place to the other. BOILER FEED PUMP: Boiler feed pumps are used for pumping hot feed water from de aerators to boilers of thermal power stations and constitutes one of the most essential equipment for uninterrupted power supply. Every increasing steam parameters in modern power stations have resulted in fast development of boiler feed pumps and today these pumps are highly sophisticated equipment in thermal power stations. The function of the feed pump is to deliver feed water from de aerator to the boiler drum at a required pressure and temperature. The water with the given operating temperature flows from the de aerator to the pump continuously it passes through suction branch into the intake spiral and from there it is desired in to the first impeller. After leaving the impeller it passes through the diffuser where the kinetic energy is converted into potential energy. Then it flows over to the guide vanes to the inlet of the next impeller eye. This process is separated from one stage to another till it passes through the last impeller and the end diffuser. Thus the feed water at outlet of the last stage attains the required discharge head. About 50% of the feed water is taken off from the space behind the last impeller for automatic balancing axial thrust

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produced. The feed water passes through the balancing device and comes, into the space behind the balancing disc. Water is taken from space to the suction or to the feed water tank. ELEMENTS OF BOILER FEED PUMP: The boiler feed pumps at highly sophisticated equipment in thermal power stations and in fact represent the heart of a power station. Very high technical skill sophisticated materials and rigid quality control are employed in the production of these pumps. These pumps operate at high rotational speed and therefore require very accurate balancing. The pump is of robust construction and does not require any warm up. The pump consists of: 1.Casing 2.Shaft 3.Shaft sleeves 4.Impeller 5.Diffuser 6.Ring sections 7.Suction cover 8.Discharge cover 9.Stuffing box assembly 10.Balance drum 11.Pump half coupling 12.Bearings and housings. BOILER FEED BOOSTER PUMP: For efficient and reliable operation of the boiler feed pump, even under adverse suction conditions and constrained layouts without provision for adequate net positive suction head , it is often pressed to provide a booster pump to boost the suction head to the required levels.

HEAT EXCHANGERS: A heat exchanger is any device used for effecting the process of heat exchange between two fluids that are at different temperatures. A heat exchanger in which two fluids exchange heat by coming in to direct contact is called a direct contact heat exchanger. Example of this type are open feed water heaters, de super heaters and jet condensers. The wall may be simple plane wall or a tube or a complex configuration involving fins, baffles and multiple passes of tubes. These units are called surface heat exchangers, are more commonly used because they can be constructed with large heat heat transfer surfaces in a relatively small volume and are suitable for heating cooling, evaporating or condensing applications.

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A periodic flow type of heat exchanger is called a regenerator. In this type of heat exchanger, the same space is alternately occupied by the hot and cold gases between which heat is exchanged. Regenerators find their application in pre heaters for steam power plants, blast furnaces, oxygen producers etc. TYPES OF HEAT EXCHANGERS:Heat exchangers may be classified in several ways. One classification is according to the fluid flow arrangement or the relative direction of the hot and cold fluids. The fluids may be separated by a plane wall but more commonly by a concentric tube(double pipe) arrangement. If both the fluids move in the same direction, the arrangement is called a parallel flow type. In the counter flow arrangement, the fluids move in parallel but in opposite directions. In a double pipe heat exchanger, either the hot or cold fluid occupies the annular space and the other fluids moves through the inner pipe. Since both fluids streams traverse the exchanger only once, this arrangement is called single pass heat exchanger. Another flow configuration is one in which the fluids move at right angles to each other through the heat exchanger. This type of arrangement is called a cross flow type. When large quantities of heat are to be transferred, the heat area requirement of the exchanger also becomes large. In this case multiple pass arrangements can be used. FEED WATER HEATING EQUIPMENT:Feed water heating is accomplished in one string for the low pressure heating, while in two strings for the high pressure heating in order to improve the reliability of operation. Such joints in the construction of the high pressure feed water heater as between the tube and baffle and between the water box and shell etc is setup by welding to assure prevention of leakage. The main condensate in most of the power plants returns to the steam generator as feed water. Some makeup water may be added to replace in the cycle. In a few plants the boiler feed water may be 100% makeup, in this case the plant turbines exhaust at backpressures above atmospheric to supply steam for other purpose. Feed water is heated by bleeding steam to heaters as in a regenerative cycle from the main turbine, or by using exhaust steam from auxiliary drive turbine, or by byproducts steam from processes. Feed water heaters may be classified as follows: Open (or) contact heaters. Tray type Jet type. Closed (or) surface heaters. Heated feed water enables steam generators to produce more Kg of steam and avoids severe thermal stressing by cold water entering a hot drum. Pre heating feed water also causes scale forming dissolved salts to precipitates outside the boiler and removes dissolved O2 &CO2 which corrode boiler material. OPEN HEATERS:-

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1) Tray type: -The construction of an open heater employs a shell of rolled steel plates welded along the longitudinal steam. Dished steel ends are joined to the shell at two ends through welding. In the tray type heater the upper half of the shell contains two tray sections and the spray distributor, while the lower half is mostly empty and serves as storage for heated water. Above the shell is placed a vent condenser. Feed water after passing through the vent condenser flows into the spray distributor from where it cascades over the staggered trays, Exhaust steam from auxiliaries or low pressure steam from a suitable point in the turbine is passed into the heater, entering into opposite the tray sections and flowing upward counter to the direction of water, through the heating section. The flow of two liquids through the heater, thus results in thorough mixing up so that heat of steam is transferred to water, the steam itself also being condensed O2, CO2 & NH3 are also removed by this type of heaters. In addition to the heating of feed water, the contact type heater is often construction for de aerating action. The only difference between the simple heater and a de aerating open heater is in the addition of a suction of air removing trays below the heating trays. After the water has been heated in heating section, it is made to pass over the air separating trays, which provide a complete separation of air and water, Water then flows down while air and non-condensable gasses together with water vapour pass to the top of the shell and from there to the vent condenser. The vent condenser is a small surface condenser of U-type. The vapour went to the atmosphere. The interior of the shell of de aerating as also the trays is made of corrosion resistance material such as stainless steel. JET TYPE OPEN HEATERS:In this type of de aerating contact heater spring loaded spray valves atomize the feed water coming from the vent condenser spray it up words against the baffle. The low pressure steam enters a conical steam jacket fitted in the upper part of shell, and is allowed to expanding the same direction as the water spray, mixes with water and mixture falls down to the lower part of the shell which serves as the storage. The non-condensing gases travel upwards as in the tray type heater and are passed on the vent condenser. It is mainly used in marine where tray type heaters do not work well due to the pitching & rolling of the vessel. They can handle water containing scaling impurities and are lighter in weight. These heaters do not work well at low pressures special at sub atmospheric pressure. CLOSED(OR)SURFACE FEED HEATERS:These heaters usually have shell and tube construction and may be made horizontal and vertical. The construction of a closed heater and a surface condenser are identical except that the heater is design for higher temperatures and pressures and has greater than the condenser . It consists of a shell which has a welded longitudinal steam. To each end of the shell is welded a steel flange for fitting the covers , and top and bottom connections are provided for inlet of steam and exit of condensate . A baffle plate is provided below the steam inlet to spread the steam evenly over the tubes. The water tubes are admiralty brass or other suitable material are stretched between two

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end sheets of muntz metal or soft steel ,one of these being fixed and the other floating to take up extraction strain in tubes, The floating tube sheet is covered with a head cover bolted on to it and prevents the leakage of water into space. The heater may have single pass or the water box may be divided to give pass basin. A pair of air pockets provided at bottom of the shell permits the with drawn of air. The flow of steam and water through the heater is usually counter to each other low pressure heaters may use the steam under vacuum high pressure heaters at pressure above 40 bars. Steam and water need not beat the same pressure and one pump may push water through several heaters in series. Water pressure may be as high as 250 bars. For good performance heaters must be drained and vented. L .P. HEATERS:These heaters are usually constructed of mild steel tube plates and shells with tubes of 90/10 cupronickel or admiralty brass expanded into the tube plate for a depth of approximately 1 1/2inch. The usual procedure when testing for leaks in L.P heater tube nests is by filling the steam space with water and applying a pressure not in excess of the design pressure of the body when leaking expansions and tubes are readily shown up. When leaking tube expansions exits a further light rolling is usually necessary to stop the leakage , unless the severity of the leak is sufficient to erode the tube plate ,in which case plugging may be necessary leaking tubes are normally plugged off when the incidence of failure is slight , but there is an obvious limit to this procedure. The location of the leaking tube in the tube plate is of some consequence with u-tube heaters . H.P HEATERS:It is similar to L .P . heaters. The essential difference is that the tubes must with stand the full pressure of the feed pumps However if a booster pump is employed upstream of the heater, the feed pump pressure can be reduced. The tubes may be of 70/30 cupronickel , with some iron alloyed ,and the shells of forged steel. The water box is bolted down with bolts drilled down the axis to facilitate electric bolt heating .The bolt heating is done by passing current through carbon rods in the central holes of the bolts .This method of bolt tightening ensures tight, joints even at the high pressure and temperature en counted in the last one (or) two heaters which receive super heated steam from the high pressure stages of turbine. H.P heaters too are equipped with gauge glasses steam and water spring loaded relief valves as well as body air vents .The body air vents and vents on the incoming and out going feed pumps are led to an open turn dish to enable observation of air release ,thence to a drain tank ,and finally to a separates flash box ,and onto the condenser. DE- AERATOR HEATER:-

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It was a conventional practice of designing the deaerator , so that the storage tank has a capacity sufficient enough to contain the feed water for about 15 min running at a rated output. Reduced capacity of the storage tank has been found successful in realization of uniform temperature distribution of the feed water in the tank, prevention of flashing in the suction pipe of the feed water pump as well as economization of the frame work of the building ,resulting from reduced weight of the tank. The distillate pump is to be operated only for filling up the boiler drum and not to make up the de aerator when the units in operation. In a de-aerating heater entering water spills over trays (or) sprays through nozzles to make it present a maximum surface, for heat transfer to the atmosphere of steam filling the heater. This also removes all dissolved O2 in excess of 0.03 ml per 1 from the water .A unit that reduces the O2 to 0.005 ml is a de-aerator. Adding Na2 So3 to the feed water or boiler reduces any remaining dissolved O2 to a tolerable minimum. De- aeration may takes place at any pressure or vacuum. Heating releases the gas from the water in minute bubbles that tend to stray entrained. These can removed by agitation (or) stirring the water turbulently. The de-aerating heater and de-aerator mix steam and water to heat the water to saturation temperature, they also agitate the boiling water to remove entrained gases and vent them to atmosphere .The most heaters have a storage tank below with controls to add make up water as needed to maintain feed water flow. The heating steam may be main turbine feed steam (or) may be from other sources. OTHER EQUIPMENTS:Other equipments required for steam power plant are: Gland steam condenser. Glands & Sealing systems. generator. Drains. Drain flash tank. Safety valves. Steam nozzles GLANDS& SEALING SYSTEMS:Glands and sealing systems are used on turbines to prevent (or) reduce the leakage of steam (or)air between rotating and stationery components that have a pressure difference across them.. e .g. where the turbine shaft is extended through the cylinder end walls to the atmosphere . When the cylinder pressure is higher than atmosphere will be a general steam leakage outwards whilst if the cylinder contains steam below atmosphere pressure there will be leakage of air inwards and a sealing system must be used to prevent the air from entering the cylinder and the condenser. As most of the steam leakage from glands does not pass through the turbine stages , a loss of power output is involved and every effort is made to

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reduce this power loss by an efficient arrangement of seals and glands. Three types of glands and seals are in general use on steam turbines , the carbon ring gland and the water seals. The first two glands act as restrictors to steam and air leakage ,whilst the water seal will prevent all leakage of steam and air. Pump glands are generally of the mechanical type .Clean water flushing is provided to reduce the heavy wear that would otherwise occur on startup after a lengthy shutdown. Conventional soft packing glands are used on the older smaller cooling water pump design. AIR JET EJECTORS: The operating medium of an air ejector can be either high pressure gas or liquid. This is passed through a nozzle and the pressure energy is converted into velocity energy. The high velocity fluid aspirates the air and non condensable gases and the mixture is projected into a diffuser which reconverts the velocity energy into pressure energy. Steam is a suitable operating medium and is used in the steam jet air ejector. The steam consumption is controlled by the compression ratio of the and this factor influences the decision to adopt either single or multiple stage ejectors for a particular condition. To meet the requirements when raising vacuum a starting ejector is provided. This is a high capacity high steam consumption ejector, of single stage and with out an after condenser. A main air ejector with stand by unit is usually provided for normal operation. The heat in the operating system is partially recovered in the condensate which flows through the inter and after coolers. If an installation is to operate with a direct cooling system, as is provided by the sea or river, vacuum as high as 29.2 in HG would be expected during the winter months. A two stage ejector is generally only capable o f maintaining a vacuum of 29.0 in HG even at zero flow ,but three stage ejector will hold up to 29.4 in HG and would there fore be used. Further advantage here is that for a comparable duty the three stage ejector shows a slight saving in steam consumption over the two stage ejector. GENERATOR:Generator is used to produce electricity. The turbine and generator are connected by a shaft. In the generator the field system will always be the rotating member and is called the rotor while the armature assembly, comprising armature winding and magnetic iron core will be stationary and is called the stator. In the generator the mechanical energy obtained in the turbine is converted into electrical energy. Generator air cooler is used in order to cool the generator. GEAR BOX:The use of very large circulating water pumps with low rotational speeds has necessitated the use of an intermediate gearbox .How speed motors of the size required are very expensive and it is economically justifiable to

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sacrifice 1 to 2% in efficiency by introducing a step down gearbox between pump and motor. The gear ratio can be set to allow a motor with an economic running speed to be selected. In practice a 4000 h. p .c pump unit running at 200 rev/min will require a 5:1 step down gear box ,permitting the use of a 1000 rev/min motor. The gear boxes may be of 2 basic types ,either parallel shaft offset(or) co axial. LUBRICATION SYSTEMS:Oil is required by the bearing in order to provide a continuous oil wedge on which the shaft revolves , this requires only a small quantity of oil . However shaft conductivity , surface friction and turbulance set up in the oil produces considerable ,amount of heat and in order to keep the bearing temperature constant at the desired level a further quantity of oil is required to remove this heat. Oil is supplied to the bearing at a pressure from 5 to 25 lb/in2 gauge. This pressure is required to ensure that the pressure in the upper part of the bearing does not below atmosphere ,in which case discontinuities in the oil film would form .On the other hand if the pressure is too high the oil be sprayed out from the end of the bearing at a high velocity &will become finally atomized. In the conditions the oil may easily escape from the bearing house. The temperature of oil must be kept within certain limits. If the oil temperature entering the bearing is too low , in sufficient bearing lubrication will occur due to high velocity of the oil , whilst if the oil temperature on leaving the bearings too high, this will lead to deterioration of oil due to high rates of oxidation. This temperature of oil leaving the bearing is limited to 1600F .So that the maximum temperature with the bearings not more than 1600F and required leaving temperature is achieved by adjusting the supply of oil to each bearing . OIL PUMPS:Types of oil pumps; Main oil pump Auxiliary oil pump Jacking oil pump Emergency oil pump MAIN OIL PUMP:The main oil pump is invariably driven from the turbine shaft, either directly or through gears , to ensure maximum reliability .It may also provide high pressure oil for the relay system at a pressure of from 50 to 2000 lb/in2 usually by raising all the oil to this pressure , the lubricating oil being drain off through a reduction valve .Although this method is often adopted because of its simplicity and because the relays automatically close the stop valve, if the lubricating oil supply falls it is wasted of pumping energy. Some turbines use a double gear pump having high and low pressure outputs, but on large turbines it may be advantageous to employ to separate pumps. The normal type of pump used on turbines has been the gear pump. This requires no priming and provides positive oil displacement but must be driven from the

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shaft through reduction gear at about 400 RPM. The pump has two or three meshing gears. On large turbines the quantity of oil used makes it economically to incorporate a centrifugal pump driven directly from turbine shaft. It is not self priming and requires oil ejector to over come the suction head both when starting and during running. When a separate governing hydraulic systems is used the oil lubricating system may be simplified by the adoption of ac motor driven centrifugal pumps. The pumps may be mounted directly in the main oil tank with their inlets submerged below the oil level thus obviating the need for an oil ejector. AUXILLIARY PUMP:It is used for starting, stopping, and emergencies. It is sometimes driven by a steam turbine, but for some years the tendency has been to use a motor driven auxiliary pump feed with supply. The auxiliary pump is automatically brought into operation by a relay when the oil pressure falls below a certain value. EMERGENCY OIL PUMP:It is invariably provided as a stand by the auxiliary pump. In the event of a fault interrupting the normal station or unit supply the d. c. pump which is fed from the station battery circuits in, thus ensuring the safety of the bearing whilst the turbine is brought to rest. JACKING OIL PUMP:Supply of very high pressure oil provided by a small capacity positive displacement. Jacking oil is fed into the base of the bearings in sufficient quantity to establish each oil film on which the heavy rotors may float at very low speed of rotation, when the normal oil wedge would not be formed. The presence of jacking oil film whilst the machine reduces the torque required by the turbine motor and prevent the metal to metal contact damaging the bearings. OIL VALVES:As the pumps are constant speed types, a uniform quantity oil will be delivered. Surplus oil must be blend continuously and this process through the spring loaded relief valves generally ground together in a valve box. Filled to both the main and Auxiliary pumps are relief valves which limit the delivery pressure each pump is fitted with a non return valve in the discharge valve branch which prevents oil flowing back through the idle pump units. OIL COOLERS: The efficiency of a centrifugal pump may be of the order of 55% and the remaining 45% of the pump input energy generates heat in the oil. The oil absorbs a large amount of heat from the bearing friction and shaft conduction. To remove this heat the oil is passed through coolers which reduces the temperature to that required for the bearings. Coolers are designed to have the maximum surface area for heat transfer compatible with small pressure drop between entrance and exit.

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STRAINERS:These are used for removing the dust particles. It consists of cylindrical wire mesh are interposed between the returning drains and drain tank. In addition ,filters of the duplex (or) auto dean types are usually inter posed. In the pump delivery pipe to protect the bearing and relay system from foreign particles. These filters can be cleaned while in service. STEAM CONDENSER: A steam condenser is a device or an appliance in which steam condenses and heat released by steam is absorbed by water. It serves the following purposes; 1) It maintains a very low back pressure on the exhaust side of the piston of the steam engine or turbine ,in available heat energy for converting into mechanical work. The shaded are in the given fig. Shows the increase in work obtained by fitting a condenser to non-condensing engine. The thermal efficiency of a condensing unit is higher than that of non-condensing unit for ,the same available steam. 2) It supplies to the boiler pure and hot feed water as the condensed steam which is discharged from the condenser and collected in a hot well can be used as feed water for the boiler.. Organs of a steam condensing plant . A steam condensing plant mainly consists of the following organs / elements : 1) condenser (to condensate the steam) 2) supply of cooling (or injector)water 3)wet air pump(to remove the condensed steam ,the air &uncondensed water vapour and gases from the condenser ; separate pumps may be used to deal with air and condensate). 4) Hot well (where the condensate can be discharged and from which the boiler feed water is taken ). 5) Arrangement for re cooling the cooling water incase surface condenser is employed. CLASSIFICATION OF CONDENSERS: Jet condensers surface condenser In Jet condensers ,the exhaust steam and water come in direct contact with each other and temperature of the condensate is the same as that of cooling water leaving the condenser. The cooling water is usually sprayed into the exhaust steam to cause rapid condensation. In surface condensers , the exhaust steam and water do not come into direct contact. The steam passes over the outer surface of tubes through which a supply of cooling water is maintained .There may be single pass or double pass. In a single pass condenser , the water flows in one direction ,only through all the tubes , while in two pass condenser the water flows in one direction through the tubes and returns through the remainder. A Jet condenser is simpler and cheaper than a surface condenser .It should be installed when the cooling water is cheaply and easily made suitable for boiler

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feed or when a cheap source of the boiler and feed water is available is not thrown as a waste but returned to the boiler. ASH HANDLING SYSTEMS:A huge quantity of ash is produce in central stations, sometimes being as much as 10 to 20% of the total quantity of coal burnt in a day. Hundreds of tonns of ash may have to be handled every day in large power stations. Handle of ash includes Its removal from the furnace. Loading on the conveyers and delivery to the fill or dump from where it can be disposed off by sale. The commonly used equipment for ash handling are bucket elevator bucket conveyor belt conveyor pneumatic conveyor hydraulic equipment rail cost The modern ash handle systems are mechanical system hydraulic system pneumatic system steam jet system

DRAUGHT: The small pressure difference which causes a flow of gas to take place is termed as draught. The function of it is to force air to the fire and to carry away the gaseous products are combustion. The draught may be classified as Forced draught Induced draught Balanced draught Steam jet draught FORCED DRAUGHT:This draught is produced by a fan. In this draught system a fan is installed near or at the base of the boiler to forced the air through the cool bed and other passages through the furnace, flues, air pre heater & economizer.

INDUCED DRAUGHT:In this system a fan is located at or near the base of the chimney. The pressure over the bed is reduced below that of the atmosphere . By creating a partial vacuum in furnace and flues , the products of combustion are drawn from the main flue and they pass of the chimney.

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BALANCED DRAUGHT:It is a combination of the forced and induced systems. In this system, the forced draught fan over comes the resistance in the air pre heater and chain grate stoker while the induced draught fan over comes draught losses through boiler, economizer, air pre heater and connecting flues. STEAM JET DRAUGHT:This system produces the artificial draught. It may be of forced or induced type depending upon where the steam jet to produce draught is located. AIR - PREHEATER:The function of air pre heater is to increase the temperature of air before it enters the furnace. It is generally placed after the economizer. So the flue gases pass through the economiser and then to the air pre heater. An air pre heater consists of plates or tubes with hot gases on one side and air on the other. It pre heats the air to be supplied to the furnace. Pre heated air accelerates the combustion and facilitate the burning of coal. Degree of pre heating depends on type of fuel type of fuel burning equipment rating at which the boiler and furnace are operated FUEL OIL STORAGE & HANDLING SYSTEM:Oil fuels are costly to store not only because of the capital cost of fuel lying in to the store, but because the tanks necessary to hold the oil are expansive. Tank which need a piled foundation are about 40% more expensive than those which do not. Fuel oils are delivered at temperature which give good handle ability and this presents some advantage to the customer when the turn over of his stock is rapid. For exit is very useful in cold weather to have gas diesel oil delivered at about ambient temperature because the user does not usually providence heating for his equipment. B S classed fuel can be stored and fired at ambient temperature but provision could be advantage be made to see that the temperature does not fall below 00 C this can be effected by a small tank out flow heater, since it is the fuel handle system which requires protection against extreme cold. Residual fuel oils should be stored and handled at temperatures well above their pour points. It is necessary to provide trace heating logging for all pipe lines, filters and valves etc. handle residual fuel oils. It is particularly important that pressure gauges and other instruments using the fuel oil as a control fluid should be either heated or filled with a suitable buffer fluid such as gas oil. The heating may be effected by means of steam or hot water or it may be electrical .Even after the boiler fuel ring main circulating oil is pre heated to atomizing temperature There can be sufficient

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cooling in branches to burners which are shut down to make lagging and trace heating necessary. The oil in store should never be raised in temperature to its closed flash point temperature because this would increase the fire hazards STEAM GENERATOR: It is the part of the steam heat engine in which the chemical energy of a fuels liberated and is partially transferred from the products of the combustion to the working substance of the cycle is properly called the steam generator. The transfer of energy in the steam generator should be accomplished with a minimum of loss both in quality and availability. The basic components of a steam generator are fuel burning equipment, heater, air heater surface and steam re super heating surface may also be add as thermodynamic need and economic justification dictate .The ASME test code for stationary steam generating units defines steam generator heating surface as follows. If that portion of the surface of the heat transfer apparatus exposed on the one side to the gas(or)refractory being cooled and on the other to the fluid being heated, measured on the side receiving heat. In the boiler in which vaporization of the working substance takes place. Feed water enters the boiler at a temperature equal to or less than saturation temperature at boiler pressure and after being, heated to saturation temperature, it is vaporized super heated steam cannot be formed in the boiler because of the immediate presence of saturated water with which the steam tends to be in equilibrium. In this steam water mixtures must pass from the risers to cyclone by the separating force of gravity. The steam free water is desired down ward to the drum and dry steam passes upward to the steam outlets. Scrabbers are used to remove the last traces of moisture.

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PIPINIG LAYOUT
Proper routing and layout of piping is very essential to cut down additional un necessary labour, erection costs. Proper care should be taken at the design stage it self. Piping designer must have a good knowledge about: Over all plant lay out Equipment arrangements Various systems associated with piping Practical application of piping materials Various codes and standards associated with piping design. To commence routing and design of piping system, the following reference information is needed: P&ID (Piping and instrumentation diagram) This drawing is designers road map. Project piping specifications Equipment sizes Equipments location drawing

INTERFERENCES:Most important aspect of piping layout is avoidance of interference. 3D computer modeling provides an efficient, accurate and cost effective alternative to traditional manual methods for interference detection.

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FEATURES OF GOOD PIPING LAYOUT Accessibility of valves and other components from operation and maintenance point of view. Adequate flexibility in pipe routing. Using minimum bends and keeping pressure drop as low as possible. There should not be any interference of piping with civil structures, electrical cable ducts etc. Good aesthetics.

PIPING MATERIAL SELECTION


Material is selected based on:Characteristics of operating fluid For condensate, steam and water applications based on operating temperature material can be CS, AS or SS. For corrosive fluids stainless steel is normally preferred.

For brackish and sea water CS piping with rubber or FRP lining is used. DESIGN TEMPERATURE:Up to 4120c carbon steel (A 106 Gr B) can be used. From 4120c to 5100c A 335 Gr P11 material is used.

From 5100c to 5400c A 335 Gr P22 material is used. From 5400c to 6350c P91 material is used.

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PIPING
Design of efficient piping involves:

Proper material selection Correct sizing keeping in view all operating conditions Optimised layout with due importance to Accessibility Flexibility Ease of operation & maintenance Adherence to National / International codes like IBR ASME, ANSI, ASTM BS, DIN etc., Last, but not the least, cost economics

PIPING:The term piping refers to the over all network of pipes, fitting flanges, valves and other components that comprise conduit system is used to convey the fluids whether a piping system is used to simply convey fluids from one point to another point or to process and condition the fluid. Piping components serve an important roll in the erection and operation of the system. Special consideration for piping has been so incorporated that steam flushing can be easily made for the main steam piping of high and low temperature and alkali cleaning can be carried out for extraction steam pipings. The steel tube with diameter of exceeding 14inch is fabricated by longitudinal welding as a result of consideration of economy and workability. The circulating water piping is fabricated by welding from the standpoints of the strength and economy. With special consideration for prevention of the corrosion and attachment of shells, the inner surface of the pipes are coated with tar enamel for the straight pipes and tar epoxy resin paint for the others, and the outer surface of the pipes are coated with the coal tar enamel. A system used solely to convey fluids may consists of only a relatively few components, such as valves and fittings, where as complex chemical processing system may consists of variety of components used to measure, control and convey the fluids.

TYPES OF PIPES:Pipes are classified as

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Standard pipe: - It is used in mechanical service pipe, low-pressure service pipe, refrigeration pipe, ice rink type, dry kiln pipe. Line pipe: It is used in threaded or plain ends, gas, oil and steam pipe. Pressure pipe: - It is used in liquid, gas or vapour service pipe, service for elevated temperature or pressure or both. Water well pipe: - It is used in reamed and drifted water well casing, drive pipe, driven well pipe, pump pipe, turbine pump pipe.

PIPE FITTINGS:The major piping materials are also produced in the form of standard fittings. Among the more widely used materials are cast iron, brass, copper, Cast steel. Some of the fittings as follows: Cast iron fittings Malleable iron threaded fitting Cast brass &cast bronze threaded fitting Soldered joint fittings

PIPE SIZING CRITERION


Now with the size and calculated thickness the pipe with the nearest thickness is selected and actual velocity is calculated. For the selected pipe ,knowing the flow, the pressure drop is calculated. If the pressure drop is found to be high, then the next pipe diameter is selected and again the thickness and pressure drop are calculated until the pressure drop is within limits. Satisfactory values of pressure drop are 1% drop per 100 meters of pipe length. Selection of diameter:

Q = A V WHERE Q = Volume flow rate (m 3 /sec) A = Inside flow area(m 2) V = velocity (m/sec) Q = /4 d i 2 V

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di =

4 Q / V

Velocity is chosen based on allowable velocity chart Pipe inside diameter is calculated from above formula, the nearest rationalized pipe is selected.

Determination of pipe thickness: t min = P * D0 + A

2(SE+PY) P = Internal design pressure (Kg/cm2). D0 = Outside diameter of the pipe selected. S = Allowable stress ( Kg/cm2) as per ANSI 31.1. E = Efficiency factor. Y = Coefficient . A = Additional thickness to compensate for
Corrosion , manufacturing etc .

PIPING ELEMENTS

The piping is used for fluids to flow from one place to another. The main piping components are pipes, pipe fitting, flanges, gaskets, bolting and valves. The pipes are designated by the nominal bore & these are neither the out side diameter nor the inside diameter. The tubes have the out side diameter

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same as the size by which they are designated. The pipe is specified by outside diameter in mm*thickness in mm or by inch followed by schedule number. Ex: 114.3*6.02 is pipe having outside diameter of 114.3 & thickness of 6.02mm. It is same as 4 schedule 40. Pipe fittings are elbows, tees, reducers, pipe caps. Elbows are used to make 900 & 450 changes in the direction of run pipe. Elbows may be of long radius( 1.5 times dia) or short radius(1.0 time dia ). Tees are used to branch of from main run of pipes. Tee may be equality or reducing tee. Equal tee will have main pipe & branch pipe of equal size whereas reducing tee will have main size more than the branch pipe size. Reducers are used to change diameter of pipe . Reducers may be of two types. Concentric reducers Eccentric reducers When the center lines of the larger pipe and smaller pipe are to be maintained same, the concentric reducers are used. When one of the outside surface of the pipelines are to be maintained same, then eccentric reducers are required.

FLANGES:These are used when the joint needs dismantling. These are used mainly at equipments, valves & specialties. Flanges may be slip on or weld necked. Gaskets are used whenever there is flanged joint. Bolting material is used to faster the flanged joints. VALVES:Valves are installed on equipment piping to perform any one of the following functions. Isolation Flow regulation Non return Gate, ball, plug, butterfly valves are used for isolation purpose. Globe, needle, butterfly valves are used for regulating flow. Check valves are used for non return purpose.

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Piping System: Piping system: conveys fluid between locations Piping system includes:  Pipe  Fittings (e.g. elbows, reducers, branch connections, etc.)  Flanges, gaskets, bolting  Valves  Pipe supports ASME B31.3 Provides requirements for: Design Materials Fabrication Erection Inspection Testing For process plants including: Petroleum refineries Chemical plants Pharmaceutical plants Textile plants Paper plants Semiconductor plants Cryogenic plants

Scope of ASME B31.3 Piping and piping components, all fluid services: Raw, intermediate, and finished chemicals Petroleum products Gas, steam, air, and water Fluidized solids Refrigerants Cryogenic fluids Interconnections within packaged equipment Scope exclusions specified
Strength:

 Yield and Tensile Strength  Creep Strength  Fatigue Strength  Alloy Content  Material Grain size  Steel Production Process
Stress & Strain Diagram:

Corrosion Resistance:  Deterioration of metal by chemical or electrochemical action

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 Most important factor to consider  Corrosion allowance added thickness  Alloying increases corrosion resistance

Piping System Corrosion:

Material Toughness:  Energy necessary to initiate and propagate a crack  Decreases as temperature decreases  Factors affecting fracture toughness include: Chemical composition or alloying elements Heat treatment Grain size Fabricability:  Ease of construction  Material must be weldable  Common shapes and forms include: Seamless pipe Plate welded pipe Wrought or forged elbows, tees, reducers,crosses

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Forged flanges, couplings, valves Cast valves Availability and Cost:  Consider economics  Compare acceptable options based on: Availability Relative cost Pipe Fittings:  Produce change in geometry Modify flow direction Bring pipes together Alter pipe diameter Terminate pipe Elbow and Return:

Tee:

Reducer:

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Welding Outlet Fitting:

Cap:

Lap-joint Stub End:

Typical Flange Assembly: Flange Bolting

Gasket

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Types of Flange Attachment and Facing:

Flange Facing Types: Flat Faced Flange Raised Face Flange Ring Joint

Flat Face

Raised Face

Radius

Gaskets:  Resilient material  Inserted between flanges  Compressed by bolts to create seal  Commonly used types Sheet Spiral wound Solid metal ring Flange Rating Class:  Based on ASME B16.5  Acceptable pressure/temperature combinations  Seven classes (150, 300, 400, 600, 900, 1,500, 2,500)  Flange strength increases with class number  Material and design temperature combinations without pressure indicated not acceptable

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Valves:  Functions Block flow Throttle flow Prevent flow reversal Full Port Gate Valve: 1. Handwheel Nut 2. Handwheel 3. Stem Nut 4. Yoke 5. Yoke Bolting 6. Stem 7. Gland Flange 8. Gland 9. Gland Bolts or Gland Eye-bolts and nuts 10. Gland Lug Bolts and Nuts 11. Stem Packing 12. Plug 13. Lantern Ring 14. Backseat Bushing 15. Bonnet 16. Bonnet Gasket 17. Bonnet Bolts and Nuts 18. Gate 19. Seat Ring 20. Body 21. One-Piece Gland (Alternate) 22. Valve Port Globe Valve:  Most economic for throttling flow  Can be hand-controlled  Provides tight shutoff  Not suitable for scraping or rodding  Too costly for on/off block operations Check Valve:  Prevents flow reversal  Does not completely shut off reverse flow  Available in all sizes, ratings, materials  Valve type selection determined by Size limitations Cost Availability

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Service Swing Check Valve

Ball Check Valve:

Lift Check Valve: Valve:

Wafer Check

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Ball Valve:
No. Part Names 1 Body 2 Body Cap 3 Ball 4 Body Seal Gasket 5 Seat 6 Stem 7 Gland Flange 8 Stem Packing 9 Gland Follower 10 Thrust Bearing 11 Thrust Washer 12 Indicator Stop 13 Snap Ring 14 Gland Bolt 15 Stem Bearing 16 Body Stud Bolt & Nuts 17 Gland Cover 18 Gland Cover Bolts 19 Handle

Plug Valve:

Valve Selection Process: General procedure for valve selection. 1. Identify design information including pressure and temperature, valve function,material, etc. 2. Identify potentially appropriate valve types and components based on application and function (i.e., block, throttle, or reverse flow prevention). 3. Determine valve application requirements (i.e., design or service limitations).

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4. Finalize valve selection. Check factors to consider if two or more valves are suitable. 5. Provide full technical description specifying type, material, flange rating,etc. 50FITTINGS These permit a change in direction of piping, a change in size of pipe, or a branch to be made from the main run of pipe. These are Elbows, Tees, Reducers, Caps. They are formed from plate or pipe, machined from forged blanks, cast, or moulded from plastics. Screwed or socket-welding forged steel fittings are rated to the nominal cold non-shock working pressure of 2000, 3000 and 6000# (PSI). Branching There are different methods of branching. These are done by Stub-In, Weldolet, Elbolet, Latrolet, Sweepolet, Cross, Lateral, Shaped Nipple, Nipples. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------Stub In : It is the term for a branch of pipe welded directly into the side of a main pipe run. It is not a fitting. This is the commonest and least expensive method of welding a full size or reducing branch for pipe 50 mm NB and larger. A stub in can be reinforced. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------Weldolet : It makes a 90 degree branch, full size or reducing on straight pipe. Closer manifolding is possible than with tees. Flat based weldolets are available for connecting to pipe caps and vessel heads. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------Elbolet : It makes a reducing tangent branch on long radius and short radius elbows. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------Latrolet : It makes a 45 degree reducing branch on a straight pipe. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------Sweepolet : It makes a 90 deg reducing branch from the main run of pipe. Primarily developed for high yield pipe used in Oil & Gas transmission lines. Provides good flow pattern, and optimum stress distribution. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------Cross Straight or Reducing : Straight crosses are usually stock items. Reducing crosses may not be readily available. For economy, availability and to minimize the number of items in inventory, it is preferred to use tees etc., and not crosses, except where space is restricted, as in marine piping or revamp work. Reinforcement is not needed for these. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------Lateral Straight or Reducing : It permits odd-angled entry into the run of the pipe, where low resistance to flow is important. Straight laterals with branch bore equal to run bore are available in standard and XS weights. Reducing laterals and laterals at angles other than 45 degrees are usually available only to special order. Reinforcement is required where it is necessary to restore the strength of the joint, to the full strength of the pipe. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------Nipples : These join unions, valves, strainers, fittings etc. Basically a short length of pipe either fully threaded (close nipple) or threaded both ends (TBE), or plain one end and threaded one end (PEO-TOE). Available in various lengths. Nipples can have grooved ends also.

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Shaped Nipple : These are rarely used, but can be used for 90 deg and 45 deg or any other angle. The run is field cut using nipple as template. It needs reinforcement if it is necessary to bring the strength of the joint upto the full strength of the pipe. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------Pipe to pipe connector : These are used to join threaded pipe to tube. Tube is flared inside the nut. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------Tank Nipple : It is used for making a screwed connection to a non pressure vessel or tank in low pressure service. Overall length is usually 150 mm with a standard taper pipe thread at each end. On one end only, the taper pipe thread runs into a ANSI lock nut thread. Elbows These are of following types. Long Radius and Short Radius Elbows, Reducing Elbows, Long Radius Tangent Elbow, Returns, Bends, Mitered Elbows. Long Radius and Short Radius Elbows : These make 90 degree and 45 degree changes in direction of the run of pipe. The elbows normally used are Long Radius (LR) with centerline radius of curvature equal to 1.5 times the nominal pipe size for 20 NB and larger sizes. Short Radius (SR) elbows with centerline radius of curvature equal to the nominal pipe size are also available. 90 deg long radius elbows with a straight extension at one end (Long Tangent) are also available. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------Reducing Elbows : These are designed both to change direction and reduce pipe size. These have centerline radius of 1.5 times the nominal size of larger end. Their use eliminates one fitting (reducer) and reduces welding by one third. The gradual reduction in diameter through the arc of reducing elbow provides maximum flow efficiently, reduces turbulence and erosion and helps in maintaining pressure. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------Long Radius Tangent Elbow : These are special elbows that provide a straight length at the end to acomodate a slip on flange. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------Return : It changes the flow of direction in 180 deg and is used to make heating coils, vents on tanks etc. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------Bends : These are made from straight pipe. Common bending radii are 3 and 5 times the pipe size. Larger radius bends can be made by hot bending. Only seamless or ERW pipe is used for bends. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------Mitered Elbows : These are fabricated as required from the pipe and these are not fittings. The miters are used for pipes 200 NB and larger where pressure drop is not important and where the regular elbows are costlier. A 2-piece 90 deg miter has 4 to 6 times hydraulic resistance of the corresponding long radius elbow. A 3-piece 90 deg miter has about double the resistance. 3, 4 and 5-piece miters are normally used. Tees Butt Weld Tee : Straight and reducing :These are used for making 90 Deg branching from the main run of pipe. Straight tees with branch same size as pipe are readily

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available. Reducing tees have branch smaller than the size of the pipe. These do not require reinforcing. Reducers Reducers are used to change the size of the pipeline. These are of two types. Concentric Reducers : The centerline of inlet and outlet is at same level. It is generally used in vertical pipes. Eccentric Reducers : The eccentric reducer is used when it is necessary to keep either the top or bottom of the line level. These are used with flat side up or down. Flat side down is used in horizontal pipes. Flat side up is used for pump suction line. Swage These are of three types. Concentric, eccentric and ventury type. Swage is used to connect butt welded piping to smaller screwed or socket welded pipe. In butt weld pipes it is used when greater reduction is required. Swages are of three types. Concentric Swage : The centerline of inlet and outlet is at same level. It is generally used in vertical pipes. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------Eccentric Swage : The eccentric swage is used when it is necessary to keep either the top or bottom of the line level. These are used with flat side up or down. Flat side down is used in horizontal pipes. Flat side up is used for pump suction line. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------Ventury : Ventury type swage gives a smooth flow. Cap Caps are used to seal the end of pipe. These are ellipsoidal in nature. Flat Closure : These are flat plates normally cut from pipe at site. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------Dished Heads : These are used for large diameter pipes. Socket Weld Fittings Full Coupling : It is also termed as coupling and it joins pipe to pipe, or to nipple, swage etc. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------Half Coupling : It is used to make side branching on large diameter pipes or vessels. It is of the same length of full coupling but has socket weld end on only one side. Shaping is necessary for the end. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------Reducer : It joins two pipes with different diameters. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------Cross : These are used in exceptional cases where two tees cannot be fitted. Mostly used in marine piping or during modifications. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------Sockolet : It makes a 90 degree branch, full size or reducing on a straight pipe. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------Elbolet : It makes a reducing tangent branch on elbows. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------Swaged Nipple : It is similar to swage. These can allow two types of joining. Socket ended items of different sizes which has plain ends on either sides for insertion into

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socket ends. A socket ended item to a larger butt welding pipe or fitting. This type has larger butt-weld end and smaller socket weld end. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------Elbows : These change pipe direction in 90 deg and 45 deg from the run of the pipe. The ends are socket weld type. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------Latrolet : It makes a 45 degree reducing branch on straight pipe. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------Nipolet : A varient of sockolet, having integral plain nipples. Primarily developed for small valved connections. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------Stub In : Not recommended for pipes with diameter less than 50 mm, due to risk of weld material entering line and restricting flow. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------Lateral : It makes full size 45 degree branch from the main run of the pipe. Screwed Fittings Full Coupling : It is also termed as coupling and it joins pipe or items to with threaded ends. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------Half Coupling : It is used to make 90 deg screwed connections for pipes to instruments, or for vessel nozzles. Welding heat may cause embrittlement of the threads of this short fitting. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------Reducer or reducing coupling : It joins threaded pipes with different diameters. Can be made in any reduction by boring and tapping standard forged blanks. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------Cross : These are used in exceptional cases where two tees cannot be fitted. Mostly used in marine piping or during modifications. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------Threadolet : It makes a 90 deg branch, full size or reducing on a straight pipe. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------Elbolet : It makes a reducing tangent branch on elbows. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------Nipples : These join unions, valves, strainers, fittings etc., Basically a short length pipe with that have screwed ends. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------Swaged Nipple : It is similar to swage. These can allow two types of joining. Screwed items of different sizes which has screwed ends on either sides. A screwed item to a larger butt welding pipe or fitting or vice versa. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------Elbows : These change pipe direction in 90 deg and 45 deg from the run of the pipe. The ends are threaded internally. Flange : This is similar to slip on flange, but has internal threads. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------Latrolet : It makes a 45 deg reducing branch on straight pipe. It is welded on pipe.--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

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Nipolet : A varient of threadolet, having integral plain nipples. Primarily developed for small valved connections. Stub In : Not recommended for pipes with diameter less than 50 mm, due to risk of weld material entering line and restricting flow. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------Bar Stock Plug : It seals the screwed end of a fitting. Also termed as round head plug. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------Flanges These are of following types. Weld Neck, Slip On, Reducing, Lap Joint and Blind. Flange Facing : Many facings for flanges are offered by manufacturers, including various tongue and groove types which must be used in pairs. However only four types of facing are widely used. The raised face is used for 80% of all flanges. The ring-joint facing, employed with either an oval-section or octagon section gasket, is used mainly in Petrochemical Industry. The four types of faces are as follows: Raised Face : It has a raised face with serration on it to hold the gasket firmly in position. This is widely used. Flat Face : Most common uses are for mating with non-steel flanges on bodies of pumps, valves etc. and for mating with 125# cast-iron valves and fittings. A full size gasket is used to avoid breaking of the flange while tightening. Ring Joint Facing : It is more expensive facing and used in pairs for high temperature and high pressure service. Both flanges of the pair are alike. Lap Joint Facing : It has special curvature for accomodating stub end. The combination of flange and stub-end presents similar geometry to the raised face flange and can be used where bending stresses will not occur. This is used for SS pipes, where stub-end is made of SS pipe and flange is made of Carbon Steel. Flange faces are usually finished by machining to produce a spiral round-bottomed groove, or a V shaped spiral or concentric groove, termed as serrated finish. Smooth finish is generally made to order. Serrated finish is used with asbestos and other gaskets. The regular smooth finish is used with gaskets made from harder materials and with spiral wound gaskets. Flange Finishes : The term finish refers to the type of surface texture produced by machining the flange face which contracts the gasket. Two principal finish types are serrated and smooth. Weld Neck Flange, Regular and Long : Regular welding neck flanges are used with buttwelding fittings. Long welding neck flanges are primarily used for vessel and equipment nozzles, rarely for pipe. These are suitable where extreme temperatures, shear, impact and vibratory stresses apply. Regularity of bore is maintained in this. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------Slip On Flange : It is properly used to flange pipe. Slip-on flanges can be used with longtangent elbows, reducers, and swages. The internal weld is slightly more subject to corrosion than butt-weld. The flange has poor resistance to shock and vibration. It introduces irregularity in the bore. It is cheaper to buy than weld neck flange, but costlier to assemble. It is easier to align than welding neck flange. Calculated strengths under internal pressure are about one third that of corresponding welding neck flange. Pipe or fitting is set back from the face of flange a distance equal to wall thickness.

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-------------------------------------------------------------------------------Reducing Flange : It is suitable for changing size, but should not be used if abrupt transition would create turbulence, as at pump connections. Available to order in weld neck type and from stock in slip-on types. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------Expander Flange : It is similar to weld neck but increases pipe size to first or second larger size. It is alternative to using reducer and welding neck flange. Useful for connecting to valves, compressors, and pumps. Pressure ratings and dimensions are in accord with ANSI B16.5. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------Lap Joint Flange : It is economical if costly pipe such as stainless steel is used, as the flange can be carbon steel and only the lap joint stub end need be of line material. A stub end must be used in a lap joint, and the cost of two items must be considered. Useful where alignment of bolt holes is difficult, such as with spools to be attached to flanged nozzles of vessels. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------Blind Flange : It is used to blind off a flange, generally at the end of pipe. This provides an easy to open end for further running of the pipe. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------Bolt Holes in Flanges are equally spaced. Specifying the number of holes, diameter of bolt circle and hole size sets the bolting configuration. Number of bolts and size of bolts depends on rating of the flange. Gaskets : These are used to make a fluid-resistant seal between two surfaces. The common gasket patterns for pipe flanges are full-face and ring type, for use with flatfaced and raised face flanges respectively. Widely used materials for gaskets are compressed asbestos (2 and 5 mm thick) and asbestos filled metal. The filled metal gasket is especially useful if maintenance requires repeated uncoupling of flanges, as gasket separates clean and is often reused. Bolts for flanges : Two types of bolting is available, studbolt using two nuts and the machine bolt using one nut. Studbolts have largely displaced regular bolts for bolting flanged piping joints, as studbolt can be removed easily, confusion with other bolts at site is avoided, the odd sized can be readily made from roundstock.

PIPES and TUBES Piping is used for Industrial, marine, transportation and plumbing purposes. Process piping is used to transport fluids between storage tanks and process units. Service or utility piping is used to convey steam, air, water, fuel oil etc. Tubular products are termed as tube or pipe. Tube is specified by outside diameter and wall thickness, expressed in BWG (Birmingham Wire Gauge) or in mm. Pipe is identified by Nominal Pipe Size, with wall thickness defined by schedule number, API designations or weights. Non-standard pipes are specified by nominal size and wall thickness. The principal uses for tube are in heat exchangers, instrument lines, and inter-connections

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on equipments such as compressors, boilers, and refregerators. SIZES and LENGTHS The size of all pipe is identified by Nominal Pipe Size, which is seldom equal to the true bore (internal diameter) of the pipe. 350 mm NB and larger pipes have outside diameter equal to nominal pipe size. Normal pipe diameters are 15, 20, 25, 40, 50, 80, 100, 150, 200, 250, 300, 350, 400, 450, 500 and 600 mm NB. 32, 65, 95, 125 mm NB pipes are normally used in small length for final connection to equipments, but piping later is done with one size larger. Smaller than 15 NB are restricted for instrument lines or for service and other lines which have to mate with other equipments. 15 NB pipe is extensively used for steam tracing and auxiliary piping at pump. Straight pipe is supplied in random lengths of 6 to 8 meters and of double this length. Ends of these lengths are generally either Plain end (PE) for socket welding or Beveled end (BE) for butt-welding, or threaded which is supplied with one coupling per length. THICKNESS Pipes in the various sizes are made in several wall thicknesses for each size, which have been established by three different sources. ANSI through schedule number, and are specified in standard B36.10. ASME and ASTM through standard, extra-strong and double extra strong. API through its standard 5L and 5LX. For stainless steel ANSI standard B36.19, establishes a range of thin walled sizes, identified by schedules 5S and 10S. TEMPERATURE and PRESSURE LIMITS Carbon Steels lose strength at high temperatures. Electric-resistance-welded (ERW) pipe is not considered satisfactory for service above 400 Deg C. For higher temperatures, pipes made from Stainless Steel or other alloys should be considered. MATERIAL of CONSTRUCTION Different materials are used for construction of pipes and tubes. These are Carbon Steel, Iron, Non Ferrous, Plastic, Glass, and Lined metal. Carbon Steel : The most readily available carbon steel pipe is made to ASTM A53 in schedules 40, 80, STD and XS sizes, in electric arc welded (Grade A and Grade B-the later grade has the higher tensile strength) and in seamless (Grade A and B) constructions. Common finishes are Black (plain or mill finish) and Galvanized. Most sizes and weights are also available in seamless carbon steel to ASTM A 106, which is comparable specification to A 53, but prescribing more stringent testing. Three grades of A 106 are available, Grade A, B and C, in order of increasing tensile strength. Straight seam welded and spiral welded pipe is made from plate and seamless pipe is made by piercing solid billets. Carbon Steel pipe is strong, ductile, weldable, mechineable, reasonably durable and is cheaper than pipe made from other materials. If carbon steel pipe can meet the requirements of pressure, temperature, corrosion resistance and hygiene, it is natural choice. Iron Pipe : It is made from cast-iron and ductile iron. The principal uses are for water, gas and sewage lines which are laid under the ground. Wrought iron pipe is seldom employed. Non-Ferrous Pipes : Pipes or tubes made from copper, lead, nickel, brass, aluminium and various stainless steels can be readily obtained. These materials are relatively expensive and are selected usually either because of their particular corrosion resistance to process chemicals, their good heat transfer, or for their tensile strength at higher temperatures. Copper and copper alloys are traditional for instrument lines, food processing, and heat transfer equipments, but stainless steels are increasingly being used for these purposes.

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Plastic Pipes : These are used for transporting actively corrosive fluids, and is especially useful for handling corrosive or hazardous gases and dilute mineral acids. Plastics are used in three ways as all plastic pipe, as filled plastic materials (Glass fibre reinforced, carbon filled, etc.), and as lining or coating material. Plastic pipe is made from Polypropylene, Polyethylene, Polybutylene, Poly vinylchloride, Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene, Cellulose Acetate-butyrate, Polyolefins, and Polyesters. Pipe made from Polyester and Epoxy resins is frequently glass fibre reinforced (FRP) and commercial product of this type have good resistance to wear and chemical attack. Glass : Generally, Borosilicate glass is used for pipes and fittings. All glass piping is used for its chemical resistance, cleanliness and transparency. Glass pipe is not subject to crazing, often found in glass lined pipes and vessels subjected to repeated thermal stresses. Pipes, fittings and hardware are available both for process piping and for drainage. Process lines of 25, 40, 50, 80, 100 and 150 mm NB are readily available, with 200 Deg C as the maximum operating temperature and pressure range upto 4 kg/sq.cm. (for 25 to 80 mm NB), 3.5 kg/sq.cm. (for 100 mm NB) and 2.5 kg/sq.cm. (for 150 mm NB) Lining and Coating : Lining and coating carbon steel pipe with a material able to withstand chemical attack permits its use to carry corrosive fluids. Lengths of lined pipes and fittings are joined by flanges, and elbows, tees etc, are available readily flanged. Lining like rubber can be applied after fabricating the pipe, but pipe is often pre-lined. Lining of various rubbers, plastics, metals and vitreous material is available. Coating is made from Plastics like Poly-propylene, Poly-ethylene, Poly-butylene, Poly-vinylchloride, Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene, Poly-olefins, and Poly-esters. Carbon Steel pipe coated with zinc, by immersion into molten zinc (hot-dip galvanized) is used for conveying drinking water, instrument air and various other fluids. Rubber and Basalt lining is often used to handle abrasive fluids. REINFORCEMENTS This is used for straight run pipes as well as for branch connections. On Straight Pipe : If a butt-weld joining two sections of straight pipe is subject to unusual external stress, it may be reinforced by addition of a sleeve, which is a pipe cut at the seams in two parts. The Code applicable to piping should be refered for reinforcement. Reinforcing pieces are usually provided with a small hole to vent gases produced by welding, which would otherwise get trapped. A vent hole also serves to indicate any leak in the weld. On Branch Connections : It is addition of extra metal at a branch connection made from a pipe or vessel wall. The added metal compensates for structural weakening due to the hole. Stub-ins may be reinforced with regular or wrap-around saddles. Rings made from pipestock are used to reinforce branches made with welded laterals and butt welded connections to vessels. Small welded connections may be reinforced by adding extra metal to the joint. PIPE SUPPORTS These should be as simple as conditions allow. Stock items are used wherever possible, especially for piping held from above. To support piping from below, supports are usually made to suit from plates, pipes and pieces of structural steel. Following hardware is used to create supports. Rest Support : The weight of the piping is usually carried on supports made from structural steel, or steel and concrete. Hanger Support : It is a device which suspends piping (usually a single line) from

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structural steel, concrete or wood. These are generally adjustable for height. Anchor Support : A rigid support which prevents transmission of movement (thermal, vibratory etc.) along piping. Construction may be from steel plate, brackets, flanges, rods, etc. Attachment of anchors to pipe should preferably encircle the pipe and be welded all around as this gives better distribution of stress in the pipe wall. Tie Support : It is an arrangement of one or more rods, bars etc. to restrain movement of piping. Dummy Leg Support : In this an extension piece (of pipe or rolled steel section) is welded to an elbow in order to support the line. This part rests or anchors on some steel member. Guide : This is a means of allowing a pipe to move along its length, but not sideways. Shoe : It is a piece of metal attached to the underside of a pipe, which rests on supporting steel. It is primarily used to reduce wear from sliding for lines subject to movement. It permits insulation to be applied to pipe. Saddle : It is a welded attachment for pipe requiring insulation, and subject to longitudinal or rolling movement (resulting from temperature changes other than climatic). Saddles may be used with guides. Slide Plate : In this two slide plates of graphite, teflon or some special materials, fixed to steel plates, are fixed to the flat surface of the pipe support. These plates are faced for low friction able to withstand mechanical stress and temperature changes. Constant Load Hanger : This device consists of a coil spring and lever mechanism in a housing. Movement of the piping, within limits, will not change the spring force, holding up the piping; thus no additional force will be introduced to the piping system. Variable Spring Hanger : This device consists of a coil spring in housing. The weight of the piping rests on the spring in compression. The spring permits limited amount of thermal movement. A variable spring hanger holding up a vertical line will reduce its lifting force as the line expands toward it. A variable spring support would increase its lifting force as the line expands towards it. Both place load on piping system, and where this is undesirable, a constant-load hanger can be used instead. Hydraulic Dampner : These are also called as shock snubber or sway suppressor. One end of the unit is attached to the piping and the other to structural steel or concrete. The unit expands or contracts to absorb slow movement of piping, but is rigid to rapid movement. Sway Brace : This is also called as sway arrestor. It is essentially a helical spring in a housing which is fitted between piping and a rigid structure. Its function is to buffer vibration and sway. METHODS of PIPE JOINING There are five methods of joining pipes to each other. These are Butt-Welded, Socket Welded, Screwed, Bolted Flanges and Bolted Quick Couplings. Butt Welded Pipes : These are used for most of the process, utility and service piping. If welding is not properly done, intruding material may affect flow. The end of the pipe is first beveled. Fittings are similarly beveled by the manufacturer. The two parts are aligned, properly gapped, tack welded, and the continuous weld is made to complete the joint. Lines 50 mm NB and larger are usually butt welded, this being the most economic and leakproof way of joining larger diameter piping. Usually such lines lines are subcontracted to a piping fabricator for pre-fabrication in sections, termed as spools, which are then transported to the site. Butt weld fittings are used in these lines. Socket-Welded Pipes : These are used for pipelines conveying flammable, toxic or expensive material, where no leakage can be permitted. Socket welding is easier to align

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on small lines than butt welding. Tack welding is not necessary. No weld metal can enter the bore. Joint will not leak, when properly made. A small gap between pipe and fitting may hold liquid in it. To make the joint pipe is finished flat. It is located in the fitting, valve, flange etc., and a continuous fillet weld is made around the circumference. Lines 40 mm NB and smaller are usually socket welded and are normally field run by the piping contractor from general arrangement drawings. These have socket welding fittings. Screwd Pipes : Lines 40 mm NB and smaller can have screwed joints but these joints can leak. These should not be used for flammable or corrosive liquids. These can be easily made on site from pipes and fittings. It minimizes fire hazard when installing these as no welding work is involved. Not good for erosion, crevice corrosion, shock or vibration or at very high temperatures. Seal welding may be necessary. Strength of the pipe is reduced, as forming the screw thread reduces the wall thickness. These are field run by piping contracto Bolted Flanged Pipes : These are expensive and for the most part are used to mate with flanged vessels, equipments, valves, and for process lines which may require periodic cleaning. Flanged joints are made by bolting together two flanges with a gasket between them to provide a seal. Bolted Quick Couplings : Connections of this type may be suitable for either permanent or temporary use depending on the joint and gasket, and service conditions. Piping can be built rapidly with these, and these are useful for making repairs to lines, for constructing short-run process installations such as pilot plants and for process modifications.

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