Sie sind auf Seite 1von 111

OPEN HOUSE Benchmarking and mainstreaming building sustainability in the UE based on transparency and openness from model to implementation

Grant agreement no.: 244130

Best practice on green or sustainable public procurement and new guidelines

Author(s):

Eider Alejandre. VISESA Andrea Traspaderne. VISESA Alberto Ortiz de Elgea. VISESA

Issue Date Deliverable Number WP Number Status

31st October 2010 (m9) D1.4 WP1: awareness and methodology for sustainable building assessment baseline definition Delivered

Dissemination level X PU = Public PP = Restricted to other programme participants (including the JU) RE = Restricted to a group specified by the consortium (including the JU) CO = Confidential, only for members of the consortium (including the JU)

Document history V Date Author

Description

1 2 3 4

2010-12-19 2011-03-31 16-01-2012 30-04-2012

VISESA VISESA VISESA VISESA

1st draft of the document to be approved by project coordinator and technical coordinator Released to be reviewed by the project coordinator Review 2nd Review

Disclaimer The information in this document is provided as is and no guarantee or warranty is given that the information is fit for any particular purpose. The user thereof uses the information at its sole risk and liability. The document reflects only the authors views and the Community is not liable for any use that may be made of the information contained therein.

February 2012

Page 2

Summary
The Best practice on green or sustainable public procurement and new guidelines is a confidential document delivered in the context of WP1, Task 1.4: Analysis and selection of Best Practices on green or sustainable public procurement using the recommended performance levels in tendering procedures with regard to pave the way for implementing the methodology of the Open House project in European green public procurement procedures as a decision and support tool for assessing the sustainability of buildings construction projects. This document analyses the actual situation and adoption of green public procurement (GPP) practices at European level, best practices, existing guidelines and support tools for implementing GPP, etc. A real case study of a regional tender launched by a public authority (VISESA) for the construction of a neighbourhood of Social Housings which includes sustainability measures is analysed in detail, drawing conclusions from the bidders proposals and the awarding decisions.
Finally, the outcomes of a workshop hold by VISESA and ACCIONA with a public authority are presented in the last section. This workshop aimed at carrying out a first analysis of the OH methodologys indicators most suitable to be implemented as part of public tender procedures.

February 2012

Page 3

Contents
SUMMARY.....................................................................................................3 CONTENTS ....................................................................................................4 ABBREVIATIONS ..........................................................................................6 1. INTRODUCTION .......................................................................................7 2. GREEN PUBLIC PROCUREMENT (GPP) AND LEGAL FRAMEWORK ..........8 3. GPP SITUATION PER COUNTRIES .........................................................10 3.1 AUTHORITIES RESPONSIBLE FOR GPP PER COUNTRY ..............................................10 3.2 GUIDELINES AND LINKS PER COUNTRY ................................................................11 3.3 MARKET ANALYSIS, TRAINING, MONITORING AND LEGAL PROVISION ............................21 3.4 CONCLUSIONS .............................................................................................27 4. EXISTING GUIDELINES AT EUROPEAN AND INTERNATIONAL LEVEL ..29 5. GPP IN CONSTRUCTION SECTOR ..........................................................31 5.1 THE STAGES OF THE PROCUREMENT PROCESS .......................................................31 5.2 EUROPEAN COMMISSION GPP TRAINING TOOLKIT ................................................33 5.3 RELIEF PROJECT .........................................................................................37 5.4 THE PROCURA+ MANUAL .............................................................................37 5.5 THE RESPIRO GUIDE ...................................................................................38 5.6 CONCLUSIONS .............................................................................................40 6. RESEARCH STUDY ON GREEN PUBLIC PROCUREMENT CONSTRUCTION PRACTICES IN EU COUNTRIES ..................................................................42 6.1 GPP IN EU COUNTRIES ..................................................................................42 6.2 CONCLUSIONS .............................................................................................54 7. PRACTICAL CASE STUDY: VISESA. TENDER DOCUMENT IMPLEMENTING ENVIRONMENTAL CRITERIA .....................................................................56 7.2 THE LEGAL FRAMEWORK .................................................................................59 7.3 THE SUBJECT MATTER ....................................................................................59 7.4 PROCUREMENT PROCEDURE AND SELECTION CRITERIA ON BIDDERS ............................60 7.5 SOURCES OF GPP CRITERIA USED .....................................................................61 7.6 ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS ......................................................61 7.7 AWARD CRITERIA .........................................................................................64 7.8 CONTRACT PERFORMANCE CLAUSES ...................................................................70 7.9 MONITORING CONTRACT COMPLIANCE ................................................................71 7.10 CONCLUSIONS ...........................................................................................71 8. WORKSHOP ABOUT GPP WITH IHOBE ..................................................73 8.1 INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................73 8.2 WORKSHOP METHODOLOGY .............................................................................74 8.3 VISESA PROCUREMENT PROCESS .....................................................................75 8.4 PRELIMINARY STUDY OF OH INDICATORS ............................................................77 8.5 PROPOSED METHODOLOGY ..............................................................................77 9. CONCLUSIONS .......................................................................................80 9.1 ACTIONS TO OVERCOME CURRENT GPP BARRIERS .................................................81
February 2012 Page 4

9.2 CONTRIBUTION TO THE OVERALL PICTURE ...........................................................82 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS...............................................................................84 REFERENCES ..............................................................................................84 ANNEX I......................................................................................................85 ANNEX II ....................................................................................................86 ANNEX III ..................................................................................................88

February 2012

Page 5

Abbreviations
OPEN HOUSE Benchmarking and mainstreaming building sustainability in the EU based on transparency and openness (open source and availability) from model to implementation. Green Public Procurement National Action Plan European Union Environmental Management Systems

GPP NAP EU EMAS

February 2012

Page 6

1. Introduction
This deliverable is part of Task 1.4 Analysis and selection of Best Practices on Green Public Procurement, using the recommended performance levels in tendering procedures. This task is included in work package 1 Awareness and methodology for sustainable building assessment baseline definition, aimed at defining an open and transparent concept for building sustainability (OPEN HOUSE baseline) and to widely communicate it among stakeholders. Task 1.4 aims to identify best practice on green or sustainable public procurement and to analyze the adoption and implementation of green and sustainable public procurement practices by the Member States in EU. In order to achieve this objective, all the information on green purchasing in Europe has been analyzed and specifically, an analysis of the GPP in construction in Europe has been done. Specific measures in different countries have been analyzed and could be considered as best practices of GPP in construction. A tender process of VISESA from one of its last works for building including environmental criteria has also been introduced as a case study. From this real case study, more potential barriers could be identified for future tenders. Finally, a first analysis of the OH methodologys indicators most suitable to be implemented in public tender procedures was done in a workshop hold by VISESA, ACCIONA and IHOBE (Public entity that supports the Department for the Environment, Spatial Planning, Agriculture and Fisheries of the Basque Government). The conclusions obtained from this preliminary analysis will be taken into account in the further workshops that will take place in Task 4.2 that will deal with the organisation of common workshops with national authorities for the discussion of the best ways of implementing OH methodology in Green Public Procurement procedures. The target groups of the presented results are the partners of OPEN HOUSE and stakeholders for public participation. All participants of the OPEN HOUSE project were involved in this task. VISESA and ACCIONA developed an excel sheet template to be filled by all OPEN HOUSE partners with GPP best practices in both countries inside and outside the consortium. The outputs of this deliverable will be used by OPEN HOUSE consortium in Task 3.3 Getting commitment from public bodies for real building procurement cases in the consortium countries and Task 4.2. Implementation of the refined methodology in several real sustainable building procurement cases in the consortium countries.

February 2012

Page 7

2. Green Public Procurement (GPP) and legal framework


The European Commission defines Green Public Procurement (GPP) in its communication COM (2008) 400 Public procurement for a better environment as a process whereby public authorities seek to procure goods, services and works with a reduced environmental impact throughout their life cycle when compared to goods, services and works with the same primary function that would otherwise be procured. The EC achieved a 50% of implementation over the share of the best GPP performances countries in the EU. Since this commitment was required, many Administrations at national, regional or local level have included GPP in their policies or assumed the engagement acquired in this field. Green purchasing is also about influencing the market. By promoting and using GPP, public authorities can provide industry with real incentives for developing green technologies and products. GPP boosts innovation as it promotes the ecological product market while at the same time shows the Public Administration commitment with sustainability. It is a voluntary instrument which: - Provides environmental improvements. - Promotes the development of new products markets and environmentally sustainable services. - Supposes an example for consumers and private enterprises, fostering the competitiveness of the enterprises and their better environmental performance. However, GPP implementation is facing some barriers such as: - Different considerations for environmental criteria and the way to measure them in the different countries; - Lack of a common legal framework; - Concerns about the increase of costs derived from the adoption of GPP practices; - Lack of a common monitoring methodology throughout the EUs countries. In order to tackle these barriers, the EC has set a range of recommendations: - Set common environmental criteria to put into practice in GPP. - Reinforce the legal security related to the environmental criteria inclusion in contracting. - Inform about the estimated cost of the lifespan of products. - Define a monitoring system with indicators. Regarding the legal framework, there were some uncertainties for a long time, not only about the possibility and suitability to incorporate specifically environmental aspects to the contracting documents, but also about the correct way to introduce these aspects in the different sections of the documents: subject matter, technical specifications, award criteria, contract performance clauses or selection criteria for bidders. In order to clarify these questions the EC published in 2001 the COM (2001)
February 2012 Page 8

274 on the Community law applicable to public procurement and the possibilities for integrating environmental considerations into public procurement . Some EU Directives of public contracting have been also set up covering this legal gap and clearly defining how to implement environmental clauses in public contracts are: - Directive 2004/17/EC about the coordination of the awarding procedures of contracts in water, energy, transports and postal services sectors. (Utilities). - Directive 2004/18/EC about the coordination of the awarding procedures of contracts in goods, works, services. Moreover, the EC proposes the application of a series of measures aimed at improving the energy and environmental performance of products throughout their whole lifespan, and boosting the demand and supply of better quality products. They are proposed in the following communications among others: COM(2008) 397 Sustainable Consumption and Production Action Plan and a Sustainable Industry Policy and COM(2008) 400: GPP for a better environment.

February 2012

Page 9

3. GPP situation per countries


The EC has published a document called National GPP action plans (policies and guidelines) which contains a comprehensive overview of the state of affairs in the 27 EU Member States (2010) showing the main targets and Action Plans about GPP policies. The table presented in that document was completed by OPEN HOUSE partners by carrying out an analysis in their respective countries. In addition, the rest of EU countries not represented by the consortium were distributed among the partners.

3.1 Authorities responsible for GPP per country


AUTHORITIES RESPONSIBLE FOR GPP Joint responsibility of Ministry of the environmental (MoE), Federal Chancellery, Austria

Belgium Bulgaria Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland France Germany Greece

Ministry of Finance BMLFUW: Federal Government Department of Agriculture, Forestry, Environment and Water. Ministry of Environment, Ministry of Sustainable Development and Regional Authorities (Walloon Region, Brussels Capital region, Flemish Region). Ministry of Environment and Water (MoE), Public Procurement Agency, Ministry of Economy Energy and Tourism. Department of Environment is a coordinating authority for the GPP Implementation, Treasury of the Republic, and Competing Authority for Public Procurement. Ministry of Environment, Ministry of Regional Development.

The Ministry for Environment, SKI National Procurement Ltd. Denmark. The State Procurement Office at the Danish Agency of Governmental Management (Ministry of Finance). Ministry of Environment, Ministry of Finance, Ministry of Economy. Ministry of Environment, Ministry of Finance, Ministry of Labour and the Economy. The Ministry of Ecology; Energy, Sustainable Development and Sea, Ministry of Economy, Industry and Employment. Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology (lead ministry for public procurement) Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety Federal Environment Agency. Legislation preparation declaring the role of Ministry of Environment Energy and Climate Change as coordinator of GPP in Greece and the establishment of a biministerial commission for the development and monitoring of GPP NAP. Co-responsible ministries: Ministry of Economy, Competitiveness and Shipping Ministry of Finance, Ministry of Infrastructure, Transport and Networks. Ministry of Environment and Water. Ministry of Environment (MoE) and National Public Procurement Policy Unit (NPPPU). Ministry of Environment (MoE), Representatives from Ministry of Economic Development, Ministry of Economy and Finance, Regions, the national environmental protection agency (ISPRA), regional environmental protection agencies, CONSIP, ENEA take part in the GPP Committee, coordinated by the Ministry of Environment, which has been formally charged of the management of GPP NAP. Ministry of Environment, Procurement Monitoring Bureau, Ministry of Economy, Page 10

Hungary Ireland Italy

Latvia
February 2012

Lithuania Luxembourg Malta Netherlands

Ministry of Agriculture. Ministry of Environment (MoE), Public Procurement Office, Central Purchasing Body, Ministry of Economy Ministry for Sustainable Development and Infrastructures Office of the Prime Minister, Ministry of Finance, the Economy and Investment. Ministry of Environment and Spatial Planning, state-agency NL Agency. The umbrella organisations VNG (Association of Netherlands municipalities), IPO (organisation of provinces) and UvW (Dutch Association of Regional Water Authorities) participate in the SPP programme on behalf of decentralised governments. Policy: Ministry of Environment Implementation: the Agency for Public Management and Government (Difi) under the Ministry of Government Administration and Reform. Public Procurement Office (as a whole), Ministry of Economy, MoE, Ministry of Infrastructure, Polish Centre for Testing and Certification. Ministry of Environment (MoE), Central Procurement Office. Ministry of Environment (MoE), National Agency for Environmental Protection, National Authority for Regulating and Monitoring PP. Ministry of Environment (MoE) and Slovak Environmental Agency Public Procurement Office Members of national GPP Working Group. Ministry of Environment (MoE), Ministry of Public Administration (Public Procurement Service), Ministry of Finance, Government Office for Development and European Affairs. State government and Inter-ministerial commission. Ministry of Environment, Swedish Environmental Management Council (MSR) implements GPP Swedish Environmental Protection Agency monitors GPP and develops the action plan. The City of Zrich. The corresponding Federal Administration departments are responsible for implementation. The Interdepartmental Sustainable Development Committee (ISDC) is composed of members of the various departments and coordinates the implementation of all measures. Sustainable Procurement policy is developed by the Sustainable Products and Consumers section within Defra, the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs. Public procurement policy is developed by the Finance Ministrys Office of Government Commerce - OGC. CESP (part of OGC) leads on supporting Departments in delivering their sustainable procurement commitments.

Norway Poland Portugal Romania Slovakia Slovenia Spain Sweden Switzerland

United Kingdom

Turkey

3.2 Guidelines and links per country


In the table: a. Guidelines and links. b. National Action Plans (NAP) c. GPP criteria GUIDELINES AND LINKS/NAP/GPP CRITERIA a Current working programme of the Austrian Government 2008-2013, one Austria

chapter on GPP/SPP www.bka.gv.at/DocView.axd?CobId=32965 www.nachhaltigebeschaffung.at Austrian ecolabel: http://www.umweltzeichen.at/ Advices for the realization are given in "baubook" (technical criteria, Page 11

February 2012

ingredients, production, application, emissions and disposal) and a similar system called "kokauf". In the future they will be combined to a national standard Different guidance on GPP in the Regional governments/administrations. For regional level: Vienna (City and province): www.oekokauf.wien.at Vorarlberg: koBeschaffungsService www.umweltverband.at http://www.baubook.at/oeg/?SW=16&oegpk=2 NAP was adopted by the Council of Ministers in July 2010 based on criteria of EU-Toolkit and criteria of pilot phase on GPP (for five product groups - pilot phase concluded). Available on: www.nachhaltigebeschaffung.at General obligation for the federal level to procure sustainable products using at least EU-Toolkit core criteria (10 product groups and 6 additional ones for construction /interior work, etc). Mandatory quantitative targets for the federal level will be fixed by 2012, based on the first monitoring. Continuously extension of GPP is aimed at. Recommendation for regional level and municipalities to adopt similar decrees. The city of Vienna has developed criteria for a broad range of product groups containing 24 topics:
www.oekokauf.wien.at

Belgium

Bulgaria

b c

Cyprus

a b

Eco Procurement Service Vorarlberg has developed criteria for 13 product groups (office equipment, cleaning products, paper, etc) and criteria for construction. GPP in Upper Austria started extension on all 26 product groups, Existing further initiatives on GPP in other provinces. Task force to elaborate social criteria for public procurement. Guidelines for federal level and the Brussels Capital city level: A practical instrument with sustainable criteria for all the different phases of procurement for about 70 product- and service groups. http://www.guidedesachatsdurables.be/ In the Walloon and Flemish region, Procurement of 100% green electricity for the regions buildings. On the 3rd of July 2009, an Action Plan for Sustainable Procurement was adopted at the federal level. Four circulars on different product groups were already in force. In the Flemish Region, an Action plan for Sustainable Procurement was adopted by the regional government the 5 June 2009. Brussels Capital City has a circular on sustainable procurement since February 2009. The Walloon region prepares a decree on sustainable procurement and 4 circulars. Three of them have been already approved. Target of 50% of GPP at federal level by 2011. Target of 100% SPP at level of Flemish Region by 2020. (AP). Priority products (listed in the federal action plan) are identified for both environmental and social risks and guidance is available (transport, food and catering, green electricity, sustainable wood and buildings, toxic products and social sensible products). Products and services for which environmental and/or social criteria is being applied: For the federal level, see http://www.gidsvoorduurzameaankopen.be/ Practical guidance on Public procurement with examples on how to use GPP criteria, relevant case law, etc. is distributed among contracting authorities and other stakeholders. http://www.moew.government. bg; http://www.aop.bg Ongoing consultations for elaborating GPP National Action Plan. Energy efficiency criteria for 5 priority product groups: Office IT equipment, air conditioning and ventilation, white goods, office lightening and public street lightening, motor vehicles. Drafted but not yet adopted. Leaflets, newsletter, workshops, DVD, GPP Handbook, circulars to all contracting authorities / entities. website: www.moa.gov.cy The first National action plan adopted in March 2007: Page 12

February 2012

http://www.moa.gov.cy/moa/agriculture.nsf/All/22DF8A8CE48A4D4AC22572CF0072706 9/$file/GPP_ACTION_PLAN_WEB.pdf?OpenElement

Czech Republic

Denmark

Estonia

a b

Finland

c a

France
February 2012

The new NAP for GPP has been finalized and now is about to be adopted from the Council of Ministers. Objectives and targets have been identified as well as 12 products and service group categories including: office equipment and paper, electricity and products, save energy methods and products, cleaning products and services, construction (building and road) and renovation, food products and services, , transport, etc. All public procurers have to adopt at least the core criteria from the Toolkit, or for some categories that are not included in Toolkit, they have to adopt the criteria that have been set by national experts (50%). Handbook GPP, GPP website: http://www.env.cz/AIS/web.nsf/pages/greenpublic-procurement National ecolabel: http://www.ekoznacka.cz/ Ministry of the Environment prepared (instead of NAP) Rules for implementing of environmental requirements in public procurement of state administration and self-administration which is based on European Commissions toolkits. Not approved by the Government yet. By the year 2014 - 25% of all vehicles of state and public services environmentally friendly. Mandatory criteria for furniture and IT, for the other product groups in preparation. 46 product-specific guidelines: http://www.miljoevejledninger.dk/ and at: www.gronindkobsportal.dk 18 Product specific guidelines for electricity using products http://www.elsparefonden.dk/offentlig/vaerktoejerogberegnere/vejledninger/indkoebsvejledning/find-indkoebskravene; http://www.mst.dk/Virksomhed_og_myndighed/Miljoeindsats_paa_tvaers/baer edygtige_indkoeb/ 1994 Action Plan. The most important action plans related to green procurement: Strengthened efforts to enhance green procurement in 2008-2009. -Action Plan for Corporate Social Responsibility 2008. Denmark has adapted the indicative political target of 50% of GPP as referred to in the communication of GPP. At local level, there is a voluntary partnership for green public procurement. The municipalities participating in the Partnership have to comply with environmental requirements for certain product groups (so far 13 product groups). Strategic focus area in 2010 and after: The Ministry of Environment will focus on sustainable procurement within the following focus area: Transport, building and food products. No common GPP guidance. There is "Estonian Environmental and Sustainable Public Procurement Priorities 2007-2009" http://www.envir.ee/219407 No priority products have been yet identified. Hymonet (product criteria): http://www.hymonet.com/hymonet/ Nordic Swan: http://www.ecolabel.fi/ Help desk in environmental technologies: http://www.motiva.fi/julkinen_sekt ori/julkiset_hankinnat/neuvontaa_y mparistoteknologiahankintoihin/ Decision on Sustainable Public Procurement accepted by the Government 8.4.2009. http://www.ymparisto.fi/default.asp?contentid=323695&lan=fi&clan=en State organisations - 70% GPP by 2010 and 100% by 2015. Municipalities 25% GPP by 2010 and 50% by 2015. Criteria are developed for 20 product groups which will be updated over time.http://www.hymonet.com/hymonet Guidelines for various product groups: Page 13

http://www.ecoresponsabilite.ecologie.gouv.fr National ecolabel: http://www.ecolabels.fr/fr/ Ministry of Economy guides to procurers (check GEM-DDEN for sustainable procurement guides) http://www.minefe.gouv.fr/directio ns_services/daj/guide/gpem/table.html Several specific administrative guidance were enacted: Prime minister guidelines1 (2005) for an exemplary State in regard to energy savings (n5.102/SG); Prime minister guidelines (2008) for an exemplary State in regard to sustainable development (Official Journal, 12th of February 2009)
http://www.journalofficiel.gouv.fr/verifier/getpdf.php?fic=../publication/2009/0212/joe_ 20090212_0036_0004.pdf.sig

- Prime minister guidelines (2009) relating to the real estate and buildings policy of the State.
Administrative guidance : 6 guide books published by the Groupe (Permanent) dEtude des Marchs Dveloppement Durable, Environnement (GEM-DD) including: ecological products and services, timber and wood products, ecological paper, energy efficient services for building (heating and cooling), wood as a building material, environmental quality public buildings, textiles and office cleaning. A guidance note on socially responsible public procurement was also published in 2009. National action plan for SPP adopted in March 2007, including 15 specific GPP targets; http://www.ecoresponsabilite.ecologie.gouv.fr/IMG/PNAAPD.pdf The NAP is to be renewed in the end of 2010. The national action plan for sustainable procurement (PNAAPD) adopted in 2007 set objectives for 15 product groups. This plan is completed by a Prime Minister circular which set objectives, strategies and courses of actions for 20 product and service groups and indicators to fulfil for 13 of them. Actions for 20 product and service groups: computers, food, clothes, furniture, office equipments, waste management, cars, transport, water and energy, lightning, energy consumption and CO2 emission monitoring, training, social procurement, social responsibility. General guideline website including 36 product groups:
http://www.minefi.gouv.fr/directions_services/daj/guide/gpem/table.html

Germany

Ministry of Economy guides to procurers (check GEM-DDEN for sustainable procurement guides) http://www.minefe.gouv.fr/directions_services/daj/guide/gpem/table.html Information on energy-efficient procurement (related ecolabels, general administrative provisions, websites): www.bmwi.de/go/energieeffizientebeschaffung Ecolabels: http://www.blauer-engel.de/ General administrative provisions on the procurement of energy-efficient products and services (adopted in January 2008): http://www.bmwi.de/BMWi/Redaktion/PDF/A/aav-zurbeschaffungenergieeffizienterprodukte,property=pdf,bereich=bmwi,sprache=d e,rwb=true.pdf Information/guidelines on GPP: http://www.umweltbundesamt.de/produkte/beschaffung/ www.ITKBeschaffung.de National Strategy on GPP (federal level): IKEP, measure 24 Procurement of energy-efficient products and services (adopted in August 2007). Common National Strategy on Sustainability (federal, regional/ Lnder and local level). Proposals for an in-depth cooperation (adopted in December 2008). Task Force on Sustainability: report envisaging an alliance for sustainable procurement, July 2010.Working Group for the implementation of the alliance for sustainable procurement (chaired by the Federal Ministry of Economics and Page 14

February 2012

Technology): report perspectives for a further cooperation of state and Lnder for a sustainable development, April 2009. Statements of the conferences of the different regional ministers to the above mentioned report, interpretation of these statements by the German Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology, ongoing. Website Kompass Nachhaltigkeit, activation September 2010. The national action plan for sustainable procurement (PNAAPD) adopted in 2007 set objectives for 15 product groups. This plan is completed by a Prime Minister circular which set objectives, strategies and courses of actions for 20 product and service groups and indicators to fulfil for 13 of them. General guideline website including 36 product groups:
http://www.minefi.gouv.fr/directions_services/daj/guide/gpem/table.html

Greece Hungary

b c a b c

Ministry of Economy guides to procurers (check GEM-DDEN for sustainable procurement guides) http://www.minefe.gouv.fr/directions_services/daj/guide/gpem/table.html Legislation under preparation stipulating the development of a GPP NAP. Several good practices. Manual for green purchasing for municipalities: http://www.ktk-ces.hu/ GPP NAP was drafted during 2006-2007 but is not yet approved.
http://www.kornyezetbarattermek.hu/angism.htm

Ireland

Italy

b a

Three product groups have been prioritised, for which the EC GPP common criteria have been adopted: vehicles and fuel, office paper, computer and office equipment. The coming GPP NAP does not concern construction work. Guidelines issued by the National Public Procurement Policy Unit. 1996 Green Government Guide recommends green public purchasing 2002 Policy Statement on Recycling and Preventing Waste recommends use of recycled and recyclable materials in GPP. Central Government Supplies Agency offers a range of environmentally preferable products. Work on drafting NAP has started 2003 CD with GPP guidelines to promote environmental requirements in public tenders. Website on GPP: http://www.dsa.minambiente.it/gpp/page.asp?id=33 National action plan adopted by Ministers Decree of 11 April 2008.
http://www.dsa.minambiente.it/gpp/

Latvia

b February 2012

Previous NAP adopted by the Italian Ministry for the Environment, Land and Sea Law 27 December 2006 n. 296 (Finanziaria 2007) art. 1 comma 11261127-1128. At least 30 % of goods purchased by public administration shall comply with ecological criteria and at least 30 to 40 % shall have reduced electricity consumption. Objectives and targets have been identified in the GPP NAP as well as 11 priority products and services (furniture, building, waste management, urban and country services, energy services, electronics, textile, stationary, catering, building management services and transport). GPP criteria for the first two products (paper and office equipment) have been adopted by decree of the Minister of the environment, n. 111/2009 of 12/10/2009. GPP criteria for textiles, street lighting, office furniture, food and catering and IT are under way for adoption. Targets have been set also for construction and refurbishment of building with particular attention to construction material. Energy efficiency and resource saving in order to reduce the CO2 emissions. Reduction of dangerous resources in particular within the construction sector. Reduction of the overall production of wastes. Governmental Action Plan Guidance for the national and local authorities how to promote GPP in Latvia and how to green the construction works and services were developed and adopted in 2008. NAP for GPP (2009-2011) is currently under discussion. Until 2009 the GPP Page 15

Lithuania

a b

Luxembourg

activities were covered by the National Environmental Policy Plan for 2004 2008, Latvian action plan EN.DOC Common GPP guidance refers to the common core and comprehensive criteria for the following product and service categories, one of them Construction works and services Information on environmental procurement: www.am.lt A GPP NAP for 2007-2011 has been approved by the resolution of the Government of the Republic of Lithuania. The list of goods and energy efficiency requirements in public procurement were approved by the Resolution of the Government of the Republic of Lithuania in 2008. According to the National Programme for Implementation of Green Public Procurement, the Government of the Republic of Lithuania, ministries and their subordinate institutions shall achieve in 2010 20 percent green public procurement contracts of all public contracts for goods, services and works, for the purchase of which core (mandatory) and comprehensive (advisable) environmental criteria are established. There are criteria for the first priority group of products: paper and other office supplies made from paper and cardboard; other office supplies; publishing- and printing-related services; passenger road vehicles (cars and lightduty vehicles), buses, public transport services, maintenance-related services, waste collection trucks, waste collection services; office IT equipment; inks and toners for printers, faxes, photocopiers; cleaning supplies and services; light bulbs; event management services. There are criteria for the second group of products: furniture; construction; textile goods; goods and services for gardening; food and catering; domestic equipment (dishwashers, washing machines, air conditioners, and refrigerators), circulation pumps. Oekologischer Leitfaden: (http://www.crtib.lu/Leitfaden/index.isp?section=FR)website with guidelines called "Oekologischer Leitfaden" for sustainable construction works and use of construction products. Information about guidelines for various products: Oekotopten:
http://www.oekotopten.lu/

"Eco-technologies action Plan" developed by the Ministry of the Economy and Foreign Trade.
http://www.environnement.public.lu

b c

Malta

a b c

Netherlands

The action plan for sustainability is based on 21 main targets. General recommendation for sustainable procurement (article 4 of law on public procurement). Main targets are on water quality, CO2 emissions, indoor air quality and waste management. Targets values for the energy performance of building are aligned on the Passiv Haus concept and introduction of energy effective solutions for refurbishment. Handbook/workshops NAP Adopted May 2010. The targets set aim to comply with the core criteria as set out in the GPP toolkit. Fifteen (15) product groups for greening have been identified. Targets have been set as follows: Copying and graphic paper 100%; gardening products and services 100%; textiles 100%; office I.T. equipment 100%; cleaning products and services 80%; air conditioning and heat pumps 80%; thermal insulation and wall panels 80%; transport 10%; furniture 10%; food and catering services -10%; hard floor coverings 10%; windows 10%; street lighting and traffic signals 10%; road construction 10%; traffic signs 10%. Website with GPP criteria for 45 product groups (consisting of 52 documents), criteria process, legal framework, stakeholder involvement, best practices , tools, manual helpdesk, etc.:
http://www.senternovem.nl/duurzaa minkopen/index.asp

February 2012

Page 16

In English: http://www.senternovem.nl/sustainableprocurement/index.asp Info on SPP policy and on social criteria:


http://www.vrom.nl/pagina.html?id=34352 National ecolabel: http://www.smk.nl/nl/s357/SMK/Programma-s/Milieukeur/c324Milieukeur

Norway

2003 National Action plan on sustainable development including certain specific targets for GPP. The SPP instrument is developed by government order to reach the 100% target. Federal government and government agencies - 100% GPP by 2010. Provinces - 50% GPP by 2010 and 100% by 2015. Municipalities - 75% GPP by 2010 and 100% by 2015. Waterboards - 50% GPP by 2010 and 100% by 2015. Results of GPP monitoring carried out in 2008: Municipalities 44%, provinces 34% and central government 51%. The Netherlands has developed GPP criteria for 45 product groups (consisting of 52 documents). http://www.senternovem.nl/sustainableprocurement/criteria/index.asp Social criteria will apply generic to all public procurement above the EU threshold. They are expected to become operational by summer 2010. More information: http://www.vrom.nl/pagina.html?id=47308 Local and national government procurers have a legal obligation to take environmental aspects and life cycle cost into consideration when planning all public procurement, and must, as far as possible, specify concrete environmental requirements. How this should be done is not specified in detail. Difi therefore provides an official recommended set of criteria documents (Nordic standard form) for the prioritized product groups.
http://www.anskaffelser.no/

Environmental criteria (Norwegian):


http://www.anskaffelser.no/tema/2009/06/miljokriterier www.anskaffelser.no/dokumenter/regjeringens-handlingsplan-for-miljo-ogsamfunnsansvar-2007-2010

NAP 2007-2010 Whole NAP (Norwegian):


http://www.regjeringen.no/nb/dep/fad/dok/rapporter_planer/planer/2007/Miljo--ogsamfunnsansvar-ioffentlige-an.html

NAP (shortened English version):


http://www.regjeringen.no/en/dep/fad/whatsnew/news/2007/Environmental-guidelinesfor-purchasesi.html?id=473572

Poland

No quantitative targets defined at the national level. Prioritised product groups are identified together with environmental challenges for each. Norway has published recommended environmental criteria for - building construction and maintenance and building planning and design and Ambitious energy saving and waste reduction goals in construction. Official website for GPP: GPP Guide (containing legal aspects, LCC methodology, and GPP toolkit criteria): http://www.uzp.gov.pl/zagadnieniamerytoryczne/edukacja/publikacjeuzp/poradniki-1/zielone%20zamowienia.pdf

GPP on the website of Public Procurement Office:


http://www.uzp.gov.pl/zagadnienia-merytoryczne/zielonezamowieniawww.zielonezamowienia.gov.pl (site under construction).

2nd National Action Plan on Sustainable Public Procurement for 2010-2012 was adopted in June 2010. Apart from containing environmental aspects, it also refers to social issues which might be considered in a procurement process.
http://www.uzp.gov.pl/zagadnienia-merytoryczne/zielone-zamowienia

Portugal
February 2012

1st National Action Plan on GPP for 2007-2009 expired in Dec. 2009. Criteria developed by working groups under Ministry of Economy and participation of PPO inter alia for Construction. (Non-binding character, used for information purpose). Criteria were developed based on GPP training toolkit. Central Procurement Office (ANCP): http://www.ancp.gov.pt/PT/Pages/Home.aspx https://catalogo.ancp.gov.pt/catalogo/ Page 17

Romania

a b

Slovakia

a b

General Action plan on GPP adopted by government April 2007: implementing measures being established. The legal requirement is to include environment criterias. This link is done by the national strategy and by other legal requirements like the acquisition of vehicles by the state. 50% Gov Contracts to include green criteria by 2010. 8 priority groups identified : Construction, Transport, energy, Office Equipments, IT equipments, Office consumables including paper, cleaning products, public buildings maintenance services. GPP website: www.achizitiiecologice.ro Seminars, conferences, etc. A draft GPP NAP has been developed and is in the process of being adopted. Adopted by Inter-ministerial advisory board. Overall coordination: Ministry of Environment. Governmental Decision no. 1568/2008. Romanian National Strategy on Sustainable Development (Governmental Decision no. 1460/2008). According to the Strategy, a system of green public procurement will be phased in with an aim to come close to fulfilling, by 2013, the EU objective to reach, by 2020, the average level attained by the best performing Member States in 2006. The proposed targets are voluntary for the first year of implementing the NAP and continue the next years with mandatory or voluntary targets. Targets lower than 20 % (except for lighting equipment 50%). The environmental criteria (some voluntary, some compulsory) will be applied to 7 priority product groups identified in the draft NAP: cleaning products and services, construction, lighting equipment, ecological food products and drinks, furniture, IT equipment, Copying paper. GPP Guideline for procurers in place and refer to common GPP (core and comprehensive) criteria. National Action Plan adopted for 2007 - 2010;
http://www.rokovania.sk/appl/material.nsf/0/7DF24577A9EDC16AC1257384003D2738? OpenDocument See also: http://www.enviro.gov.sk/servlets/page

Key target is to achieve 50% GPP by 2010 by Central Gov Authorities. In October 2008 has been created National Guideline for Public Procurers Public Procurement for better environment which contains GPP environmental criteria for 6 product groups (Copying and graphic paper, Energy, Cleaning products and services, Food and catering services, Construction, IT equipment). GPP NAP, including the Policy Statement, was adopted on 21 May 2009. Key target is to achieve 50% GPP by 2012 by Central Gov Authorities for 8 products categories (paper, electricity, office equipment, furniture, transport, food and catering, construction, cleaning products and services).
http://www.boe.es/boe/dias/2008/01/31/pdfs/A05706-05710.pdf

Slovenia

a b c

Spain

At regional level: GPP Practical Manual of the Basque Country- in Spanish & Euskara (IHOBE Basque Agency for Environmental Management- Basque Government). The guide not only includes green criteria for tenders in line with the EC (for more than 15 products) but also recommends rationalising procurement needs, information for bidders and 28 Basque good practices. Works greening guide of Barcelona, and another guides for different product groups in Catalonia as the Green office guide. NAP adopted January 2008; http://www.endseurope.com/14530 It is not an aim of the NAP to develop specific environmental criteria for each group of product. At national level: Draft of codes of good practices before 2010. Levels of green purchase between 25% and 100% according to the type of Page 18

February 2012

Sweden

product and stage GPP. 8 priority product groups have been identified along with a timescale for achieving specific targets (construction and maintenance, energy, transport, office equipment, paper and publications, furniture, cleaning products and services, events). Energy savings of 9% before 31December 2010 and 20% by 31 December 2016, according to the PAEE-AGE objectives. Water savings of 20% by December 31, 2010. Ensure overall environmental improvements of buildings in maintenance and in case of integral rehabilitation. MSR Guidance for Sustainable procurement. Criteria documents are available in English. www.msr.se/en Report GPP Taking it to the next level:
http://www.msr.se/Documents/rapporter/MSR_2009_3_en.pdf

Many other guideline documents are produced (how to follow-up green criteria, social and ethical procurement, procuring services, EPC). MSR has also developed LCC tools to be used in the need analysis and in the award phase. National action plan, endorsed by government on 8 March 2007.
www.msr.se/en/green_procurement/Swedish-National-Action-plan-for-GPP/

New action plan from 2011 is in working progress in the Ministry. Action Plan GPP Sweden. Swedish Environmental Management Council's procurement criteria for Building Contracts - The building of new blocks of flats. Criteria developed by MSR. Product areas such as Vehicles and transport, IT and telecom, Cleaning and laundry services, Office equipment, Furnishing and textiles, Nursing and hospital care. Target for 2009 50 criteria documents (60 by 2010). The following national objectives should be met by 2010 according to The Swedish Environmental Management Council Report Green Procurement Taking it to the next level: http://www.msr.se/Documents/rapporter/MSR_2009_3_en.pdf (1) The proportion of public procurements with well-formulated environmental criteria should increase; (2) The proportion of state framework agreements with well-formulated environmental criteria should increase; (3) The proportion of authorities at Government, Municipality and County Council level that regularly make use of well-formulated environmental requirements should increase.
http://www.novatlantis.ch/index.php?id=26&L=1 http://www.are.admin.ch/themen/nachhaltig/00262/00528/index.html?lang=en

Switzerland

a b

2,000Watt Society. Sustainable Development Strategy: Guidelines and Action Plan 20082011: Since 1997, the Federal Council has operated a Sustainable Development Strategy as the basis for implementing its constitutional task of sustainable development in Switzerland. Alongside the federal policy guidelines, the current strategy also includes an action plan with concrete aims for the duration of the current legislative period (20082011). By the year 2050, the amount of fossil energy sources can be cut in half from the current figure of 3000 watts to 1500 watts per person. A CO2 output of one ton per capita a year is also an applicable long-term goal for Switzerland. An important point of reference for Switzerland is the European Unions announced target of reducing emissions by 20% of their 1990 level by 2020. Article 89 of the Federal Constitution (energy policy) 24 and the Swiss Energy Act of 26 June 1998 25 both demand that federal and cantonal governments ensure a sufficiently broad based, secure, economical and environmentallyfriendly energy supply. They must also act to encourage the sparing and rational consumption of that energy. Sustainable development in government website: Page 19

United
February 2012

Kingdom

http://www.defra.gov.uk/sustainable/government/

Buy Sustainable Quick Wins initiative:


http://www.defra.gov.uk/sustainable/government/what/priority/consumptionproduction/ quickWins/index.htm

The SOGE targets until March 2011 are at:


http://www.defra.gov.uk/sustainable/government/gov/estates/targets.htm

The SDiG targets (from April 2011) are at:


http://www.defra.gov.uk/sustainable/government/gov/estates/sdigtargets.htm

The flexible framework can be found at:


http://www.dft.gov.uk/adobepdf/187604/ANNEX_A.pdf

The new Government Buying Standards web site for priority product groups are at:
http://www.defra.gov.uk/sustainable/government/advice/public/buying/index.htm

Buying Solutions- procurement partner for public services: http://www.buyingsolutions.gov.uk and their new service that identifies compliant Quick Wins products:
http://online.ogcbuyingsolutions.gov.uk/products/all?environmentalcompliancelevels%5 BBest+Practice%5D=on&environmentalcompliancelevels%5BMinimum%5D=on

Centre of Expertise in Sustainable Procurement (CESP):


http://www.ogc.gov.uk/cesp.asp

Sustainable Procurement Action plan delivered on 12 June 2006


http://www.defra.gov.uk/sustainable/government/documents/fulldocument.pdf

CESP Delivery Plan can be found at:


http://www.ogc.gov.uk/sustainability_programme_progress.asp

Local Government Sustainable Procurement Strategy:


http://www.idea.gov.uk/idk/aio/7643299

Scottish Government Sustainable Procurement Action Plan:


http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Publications/2009/10/sspap

Welsh Assembly Governments Procurement Policy:


http://wales.gov.uk/topics/improvingservices/bettervfm/smartpurchasing/wob/wagpolic y/?lang=en

Northern Irelands plan:


http://www.cpdni.gov.uk/sustainable-procurement-action-plan-ni.pdf

Currently a series of sustainable operations targets for the Government office estate (SOGE), including a pledge to go carbon neutral by 2012 and to reduce carbon emissions by 30 per cent by 2020. These targets expire in March 2011. From April 2011, they will be replaced by a revised set of targets called Sustainable Development in Government (SDiG). There will also be targets for Departments to achieve level 3 of a maturity matrix for sustainable procurement, known as the Flexible Framework by 2012, and level 5 by 2015. The UK currently sets criteria in around 60 product groups at 2 levels `mandatory minimum and best practice. Previously known as `Buy Sustainable Quick Wins these have been rebranded and re-launched as `Government Buying Standards. They include Construction, Food, Clothing and other textiles, Paper, Cleaning Products, Energy, Consumables Office machinery and computers, Furniture, Transport and Gardening Services. They are being revised and updated, during 2010, and are also being expanded to include new product groups, such as food. In relation to each of the criteria for goods and services, the current Standards (in April 2010) can be found in detail at::
http://www.defra.gov.uk/sustainable/government/advice/public/buying/products/index. htm

Turkey

a c

NOTE: the Public procurement Authority intends to raise awareness on the new turkey public procurement and deals in particular with: Regulation on Implementation of Goods Procurement Regulation on Implementation of Services Procurement Regulation on Implementation of Works Procurement Regulation on Implementation of Consultancy Procurement Regulation on Administrative Applications Against Procurements. Page 20

February 2012

3.3 Market analysis, training, monitoring and legal provision


In the table: -a. Market analysis -b. Training -c. Monitoring -d. Legal provision MARKETS ANALYSIS/TRAINING/MONITORING/LEGAL PROVISION a Market analysis by Federal procurement agency (FPA).b) Platform on SPP Austria
b Platform on SPP www.nachhaltigebeschaffung.at with helpdesk, info via email, phone and discussion Forum. Network of procurement officers to exchange experience with GPP/SPP (federal, regional and local level). Training / information together with FPA and other organisations for procurers, decision-makers, representatives of business, suppliers. National conference for public procurers every two years. MoE is going to establish a voluntary monitoring system, additionally and based on the monitoring of the EC to measure progress with GPP/SPP; annual reports on progress of implementation. AUT Federal procurement Act (FPA) is the mandatory legal bases for GPP. In case of verifiably and severely violated environmental law the tenderer has to be eliminated by the contracting authority as a legal consequence / 68, Abs 1 Z 5 FPA). Regarding road vehicles (transposition of Dir 2009/33 EC) strong legal requirements in 80 FPA (energy consumption, carbon dioxide and nitrogen oxide). In case of suggested noncompliance bidders may appeal against the tender procedure with the controlling body. Market investigations on the availability of products that are conform to rigid environmental criteria. Training: the Federal Administration Training Institute at both federal and regional level. A first set of test questionnaires to the federal services is sent out in March 2010. PP Agency is in charge of Public procurement training; and if any environmental issues are involved the MoE will participate. After the adoption of the PPL draft-law, the energy efficiency requirements concerning the road vehicles will be compulsory in case of public procurement. The requirement concerning procurement of the other product groups will remain optional. The Department of Environment explores the local market for green products and services. All the relevant information is given to the public authorities. GPP training is provided at both central and local level by the Department of Environment of the MoE. Dissemination of information through newsletters, meetings and direct contact of Department of Environment and contracting authorities. There is continuous monitoring from the Department of Environment, using questionnaires, letters and direct contact with the public authorities. Commitment for the implementation of the GPP NAP from public authorities. MoE and other NGOs provide some training on GPP for public procurers The GPP is supported by some government decisions which recommends ministries buy ecolabeled products or set some targets of green vehicles which should be bought by central states bodies. Rules should be mandatory for central bodies to use particular product groups. The same will be recommended to local authorities. Mandatory criteria for Page 21

Belgium

a b c

Bulgaria

b c

Cyprus

a b

c d b d

Czech Republic

February 2012

Denmark

Estonia

furniture and IT so far. Two main platforms for dissemination and training: -Partnership for green public procurement (involving the municipalities). -Panel for green procurement (involving 13 public and private sector organisations). Environmental requirements are mandatory for central government and are so far implemented in 20 product groups. Collecting of all statistical data from Register of Public Procurement. When the tender documents are completed they are marked in case the environmental criteria were used. Helpdesk to assist in procuring innovative environmental technologies. Sustainable procurement is mandatory, but voluntary for municipalities. GPP training programmes are in place and done by government institutions: IFORE (Institute for environmental training Ministry of Ecology), IGPDE (training institute of the Ministry of Economy) and ADEME (National Agency for Environment and Energy). From 2010 on, the Prime Minister circular makes certain number of hours of training on Sustainable development mandatory. Besides that, ministries will be asked to increase awareness on SPP and SD through the broadcasting of information on the internal networks. Several tools have been developed by the SPP national action plan to evaluate and monitor SPP: coresponsibility indicators, administrative audits, studies etc The 2008 PM guidelines on Etat exemplaire (public authorities leading by example) contains 12 (out of 20) SPP targets). The other targets relate to environmental management, training, etcThese guidelines are equipped with a strong monitoring system. Each sectorial target factsheet contains indicators that ministries have to regularly fill in. Every Ministry must report yearly on the progress towards the targets and the indicators. A budget-neutral financial bonus-malus (reward-penalty) system is introduced in 2010 to reward the well performing ministries and penalise the bad ones. In the Grenelle 1 law the article 48 about the responsibility of the administration sets out legal objectives concerning : vehicles, dematerialized communication technology, sustainably managed wood, organic and sustainably-made food, the development of car-sharing transportation, and the making of a carbon footprint on the State buildings. Website of the Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology on energy efficient procurement::
www.bmwi.de/go/energieeffiziente-beschaffung

Finland France

b d b

Germany

Website of the Federal Environment Agency on GPP:


http://www.beschaffunginfo.de/php/index.php4

A central government procurement platform that cooperates with the German Federal Environment Agency on GPP issues:
www.ITK-Beschaffung.de

Website of the Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology on Public Procurement:


http://www.bmwi.de/BMWi/Navigation/Wirtschaft/Wirtschaftspolitik/oeffentlicheauftraeg e,did=190676.html

Currently ICLEI and the private consulter ko-Institute.V carry out 20 training sessions on GPP. Target groups are public procurers and political decision makers on regional and local level. The training project is financially supported by the German Government (Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety). Website: http://www.icleieurope.org/events/?cmd=view&uid=d23d9453 The Federal Government's coalition agreement: the elements newly introduced, in 2009, into the GWB, will be monitored concerning their impacts and possibly corrected. Page 22

February 2012

Task Force on GPP (chaired by the Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology) to monitor the national strategy on GPP. GWB 97 (see 2nd point under GPP Targets Criteria). The procurement of legal and sustainable wood is mandatory at federal level (see 3rd point under GPP Targets Criteria). In accordance with the new version of the German Regulation of Procurement (VgV) public procurers are basically obliged to demand an analysis of minimized LCC by tenderers (cf. VgV 4, paragraph 6, number 1 and 6, paragraph 2 number 1). The "BNB certification system" will be part of a code of practice concerning sustainable construction. This code of practice called "Leitfaden Nachhaltiges Bauen" will be referred to by national law.
http://www.nachhaltigesbauen.de/bewertungssystem-nachhaltiges-bauen-fuerbundesgebaeude-bnb/steckbriefe-zum-bnb-bewertungssystem.html

Greece

National contact points trained. National Conference of GPP. Collaboration initiated with Ministry of Education and other relevant training bodies for the establishment of curriculums and programmes for GPP training. Training and other dissemination activities concerning GPP are conducted by the Centre for Environmental Studies, in conjunction with the MoE. Department of Finance, Institute of Public Administration. Dissemination of information is carried out by the Ministry of Environment mainly by its website. Local Authorities implementing GPP are also diffusing their experiences (e.g. 2006 promotion campaign (leaflet and questionnaire) and a white paper, GPPnet The Green Public Procurement Network website). A procedure for monitoring of GPP is being defined by the Ministry of the environment in cooperation with the national Authority for the vigilance on public contracts and the National Agency for environmental protection (ISPRA). Training is delivered by MoE, Central Procurement Office, Ministry of Economy, Ministry of Agriculture and NGOs - competent for GPP. A questionnaire to the suppliers is sent out in May 2010. Trainings/seminars organized by the PPO for purchasing organizations and suppliers. The Trainings Programme of GPP was approved by the Minister of Environment in 2008. This programme was revised in May 2010. The contracting authorities shall submit a report on the procurement procedure to the Public Procurement Office and shall indicate in the reports if the GPP criteria were used during the procurement procedure. Environmental requirements are mandatory for central government and voluntary for municipalities. Procurement training including environmental aspects is provided by the National Institute of Public Administration. NAP based on Research including market sounding and Expenditure analysis. Some procurement training incl. environmental aspects is delivered by the Department of Contracts. A brief market analysis (both on sustainability developments in the sector and on availability) is part of the criteria development process of each product group. A helpdesk (run by SenterNovem) to assist anyone with questions on sustainable procurement. A network-site (Pianoo) where purchasers can consult each other. Other instruments: Handbook on GPP, Implementation Coach (to measure progress), discussion working groups. The Ministry of Housing, Spatial Planning and the Environment monitors the progress of public sustainable procurement by measuring the results every two years. The Minister of Housing, Spatial Planning and the Environment reports the results to Parliament. At the same time, government organisations can Page 23

Hungary Ireland Italy

b b

Latvia Lithuania

b a b

Luxembourg Malta Netherlands

b a b a

February 2012

Norway

track their own performance. Monitoring takes place at quantitative and qualitative level. At quantitative level: sustainable purchasing volume in euro's / total purchasing volume in Euros. A purchase is sustainable if the minimum requirements and selection criteria as defined in the SPP criteria documents have been used. At qualitative level: to what extent has the procuring authority implemented SPP in its procurement and/or sustainability policy, its organisation and working procedures. It is a political commitment. Central government is bound by a political motion of the parliament. Decentralized governments are bound by covenants between the umbrella organisations and the Minister of Environment. Most recent market analysis was in published in February 2010 (Norwegian):
http://www.anskaffelser.no/nyheter/2010/02/mange-stillermiljokrav-men-hvilke-krav

Poland

a b

c d

Portugal

a c

Romania

Integration with public procurement tools. County focal points (19 altogether) about 1 person full time at each focal point providing support and training at county level. Integration and reporting with EMS. Several courses in green public procurements provided annually. Monitoring is ad hoc. In the future it will be integrated with Environmental Management Systems (also part of the NAP), which all national institutions are obliged to implement. The Norwegian government has a legal obligation to take environmental aspects into consideration in all public procurement. Market analysis of 2 product groups: RES and paper, carried out for Public Procurement Office. A PP training programme is available for contracting authorities from central and local level. The central Public delivers a series of conferences and workshops on GPP under the NAP. Governmental Action Plan Guidance for the national and local authorities how to promote GPP in Poland and how to green the construction works and services were developed by KAPE and adopted in 2008, general recommendations, no obligation. The level of GPP and SRPP is measured based on the PPO methodology by means of TED and Public Procurement Bulletin (national) search engines. General recommendations, no obligation. General support from the government as the NAP was adopted by Council of Ministers. A market analysis is currently being considered and it is supposed to be done before the revision on the current NAP. Monitoring: ANCP is checking the all compliance with the targets, this is achieved the following the letters of commitment and reports on inclusion of GPP on tendering, that other departments must send to ANCP as well as a track of their own launch tenders. GPP is legal binding, its based on law, the process is centralized, one agency overviews all the government buying. There is a strong political support, most of the currently launch tenders include environment criterias. In 2008, the Ministry of Environment and a private consultant undertook a market analysis that was used in the process of designing the NAP. The Ministry of Environment and Forests runs two projects on dissemination of GPP and the training of the public procurers in central and local administration. The Ministry of Environment and Forests also runs regional and national conferences to disseminate GPP policy. The National Agency for Environment Protection issues on an annually basis (until 15th April) the Monitoring Report of the implementation of NAP. The Monitoring Report is issued on the basis of the automatic electronic reports of the procurements in the National Electronic Procurement System and on the self reporting of the contracting authorities; Following the Monitoring Report the National Environment Guard (and its local branches) can take actions (financial sanctions) to enforce the NAP against the authorities that did not meet the targets; or Page 24

February 2012

Slovakia Slovenia Spain Sweden

Following the Monitoring Report the Ministry can propose the revision of the targets (and the criteria developed until that moment). National training programme on GPP in place and is done by institutions in charge of GPP. Training for GPP is performed by the MoE (with the support of private institutes like ECOINSTITUTE) for contracting entities at central, regional and local level. Market analysis for example IT-products, telecom products, fuel. GPP helpdesk by telephone and E-mail. Free online training. Training/information sessions together with other organisations for procurers, politicians and suppliers. A national conference is held every year and a price is awarded to the greenest contracting authority and the greenest supplier. The Swedish EPA monitors the targets through different surveys. Mandatory for government agencies to only purchase/lease green cars and taxi services. Dissemination by different projects and events organised by Novatlantis e.g. construction of the new Triemly Hospital will be carried out according to the standards of the 2000-Watt Society. The vision of the 2000-watt society calls for a continuous reduction in energy needs to 2000 watts per person. Sustainable Procurement policy is developed by the Sustainable Products and Consumers section within Defra, the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs. Public procurement policy is developed by the Finance Ministrys Office of Government Commerce - OGC. CESP (part of OGC) leads on supporting Departments in delivering their sustainable procurement commitments. The Government Buying Standards are developed through a process of thorough consultation with procurers and stakeholders (including suppliers), and are underpinned by an assessment of costs and benefits, including potential impacts on the market, and the ability of the market to meet demand. These are generally based on existing studies. Expecting to undertake original market analysis in relation to some groups, such as food. Guidance for central Government and agencies is available on the CESP website and CESP organises practitioner networking events and sustainability conferences. Defra is responsible for communicating GPP across the wider public sector, with the co-operation of a series of local and regional stakeholders. Currently piloting a series of training courses for local authorities. Training is provided by the National School of Government (NSG), and Chartered Institute of Purchasing and Supply (CIPS). Supplier events are organised by OGC and some individual Ministries. Monitoring of compliance with the SOGE targets and procurement criteria within central government is the responsibility of the Centre of Expertise in Sustainable Procurement (CESP), a body within the Office of Government Commerce (an independent Office of the Finance Ministry). It is a mandatory administrative requirement in the UK that all central government departments and their executive agencies incorporate environmental criteria into their procurement procedures across a series of priority product groups- as set out in Government Buying Standards (which are also included in the revised flexible framework).Note: this is not a legal requirement. No policy on green procurement has been implemented yet. According to the European Commission Screening Report on Turkey, the integration of environment considerations in procurements is foreseen, in light the EU Acquis requirements.(OECD (2008), Eco-Innovation Policies in Turkey, Environment Directorate.

b a b

c d

Switzerland

United Kingdom

Turkey

February 2012

Page 25

The following table gives a general overview of the GPP status at the time that this study was developed in the 30 EU countries addressed. This table is only referred to construction materials.
GPP PER COUNTRY Market analysis National Action Plan % GPP criteria AUTHORITIES RESPONSIBLE FOR GPP MoE Legal Provision yes yes yes yes yes yes 04-09 yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes 05-10 2003 2007 2007 04-07 2008 2008 05-09 01-08 yes yes 03-07 1997 06-06 1050% 50% 25100% yes yes yes yes yes yes 50% yes yes 10%80% 50% yes yes yes 12-06 2004 2007 20% yes 30% 03-07 08-07 70% yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes

Austria Belgium Bulgaria Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland France Germany Greece Hungary Ireland Italy Latvia Lithuania Luxembourg Malta Netherlands Norway Poland Portugal Romania Slovakia Slovenia Spain Sweden Switzerland United Kingdom Turkey

yes yes yes other yes yes yes yes yes yes no yes yes yes yes yes yes no yes yes yes yes yes yes yes no yes no yes yes yes yes yes yes no

07-10 07-09 03-07 1994 50% 50% 50%

yes yes yes

yes yes yes yes yes yes

yes yes yes

February 2012

Page 26

Training

Monitoring

National Guidelines

3.4 Conclusions
Some conclusions have been obtained from the analysis of the GPP implementation at European level: - A Ministry of Environment (MoE) alone or integrated with other ministries exists in 22 countries, while most of the rest of countries have already special authorities for the matter. - National Guidelines. Almost all the countries have issued a National Guideline or similar. In a good number of them, usually the countries with a most highly developed policy in GPP concepts, the guidelines have been organized by products. In some countries these guidelines are written at two levels: national and regional. - National Action Plan (NAP). 22 countries of the 30 studied have already a NAP approved, half of them between the years 2006-2008. - GPP criteria. 12 countries have a mandatory percentage of GPP on course for 2011. In almost all cases this percentage is to be met only by a particular number of goods that vary depending on the country. Construction works have been already introduced in almost all the studied countries. In some cases concepts like lighting, energy consumption, CO emissions or indoor air quality, appear as separate goods. The most common percentage of GPP committed nowadays is the 50%. In some cases the legal dispositions yet included the increase of this percentage until a 100% by 2020. - Market analysis. Few countries, 11 out of 30, have developed market analysis, and they usually match the most advanced countries in implementing GPP criteria. - Training. Almost all the countries studied had developed training tools. The most common implementation methodologies are guidelines, training programmes and seminars. Other less common strategies are based in websites platforms, with email and discussion forums. - Monitoring. Despite it has been implemented in more countries than the Market analysis only the most advanced countries have already deployed a monitoring programme. - Legal provision. As in the Monitoring case only about half of the countries have implemented a legal provision about GPP. In conclusion, it can be said that the analyzed countries are in their way to implement GPP procedures in their procurement system. Not all the concepts have been equally implemented, but National Guidelines, NAPs and GPP training schemes have been developed in almost all countries. This fact demonstrates that the GPP implementation in Europe is still ongoing, and that the adoption of other GPP implementation related tools such as Market analysis, Monitoring and Legal Provisions by those countries is only a matter of time. Other conclusion is that many countries, either because they have a federal political system or because its recruitment policies have been transferred to regional governments, are increasing the number of administrations involved in the implementation of GPP measures. This fact can suppose the appearance of a high number of different GPP policies or even an increase of the time necessary to have
February 2012 Page 27

the legal framework implemented. Some other problems might arise from the adoption of different GPP measures by the municipalities or regions within the same country and dissemination barriers due to the involvement of many administrations. Nevertheless, this framework of local GPP measures can be also an opportunity to have a policy more adapted to the local and regional realities of each community, which will facilitate both the further training of the public bodies and the monitoring of the GPP performance in each particular region.

February 2012

Page 28

4. Existing guidelines at European and International level


A number of national governments and NGOs assist purchasers in implementing sustainable procurement by providing guidance on setting environmental requirements in tendering together with other practical advice on green or sustainable procurement. In addition, some governments and non-governmental organisations maintain databases of green products that contain environmental criteria and links to possible suppliers. Most of this information is freely available and accessible online. EU countries Guidelines (describe in previous chapter): - Austria: Procurement Service Austria has developed extensive guidelines for several product groups at www.oekoeinkauf.at - Denmark: Green procurement guidelines and more relevant information are available on Greennet (www.ski.dk/greenprocurement), sponsored by the Danish Environmental Protection Agency. - Finland: Hymonet (www.hymonet.com) is an internet-based decision support system for environmentally friendly procurement. - France: Website on responsible purchasing for public administration: www.ecoresponsabilite.environnement.gouv.fr - Platform for public procurement and sustainable development: www.achatsresponsables.com - Germany: German website containing product specifications: www.beschaffung-info.de - Netherlands: Dutch website on GPP: www.senternovem.nl/duurzaaminkopen/ English/Index.asp - Norway: The GRIP Foundation for Sustainable Production and Consumptions guidelines on eco-efficient purchasing: www.grip.no/Innkjop/English/Hoved.htm - Sweden: The Swedish instrument for Ecologically Sustainable Procurement: www.eku.nu/eng - The United Kingdom: UK Task Force on sustainable procurement, and sustainable procurement strategy: - www.sustainabledevelopment.gov.uk/government/taskforces/ procurement/index.htm; UK Office for Government Commerce, sustainability policy and buying support: www.ogc.gov.uk/index.asp?id=1004338 Other government and non-governmental organizations: - European Commission: The EC has extensive guidance on the implementation of green public procurement (GPP): ec.europa.eu/environment/gpp - Japan: The Green Purchasing Network (GPN) maintains guidelines on sustainable procurement, including product criteria and a database of suppliers: www.gpn.jp
February 2012 Page 29

- The USA: The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Database of Environmentally Preferable Products: www.epa.gov/oppt/epp/pubs/about/about.htm - IGPN: The International Green Purchasing Network is an organisation which promotes Green Purchasing around the globe: www.igpn.org - EUROCITIES: Guidelines and best practice on Cities as Responsible Purchasers: www.eurocities.org/carpe-net - UNEP: Website containing background information and a products database: www.uneptie.org/pc/sustain/design/green-proc.htm - Sustainable building guideline for dwellings: Document written by IHOBE (Organism belonging to Ministry of Environment of Basque Country Government.

February 2012

Page 30

5. GPP in construction sector


Main documents analyzed to write this report are: - European Commission GPP Training Toolkit. Module 3: Purchasing recommendations. Construction Background product report. Construction GPP product sheet. - Relief project. Developed by ICLEI, Local Governments for Sustainability (http://www.sustainable-procurement.org/about-us/past-projects/relief/ ) - Procura+ Manual. Published by DEEP, Dissemination of Energy Efficiency measures in Public buildings (http://deep.iclei-europe.org/index.php?id=65 ) - -Respiro Guide. Published by ICLEI, Local Governments for Sustainability measures in Public buildings (http://www.respiro-project.eu/en/respiro-guides/ )

5.1 The stages of the procurement process


In terms of procurement, the construction sector is extremely complex both in procedural terms, as there is usually competitive tendering for the architectural design and the construction works, and in terms of the variety of materials and services procured. To best determine how environmental concerns can be taken into account it is important to be aware of the different stages of the construction process, and of the various parameters that can be determined at these different stages (see Table 7). The design phase has a very strong influence on the later installation of construction services.

February 2012

Page 31

The above mentioned tendering stages have been identified as the most common stages of procurement in the European building sector (DEEP 2007, Dissemination of Energy Efficiency measures in Public buildings, http://deep.iclei-europe.org/ ). However, this scheme may vary, both in terms of the construction stages considered by the tender and the number of competitive tendering rounds. If there is only one tendering round including all stages, all approaches and criteria should be addressed in this tendering stage. Table 8 hereunder outlines in further detail a typical procurement process for construction works. Procedures may vary in terms of the number of stages gone through: contract for architectural/design services, contract for construction works, contract for energy performance, services including the installation/retrofitting of specific technical installations (e.g. heating system). Thus the opportunities for inserting demands into tendering procedures will also differ from case to case.

February 2012

Page 32

Competitive tendering, if carefully applied, can have a highly positive influence on achieving high environmental performance standards in construction projects. It is also very important that environmental parameters are addressed at the beginning of the process, in the design phase.

5.2 European Commission GPP Training Toolkit


European Commission GPP Training Toolkit establishes the reasons about green purchasing recommendations and sets the product/service groups environmental criteria. According to the guideline, Green Public Procurement (GPP) should consider the overall environmental profile of the entire building. This implies the need to take into
February 2012 Page 33

account many different issues, ranging from types of building materials used to various approaches to achieve high energy efficiency. The report focuses on buildings as systems instead of just an accumulation of components. It highlights certain aspects of construction works and addresses the relationship between those aspects. The following figure illustrates the relevant content categories and the systemic approach that are included in the guideline:

The GPP Training Toolkit developed by the EC is intended to be a support tool for the European authorities that want to implement environmental criteria in their tenders providing guidance for the following aspects to consider when including environmental criteria: - Subject matter: What is going to be bought - Technical specifications: Minimum compulsory requirements that goods, services or transports must fulfil / Valuable requirements for contract awarding. This information can be based on: Ecolabel defined criteria, Technical standards, Production methods, Use requirements, Variant use. - Selection criteria on bidders: exclusion criteria, technical capacity and financial capacity. - Award criteria: the lowest price, the most economically advantageous offer, environmental criteria. - Contract performance clauses: special clauses in the contract performance such as criteria about how to accomplish it. Examples of how to include these criteria are given below:

February 2012

Page 34

Table 02- Including green criteria in different sections of the tender (Source: EC Green Public Procurement (GPP) Training Toolkit - Module 3: Purchasing Recommendations)

Other aspects that can be considered according to the EU guideline are shown below: - Environmental site and building design: Decisions about the location and appraisal of the site will fundamentally influence the sustainability of a building. - Alternative Cost Models: cost models such as Third party financing or Energy Performance Contracting offer ways to overcome the gap between construction costs and life-cycle costs. - Behavioural Aspects: training of building users in energy- and water-saving behaviour, establishing of an energy accounting system or environmental management system. GPP Training Toolkit includes concrete examples of environmental criteria which can be readily introduced in tender documents. It establishes examples of criteria for the priority product and service groups identified. For each product/service group it presents two sets of criteria: - Core GPP criteria address the most significant environmental impacts, and are designed to be used with minimum additional verification effort or cost increases. - Comprehensive GPP criteria are intended for use by authorities who seek to purchase the best environmental products available on the market, and may require additional administrative effort or imply a certain cost increase as compared to other products fulfilling the same function.

February 2012

Page 35

In particular, the EU GPP product sheet for the Construction includes recommendations for the procurement of construction works, including the supply of related services such as cooling, heating and ventilation services and the provision of electricity. It addresses the design, construction, use and disposal phase of buildings such as public services buildings and office buildings. Criteria address energy consumption, the use of RES, construction materials and products, waste and water management as well as other aspects influencing the environmental impacts of construction: architects experience, monitoring and user aspects. An example of these criteria is given below:

Table 03- Example of criteria included in the Construction Product sheet template of the GPP Training Toolkit

EU Commissions GPP Training Toolkit can be downloaded from the GPP website: http://ec.europa.eu/environment/gpp/toolkit_en.htm
February 2012 Page 36

5.3 RELIEF project


The RELIEF project was developed to compile and (re)draft existing European green purchasing guidelines for the six product groups: buses and bus services, cleaning products and services, buildings, energy, food, and IT equipment. Regarding the building group, the document summarises some of the most important aspects which should be considered in the design and planning phase and for the assessment of buildings. Green building measures are drafted in four different areas: Sustainable site and building design, Energy efficiency in buildings, Resources and materials, Indoor quality.

Reference values for some technical or building features are compiled to provide an overview about performance levels which are considered to be standard or to be best practices in various national or international green building assessment systems. The reference values are given in the following categories: - Benchmark basic environmental requirements, values which have been set as basic standards in progressive regulations or are basic standards of assessment tools (to get no deduction of scores). - Good/better noticeable improvement compared with benchmark values, values which get medium scores within assessment tools. - Best practice values which get the highest scores within assessment tools. Further information of the RELIEF Background Report can be found at: www.iclei.org/procurement/relief/

5.4 The PROCURA+ Manual


The Procura+ Manual has been developed by and for European Public Authorities in order to provide advice on how to implement sustainable procurement. It presents the implementation model and purchasing criteria developed for Procura+, ICLEIs (Local Governments for Sustainability) Sustainable Procurement Campaign. The Procura+ Manual defines the key criteria to be introduced in the Procurement process classified into six different groups of products and services. These groups are:

February 2012

Page 37

Regarding the building construction/ renovation PROCURA+ principally apply to the energy performance of buildings and the use of sustainable building materials. The manual provides guidance to apply the tendering criteria within the construction process: - Preliminary design/architects competition. - Tendering of the building construction. - Tendering of the building services (Heating, ventilation, air conditioning and refrigeration). Examples of criteria that can be implemented in tender procedures according to the guideline are shown below: Preliminary design/architects competition: - Energy Consumption: Minimum standards for net energy demand; Competition around net energy demand; Minimum standards for U-Values and/or shape/volume ratio; - Use of RES: Minimum use of solar power - Experience of the architect: Selection based on experience with sustainable building design, Compulsory use of LCA tool during design Tendering for the building construction: - Energy consumption: Competition around U-Values evaluation on price and U-Values - Use of sustainable building materials: Exclusion of certain materials, Minimum quantity of sustainable building materials, Competition around the use of sustainable building materials Tendering for the building services: - Energy consumption: Minimum standards for primary/final energy consumption; Competition around primary/final energy consumption - Monitoring and end user aspects: Regular book keeping; Energy consumption display panel; Training session for building manager.

5.5 The RESPIRO guide


The RESPIRO Guide on Socially Responsible Procurement of Building Construction Works have been developed by ICLEI (Local Governments for Sustainability), EUROCITIES, FIEC (European Construction Industry Federation) and the EFBWW
February 2012 Page 38

(European Federations of Building and Wood Workers). It is part of the Respiro project, a project that facilitated and promoted an exchange of experiences regarding the inclusion of social and ethical requirements into procurement actions both between public and private sector purchasers and their potential suppliers. The project concluded at the end of 2007. Two sectors were selected for particular attention, Construction and Textiles and clothing. Social Responsible Procurement (SRP) is focused in obtaining a positive social impact from buying, whether they are public or private. The issues that can be influenced are of very different nature, such as health and safety at work, respect of international labour standards and quality of employment, labour market inclusion policies, the fight against illegal and child labour and the ethical procurement of raw materials. The Respiro Guide is prepared for the procurement of: - Construction of new buildings (or the built environment) Renovation of existing buildings Maintenance and operation works for buildings.

The issues (health and safety, corporate social responsibility, trade ethics, supplier diversity, healthy buildings for all users and life-cycle approach) to be introduced are examined in relation to two aspects: - Construction the built environment Execution of the construction work

The positive impacts to be obtained in the case of improving the built environment can be: - Designing buildings for all, that is, a building designed in a way to allow full accessibility to all people. Using socially responsible building materials. Preferences should be given to products fulfilling the criteria included in certification schemes that include social responsibility issues in the production of building materials. Ensuring healthy indoor conditions. These conditions can only be effectively addressed through the inclusion of environmental considerations.

On the other hand in the case of improving the construction process, these impacts can be: - Promoting equal opportunities for workers. Promoting labour market inclusion has two principle objectives, promoting the inclusion of people excluded from the labour market and preventing people from becoming excluded in the first place. Contributing to improve health and safety.

February 2012

Page 39

Examples of criteria that can be implemented in tender procedures are included in the guide. The examples are organised in the following aspects: - - Defining the subject matter. Different statements of what is going to be bought, given they a different shade representing a less o more ambitious level. - - Technical specifications: A list for different works contracts as well as maintenance contracts. They are accompanied by verification schemes as well as supplementary information to assist implementation. - - Selection criteria on bidders: Exclusion criteria, technical and/or professional ability of the tenderer, verification schemes and implementation notes.. - Award criteria: organised in where social considerations have been included in the technical specifications and extra points are awarded to proposals that go beyond the requirements, and where social considerations have not been included in the technical specifications and extra points are awarded to proposals fulfilling a minimum requirement. - Contract performance clauses: special clauses in the contract performance such as criteria about how to accomplish it if the have not already been included in other stages.

5.6 Conclusions
Most of the Tools of GPP (Green Public Procurement) developed inside the EC, by European or local authorities, are focused in environmental criteria, even if some of then include also some social criteria. As an example the GPP Training Toolkit defines GPP as the procedure where environmental considerations are taken into account within the procurement process. In parallel with these tools, and to be used with them some organisations like the ICLEI (Local Governments for Sustainability) have been working in guides like RESPIRO focused in Socially Responsible Procurement. None of the analysed guides treat environmental, economic and social criteria equally. The three studied guides, GPP Training Toolkit, Procura+ and Respiro are developed to be a support tool for the European authorities that want to implement environmental or social criteria in their tenders. They provide guidance for the same aspects to consider when including environmental criteria, which are the followings: - Subject matter - Technical specifications - Selection criteria on bidders - Award criteria - Contract performance clauses The three guidelines address the introduction of sustainable criteria throughout the entire construction process, from preliminary works to building construction, but with differences. The Procura+ manual aims to focus on three stages, preliminary design/architects competition, tendering of the building construction and tendering of the building services. The GPP Training Toolkit divided the process and their recommendations into 5 stages, project development, preliminary design/architects competition, submission planning, implementation planning, and construction work and implementation of building services.. Finally, , the Respiro guide also divide the
February 2012 Page 40

process into 5 phases, project initiation, project preparation, design phase, tendering phase and remaning stages, but, probably because of its social character, has makes a particular emphasis on the maintenance phase, adding a previous division of the measures among those dealing with the building and dealing with the execution of the construction work. In the other guides are references to materials or energy consumed in the process of construction, but no criteria about the conditions of the work. The Respiro guide dont include a minimum recommended weighting for the social criteria, while the Procura+ manual recommends that the environmental criteria should be at least a 10-20%, and the GPP Training Toolkit, in the Construction Product Sheet, recommends a rate of 10-15%.

February 2012

Page 41

6. Research study on green Public Procurement construction practices in EU Countries


In the framework of OPEN HOUSE project a research study was done by the Consortium about the implementation of GPP in their countries as well as in the other countries not present in the Consortium. This study has been done as an assessment of actual practice.

6.1 GPP in EU countries


Eight tables from different countries of the EU are included to provide an example of the different degree of implementation of GPP in the construction sector in the different countries. All of them are added in the Annex I, at the end of this document. The countries analyzed are: COUNTRIES ANALYZED:
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Austria France Germany Lithuania Poland Slovakia Spain Switzerland United Kingdom

A set of questionnaires about GPP in construction were prepared on the basis of the EUs Construction product sheet. The main issues considered by EU were grouped into the following tables. Partners completed them with the usual practices in their respective countries, explaining the requirements and their verification system. In general terms, criteria have been grouped into: MAIN ISSUES CONSIDERED:
1 2 3 4 5 Energy performance Building materials Water management Waste management Other

Most considerations are taken during the implementation and use/maintenance stages. Most considered aspects are: - Energy performance, especially dealing with energy consumption, RES and innovative energy efficiency building services.
February 2012 Page 42

- Building materials, mainly considering the use of environmentally friendly construction materials, avoiding products containing harmful substances and looking for good R-values. - Water management, based on water saving installations and the rainwater and grey-water management. - Waste management, dealing with waste reduction and its management. - Others, considerations dealing with compulsory blower door test, book keeping, transport and recycling of building materials, use of LCA tool in design, construction site noise reduction and the risk to the regional environment.

The Consortium analysed the implementation of these considerations in the different stages of the construction process for each of the countries. In order to do that, the following phases of the construction process were considered: CONSTRUCTION PROCESS PHASES:
1 2 3 4 5 6 Project development Preliminary design Implementation of planning Construction works User maintenance Disposal phase

February 2012

Page 43

February 2012

Page 44

February 2012

Page 45

February 2012

Page 46

February 2012

Page 47

February 2012

Page 48

February 2012

Page 49

February 2012

Page 50

February 2012

Page 51

February 2012

Page 52

February 2012

Page 53

6.2 Conclusions
The analysis of the study done shows a lack of knowledge on GPP. It has not been easy gathering the information for this analysis. Many countries are still developing it and many partners dont know to which extent their countries practice GPP policies nor how to get this information. Despite it can be included in different degrees in public contracting documents of a country, sometimes bidders are not conscious of it, and this becomes much more evident when dealing with people or enterprises not related with the Public Administrations. Some conclusions can be drafted from the answers given in the tables added in the Annex 1: - There are different levels of GPP implementation in the countries analyzed that can be grouped in three levels: - Countries with an advanced level of GPP implementation such as Denmark, Austria, Germany or Switzerland which have complex tables with a wider range of indicators and which also have many guidelines and regulations related to it. - Countries with a standard level of implementation such as France, Poland, Slovakia or Spain that are on the process of working on it and continue progressing in its implementation, as European Union fosters. - Countries in the beginning of the implementation process such as Estonia or Luxembourg. - In the case of standard countries, the EUs construction product sheet with the Core criteria is introduced in Public Contracting through their National Action Plans. - Advanced countries also implement Comprehensive criteria and some other environmental criteria in the different stages of the construction process. - Austria, Germany and Switzerland have transposed their GPP practices into more complex tables according to their National Action Plan and in the case of Austria there are also indicators from another GPP guideline. In 2011 the Commission commissioned a study with the aim of measuring if the indicative target included in the 2008 Communication Public Procurement for a Better Environment (50% green of all public tendering procedures) has been met. The study was based in a survey in which over 850 public authorities from 26 Member States participated. The study highlights that the uptakes of EU GPP criteria varies significantly across Europe, something that can be easily understand in the examples used in this section.
February 2012 Page 54

Although simplifying the overall results derived from sources and regulatory regimes so diverse always adds a degree of uncertainty about the results, we have tried to do an analysis of the results that make up the summary sheet of the eight countries studied. Regarding the construction process phases, if we take only the sum of the number of implementations of any measure on each of them we obtained the next table. The maximum possible score for each phase of work is 261 measures implemented (29 indicators in 9 countries). To help the lecture of the table the maximum score for each studied issue has been included (number of implementations/maximum possible implementations). Preliminary design Construction work Use maintenance

Implementation on planning

P. development

1 2 3 4 5

Energy performance Building materials Water management Waste management Other TOTAL

11/90 14/72 4/18 2/9 13/72

17/90 19/72 5/18 3/9 13/72

34/90 42/72 9/18 6/9 17/72

24/90 35/72 8/18 8/9 30/72

44/90 43/72 6/18 4/9 19/72

10/90 12/72 2/18 4/9 13/72

140/540 164/432 32/108 25/54 105/432 413/1392

43

57

108

103

116

41

Most of the GPP measures implemented in the countries analysed deal with: Waste management (46.30%), Building materials (38.80%) and Building Materials (37.96%). On the other hand, with respect to the phase when the measures are implemented, Use and maintenance is the most common phase (44,44%), then implementation planning (41,38%) and construction works (39,46%). Few countries implemented environmental measures in the Project development, preliminary design or for the Disposal phase. It is worthy of note that the highest number of measures implemented can be found during the stages of Implementation of planning, Construction Work and Use and maintenance.

February 2012

Page 55

TOTAL

MAIN ISSUES CONSIDERED:

Disposal phase

7. Practical case study: VISESA. Tender document implementing environmental criteria


VISESA has recently launched a tender which included GPP criteria. This tender is related to the construction of four housing developments that are participating as part of other European project: the CONCERTO programmes project PIMEs CONCERTO communities towards optimal thermal and electrical efficiency of buildings and districts, based on microgrids (http://www.pimes.eu). PIMES encompasses urban development in the Communities of Vitoria (Spain), Dale (Norway) and Szentendre (Hungary). This partnership was created to find the relevant synergies with regard to some of the main priorities set out in the CONCERTO initiative: - Large-scale integration of renewable energy sources: biomass CHP, high efficiency solar thermal systems, photovoltaic solar systems, small hydro power station and wind installations integrated in residential areas. - Eco-buildings: passive solar energy harnessing criteria, energy efficient refurbishment, advanced energy recovery, targets of maximum energy efficiency, integration of RES. All achieved without forgetting the comfort of the residents and users of the facilities. - Polygeneration: generation of electricity, heating and DHW, with the support of RES, and continuous monitoring of all consumption points, optimizing the profitability of the exchange with the grid. - Energy storage and supply assurance: different means of storing heat energy, using accumulator tanks. Increase in assurance of power supply over traditional communities, and added assurance of cogeneration and use of renewable energy sources. In order to reach the objectives set for the Vitorias community, VISESA considered some improvements related with the reduction of the energy consumption and the bioclimatic design. These concepts were introduced in the planning stage as part of the specifications within the bidding process, while other improvements defined during the drafting of the buildings design were introduced as valuable criteria in the award process. The complete list of initial commitments with EC is presented below:
1. Constructive improvements 1.1 30% energy demand reduction 1.2 Faade trasmittance < 035 W/mK 1.3 Roof transmittance < 024 W/mK 1.4 Ground slab transmittance < 030 W/mK 1.5 Glasses transmittance < 200 W/mK 1.6 Window transmittance (glasses included) < 200 W/mK 1.7 Shading coefficient (blinds) > 90 % 2. Other characteristics 2.1 Emitting low-temperature heat 2.2 Optimum orientation. South oriented 2.3 Low emissitivy glazing February 2012 Page 56

2.4

DHW reducing consumption Temperature control systems and intelligent lighting 2.5 management systems A-label household appliances (refrigerator, washing 2.6 machine) 2.7 Weather station Internal transport vehicles for energy company personnel 2.8 run by electricity 3. Thermal power generation 3.1 High efficiency thermal solar panels 3.2 CHP plant based on gas 3.3 Storage and geothermal energy collection 3.4 Integrated photovoltaic panels as a ventilated faade 3.5 Small-size wind turbines on roofs 4. Creation of an ESCO 5. Monitoring

The PIMEs project was implemented on 7 buildings that have been previously designed as part of the district planning and which were adapted to the requirements of the PIMEs specifications. The 7 buildings are organised in two social housing developments whose projects were awarded separately: the A-31 development composed of 256 flats and the A-32 development composed of 176 flats. They are to be built close to the green ring that surrounds the City of Vitoria-Gasteiz, and they are located in two different plots within the same urban sector (sector 12).

A-32

A-31

Plots Buildings Profile Dwellings Built surface area Housing program Garages Storage rooms Inhabitants February 2012

A-31 256 flats 2 3x2 2BS+GF+8F+AT 128x2 12.688,10 mx2 1d- 0 (0%)x2 2d- 6 (5%)x2 3d- 122 (95%)x2 135x2 128x2 506 inhab.x2

A-32 176 flats 1 1 2BS+GF+8F+AT 176 14.260,60 m 1d- 40 (23%) 2d- 88 (50%) 3d- 48 (27%) 184 176 502 inhab. Page 57

TOTAL 3 7 432 39.636,80 m 1d- 40(13%) 2d- 100 (31%) 3d- 292 (56%) 319 304 1.512 inhab.

The A-32 development (composed by 176 flats), whose tender is analyzed in this case study, is under construction. The A-31 development (composed by 265 flats) was divided during the development of the project in two new developments: the A31-north, that has been tendered but not yet awarded, and the A-31-south, whose tendering process hasnt begun yet. 7.1.1 Preliminary design/ architects competition The design teams responsible for these projects were selected in an architects competition that included as an award criteria to be certificated with the ISO14006/UNE150301Environmental management process design and development: ecodesign, and the introduction of sustainability measures in the building design was valued within the technical aspects section. 7.1.2 Development of the project At the time of starting the PIMEs project, the construction projects plan had been already prepared, so the actions accomplished to incorporate the additional concepts proposed were the following: - An energy simulation of the buildings was performed through Design Builder in order to know the actual buildings performance and the most appropriated measures. - The results of the energy simulation were given to the design teams. - The design team proposed a number of improvements in the building. - At the same time, the consortium partners analyzed the results and decided how to integrate the renewable energy sources within the development. - A different thermal power generation system was drafted for two of the developments. - A second energy simulation of the buildings was performed to ensure the compliance with the EC commitments. - New detailed design projects were prepared by the design teams. In order to get enough tender applications and to have a wider competition, the architectural and energetic services (ESCO) were split into two different projects. Once the construction projects were modified, a new workshop between the consortium and the design teams was carried out with the objective of defining the sustainability measures to introduce in the tendering process. These measures were divided in two types: - Required improvements: a first set of criteria related to the PIMEs project, and a set with other environmental criteria to be assumed by the bidders. - Improvements to be used as criteria in the award process. This improvements are the ones to be propose or not by the bidders, and are valued only in case of being proposed. This value depends of the specific proposals make by the bidders in each of the possible described improvements.

February 2012

Page 58

The new criteria introduced in the tender documentation were prepared with the aid of the European Commission GPP Training Toolkit and the Basque Government Resolution 6/2008 about the introduction of social, environmental, and other public policies in the recruitment of the Basque Government Administration and his public bodies. 7.1.3 Tendering of the building construction and services The first development was the A-32. This development has already been awarded and it is now under construction. The other development, the A-31, has been divided in two parts, one of them being in the tendering process now, and the other to be tendered next year. In this case it was decided to tender the building construction and the energetic services together to ease the process of construction, trying not to increase more the number of involved agents. In the case of the A-31 developments buildings, as their energetic facilities are more complex that in the A-32 development, the selection criteria on bidders include special considerations about their previous experience in the development of renewable energy facilities.

7.2 The legal Framework


There is still no law with mandatory GPP standards for the construction sector in the Basque Country, but the Basque Government published a Resolution, the 6/2008, with an agreement adopted by the Government Council "On incorporating social, environmental and other public policies in recruitment of the Basque Government administration and its public bodies. The field of application of this resolution is, among others, the works contracts.

7.3 The subject matter


The subject matter was defined in the Administrative Specification (article 1):
Article 1. subject Execution of construction works of 176 Social Housing, aging and urbanization linked and special energy facilities in the plot, CPR-7a Salburua sector 12 in Vitoria-Gasteiz

Special energy facilities was included as part of the subject matter in order to let the tenderers know that the environmental performance of the works would be an important part of the contract The information given to prepare the tender was the same to all bidders, and it consisted on the technical specifications of the building, the urbanization and liabilities. These specifications have contractual character (article 2. Project).
February 2012 Page 59

The building has a ground floor, 8 residential floors and a floor under the roof where the storage rooms are located. The 176 flats are divided in five vertical access cores conforming a single building. The communication cores are organized in three portals and are accessible both from the street and the common private space. The plot has a private inner estate, oriented to south. The main characteristics of the development are:
A-32 176 SOCIAL DWELLINGS No of dwellings Plots Profile Garages Dwellings (m) Surface area of green and open spaces Storage rooms

176 RCP 7-A 2 Basements+Ground Floor+8 Floors+Attics 184 (8 free sale) 14,260 m 1,069 m 176 units

7.4 Procurement procedure and selection criteria on bidders


An open tendering process was followed (article 15), in which any interested party may submit a tender.
Article 11. Procurement procedure Any interested companies, which meet the requirements of economic, financial, technical and professional requirements, as well as the classification required, and not in hiring ban can tender in the open procedure

The tender was published both in the Official Journal of the European Union (OJEU) (24/11/2010) and the BOPV (Official Journal of the Basque Government) (20/12/2010), as well as in VISESA website. This ensures equal access to the contract by operators from all the EU countries and from the countries with equivalent rights. The eligibility conditions that the bidders must meet are included in the articles 9 and 10 of the Administrative Specifications of the tender:
Article 9. Classification required Eligible for the award of this contract can be legal persons, Spanish or foreign individual or temporary union of entrepreneurs, who have full capacity to act, they do not fall under the prohibitions and incompatibilities to contract with the Administration laid down in Article 49 of the GCA and prove their economic, financial and technical assistance required according to the classification: Construction: Group C, Subgroup 2, Category F. In addition, in the case of legal persons, the performance of contracts covered by this specification must be included within the purpose, object or area of activity, according to their founding statutes or rules. Non-EU foreign companies must fulfil also the requirements of Article 44 of the GCA. Article 10. Economical, financial and technical requirements February 2012 Page 60

Besides the classification requirement established in the previous article, in accordance with the provisions of art. 51 of Law 30/2007, of October 30, Public Sector Contracts, employers must demonstrate possession of the minimum economic and financial, professional or technical defined below: With regard to economic and financial capacity: It requires compliance with each and every one of the following requirements: a) the total price of the contracts already awarded to the tenderer, updated for the changes approved, and the price type contract to be awarded does not exceed the net worth by 10; b) the total price of the contracts already awarded to the tenderer, updated for the changes approved, and the price type contract to be awarded does not exceed the amount of 91,709,915.14 euros (35% of the forecast Visesas annual investment). c) the liquidity ratio of the company exceeds 5%; d) the solvency ratio is greater than 1. The audited annual accounts exercise to be submitted by the company must be the latest audited and prepared by the Board of Directors of the company, which shall be accompanied with the final audit report. With regard to technical capacity: Required to have executed at least one work of a residential building for over 50% budget of the bid within the last year and backed by certificates of satisfactory ejection, indicating the value, date, place of execution of works and specifying system and performed according to the rules governing the profession and usually led to fruition.

Exclusion criteria are included in the article 11 and they have to do with the national procurement directive (Law 30/2007, of October 30, Public Sector Contracts). The 16 bidders that presented a proposal were finally accepted.

7.5 Sources of GPP criteria used


The main source of environmental criteria has been the PIMES specifications, with its improvements related with energy consumption reduction and bioclimatic design. Eco-labels and other specific labels like PEFC (Programme for the Endorsement for Forest Certification) have been also considered as criteria to assess the proposals.

7.6 Environmental technical specifications


The particular technical specifications related to sustainability and environmental improvements were included in the section IV Particular Conditions of the Administrative Specifications of the tender. Some of them were compulsory requirements, and so, they were no considered as award criteria, while two of them were considered improvements to be valued in the award process. A summary of them is described below. 7.6.1 Particular conditions related to PIMEs project - Construction improvements for higher energy efficiency of the buildings, including, among other, the reduction of at least 30% of the buildings energy demand compared to the CTE (Spanish Standards for Buildings) requirements and considering a mechanical ventilation of 1 renovation/hour.
February 2012 Page 61

- Thermal energy production (heating and DHW) and electricity by poligeneration, based on integrated renewable energy sources according to an optimum economical profit, using a microgrid. Energy must be produced by one or more of the following systems: cogeneration plant based on gas (thermal energy and electricity production), Building integrated photovoltaic panels, micro- wind turbines, etc. - Other changes or improvements of any kind, which may be an indirect consequence from some of the previous ones, or which commitment is generalist and not specific, as the following ones: Low emissivity glazing (in all windows due to the commitment in transmittances); - Consumption reducers for DHW and temperature and lighting management systems; Passive systems for thermal storage; Kitchen electrical appliances class A; Weather station and electric car. - Energy management by an ESCO (constituted by EVE and VISESA), which will control the central system of the electric microgrid managing the energy supply, generation and distribution. Regarding the conditions for this ESCO, it will belong to EVE and VISESA initially; it will be in charge of carrying out each of the actions, guaranteeing electricity, heating and DHW supply, generation and distribution elements maintenance and selling the electrical energy to the Grid. As an innovative proposal it is proposed that each dwelling will owe a percentage of the ESCO property in the future. - Monitoring of the actual performance of the occupied dwellings and the microgrid during a year and compliance with the specifications set. - Transmittances: The bidder is committed to achieve the transmittances described in the PIMEs project, independently from the actual outcomes of the project: Enclosure transmittance < 035 W/mK. Roof transmittance < 024 W/mK. Ground floor transmittance < 030 W/mK. Window-glazing transmittance < 200 W/mK. 7.6.2 Other environmental conditions required - Air-tightness of the building: special attention will be paid to eliminate leakages during buildings construction. As soon as the builder in coordination with the facultative direction considers it convenient, building air-tightness will be quantified by a blower door test. Air renovation rate will be obtained at a reference pressure of 50 Pa (n50) according to UNE EN 13829 standards (national standard). Afterwards, weak points will be identified such as different constructive elements joints (internal walls with concrete pillars, faade-window, ceiling-structure, blind boxes)-faades, dwellings-conductions), plugs, lighting points, installations register boxes, etc., where sealing will be applied. Finally,
February 2012 Page 62

leakages will be measured again by the previously mentioned test, having to achieve a renovation rate at n50 less than 2ac/h in a minimum of 4 dwellings. Tests will be repeated, as well as identification and improvements over weak points as many times as it would be necessary to achieve the referred objective, spreading the improving works in the tested dwelling to the whole of them. - Quality Control tests: Without damaging what it is established in the Construction Quality Control Programme and what is established in other articles of this document, ventilation test will be realized with tracer gasses, acoustic essays and enclosure, roof and windows transmittances essays will be performed in the Basque Government Quality Control Laboratories and blowerdoor tests at 50 Pa in the working site. - Monitoring system: a small weather station will be included by the bidder on the roof of the building (wind, temperature, humidity) with data transmission to the data control system in the machine room. - Machine room works execution: They will be carried out with the assistance of an enterprise specialist in acoustics. Once the works are finished, the compliance of the machine room with the acoustic regulation and standards will be checked by means of on-site acoustic tests. - Transport and recycling of construction materials: The bidder must establish a minimum level and a target level for the use of reusable containers to transport materials to the working site. Construction materials suppliers must establish a minimum level and a target level for wrapping wastes (e.g by means of a collection, recycling and reusing system for the containers of the working site). - Waste management: Without damaging what is established in the corresponding project, the contractor must establish convenient measures in the site to reduce and recover (reuse or recycle) wastes produced during the demolition and construction process. A recovery percentage of at least 60% in relation to its discrimination by weight percentage (30%) is required. An Environmental Management System (EMS) or any other evidence of equivalent measures of environmental management will be accepted. - Facultative Direction coordination: Because of its singularity, this work includes a specific project of special energy installations which will have a specific work coordinator integrated inside the Facultative Direction. - Certifications during the works: VISESA has included in the tender the energy installations to be provided and managed by the awarded ESCO. Therefore, it is necessary to distinguish each part of the budget clearly, being necessary certifications in site and invoicing according to the division of budgets of this tender: Building works (civil works and conventional installations). Special Energy Installations (heating, gas, microgeneration and BIPV) Bound urbanization.

February 2012

Page 63

7.6.3 Environmental criteria to be valued in the award process - Improvement in the air-tightness of the building: the reduction of the maximum leakage flow rate in dwellings will be valued. - Quality improvement related to materials LCA approach and/or with maintenance conditions of them: The following points will be considered: o Use of materials and construction products fulfilling certain environmental criteria: the scoring will take into account the use of the highest possible percentage of products (windows, paints, insulating materials, etc.) which have been produced fulfilling the underlying standards to an ecolabel Type I according to ISO 14024 standard or provide clear and transparent information about products performance based on product declarations of an ecolabel Type II. Without affecting the previous conditions, it will also be valued: 1. Use of materials which would be of low primary energy, as far as possible. 2. LCA approach, considering its maintenance and possible dismantling. 3. Use of recycled materials (expressing the content of recycled material used in the product production) and recyclable. o Use of construction materials based on renewable raw materials: the use of the highest percentage possible of construction products (windows, paints, insulating materials, etc.) based on renewable raw materials will be valued. o Timber. Sustainable forestry sources: the use of timber coming from legal sources will be valued, i.e. wood coming from forests certified as implementing principles and measures focused on guaranteeing a sustainable management of forests, by certificates of chain of custody of wood products such as FSC, PEFC or any equivalent verification proof, which will be accepted as fulfilment measures. o Low/easy maintenance materials: Materials with a low or zero maintenance, such as concrete with photocatalitics, reducing the need of maintenance and cleaning will be valued.

7.7 Award criteria


VISESA awards the contracts to the most economically advantageous tender (MEAT), which implies that in addition to the economical aspect other award criteria are also taken into account. The award criterion in VISESA for construction works is usually (Article 19 in the Administrative Specifications) the one shown below:

February 2012

Page 64

AWARD CRITERIA 1 2. 3 4. 5 PRICE RIGOUR IN THE TENDER IMPROVEMENTS RELATING TO WARRANTIES QUALITY IMPROVEMENTS AFTER-SALES SERVICE TOTAL 66 pt 12 pt 10 pt 8 pt 4 pt 100 pt

In this particular case, some criteria were changed in three of the chapters to include special scores for those aspects of the project which involve compliance or improvement with respect to European commitments.
ENVIRONMENTAL CRITERIA 2. 2.1 2.2 4. 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 5 5.1 5.2 RIGOUR IN THE TENDER (12 pt) Analysis of the documentation Analysis of the budget QUALITY IMPROVEMENTS (08 pt) Tightness LCA concepts Monitoring Carpentries Soundproofing of boiler room Thermal bridges AFTER-SALES SERVICE (04 pt) Monitoring Training TOTAL (100pt) 5 pt (41%) 3.00 pt 2.00 pt 8 pt (100%) 2.50 pt 1.50 pt 1.00 pt 1.00 pt 1.00 pt 1.00 pt 2.pt (50%) 1.00 pt 1.00 pt 15 pt (15%)

The Administrative Specifications includes the need that all the improvements proposed by the bidder should be described and justified correctly. In addition, the effects that the implementation of the measures can have directly or indirectly on the working units in relation to the previous construction project must be described as well. All the measures to implement must comply with the national standards. The scores of these special concepts have been:
A32 TENDER PROCCES TENDERING SCORES Max. points 2. RIGOUR IN THE TENDER 5.00 3.00 2.00 8.00 Minor Score 1,78 0.80 0.50 0.00 Major Score 2.95 1,79 1.40 4.60 Page 65 Average 2,34 1.39 0,95 1,68 Awarded bidder score 2,07 1.27 0.80 2.80

2.1 Analysis of the documentation 2.2 Analysis of the budget 4. QUALITY IMPROVEMENTS

February 2012

4.1 Tightness 4.2 LCA concepts 4.3 Monitoring 4.4 Carpentries 4.5 Soundproofing of boiler room 4.6 Thermal bridges 5 AFTER SALES

2,50 1,50 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 2.00 1.00 1.00 15.00

0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.78

1.20 0.80 1.00 0.60 1.00 1.00 2.00 1.00 1.00 8.50

0,32 0,32 0,31 0,16 0,31 0,26 0,72 0,40 0,31 4.52

0.40 0.80 1.00 0.30 0.00 0.30 2.00 1.00 1.00 6.87

5.1 Monitoring 5.2 Training TOTAL

As it can be seen in the next table, on average, the scores obtained by the bidders were low. Most of the bidders didnt obtain any point in one or more of the sections (rigour, quality or after sales) meeting only 50% of their possible points. However despite the overall score obtained was low, there were bidders that understood the requirements asked and offered improvements for every section, thus obtaining between 50 and 100% of the possible points.
A32 TENDER PROCCES TENDERING SCORES Max 2. 4. 5 RIGOUR IN THE TENDER QUALITY IMPROVEMENTS AFTER SALES TOTAL 5.00 8.00 2.00 15.00 Major 2.95 4.60 2.00 7.60 % 59,00 57,50 100 50,60 Average 2,34 1,68 0,72 3.98 % 47,00 21,00 36,00 26,53

Only one out of the 16 applicant companies obtained more than 7.50 points (50%), but half of them, 8 companies, get at least a third part of the points (5 points) demonstrating that they can work with environmental concepts. The other 8 companies obtained average scores in rigour of the tender, but 6 of them didnt get any points in the quality of the improvements, what shows that there was a lack of knowledge with regards to these concepts. This fact can be seen as an indicator that a relevant number of regional construction companies in the Basque Country are not yet prepared to develop a construction based on sustainability criteria.
A32 TENDER PROCCESS TENDERING SCORES Rigour in the tender Bidder 1 Bidder 2 Bidder 3 Bidder 4 Bidder 5 Bidder 6 February 2012 2.54 2.95 2.11 2.07 2.41 1.8 Quality improvements 4.00 1.70 0 2.80 0 0 Page 66 After sales 0 1.00 0 2.00 1.00 0

Bidder 7. Bidder 8 Bidder 9 Bidder 10 Bidder 11 Bidder 12 Bidder 13 Bidder 14 Bidder 15 Bidder 16

2.9 2.32 2.40 1.78 2.59 2.59 22.64 2.43 1.88 2.12

4.60 0 0 0 2.50 0.90 3.10 1.80 0.20 1.70

1.00 0 0 0 1.50 2.00 1.00 1.00 0 1.00

An e-mail (concursos@visesa.com) was given to all bidders for any query that can arise during the tendering process, but few consultations were received about these quality improvements. The scores and improvements offered by the bidders in the tender are studied one by one in the next sections. 7.7.1 Rigour in the tender Five points out of the twelve points of the chapter were given to improvements related to PIMEs projects requirements: - Up to a maximum of 3 points: the quality of the content related to the study and project appraisal and measurements in relation to the achievement of the goals endorsed by the European Commission. - Up to a maximum of 2 points: those higher unit prices representing an improvement of the quality offered, in relation to the achievement of the goals endorsed by the European Commission (valuating specifically, after analysing it with the Innovation department, the prices of carpentry and exterior glazing, insulation in walls and roofs, heating control system, cogeneration equipment and thermal panels). The reason to assess the prices on these items was to have a margin for the improvement of their environmental features during the construction of the building. It can be concluded that the analysis of the unit prices of the budget related to PIMES requirements was understood and addressed by the bidders which obtained an average rating of 1.39 out of 2.00, while the analysis and report of the PIMEs documentation was of no interest in almost all the cases as it demonstrates the average rating of 0.19 out of 3.00 points that they obtained. 7.7.2 Qualities offered improvements All the points of this chapter were referred to environmental improvements. All the improvements realized on the Building project without damaging the architectonic design of the building were valuable:

February 2012

Page 67

- Up to a maximum of 2.5 points: Proposals which will mean an improvement on dwellings air tightness will be valued. Identification and correction of leakages points will be valued, according to the Particular Conditions outlined in this tender. - Up to a maximum of 1.5 points: Quality improving proposals related to a LCA approach of materials and to their maintenance conditions, according to the Particular Conditions outlined this tender. - Up to a maximum of 1 point: Monitoring of the dwellings improving proposals, especially on those topics which enable a better knowledge for users about their energy consumption. - Up to a maximum of 1 point: carpentries improvements according to a justification study and its corresponding accreditation, which would improve energy performance of dwellings, by reducing the transmittance according to their orientation or by improving the shadowing elements in western orientation by means of movable elements. - Up to a maximum of 1 point: justified proposal which guarantees a significant improvement in machine room soundproofing according to general or local standards requirements, including the corresponding certification by means of in situ tests in the most affected dwelling. - - Up to a maximum of 1 point: Proposals meaning an improvement over thermal bridges in dwellings will be valued. The improvements offered by the bidders in relation to these issues, regarding the transmittances or improvements related to concepts of sustainability, are the following ones. Those built (built-in) by the contractor have been marked in the left column.
QUALITY Transmittances 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. Others 12. Built-in 13. Built-in February 2012 Integration of rain sensors, light and solar radiation to the weather station Implementing an Internet server that provide owners information on Page 68 Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Sealing at critical points of possible air filtration Replacement polyurethane of slab fronts by sheet of polystyrene plate previously inserted or type Celenyt Isolated cases for window blinds Double sealed outside and inside of prefabricated faade panels Incorporation of sealing adhesive strips for reducing seepage losses Windows carpentry that improves the planned transmittance (2,2 2 w/m C) Addition of glass improves the transmittance of the proposed project 2 (1,6 w/m C) Placing polystyrene plates in front of pillars Adding insulation in drying and in meetings with these points faade both externally and internally. Polyurethane under window-sill Projection of rock wool on floor ceilings PROPOSED AMENDMENTS

the weather station and its consumption (instantaneous and historical) 14. 15. Sustainability 16. Built-in 17. 18. Built-in 19. Built-in 20. Built-in 21. 22. 23. Total built in Using wood from sustainable harvesting Improved "ecolabelling" of products defined in the project, tending to that specified as type II and type III, are of type I Using ecological paint Use water-based varnishes Using rock wool Ultracoustic R, de Knauff Replacing terrazzo micro-grain for porcelain tile (ecologically better, comes from natural clays and does not use cement major pollutant) Intelligence lightning control in garages Use EPDM waterproofing (no pollution in their manufacture, recyclable and does not require heat to start work). 10 of 23 Seepage control in the 17 types of dwellings (17 or more dwellings tested) Performing thermographic analysis of the faades

In this case, as it has been previously explained, there are two very different responses of the bidders. Five of the 16 bidders obtained less than 1 point and didnt offer specific improvements. Only two bidders gained 4 or more points. Rest of the bidders was between 1 and 4 points. This low scoring (8 maximum points were to be given) is not because they didnt proposed improvements but because these were, in general, no specific ones, demonstrating they didnt have the knowledge enough in the matter to develop particular improvements. This lack of specification makes it difficult to value the improvements but also make impossible any monitoring of them. 7.7.3 Improvements regarding after-sales services In this chapter two out of the 4 points offered were given to improvements of the monitoring accorded with the EC: - Up to a maximum of 1 point: monitoring and follow up of dwellings with the objectives described in the awarding (PIMEs projects conditions) - Up to a maximum of 1 point: property training on the operation and management of the monitoring system for special energy facilities. In next diagram the measures proposed by the bidders in relation to monitoring and training to the property for the correct operation, monitoring and management of special energy facilities are shown. These measures were linked to the PIME's project:
AFTER-SALES SERVICE Monitoring 1. Built-in Training February 2012 Page 69 Improving the monitoring (without specifying) PROPOSED AMENDMENTS

2. Built-in

Providing information to owners and technical services of the operation and monitoring of special energy facilities

In this case almost all the bidders included the improvements in their proposal.

7.8 Contract performance clauses


Contract performance clauses are used to specify the concepts that the contract must include. They include the specific commitments which have been made as part of the procurement process. In this case, the contract clauses dont include the required environmental specifications related to the PIMEs project because they were included in the Administrative Specifications section and were considered as part of the contract once they are accepted by the bidders (article 14. Acceptance of the specifications). The specific commitments of the contractor were listed in the contract signed with the contractor:
Thirteen. Other obligations of the contractor The improvements proposed by Bidder 4 included in the economic offer are incorporated herein and can be classified into the following: 1. IMPROVEMENTS OR EXPANSION OF GUARANTEES OFFERED payment extension period of the 2,50 retention to five years from the date of the formal reception of the works without reservation 2. QUALITY (according to description provided in the technical offer) Improvement of the dwellings air tightness conditions: - controlled mechanical ventilation double flow type - air tightness of dwellings Improvements in the life cycles of materials - paintings: paintings JUNO ecological - varnishes, water-based varnishes - isolates: mneral wool KNAUF R Utraacoustic range (Echoes technology) - Wood: Wood from sustainable forestry sources - polyurethane: projection rigid foam polyurethane, foamed with HFC-365 mfc Monitoring - Implementation rain sensors and solar radiation sensors to the weather station. - Implementation of an internet server Boiler room soundproofing Reduction of the thermal bridges 3. POST-SALES SERVICES ((according to description provided in the technical offer) Extension of time for after sales service specifications set l in 54 months Monitoring and tracking of housing Property training February 2012 Page 70

None of the contract clauses result in discrimination in favour of contractor from any particular Member State. No special penalties for non-compliance or bonuses for good performance were included in the contract. However, general penalties for improper works were included:
Third. Contract price and payment To respond in the proper execution of the work and the exact fulfilment of all contractual obligations will be withheld to the Contractor, as security, the FIVE PERCENT (5%) of each certification. In no case shall the payment of interest on the amounts withheld.

7.9 Monitoring contract compliance


As reflected in the handbook on green public procurement of the EC, there is a need to monitor carefully the contract clauses during the execution of the contract, with the responsibility assignments regarding the compliance and reporting clearly indicated in the contract. VISESA has chosen to implement a double monitoring: - Request the contractor to supply evidence of compliance, by preparing an annex to the QUALITY CONTROL PLAN, specially referred to environmental commitments that included the delivery and control of the certificates of the materials used. - The contracting authority may carry out spot checks. In the Administrative Specifications, a clause was added indicating that 1% of the budget would be used in spot checks decided by the designer team or VISESA. In this case, one of the tests should be check the transmittances of faade, roof and windows, to assure their compliance with the PIMEs commitments. - Contact a third party to monitor compliance. VISESA has contracted a Technical Control Bureau (OCT in Spain) whose works begins with the design of the building and finishes three years after the completion of the construction works (last flood proofing test). The environmental commitments are also included in this monitoring. In this case a monitoring of the energy demand reduction will be deployed during a year as part of the PIMEs project programme.

7.10 Conclusions
After having introduced concepts of GPP both in the selection of design teams (architects competition) and construction works, VISESA considers that, nowadays Basque countrys designers are more aware of sustainable construction concepts than construction companies which have, in general, a lack of sustainability and energy efficiency experts, thus, not been able to propose sustainable construction measures.

February 2012

Page 71

Furthermore, the number of sustainable concepts that can be included as part of the technical specifications in EU tender procedures is considered still low: basically thermal insulation, windows, wall panels and energy systems such as CHP, and it is unknown for companies. This fact restricts the possibility of a truly objective assessment of the proposals, in the absence of contrasting elements used by contractors to refer to the scores, and it also reduces the proportion of points that can be devoted to evaluate these concepts. Therefore, companies usually prefer to discard them than to learn sustainable construction practices. In order to improve the results of the procurement, the following steps are considered necessary: - To increase the weight of the sustainable criteria to force the industry to explore these issues and not discard those points. - To incorporate as many environmental and sustainability improvements as possible in the design process, considering them as technical specifications of the project. - To include measurable technical specifications in the award criteria in order to have a more specific and objective assessment as well as to oblige the contractor to do market research and to provide compliance certification of the materials. - Introduce from the beginning the obligation to draft a separate annex in the Quality Control Plan and a comprehensive Monitoring Plan for environmental measures, in order to enhance its understanding not only as a key part of the tendering process but as part of the entire construction process. - Introduce special penalties for the non-compliance of the environmental and sustainable requirements. VISESA, based on its experience as a Public Body dedicated to promote social housing, believes that better results in terms of design and economical efficiency can be obtained by separating architects competitions and construction works. In task 4.2, the feasibility of the implementation of OPEN HOUSE as a valid tool in tendering processes will be analysed, including the regional case of the Basque Country, asessing the legal restrictions or barriers and the possible implementation on a real case study to be further considered as future National example cases of best practice green or sustainable public procurement.

February 2012

Page 72

8. Workshop about GPP with IHOBE


8.1 Introduction
In order to analyse how to introduce OH methodology in Green Public Procurement procedures a workshop was hold in Bilbao (Vizcaya, Basque Country) by VISESA, ACCIONA and IHOBE (Public entity that supports the Department for the Environment, Spatial Planning, Agriculture and Fisheries of the Basque Government) in February 2012. During the development of the Task 4.2 additional workshops between OH partners and national authorities will take place with the objective of identifying the best ways of implementing OH methodology in Green Public Procurement procedures. The goal of the Task 4.2 was the introduction of OH methodology in several real procurements to be used as case studies. The methodology proposed in the OH contract was: - 1. To ask in a public tender for a minimum level of sustainability to be measured with the Open House tool. - 2. To ask bidders to assess their building comply with OH tool, demonstrating the match of the required minimum. - 3. The contractor should assess the building once built to demonstrate its real sustainability. - 4. Incorporate the conclusions of the process in the final version of the methodology in the task 4.4. However, VISESA considered not possible to perform these tasks because: - Although it is possible under the Spanish public procurement legislation to require compliance in tender procedures with technical specifications related to sustainability, and thus to require a minimum level of sustainability, it is not possible, to restrict the evaluation of this sustainability level by a determined assessment methodology. Thus, the bidders must have the possibility of using alternative assessment methods. - All our buildings are part of social housing developments, and are, therefore, subject to a special legal and economic regime. For these and other reasons (like the fact that being this first OH version prepare for office buildings not all the indicators are adequate for assessing residential buildings) it was decided to conduct a previous study to discriminate which indicators can be used in this first application of OH in our tendering methodology.The process of conducting the bidding, awarding it and the conclusion of the building can take, according to our experience, more than 3 years. Therefore, the final version of the methodology cannot wait to be prepared until the contractor has time to demonstrate the compliance of the assessed sustainability level.

February 2012

Page 73

Given the above, an alternative methodology to the initially considered is proposed to address this task. In order to develop this methodology , VISESA is been supported by the Basque Governments entity IHOBE, in charge of the regional environmental plans development support. VISESA and ACCIONA have been in contact with IHOBE from the beginning of the project to discuss the OH project development. In addition, as this entity is responsible for the drafting of the guidelines for sustainable building issued by the Basque Government, the adaptation of OH methodology to the regional framework will be assessed by analyzing the similarities between both methodologies. As part of the workshop, a first analysis of the OH methodologys indicators most suitable to be implemented in public tender procedures was done. The conclusions obtained from this preliminary analysis will be taken into account in further workshops that will take place in Task 4.2.

8.2 Workshop methodology


The documentation prepared for its discussion during the workshop was: - A summary about VISESAs developments process and procurement, so to understand the possibilities to introduce the sustainability indicators in the different projects stages. - A first draft of OH methodologys indicators analysis was prepared in relation with the construction stage when they are assessed and their potential of improvement. - A first draft of the methodology proposed by VISESA for its use in the T.4.2 case study. The participants reached the conclusion that the proposed methodology process meets the legal specifications required to the public procurement in the Basque Country and that the implementation of sustainability indicators as an objective tendering criteria can be very useful to assess the global level of sustainability in a building instead of individual sustainable measures. In this session IHOBE raised several questions related to the need of considering the following proposals: - To be in the path to become a national best practice example, the tendering must be developed following either the GPP guide published by IHOBE and the EC manuals. It can be a good idea to document the process. - An analysis about the indicators contained in the Guide of environmentally sustainable construction and rehabilitation: administrative buildings or offices in the Basque Autonomous Community published in 2011 should be made in order to assess the regional adaptation of OH methodology to the Basque Country and the incorporation of some of this indicators in the procurement. - In order to assure the correct implementation of the sustainable measures, a monitoring system must be integrated in the procurement being the constructor responsible for undertaking such monitoring plan.
February 2012 Page 74

Based on the conclusions obtained within the workshop, a new draft of the methodology was prepared (the one attached here), and the main lines of future collaboration for the task 4.2 were set: - To regularly inform IHOBE about the development of the OH project and to invite it to the next workshops of the project. - To make a comparative study between the OH indicators and the methodology included in the Guide of environmentally sustainable construction and rehabilitation: administrative buildings or offices in the Basque Autonomous Community published in 2011 in order to pave the way for a further adaptation of OH at regional level, in this case to the Basque Country. - To get support from IHOBE during the preparation of the procurement process strategy to be developed in the task 4.2. - To get support from IHOBE in order to prepare a real case study, that can be considered as national best practice and to actively collaborate in its dissemination. -

8.3 VISESA procurement process


In order to develop the new procurement process, VISESA first analyzed its current tender procedures and its relationship with the bidding phases. This study will allow identifying the stages when the implementation of sustainability measures is possible. The actual VISESAs procurement process and the possibilities of integration of OH methodology are shown in the following table:

Stages 1. Initial feasibility study of the developments (VISESA)

Actual process We get our plots in two ways, buying them or mandated by the Basque government. Only in the ones that we buy we can considered the indicators that have to with the site.

OH integration potential In the plots that we buy we can considered the indicators that have to with the site as an element of value. For all of them the OH methodology can be used as a decision support tool to select the most appropriated sustainability measures for each particular case. To introduce OH methodology in this tendering process it would be necessary to pospose the tendering till the basic design project. That means that the project process and its tendering has to be divide into at least two phases in order to allow the assessment of the second phase of the project by
Page 75

FIRST TENDER: arquitects competition 2. Technical teams The documentation required for procurement the tender is only up to preprocess design level, so it is not possible to assess in this tender more than general issues related to the technical design of the building: situation of the building in the plot, sunlight, materials, shading, energy systems, etc
February 2012

3. Preparation of design projects

This phase is actually divided into two phases, the basic design projects and the final design projects. It would be necessary to assess the building after both phases to determine the effect of the measures taken in the process SECOND TENDER: construction company competition 4. Selection of The tender for the selection of construction construction companies is done companies for once the final design projects is the building completed, and the definitive works: qualification of social housing given by Basque Government's housing territorial delegations and municipal work licenses has been obtained. 5. Construction It is considered necessary to works. evaluate again the building after construction to verify the real impact of the measures taken.

means of OH tool As in the current process there is no tender after the basic design project, OH methodology can only be used as an assessment tool but not as an award criteria.

VISESA does not manage the social housings after their sale. Part of their rental developments are managed by Alokabide, another public body dependent on the Basque Government THIRD TENDER: Enegry facilities maintenance

6. Management and after sales (owner of the building)

This fact reduces the scope of changes that can be introduced, but allows to have fully defined technical solutions and budgets to be assessed. It is in the process phase where more indicators of the OH methodology could be implemented. Some of the OH indicators could be used for this evaluations purpose. In fact, most of the OH indicators can be assessed in the different stages of the construction project: design, construction and operation. Alokabide could use OH methodology to introduce sustainability measures when accomplishing renovation or retrofitting of the housing stock.

According to our experience, there would be four optimal stages when sustainability measures can be introduced: the basic design project delivery, the final design project delivery, the project review after the award of construction works and after the completion of the works, once the project is built. In order to introduce OH methodology in public procurement procedures, we must have, at least, a preliminary assessment and an agent in charge of the evaluation of the improvements done. The following table analyses the different phases of the construction phases and the possibilities to include them as part of the tender process phases.

February 2012

Page 76

Tender process phases CONSTRUCTION PHASES 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Feasibility study FIRST TENDER Technical team tender Development of technical projects Constructor tender Construction works Management and after sales SECOND TENER Basic design Final design Awarded Built

X X

X X X X

As it has been explained in the previous table there are only two competitions in the process of VISESA, the architects competition and the constructor one. Therefore, the only coincidence between an optimal stage when sustainability measures can be introduced and a current tendering process is the construction works tender. So that is, nowadays, the only phase where it is possible to introduce at least some indicators of the OH methodology as an objective assessment in a tendering process.

8.4 Preliminary study of OH indicators


A preliminary classification of the 56 indicators of OH methodology was done considering their evaluation potential in the tender process: - Non valuables: those indicators exclusive for offices or that cannot be used in the valuation of residential buildings. - Valuable but no scored: those indicators that can be assessed but whose value cannot be scored because they cant be improved, such as those related to location or process quality. - Valuable and scored: those indicators that may be assessed and scored and that will be balanced by weight criteria. This classification will allow us to discriminate those indicators that can be implemented in the tendering process as an objective environmental criterion in the VISESAs procurement process case study within task 4.2. The indicators finally selected should be weighted according to the sustainable and economic goals of the particular construction project and the tender specifications related to sustainability. The weight given to environmental award criteria may reflects the extent to which environmental aspects are already addressed in the specifications. If there are strong environmental requirements in the specifications, they may be given a lower weighting in evaluation and vice versa.

8.5 Proposed methodology


The proposed methodology keeps the goal of producing outcomes for the final refinement of the methodology in task 4.4 and also set up the path for being
February 2012 Page 77

considered as future National example cases of best practice green or sustainable public procurement. To ensure these commitments the methodology must: 1. Assess a promotion that is to be tendered, using all the valuable (scoring or no) indicators. 2. Give this assessment to all the bidders as an annex to the documentation for the preparation of the construction projects. 3. Select the indicators that can be valued and scored, weight them, and include them as an annex to the Administrative Specifications of the tender. This annex should be completed by the bidders with the value proposed for each of the selected indicators and an attachment describing the measures proposed to reach these values (annex of sustainable level of the proposal). 4. Explain in the Administrative Specifications how the improvement in the outcome of the assessment of selected indicators is going to be evaluated, and the weight that it will have in the complete award stage of the tendering (there are no maximum for the weighting to be assigned to all environmental criteria but it is recommended to be at least 15%). 5. Once received the bidders proposals it is needed to check the improvements included in the annex of sustainable level of the proposal and the new value for each of the selected indicators. Then the obtained improve in the level of sustainability should be converted in points to be use in the awarding process. 6. Check in collaboration with the technical team the measures of the awarded project that can be implemented and its influence in the design of the building, and draw a new version of the final designed project incorporating them. 7. Get the commitment of the construction company within the Administrative Specifications section to elaborate before the beginning of the works an assessment of this new version of the final designed project. 8. Get the commitment of the construction company within the Administrative Specifications section to a final assessment of the developments after its construction.

All the process should be documented in all the phases and the environmental improvements monitored. 8.6 Other GPP case studies. Task 4.2 In order to received the feedback from Public Authorities regarding the implementation of OPEN HOUSE methodology in public tender and most importantly, in order to get the commitment of these public bodies to participate in the definition of the methodology, a brief questionnaire was prepared and sent to Public Authorities of the different European Countries. The result of these questionnaires is carried entirely in the D3.3. 15 National authorities from the 11 countries represented by the Consortium were successfully reached and answered the questionnaire. Seven national authorities signed a letter of commitment showing their interest in participating somehow in the development of the project. Up to nine public bodies showed their interest in participating and supporting the implementation of OPEN HOUSE. Moreover, most of the national authorities contacted would be interested in implementing partially or totally OH methodology as part of their procurement processes. However, most of
February 2012 Page 78

the public bodies agreed that the methodology must be further developed and officially recognized before considering its introduction in public tenders. The next step of OPEN HOUSE consortium will be to invite these public bodies to participate to common workshops for the discussion of the best ways of implementing the OH methodology in Green Public Procurement procedures. In addition, those workshops will allow to identifying what the priorities of the national authorities from the different countries are and which indicators of the OH methodology are the most appropriate to address those priorities. This exercise will provide in turn significant inputs for the definition of the weighting factors in the different countries. EC authorities will be invite participate in this workshops, so to help in creating synergies between own training and the one develop by the EC on GPP. The conclusion of these workshops, as well as the case studies that result from Task4.2 will be uploaded in the new folder of GPP that will be created on the website to participate in the creation of a European GPP knowledge base. A guide will be draft with all of this.

February 2012

Page 79

9. Conclusions
As a conclusion to this, it could be said that in general, apart from the information published in the ECs GPP official website, there is a lack of information regarding GPP in most of the countries analysed. Despite most of the EUs countries are currently taken measures for green public procurement, it is not a well-known practice among people not dealing with public contracting. - There is already a great work done in this field and there are a good number of guidelines, books and standards related to GPP available. The European Commission has published some manuals and a toolkit explaining how to implement GPP in tendering documents. However, there is a lack of awareness about the benefits that GPP implementation means. The lack of an EUs unique criteria for GPP processes can be considered as a barrier for its wide adoption. - Related to the construction sector, there is also a great work done, although it is more difficult to establish common criteria in all European Unions countries. Introducing environmental criteria in construction has a great impact, as this sector consumes a lot of energy and raw materials and produces a great amount of wastes and greenhouse gases. - EU has already established a monitoring method to measure results about GPP implementation although it is under revision. It is not an easy task as each country uses different tools and methods to calculate their energy savings or sustainability indicators. A common methodology should help the industrial sector to prepare their production to be competitive all around the EU. - European Commission has published a Construction sheet and a construction background report that have already been analysed in this document. This sheet establishes the core and comprehensive criteria to introduce the environmental criteria in each stage of the construction process . - The main sustainable criteria for construction products and services can be taken from the ecolabels and other sustainable criteria sources. This helps to establish environmental criteria for these products although it is not easy to set common indicators for all the EUs countries. There are different climates and different methods to calculate energy demand of buildings or quantitative sustainability indicators. There are also different social and traditional factors that also affect these criteria. Different ways of building, sustainable materials availability, etc. that make it difficult to set a common methodology to measure sustainability in construction and to set criteria for GPP. In some countries, there is also a lack of data related to LCA and LCC, and consequently it is difficult to set this approach to establish GPP implementation. - While the economic criteria are always involved with environmental ones in a public procurement and a good number of the studied documentation included LCA as a economic criterion to be considered, the social criteria have not been integrated in most of GPP guidelines. Most probably because they are written by certain environmental or sustainable agencies, while the social criteria are prepared separately.

February 2012

Page 80

From VISESAs experience when drawing up the last tendering document for construction works, there were some concerns about the number of bidders that would apply the tender because the specific environmental criteria that had been introduced. As it is shown in section 7 that deals with the VISESAs case study analysis, even if some companies were not ready to fulfil these objectives there were others that do it. This fact shows that at least a part of the sector is able to implement sustainable construction measures. The main difficulties found were that, as we chose to partly value open sustainability measures (not specifically described within the tender document) with the objective to encourage the bidder to study the building and the PIMEs specifications, we had some difficulties to evaluate and compare the proposals received. Furthermore, additional difficulties were found for the definition of mechanisms to incorporate these measures into the project and the construction work and their further monitoring. The last survey made in 2011 by the commission asked how difficult public authorities perceive the inclusion of green criteria in the procurement. Overall, on a scale of 1 to 5 scale, the average level of perceived difficulty among all respondents is 3.06. Authorities with the highest GPP uptakes also find it easier to do GPP: These results, in line with the impression gained in the writing of this study and in our practice as a public body, lead us to the conclusion that although the general public is concerned over the need for change in policies for public procurement and, even if there is extensive documentation and guides (both European and local) on GPP, its application needs to overcome the barrier of resistance to change that operates in both, public administrations and the construction sector, at least in Spain, which has refused until now to involve himself into the change of mentality that a real green public procurement requires.

9.1 Actions to overcome current GPP barriers


Barriers in GPP have been analysed in the Section 2 Green Public Procurement (GPP) and legal framework. Mayor detected barriers are: - Different considerations for environmental criteria and the way to measure them in the different countries; Lack of a common legal framework; Concerns about the increase of costs derived from the adoption of GPP practices; Lack of a common monitoring methodology throughout the EUs countries.

To help in the overcome of these GPP barriers, the OPEN HOUSE methodology offers a tool that can: - Offer a tool adapted for all European countries with indicators that set common environmental criteria to put into practice in GPP.
February 2012 Page 81

If been officially recognized (as it was demand by most of the public bodies in D3.3 Conclusions), reinforce the legal security related to the environmental criteria inclusion in contracting. Through certain environmental and economic indicators related to LCA (and the databases related to them) provide information about the estimated cost of the lifespan of products. Be used either during design stage or post-construction stage, given information about how to develop the measurement and documentation in a building already in use, and so, helping to define a monitoring system with indicators.

Achieving these objectives will be a preferred task in the workshops with the public bodies involved in task 4.2 for the discussion of the best ways of implementing the OH methodology in Green Public Procurement procedures. The conclusions of those workshops will help policy makers to set realistic targets for GPP of buildings in Europe, giving then a reliable and transparent methodology to recognise and to measure not only environmental indicators but also economical or social ones. In addition, to create the adequate synergies between its own training programmes and the ones developed by the EC it is planned to invite members of the CE related with the GPP tools to these workshops with the public bodies involved in the Task 4.2 to talk about the barriers and potentials of using the sustainable level as a public procurement criteria. Finally, to participate in the creation of a European GPP knowledge base, a GPP tab will be available in the OPEN HOUSE front page containing: - - Links to EC pages related to GPP, especially one to the page where to download the buying green guideline so to help in its dissemination. - - A version of the D.1.4. and its studies about the GPP current situation across Europe. - - Links to pages with GPP case studies in the different countries of the consortium such as IHOBE case (http://www.ihobe.net/Paginas/Ficha.aspx?IdMenu=fc315d62-d420-4ffb-9f3bed4c84a87166) - - Conclusions of the workshops develop with Public Bodies for the discussion of the best ways of implementing the OH methodology in Green Public Procurement procedures. - - D4.2 case studies that have become National Best Practices and the conclusion of that deliverable. All these documents will be used to create a Guide about the possibilities of application of the OPEN HOUSE methodology in GPP.

9.2 Contribution to the overall picture


This report shows the importance given from the Public Authorities and from the European Union to sustainable practices.

February 2012

Page 82

In the case of the construction sector, the definition of the environmental criteria to implement in green public procurement procedures is not an easy task because of the complexity of the construction project in terms of regulations and actors involved. Nevertheless, some environmental criteria have already been established. It is believed that there is a close relationship between GPP and sustainability in the construction sector. Besides, it has a great impact on putting sustainability criteria into practice and providing an example for the private sector. For this reason one of the goals of the task 4.2 will be that some of the 11 studies developed become real case study that can be considered as future National example cases of best practices green or sustainable public procurement. A general view, and more specifically on the construction sector, shows the need of a closer interaction between the definition of environmental criteria within GPP procedures and the evaluation of this criteria by means of indicators proposed by building sustainability assessment methodologies. The next step will be to identify the indicators of the OPEN HOUSE methodology that can be suitable for its inclusion within Green Public Procurement processes and to assess the way of implementing them within the tender procedures in an effective (and measurable) way. This work will be carried out in Task 4.2 Implementation of the methodology in public procurement processes.

February 2012

Page 83

Acknowledgements
The OPEN HOUSE Consortium would like to acknowledge the financial support of the European Commission under the Seventh Framework Program.

References
[1] Buy it green! Making a difference through GPP European Commission handbook. [2] Managing GPP Implementation: Reference document - European Commission GPP Training Toolkit. [3] Legal framework for Green Public Procurement European Commission GPP Training Toolkit. [4] Purchasing recommendations. Construction European Commission GPP Training Toolkit. [5] GPP Construction Background product report European Commission GPP Training Toolkit. [6] GPP Product Sheet European Commission GPP Training Toolkit. [7] GPP handbook IHOBE. Basque Government. [8] The Procura+ Manual A guide to Cost-Effective Sustainable Public Procurement ICCLEI Local Governments for Sustainability. [9] Purchasing Guidelines for Green Buildings Background Document EU Research Project RELIEF. [10] Public Procurement for a better environment. Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions. [11] National GPP policies and guidelines European Commission. [12] Questionnaires collected from the partners.

February 2012

Page 84

Annex I
Relevant European legislation and Information sources As the construction sector is highly complex this section refers to the most relevant and common EU regulations when addressing GPP practices in the area of construction. This European legislative framework relates to the above mentioned environmental impact categories (see Information sources). Energy - European Directive on the Energy Performance of Buildings, Directive 2010/31/EU , (recast) - European Directive on the promotion of cogeneration (2004/8/EC) - Directive on Energy End-Use Efficiency and Energy Services (2006/32/EC) - Mandate 343 to CEN - Comit Europen de Normalisation Construction materials and products - Thematic Strategy on the Urban Environment - Construction Products Directive 89/106/EEC and its amendments (revision) - REACH regulation 1907/2006 - European Directive on the indication by labelling and standard product information of the consumption of energy and other resources by energy-related products (recast), Directive 2010/30/EU6 Waste and water - European Directive on waste 2008/98/EC (Waste Framework Directive) - European Directive establishing a framework for Community action in the field of water policy, Water Framework Directive, 2000/60/EC (WFD) European legislation - Mandate (343) to CEN, CENELEC and ETSI for the elaboration and adoption of standards for a methodology calculating the integrated energy performance of buildings and estimating the environmental impact, in accordance with the terms set forth in Directive 2002/91/EC - Standardisation mandate to CEN for the development of horizontal standardised methods for the assessment of the integrated environmental performance of buildings (Mandate 350) - Directive 2004/42/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 21 April 2004on the limitation of emissions of volatile organic compounds due to the use of organic solvents in decorative paints and varnishes and vehicle refinishing products

February 2012

Page 85

Annex II
Studies and other information - AgBB (Committee for Health-related Evaluation of Building Products) 2005: A contribution to the Construction Products Directive: Health-related Evaluation Procedure for Volatile Organic Compounds Emissions (VOC and SVOC) from Building Products. See: - www.umweltbundesamt.de/building-products/archive/AgBB-EvaluationScheme2005.pdf, 6 December 2007. - CEN Technical Committee (TC) 350, on the Sustainability of Construction Works: http://www.cen.eu/CENORM/BusinessDomains/TechnicalCommitteesWorkshops/ CENTechnicalCommittees/CENTechnicalCommittees.asp?param=481830&title=C EN/TC%20350 - CEN Technical Committee (TC) 351, on Construction products: http://www.cen.eu/CENORM/BusinessDomains/TechnicalCommitteesWorkshops/ CENTechnicalCommittees/CENTechnicalCommittees.asp?param=481830&title=C EN/TC%20351 - CEN/TC350 Secretariat 2006: CEN/TC 350 WI 00350001. Sustainability of construction works Framework for assessment of integrated buildings performance. Part 1: Environment, Health and Comfort and Life Cycle Cost Performances. European Standard working document of November 2006. - Davis Langdon Management Consulting 2007: Towards a common European methodology for Life Cycle Costing (LCC) Guidance Document. Bruxelles: http://ec.europa.eu/enterprise/construction/compet/life_cycle_costing/index_life _cycle_en.htm - European Commission 2004: Buying green! A handbook on environmental public procurement. Brussels: http://ec.europa.eu/environment/gpp/guideline_en.htm - European Commission 2007: Direction General Environment. Green versus Sustainable public procurement. See: http://ec.europa.eu/environment/gpp/green_vs_sustainable.htm, 22October 2007. - EIPRO 2005: Environmental Impacts of Products (EIPRO). EU DG JRC-IPTS. Bruxelles: http://ec.europa.eu/environment/ipp/identifying.htm - ENPER-EXIST 2007: Applying the EPBD to improve the Energy Performance Requirements to Existing Buildings ENPER-EXIST. WP 1 Final Report. April 2007. See: www.enperexist.com/pdf/reports/WP1_final_report_MS_04_07_07.pdf, 1 October 2007. - Environmental Association Vorarlberg [Umweltverband Vorarlberg] 2007: Green Procurement in Construction. See: www.umweltverband.at/index.php?id=beschaffung#322. - EPD 2007: Using EPDs. See: www.environdec.com/page.asp?id=300&menu=3,0,0, 4July 2007. - Federal Office for Building and Regional Planing 2001: Guideline for Sustainable Building. Berlin: http://www.bbr.bund.de/cln_005/nn_25610/EN/Publications/SpecialPublication/ 2006__2001/DL__GuidelineSustainable,templateId=raw,property=publicationFil e.pdf/DL_GuidelineSustainable.pdf
February 2012 Page 86

- Gesellschaft fr kologische Bautechnik Berlin mbh 1999: Machbarkeitsstudie mit Empfehlungen zur Umsetzung der kologisch - bautechnischen Ziele. Berlin: http://www.procuraplus.org/fileadmin/template/projects/procuraplus/files/tende rs/UBA_Neubau_BMU_Krit_2.2.pdf - Gesellschaft fr kologische Bautechnik Berlin mbh 2000: Leitlinien fr die Baustoffauswahl. Berlin. - ICLEI 2007: The Procura+ Manual. A Guide to Cost-effective Sustainable Public Procurement. ICLEI Local Governments for Sustainability. See: www.procuraplus.org, 24 August 2007. - ifz 2001: Austrian Criteria Catalogue Check it!. Module 6structural engineering. See: www.ifz.tugraz.at/oekoeinkauf/index_en.php/filemanager/download/141/modul 6_eng%5B1%5D.pdf, 4.July 2007. - OGC 2007: Sustainability. Achieving Excellence in Construction Procurement Guide. Office of Government Commerce (OGC). See: www.ogc.gov.uk/documents/CP0016AEGuide11.pdf, 19 October 2007. - IBB - Austrian Institute for Construction Biology and Construction Ecology [sterreichisches Institut fr Baubiologie und Baukologie] 2007: Scientific research on building materials. See: www.ibo.at/forschung.htm#projekte, 1 October 2007. - Trecodome, Chiel Boonstra 2007: Passive Housing in Europe innovation in construction. Presentation at the Local Renewables Conference Freiburg: See: www.icleieurope.org/fileadmin/template/events/lr_freiburg_2007/files/Presentations/A2_B oonstra.pdf - UBA 2000: Grundlegende zustzliche technische Vertragsbedingungen in den Leistungsverzeichnissen beim Bau des Dienstgebudes des Umweltbundesamtes in Dessau. Dessau. Internet sources www.eebd.org www.lensebuildings.com www.greenspec.co.uk www.uba.de www.procuraplus.org www.iclei-europe.org/deep www.natureplus.org www.blauer-engel.de http://ec.europa.eu/environment/ecolabel/index_en.htm www.eco-bau.ch

Best practice examples obtainable online at: - www.eu-greenbuilding.org - www.greenbuildings.org

February 2012

Page 87

Annex III
As previously reported in this document, some countries have an advance level of GPP implementation such as Austria, Germany or Switzerland which have complex tables with a wider range of indicators and which also have many guidelines and regulations related to it. These countries have transposed their GPP practices into more complex tables according to their National Action Plan and in the case of Austria there are also indicators from another GPP guideline. All of them are added in the following tables:

February 2012

Page 88

Project development

Preliminary design

Construction work

Use/ maintenance X X X X X X X X X

Austria

Submission planning Implementation planning

INDICATORS NAP

SPECIFICATIONS the planning team should confirm experience with green buildings building companies which have violated ecological general claims laws have to be disqualified the offerer has to confirm technical capacity for ecological management activities The overall (net/final/primary) energy demand of the building is 25 % lower than the maximum defined in OIB energy performance A training session must be given to the building manager on the energy efficient use of the building (including passive components) exclusion of building stones containing halogenated organic compounds brickwork and minimum 5 % of mineral building materials have to timber be recycled wood should be from sustainable forestry water saving appliances BUILDING CONSTRUCTION All sanitary and kitchen water facilities must be equipped with the latest water-saving technologies available on the market if a mechanical ventilation is used a blower door test has to be accomplished the contractor has to accomplish an energy monitoring the contractor should define a minimum and a target value of reusable containers the provider of building materials should define a minimum and a target value of waste from package the contractor has to separate waste according to BMLFUW Max. 3 % organic, non-halogenated solvents, all other products: max. 8 % VOC Max. 1 % of materials that are dangerous to the environment according to 67/548/EWG exclusion of products containing antimony, arsenide, cadmium, chrome , plumb, quicksilver, nickel, selenium, tellurium, thallium
Page 89

VERIFICATION CASE STUDY documentation of practice experience concerning green buildings

X X

X X X X X X X

certification according to EMAS or ISO 14001

X X

X producer confirmation, natureplus-certification producer confirmation recycling-certification FSC-/PESC-certification, FLEGT-license, information of the provenance Technical data sheets that verify compliance with the specifications (X) X (X) X (X) X (X) X X X X X confirmation according to EMAS or ISO 14001 producer confirmation, natureplus-certification, Austrian ecolabel producer confirmation, natureplus-certification, Austrian ecolabel producer confirmation, safety data sheet according to 2001/58/EG, Austrian ecolabel X (X) X (X) X (X) X X X X X X X X

contract appointments

February 2012

INTERIOR

wall paints

Disposal phase

avoiding of cancer-causing, mutagenic and toxic to reproduction materials Products with max. 10 ppm formaldehyde exclusion of packing materials containing halogenated organic compounds in indoor rooms: only water-based products with max. 10 % VOC/SVOC exclusion of phthalate, 2-butoxyethylacetat, diethylenglykolmethylether, ethylenglykoldimethylether, triethylenglykoldimethylether avoiding of cancer-causing, mutagenic and toxic to reproduction materials exclusion of biocides fire prevention coatings Products with max. 10 ppm formaldehyde exclusion of products containing antimony, arsenide, cadmium, chrome , plumb, quicksilver, nickel, selenium, tellurium, thallium Max. 1 % of materials that are dangerous to the environment according to 67/548/EWG exclusion of special flame resistant exclusion of packing materials containing halogenated organic compounds In indoor rooms: only water-based products with max. 10 % VOC/SVOC exclusion of products containing antimony, arsenide, cadmium, chrome , plumb, quicksilver, nickel, selenium, tellurium, thallium avoiding of cancer-causing, mutagenic and toxic to reproduction materials floor and concrete coatings exclusion of biocides Products with max. 10 ppm formaldehyde

safety data sheets, natureplus-certification, Austrian ecolabel producer confirmation, safety data sheet according to 2001/58/EG, Austrian ecolabel, experts' inspection report according to VdL

(X) X (X) X (X) X

X X X X X X X X

X X X X X X X X

producer confirmation producer confirmation, safety data sheet according to 2001/58/EG safety data sheets, natureplus-certification, Austrian ecolabel safety data sheets, natureplus-certification, Austrian ecolabel producer confirmation, safety data sheet according to 2001/58/EG, Austrian ecolabel, experts' inspection report according to VdL producer confirmation, safety data sheet according to 2001/58/EG, Austrian ecolabel producer confirmation, natureplus-certification, Austrian ecolabel producer confirmation, safety data sheet according to 2001/58/EG

(X) X (X) X (X) X (X) X (X) X

(X) X (X) X (X) X (X) X

X X X X X X X X X X X X

X X X X X X X X X X X X

producer confirmation producer confirmation, safety data sheet according to 2001/58/EG safety data sheets, natureplus-certification, Austrian ecolabel safety data sheets, natureplus-certification, Austrian ecolabel producer confirmation, safety data sheet according to 2001/58/EG, Austrian ecolabel, experts' inspection report according to VdL producer confirmation, natureplus-certification, Austrian ecolabel

(X) X (X) X (X) X (X) X (X) X (X) X (X) X (X) X

floor covering coatings


February 2012

Max. 1 % of materials that are dangerous to the environment according to 67/548/EWG exclusion of packing materials containing halogenated organic compounds in indoor rooms: only water-based products with max. producer confirmation 10 % VOC/SVOC
Page 90

exclusion of phthalate, 2-butoxyethylacetat, diethylenglykolmethylether, ethylenglykoldimethylether, triethylenglykoldimethylether exclusion of biocides avoiding of cancer-causing, mutagenic and toxic to reproduction materials Products with max. 10 ppm formaldehyde Max. 1 % of materials that are dangerous to the environment according to 67/548/EWG exclusion of products containing antimony, arsenide, cadmium, chrome , plumb, quicksilver, nickel, selenium, tellurium, thallium exclusion of packing materials containing halogenated organic compounds Max. 10 % VOC exclusion of products containing antimony, arsenide, cadmium, chrome , plumb, quicksilver, nickel, selenium, tellurium, thallium exclusion of phthalate, 2-butoxyethylacetat, diethylenglykolmethylether, ethylenglykoldimethylether, triethylenglykoldimethylether avoiding of cancer-causing, mutagenic and toxic to reproduction materials Max. 1 % of materials that are dangerous to the environment according to 67/548/EWG exclusion of biocides Products with max. 10 ppm formaldehyde exclusion of packing materials containing halogenated organic compounds In indoor rooms: max. 100 ppm VOC

producer confirmation, safety data sheet according to 2001/58/EG safety data sheets, natureplus-certification, Austrian ecolabel safety data sheets, natureplus-certification, Austrian ecolabel producer confirmation, safety data sheet according to 2001/58/EG, Austrian ecolabel, experts' inspection report according to VdL producer confirmation, natureplus-certification, Austrian ecolabel producer confirmation, safety data sheet according to 2001/58/EG

(X) X (X) X (X) X (X) X (X) X (X) X (X) X

X X X X X X X X X

X X X X X X X X X

producer confirmation producer confirmation, safety data sheet according to 2001/58/EG producer confirmation, safety data sheet according to 2001/58/EG safety data sheets, natureplus-certification, Austrian ecolabel producer confirmation, natureplus-certification, Austrian ecolabel safety data sheets, natureplus-certification, Austrian ecolabel producer confirmation, safety data sheet according to 2001/58/EG, Austrian ecolabel, experts' inspection report according to VdL

(X) X (X) X

(X) X (X) X (X) X (X) X (X) X (X) X

X X X X X X X

X X X X X X X

coatings for timber and metal

Outdoor: max. 500 ppm TVOC plasters and fillers avoiding of cancer-causing, mutagenic and toxic to reproduction materials exclusion of biocides Products with max. 10 ppm formaldehyde
February 2012 Page 91

producer confirmation, natureplus-certification, experts' inspection report according to EN ISO 17895 producer confirmation, natureplus-certification, experts' inspection report according to EN ISO 17895 safety data sheets, natureplus-certification, Austrian ecolabel safety data sheets, natureplus-certification, Austrian ecolabel producer confirmation, safety data sheet

(X) X

(X) X (X) X (X) X (X) X

X X X X

X X X X

according to 2001/58/EG, Austrian ecolabel, experts' inspection report according to VdL exclusion of packing materials containing halogenated organic compounds In indoor rooms: only water-based products with producer confirmation max. 5 % VOC+SVOC (SVOC max. 3%) producer confirmation, safety data sheet exclusion of special flame resistant according to 2001/58/EG avoiding of cancer-causing, mutagenic and toxic to safety data sheets, natureplus-certification, reproduction materials Austrian ecolabel exclusion of phthalates producer confirmation Max. 0,1 % of tin organic compounds producer confirmation safety data sheets, natureplus-certification, exclusion of biocides Austrian ecolabel producer confirmation, safety data sheet Products with max. 10 ppm formaldehyde according to 2001/58/EG, Austrian ecolabel, experts' inspection report according to VdL exclusion of oxime and amine silicones exclusion of packing materials containing halogenated organic compounds experts' inspection report according to EN 1485, Products with max. 10 % VOC natureplus-certification, Austrian eco-label FSC-/PESC-certification, FLEGT-license, wood should be from sustainable forestry information of the provenance exclusion of packing materials containing halogenated organic compounds in indoor rooms: max. 1 mg/m VOC (C6-16), max. experts' inspection report according to EN 1485, 0,1 mg/m VOC (17-22) natureplus-certification, Austrian eco-label exclusion of packing materials containing halogenated organic compounds FSC-/PESC-certification, FLEGT-license, wood should be from sustainable forestry information of the provenance in indoor rooms: radionuclide radiation from building experts' inspection report according to NORM S materials has to be less than 1 (calculation according 5200, natureplus- or IBO-certification to NORM S 5200) avoiding of cancer-causing, mutagenic and toxic to safety data sheets, natureplus-certification, reproduction materials Austrian ecolabel exclusion of fungicides and halogenated organic producer information compounds exclusion of materials for hydrophobizing with producer information components of organic solvents and plasticizers exclusion of packing materials containing halogenated organic compounds In indoor rooms: max. 1 mg/m VOC (C6-16), max. experts' inspection report according to EN 1485, 0,1 mg/m VOC (17-22); max. 0,05 ppm natureplus-certification, Austrian eco-label formaldehyde
Page 92

(X) X (X) X (X) X (X) X (X) X (X) X (X) X (X) X (X) X (X) X (X) X (X) X (X) X (X) X (X) X (X) X (X) X (X) X (X) X (X) X (X) X (X) X

X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X

X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X

elastic gasket materials

baseboards

construction boards mode of timber and derived timber products

wooden floor coatings, laminate


February 2012

Max. 1 % of materials that are dangerous to the environment according to 67/548/EWG wood should be from sustainable forestry avoiding of cancer-causing, mutagenic and toxic to reproduction materials Max. 10 % VOC from glazes, lacquers, oils, waxes exclusion of packing materials containing halogenated organic compounds max 1 % halogenated organic compounds Max. 100 mg/kg heavy metal Max. 30 mg/kg azo dyes textile floor coatings textile floor coatings have to be odourless Max. 300 g/m VOC (C6-16), max. 100 g/m VOC (17-22) exclusion of packing materials containing halogenated organic compounds max. 1 % of materials that are dangerous to the environment according to 67/548/EWG avoiding of cancer-causing, mutagenic and toxic to reproduction materials max 1 % halogenated organic compounds max. 100 mg/kg heavy metal elastic floor coatings max. 300 g/m VOC (C6-16), max. 100 g/m VOC (17-22) exclusion of elastomeric coatings that deliver nnitrosamine exclusion of packing materials containing halogenated organic compounds avoiding of cancer-causing, mutagenic and toxic to reproduction materials very low emission products according to EMICODE EC 1 or EC1/R should be used Max. 1 % non-volatile chloral organic compounds Max. 0,1 % volatile chloral organic compounds
Page 93

producer confirmation, natureplus-certification, Austrian ecolabel FSC-/PESC-certification, FLEGT-license, information of the provenance safety data sheets, natureplus-certification, Austrian ecolabel producer confirmation, experts' inspection report according to EN ISO 17895: 2005, naturepluscertification, Austrian ecolabel

(X) X (X) X (X) X (X) X (X) X

X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X

X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X

producer confirmation, natureplus-certification, Austrian eco-label experts' inspection report, naturepluscertification, Austrian eco-label producer confirmation, natureplus- or GuTcertification, Austrian eco-label experts' inspection report, natureplus- or GuTcertification, Austrian ecolabel experts' inspection report according to EN 134191, natureplus- or GuT-certification, Austrian ecolabel

(X) X (X) X (X) X (X) X (X) X (X) X

producer confirmation, natureplus-certification, Austrian ecolabel safety data sheets, natureplus-certification, Austrian ecolabel producer confirmation, natureplus-certification, Austrian eco-label experts' inspection report, naturepluscertification, Austrian eco-label experts' inspection report according to EN 134191, natureplus- or GuT-certification, Austrian ecolabel experts' inspection report according to EN 134191, natureplus- or GuT-certification, Austrian ecolabel

(X) X (X) X (X) X (X) X (X) X

(X) X (X) X

X X X X X X

X X X X X X

experts' inspection report; GEV-license experts' inspection report; GEV-license producer information, safety data sheet producer information, safety data sheet

(X) X (X) X (X) X (X) X

products for the laying of floor coatings

February 2012

exclusion of packing materials containing halogenated organic compounds avoiding of cancer-causing, mutagenic and toxic to safety data sheets reproduction materials safety data sheets, natureplus-certification, Max. 0,5 % VOC Austrian ecolabel surface conditioning safety data sheets, natureplus-certification, Max. 1 % SVOC of mineral floor Austrian ecolabel coatings Max. 1 % non-volatile chloral organic compounds producer information, safety data sheet Max. 0,1 % volatile chloral organic compounds producer information, safety data sheet exclusion of packing materials containing halogenated organic compounds insulating materials products do not contain HFKW experts' inspection report, producer information

(X) X (X) X (X) X (X) X (X) X (X) X (X) X (X) X

X X X X X X X X

X X X X X X X X Disposal phase

Austria

INDICATORS Baubook.at assembly

SPECIFICATIONS specialists place cellulose fibre flocks avoiding microbiological growth and mildews consistency against insects minimum top layer thickness cleaning concept constricted electrostatic charge of laminate and elastic layers avoiding of more than 3 M.-% synthetics in mineral products avoiding of more than 15 M.-% organic components

VERIFICATION confirmation, reference list experts' inspection report according to DIN IEC 68, CE-identification confirmation, that requirements after ISO 3998 are fulfilled material proof presentation of the cleaning concept producer confirmation, maybe experts' inspection report producer confirmation, natureplus-identification producer confirmation, natureplus-identification producer confirmation, natureplus-identification, Austrian ecolabel producer confirmation EG-safety data sheet, natureplus-identification, Austrian ecolabel, German "Blauer Engel"-identification producer information, Austrian eco-label producer confirmation and EG-safety data sheet,

CASE STUDY

TECHNICAL CRITERIA

maintenance, consistency, longlife cycle

"Community Centre", Ludesch: improvement of building materials through an integral planning process and ecological monitoring from the beginning, tendering and award procedure according to ecoguide "Bau Vorarlberg" "Housing Area Baumgasse", Wien: environment- and health protection through computerbased chemical management

organic additives

INGREDIENTS

avoiding of more than 5 M.-% organic components in mineral colours avoiding of more than 5 M.-% synthetics in gluelam colours preparations without CMR-ingredients (cancer-causing, mutagenic, toxic to reproduction) without substances that are harmful to the climate without preparations that are harmful to the environment
Page 94

dangerous ingredients

February 2012

Project development Preliminary design Submission planning Implementation planning Construction work Use/ maintenance X X X X X X X X X X X X X (X ) (X ) (X ) (X ) (X ) (X )

preparations without aromatic carbon hydride without non phenolethoxylates nitrosamine poor elastomeric layers ((natural-)rubbers) preparations without heavy metal heavy metal PVC and halogen organic compound avoiding of toxic heavy metals packing materials without PVC products without PVC avoiding halogen organic compounds

VOC poor preparations VOC preparations without SVOC indoor without halogenated biocides

avoiding of free formaldehyde biocides insulating materials without pesticides

natureplus-identification, Austrian ecolabel, German "Blauer Engel"-identification producer confirmation and EG-safety data sheet, maybe also an expert's inspection report, natureplus-identification, Austrian ecolabel, German "Blauer Engel"-identification producer confirmation expert's inspection report according to guideline 93/11/EWG and according to DIK-standard operation procedure safety data sheet after 91/155/EWG producer confirmation, maybe experts' inspection and measuring report producer confirmation producer confirmation producer confirmation producer confirmation and safety data sheet after 91/155/EWG, maybe expert's inspection report, natureplus-identification, Austrian ecolabel, German "Blauer Engel"-identification producer confirmation and safety data sheet after 91/155/EWG producer confirmation and safety data sheet after EG, natureplus-identification producer confirmation and safety data sheet after EG, maybe also an expert's inspection report, natureplus-identification, Austrian ecolabel, German "Blauer Engel"-identification expert's inspection: maximal 1 mg/kg pesticides is used

X X X X X X X X

X X

X X X X X X X X

flame resistant pigments

other
February 2012

additional criterion: facade plasters and -paintings without producer confirmation biocides producer confirmation and confirmation of the blue stain inhibition of window frames entry in the Austrian timber preservative catalogue without extra environment problematic flame resistant producer confirmation producer confirmation, using healthy inorganic pigments natureplus-identification producer confirmation, without azoth dyes that split cancer-causing amines off natureplus-identification additional criterion: healthy materials for the after producer confirmation and safety data sheet treatment of concrete surfaces after 91/155/EWG additional criterion: separating agent of vegetable origin producer confirmation and safety data sheet
Page 95

avoiding of acid-hardening coatings paper production without problematic additives secondary raw materials using minimum 85 % used paper additional criterion: using secondary raw materials in concrete clay as only adhesive cement in loam rendering natural raw materials natural clay products resource-efficient compounding of cork insulating boards additional criterion: surface coatings made of natural materials (>= 85 M.-%) tropical wood from sustainable production APPLICATI PRODUCTION ON sustainable extraction additional criterion: sustainable logging of non tropical wood sustainable cork extraction additional criterion: sustainable gypsum extraction low-emission bituminous preparation laying avoiding of polyurethane foam avoiding of VOC-emissions from derived timber products low-emission elastic floor coverings

after 91/155/EWG producer confirmation producer confirmation producer confirmation producer confirmation producer confirmation, natureplus-identification producer confirmation, natureplus-identification producer confirmation producer confirmation, natureplus-identification confirmation that no tropical wood is used, otherwise: FSC-/ CoC-certification FSC-/ CoC-certification, natureplus-identification producer confirmation producer confirmation that prior REA-gypsum is safety data sheet including GISCODEs tenderer confirmation that alternatives are used expert's inspection report according to N EN ISO 16000 expert's inspection report (3 years before announcement), natureplus-identification, Austrian ecolabel expert's inspection report (3 years before announcement), natureplus-identification, Austrian ecolabel expert's inspection report (3 years before announcement) according to GEV producer confirmation and maybe also an expert's inspection report, natureplus-identification expert's inspection report after ENV 717-1 expert's inspection report after NORM S 5200, natureplus-identification expert's inspection report after N EN ISO 9972

X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X (X ) (X ) (X ) (X ) (X ) (X ) (X ) (X ) (X ) (X ) (X ) (X ) (X ) (X ) (X ) (X ) (X ) (X ) (X ) (X

low-emission textile floor coverings carbon hydride low-emission laying materials avoiding of emissions from insulating materials that affect the indoor air avoiding of formaldehyde emissions from derived timber products that affect the indoor air avoiding of radioactive characteristic radiation (the result of a calculation according to "NORM S 5200 Pkt. 4.3" has to be <= 1) avoiding of inorganic fibres that affect the indoor air
Page 96

X X X X X X

EMISSIONS

radioactive characteristic radiation fibres and dust

February 2012

avoiding of organic fibres that affect the indoor air low odour cork insulating materials inside the room odour low odour floor coverings

air-tightness test according to N EN ISO 9972 expert's inspection report and "odour-test" according to natureplus regulations expert's inspection report according to natureplus, TI or GuT, GuT-Signet, natureplus-identification, Austrian ecolabel producer confirmation producer confirmation

X X

) (X ) (X ) (X ) (X ) (X )

DISPOSAL

products without metal composite avoiding composite material products avoiding of synthetic steam breaks from composite materials (they have to be made of paper, polyolefin or polyamide, other additives <= 10 m.-%)

X X

Preliminary design Submission planning Implementation planning

Construction work

INDICATORS Global warming potential (GWP) Ozone depletion potential (ODP) Photochemical ozone creation potential (POCP) Acidification potential (AP) Eutrophication potential (EP)

SPECIFICATIONS

VERIFICATION

CASE STUDY

identification of the ecological impacts of the building by LCA according to DIN EN ISO 14040 and 14044, the input quantities can be gained from the operational phase of the energetic proof according to the German EnEV ("Energieeinsparverordnung")

result of the LCA ("kobilanz") according to DIN EN ISO 14040 and 14044

Buildings that have been certified according to the BNB-certification system (three categories: gold, silver, bronze): Extension of the Custom Office in Rosenheim: award in silver, February 2010

ECOLOGICAL CRITERIA

substance types that can cause environmental risks and that are considered: halogens, heavy metals, organic Risks to the regional solvents, and substances and products that fall under the environment biocide- and REACH guidelines, there are defined action levels: each action-level contains a list of materials and products to be avoided proof of the use of certificated wood, subtropical and boreal woods are only allowed to be sustainable material used if the supplier can certify the controlled, sustainable extraction / timber cultivation of the forest of origin
Page 97

declarations for the required materials and products, submission of material and product lists and a test certificate that confirms the compliance of the declared and used products and materials with the requirements the quantification is taken from the amounts provided in the request for bids, the use of certified wood (FSC-/PEFCcertification) has to be verified by the declaration of the products

New development of the Federal Government Department of Health in Bonn: award in gold, February 2010 Extension of the Federal Office for Radiation Protection in Berlin: award in silver, February 2010

February 2012

Disposal phase

Germany Project development

Use/ maintenance

primary energy demand

the demands of non-renewable primary energy is calculated over the life-cycle of construction, reconditioning, operation, and deconstruction/disposal of a result of the LCA ("kobilanz") according to DIN building (in kWh/mNFA*a), EN ISO 14040 and 14044 input quantities for the operating phase can be taken from the energetic proof according to the German EnEV percentage of renewable energy compared to the total primary energy demands for the construction and use is evaluated over a period of 50 years generation of the "specific water-use value" by adding the ascertained potable water consumption and the sewage emergence areas shall be used that are already assigned as traffic or settlement areas or that are allocated for the recovery of contaminated locations The life cycle costs are divided into three cost categories: production costs, follow-up costs, and deconstruction and disposal costs, calculation according to the cash-value method (Barwertmethode) result of the LCA ("kobilanz") according to DIN EN ISO 14040 and 14044

Total primary energy demands and proportion of renewable primary energy Potable water consumption and sewage generation

calculation of the "specific water-use value" previous use of the area: certificates of title or extracts from the land survey register previous contamination of the property: survey reports realization of compensation measures: planning documents

Surface area usage

ECONOMICAL CRITERIA

Building-related life cycle costs

result of the LCC (in /mNFA)

alternative appropriate uses

SOCIOCULTURAL AND FUNCTIONAL QUALITY

Thermal comfort in the winter

Thermal comfort in the summer Indoor hygiene

Acoustical comfort

documents / information about: proof of inspection of the area efficiency, adaptability of buildings under the criterion of sustainability modularity of the building, is present, if the alteration can be realized with a small structure of the building, electrical- and media provision, amount of resources heating, climate control (HVAC), water supply, and sewage disposal relevant criteria: documentation of the heating and the air operative temperature, draught, asymmetry of radiation conditioning system, temperature and flooring temperature, relative humidity, maybe also characteristics of the air exhausts vertical thermal gradient relevant criteria: certification according to DIN 4108-2, operative temperature, draught, asymmetry of radiation the print out of the results from the thermal temperature and flooring temperature, relative humidity, building simulation vertical thermal gradient the characteristics of the air conditioning plant avoiding of fugitive organic substance (VOC), unwanted product-certifications odours and mould build-up parameters, that are necessary for the evaluation: average resulting overall noise pressure level as expression ascertaining of the sound propagation via of the level of interferences, calculation or measurement reverberation period,
Page 98

February 2012

absorption of sound propagation in multiple-person offices relevant criteria: Visual comfort daylight availability, visibility to the exterior, non-glaring, building documents, lighting concept light distribution, colour reproduction and spectral colour evaluation of the user influence capabilities in the sectors Influences by users ventilation, sun protection, visor, temperature as well as building documents regulation of daylight and artificial light at the workplace areas for technical superstructures have to be reduced to a minimum and the louvers shall be integrated in the design, Roof design planning documents functional surfaces for the general welfare are to be integrated in the roof area fire prevention concept, evaluation of: Safety and risks of planning documents, subjective sensation of safety and assault prevention, failure evacuation concept, reduction of the extent of loss in the case of damage other prevention concepts as much parts of the building (also external feature areas) Barrier free confirmation of barrier free areas according to as possible should be adapted to the needs of disabled accessibility DIN 18024 persons areas should be handled as economical as possible, specific value area efficiency (in m/m), Area efficiency specific value area efficiency corresponds to the proportion building documentation between usable floor space to gross floor area evaluation of: Feasibility of modularity of the building, spatial structure, supply of building documentation conversion electricity and other media, heating, supply and disposal of water evaluation of: basic accessibility of a building, opening of the external areas for public, opening of buildings facilities to public building documentation Accessibility such as library or cafeteria, possibility of a third party renting building space evaluation of the building-specific infrastructure for bicycles building documents, confirmation of bicycle Bicycle comfort in praxis storing positions and their locations Assurance of the Extent and quality of the conducted competitions have to quality of the design be identified: and for urban competition according to GRW95, RPW2008 (or a similar bid and building documents development for method)?, competition which competition method?, award-winning design? evaluation of: the need for "art within architecture", the implementation of the guidelines art within Art within bid and building documents architecture, Architecture the implementation of the process art within architecture communicated to the public relevant criteria: confirmation of the noise protection, bid Noise protection airborne noise protection against surrounding noise and documents against other and the own workplace,
Page 99

CAL QUALIT

February 2012

impact-sound protection against other and the own workplace, structure-borne sound protection against other and the own workplace Energetic and relevant criteria: moisture proofing average heat transmission coefficient, consideration for quality of the thermal bridges, permeability of joints, formation of building's Shell condensate, air change rate the building is divided into the following three categories of building parts: Ease of Cleaning Bearing structure, external non-bearing structure, incl. and Maintenance of windows and doors the Structure and interior non-bearing structure, the technical implementation of each section is evaluated evaluation of: quality-oriented planning for the needs, discussion to Quality of the identify the objective, agreement on an objective, project's preparation architectural or design contest with special consideration for Sustainable Building evaluation of: an interdisciplinary design team, the integration of targeted Integrated planning certification criteria into the planning, the inclusion of the future users into the design, involvement and participation of the public

calculation according to EnEV

technical building documentation

planning and bid documents, other confirmations information about the members of the planning team, confirmation of the integration of certification criteria into the work phases, documentation of the inclusion of the future users and the public Health and Safety Plan, Energy Concept, Water Concept, Waste Concept, Measurement Concept, Concept for supporting the abilities of alteration, revitalization and recycling, Concept for assurance for ease of cleaning and maintenance, Verification of the design documentation by independent third party beyond the legal requirements, Comparison of alternatives bid documents, list of requirements, that have been considered

Optimization and complexity of the approach to planning

evaluation of the availability, extent, and quality of the building-related concepts and documentation

QUALITY OF THE PROCESS

Evidence of sustainability considerations during bid invitation and awarding Establishment of preconditions for optimized use and operation

evaluation of the inclusion of sustainability aspects in the bid invitation and of the integration of sustainability aspects during the selection of companies

Building documentation / building certification, Instructions for maintenance, inspections, operation, and care, evaluation of he presence and quality of the documentation Update of the drawings and calculations with the realized building, Users guide,
Page 100

February 2012

Construction site, construction phase

evaluation of: Low-waste construction site, Low-noise construction site, Announcement and bidding documents, Low-dust construction site, Environmental protection at the documentations or measurement records construction site list of the confirmed pre-qualified executing contractors

Quality of executing evaluation of the pre-qualification according to 8 VOB/A companies, of the executing contractors prequalification documentation of the used materials, additives, and safety data Quality assurance of sheets, the construction measurements for quality control (procedures to measure activities the energy quality and the acoustical qualities of a building) Systematic commissioning evaluation of the performance of a systematic commissioning according to the instructions and of the existing documentations

documentation, test results (Blower Door Test or thermal imaging, checking the footfall sound insulation) Contract documents with an appropriate specialist for the execution of a systematic commissioning, confirmation of the performance of a systematic commissioning location studies, confirmations by means of liability index of CEDIM Risk Explorers or avalanche chart of cities and local authorities (as far relevant) location study

QUALITY OF THE LOCATION

relevant criteria: risk from Man-Made-Hazards and terrorism, risks caused by weather and nature (earthquake, avalanches, storm) evaluation of: Circumstances at ambient air quality, ambient noise level, building ground the micro location circumstances, ground pollution, electromagnetic fields, appearance of radon, city and landscape / visual context Image and condition relevant criteria: of the location and image, crime rate, condition of the local building neighbourhood development evaluation of: accessibility of the nearest main railroad station (train), Connection to accessibility of the nearest station of local public transport transportation (bus, street car, underground, etc.), availability of bicycle tracks evaluation of density and extent of the respective user specific facilities and the distances to them, Vicinity to usagefacilities that shall be gathered: Catering, Local suppliers, specific facilities Parkways and free spaces, Education, Public administration, Medical care, Sport facilities, Recreation description and evaluation of: Adjoining media, connect ability of pipeline-bound energy, solar radiance infrastructure supply, provision of broadband connection, possibilities of development storm water seepage on the property Risks at the micro location

location study

confirmation of accessibilities and distances, location study

the facilities are to be localized from cartographical material

confirmation from communes and telecommunications providers, geological survey

planning

planning

develop ment

design

work

February 2012

Page 101

ance

Switzerland

phase

INDICATORS

Energy consumption/ performance

Display panel (Monitoring)

VERIFICATION This is verified by the Minergie standard. Specific energy consumption is used as the main indicator to quantify the required building quality. Only the final energy consumed is relevant. The standard requires that general energy The overall (net/final/primary) energy demand of the consumption must not to be higher than 75 % of building is (X)% lower than the maximum defined in (insert that of average buildings and that fossil-fuel relevant national legislation) consumption mustnot to be higher than 50 % of the consumption of such buildings. MuKEn 2008: Mustervorschriften der Kantone im Energiebereich (Example regulations of the cantons in the area of energy). Voluntary building energy identification card of the cantons. Minergie-P standard: Defines buildings with very low energy consumption, it is especially Energy performance standard (referred to a Passive House demanding in regard to heating energy demand. standard (name and internet address of a relevant Passive This standard corresponds to the internationallyHouse specification) known passive house standard (http://www.minergie.ch/publications.478.html). Energy consumption for the whole building Smart metering Outdoor climate conditions Temperature and humidity sensors Consumption metering according to different Current use (working schemes) areas, appliances, and schedules.

SPECIFICATIONS

CASE STUDY

X X X X Forum Chriesbach, Seniors' Residence Trotte Zurich, Swiss Federal Office of Statistics, Administrative centre Bern, Eulachhof

X X X X

Other

% net, final, primary energy provided by RES ENERGY PERFORMANCE

Minergie, SIA 11271 (energy), EDV-Tool bSol for energetic building optimisation (www.bsol.ch), SIA Efficiency Path Energy

Localised RES % energy provided by L-RES (Integrated in the building)

Minergie, SIA 11271 (energy), EDV-Tool bSol for energetic building optimisation (www.bsol.ch), SIA Efficiency Path Energy

Pilot study "Smart Metering" developed by ewz (Swiss power company) and Swiss Federal Office of Energy started July 2010. Aim: Information about energy consuption in households. (http://www.stadtzuerich.ch/ewz/de/index/netz/sm art_metering.html) Triemli Hospital: Aims of the 2000-watt society: Energy and X X X X CO2 reduction. Renewable energy: Solar system on the roof of the Letzigrund Stadium, Zurich; Energy from waste wood: A furnace that runs off X X X X waste wood and that is equipped with the latest clean air system has been planned for Zrichs new Letzigrund Stadium. Zurichs lighting campaign of X X X X X

Innovative energy

Specific proposals for achieving energy efficient lighting,


Page 102

Since 2000 the citys Building Department has

February 2012

efficient building services

heating, cooling and ventilation in the building

carried out lighting plans in its buildings according to the SIA standard 380/4 (Swiss Engineers and Architects Associations standards). In addition to coaching the project team, there tasks include controlling, carrying out training courses and support for development projects. The implementation of these basic principles for building projects and management is being carried out in the 7 Mile Steps Program (3rd mile step for the lighting): New buildings and 50% refurbished buildings meet the MINERGIE Standard for lighting. All refurbished lighting systems are 25% below the limits recommended by SIA 380/4. BKP 230 Elektroanlagen User's manual or guide

the Building Department City of Zurich. The Zrich Administrative Center was refurbished according to MINERGIE standards. The refurbishment also included highly efficient floor lamps and ecofriendly building materials.

Energy efficiency training

A training session must be given to the building manager on the energy efficient use of the building (including passive components) Recycled wood-based products, plastics, steel or other materials not containing hazardous substances Products which contain HFCs Products which contain sulphurhexafluoride.

Forum Chriesbach, Zurichs lighting campaign

Exclusion of certain materials Indoor paints and varnishes with a content of solvents exceeding the limits considered as not healthy or environmentally unfriendly

VOC BUILDING MATERIALS

Not exceeding standards by EN ISO 16009 to 16011

Recycled/ re-used content

Relevant construction materials from recycled or reused content

Forum CHriesbach, Federal Office for the Environment, Swiss Ecolabels or similar documents: Federal Office of Energy. The - Minergie-Eco criteria Zrich Administrative - ECO-BKP (Baukostenplan = construction cost Center was refurbished plan)-data sheets " Ecological construction" according - SIA 112/1 Sustainable Construction (Swiss to MINERGIE standards. The Engineers and Architects Associations standards) refurbishment also included highly - eco-devis efficient floor lamps and -KBOB-recommendations ecofriendly (Koordinationskonferenz der Bau- und building materials. A project to Liegenschaftsorgane der ffentlichen Bauherren develop an office building = Coordination conference of the construction floor lamp that would meet the and property organs of the public builders) MINERGIE standard was carried - Platform LCA in construction out by the Building Department Declaration from bidders of not using these with the support of the municipal materials in the building. energy saving fund and the local utility (EWZ). Forum Chriesbach, Swiss Federal Planning tool: Indoorair quality , Minergie-Eco Office of Statistics, Administrative center Bern Minergie-Eco elimination criteria: Forum Chriesbach, Eulachhof, Health: Use-oriented elimination criteria Federal Office for the Biocide and timber preservative in interior Environment, Swiss Federal Office rooms of Energy. Pilot project: Together Specific solvent-based products with partners from government Extensive use of derived timber products which agencies, suppliers and research emits formaldehyde institutes, tests are being carried Use-oriented criteria are to be full filled on main out on recycled concrete with

X X X X X X X

X X X X X X X X X X X X X

X X X X X X

X X X X X X

X X X X X

February 2012

Page 103

LCA comparison of construction materials Other Competition around R-values Environmental construction materials and products

usable areas (offices, classrooms ). Building ecology: Absolute elimination criteria Construction materials with heavy metals (plumb, copper, titan-zinc) No use of recycled concrete Non-European wood without sustainability certificate Noise protection glazing Fitting foam glue Platform LCA in construction; Bauteilkatalog (building element catalogue) financed by Swiss Federal Office of Energy.

mixed aggregate of bricks and mortar to determine the right conditions for future practical applications.

WASTE MANAGEMENT

ECO-BKP data sheets " Ecological construction"; Minergie-Eco SIA 112/1; ECO- BKP data sheet 250 sanitary All sanitary and kitchen water facilities must be equipped facilities; SIA-data sheet 2026; Efficient waterWater saving with the latest water-saving technologies available on the saving attachments Swiss Federal Office of installations market Energy Waterless installations (http://www.bfe.admin.ch/energielabel/01734/in dex.html?lang=en) SIA 112/1; Federal Office for the Environment: Proposals on how to maximise the use of rainwater and Rainwater and greyWhere with the rainwater? grey-water in the water supply and return system of the water use (http://www.bafu.admin.ch/publikationen/publika building tion/00352/index.html?lang=de); Guidelines: Disposal of Wastes in Cement Plants (Swiss Agency for the Environment, Forests and Landscape SAEFL); Other regulations which concern excavated earth are the regulation on contaminated area sites (Altlastenverordnung AltlV) and the regulation on the charge for the remediation of contaminated area sites (Verordnung ber die Abgabe zur Sanierung von Altlasten VASA) Guideline for the Utilization of Mineral Waste Measures to reduce and recycle waste produced during the Material; Excavation Guideline; Waste reduction and construction process. It is required to have a recycling rate management The most important standards in view of of at least 60% related to weight percentage segregation construction waste reduction are: - SIA 112/1, SIA 162/4, SIA 430 - SN 640 141 to 144, SN 670 062 (Swiss Association for Standardization SNV (Schweizerische Normenvereinigung) The most important Guidelines for construction waste handling are the Directive for Utilization of Mineral Waste Material (Richtlinie fr die Verwertung mineralischer
Page 104

X X X X X X X Forum Chriesbach, Eulachhof, Federal Office for the Environment, Swiss Federal Office X X X X X X X of Energy. X X X X X X X

Forum Chriesbach, Swiss Federal Office of Statistics, Administrative X X X X X center Bern

WATER MANAGEM.

Forum Chriesbach; Eulachhof

X X X X X

Forum Chriesbach, Swiss Federal Office of Statistics, Administrative center Bern; AWEL Project: Gravel for generations (Kies fr Generationen): The project Gravel for generations was initiated by the department for wastes, water, energy and air (AWEL) in the canton Zurich . Its aim is to support the construction industry in recycling of waste X X X X X X X construction materials to high quality materials, recognizing that such materials still have a bad reputation. The canton of Zurich can be introduced as a positive example of efforts in construction waste mitigation. A strong focus is put on seeing waste materials as resources and the aim is to close the cycle of mineral construction

February 2012

Bauabflle, 2006), the Excavation Guideline (Aushubrichtlinie, 1999) and the Guideline for the Utilization of excavated earth (Wegleitung zur Verwertung von ausgehobenem Boden, 2001). The disposal directory or marker is a web page on disposal questions established by the cantons, the FOEN, ARV and VBSA. It provides a compilation of relevant information on waste management in Switzerland in general and in the different cantons. (/www.abfall.ch/). The Multi Dell Concept (Mehrmuldenkonzept MMK) was developed and published by the Association of Swiss Construction Entrepreneurs (SBV) based on the Technical Waste Regulation. It is an aid for site managers to correctly treat and separate waste on the construction site. The MMK defines different standardised contents of waste containers and ways of disposal. It aims at facilitating quick and rational disposal ways within close proximity to the construction site. Compulsory blower door test Where mechanical ventilation is included in the building, the contractor must assure the test is carried out. It must be repeated until the standard is achieved Providing monthly figures on energy consumption during the first 3 years: Heating Cooling Ventilation Hot water Electricity Preference to transport goods with vehicles meeting at least the EURO III standard or vehicles using alternative fuels. Suppliers must take back, recycle and reuse packaging from building materials Minergie standard.

material: waste economy should change into a resource economy. The project Gravel for generations has been initiated by the cantonal department for waste, water, energy and air.

Forum Chriesbach, Swiss Federal Office of Statistics, Administrative X X X X center Bern X Swiss Federal Office of Statistics, Federal Office for the Environment, Swiss Federal Office of Energy X X X X X X X X X

Book keeping

see Smart Metering (Display panel (Monitoring))

February 2012

OTHER

KBOB recommendation: concrete from recycled aggregate;The regulation on the transport of waste (Verordnung ber den Verkehr mit Abfllen VeVa, 2005) aims to guarantee the Transport and Stadion Letzigrund EURO V delivery of waste only to appropriate dumping recycling of building enterprises. It focuses on special waste and standard materials other waste being liable to control. In Use of reusable containers to transport the materials to, on construction waste management, this could be and from the construction site waste containing asbestos or contaminated excavated material.

X X

Page 105

Use of LCA tool in design

In the design work LCA tool must be used

Construction site noise reduction

Construction machinery used must comply with the basic criteria of the Blue Angel ecolabel for Low-Noise Construction Machinery Proposals on how to reduce acoustic bridges in the interior to improve healthy living conditions

Building element catalouge based on ecoinvent (The international ecoinvent database is currently the world leading life cycle inventory data source); Guidelines Sustainable Real Estate Management (KBOB, IPB); KBOB recommendations: LCA in the area of construction (2009/1); In Switzerland, a list of ecological indicators for various construction materials has been developed. Data are representing Swiss averages and are based mainly on the ecoinvent Database. This list is a basis for various Swiss building assessment tools such as the "electronic constructional element catalogue" or the Software "LTE Ogip"]. Recently KBOB, as coordination platform for governmental building owners, together with many private companies from the material and construction industry launched a project to expand and update life cycle inventory data for construction materials and products. These data should be part of the ecoinvent data base 3.0 that should be available by the end of 2011. A rough calculation of ecological impacts of specific components can be made with the help of a checklist for components (Bauteilkatalog). Calculations integrate production phase, renewal and deposition of the materials over a building lifetime of 100 years. Impacts are shown for environmental burdens, grey energy and greenhouse effect. BKP 130 building site equipment; Guidelines on building noise from the Federal Office for the Environment FOEN (http://www.bafu.admin.ch/publikationen/publika tion/00006/index.html?lang=en) Minergie-Eco , SIA 181 Noise protection; SIA 112/1

Forum Chriesbach, Swiss Federal Office of Statistics, Administrative X X X X X center Bern

Forum Chriesbach, Seniors' Residence Trotte Zurich, Eulachhof Forum Chriesbach, Swiss Federal Office of Statistics, Administrative center Bern

Internal noise reduction

X X X

Tools & regulations MINERGIE-ECO Indoor air climate (planning tool) Schallschutz im Hochbau (Noise protection in
February 2012 Page 106

http://www.ecobau.ch/index.cfm?Nav=15&ID=32&Con=19 http://www.ecobau.ch/index.cfm?Nav=15&ID=17

construction) (SIA 181) Elektrische Energie im Hochbau (SIA 380/4) Technische Anforderungen an lftungstechnische Anlagen (SIA 382/1) ECO-BKP data sheets (ECO-BKP 2009 - Merkbltter "kologisch Bauen") eco-devis KBOB-recommendations KBOB 2009/1 kobilanzdaten im Baubereich SIA 112/1 Sustainable Construction (Swiss Engineers and Architects Associations standards) Plattform kobilanzdaten im Baubereich (Platform LCA in construction) Bauteilkatalog

http://www.ecobau.ch/index.cfm?Nav=15&ID=15 http://www.ecobau.ch/index.cfm?Nav=15&ID=16 http://www.ecobau.ch/index.cfm?Nav=15&ID=18

http://www.ecobau.ch/index.cfm?Nav=15&ID=14 AUTHORITIES RESPONSIBLE FOR GPP

Initiative

Link

Content / Goals / Targets

The vision of the 2000-watt society calls for a continuous reduction in energy needs to 2000 watts. pro person . http://www.novatlantis.ch/index By the year 2050, the amount of fossil energy sources can be cut in half from the current figure of 3000 watts 2,000Watt Society The City of Zrich .php?id=26&L=1 to 1500 watts per person. A CO2 output of one ton per capita a year is also an applicable long-term goal for Switzerland. Legislature goal of city council 2006 - 2010 Sustainable City of Zurich Excellent quality of life and standard of living for present and future generations on the way to the 2000 Focus in environmental, energy and climate protection policy with long term perspective (at least 2050) Watt-society Reduction until 2050 (2150) of primary energy to 3500 (2000) W/P - 45 (68) % greenhouse gas emissions to 2 (1) t/P - 77 (89) % For the balance of the primary power demand in watt per person and the greenhouse gas issues the city of Methodical guide for the Zurich and the Federal Office for energy have concluded the development of a methodical guide. The bases balance of the primary power the city of Zurich http://www.novatlantis.ch/index correspond to the methodology of the 2000-watt society. Besides, the methodology paper contains primary demand in watt per person and the Federal energy factors according to the ecoinvent data bank. With the help of the primary energy factors the final .php?id=117&L=1 and the greenhouse gas Office for energy energy on the primary energy and the CO2 issues linked with it can be converted. The guide considers the issues relations of the city of Zurich. Novatlantis is already putting the 2000-watt society into practice today in an exemplary fashion. However, in addition to the implementation of research results, a dialogue with political and economic decision makers is of Brochure "Smarter living: http://www.novatlantis.ch/index decisive importance. At the beginning of 2005, Novatlantis published a brochure entitled "Smarter living: The The 2000-watt society". .php?id=27&L=1 2000-watt society". A new understanding of our resources as a key to sustainable development will be fostered by pointing out the vision of the 2000-watt society and displaying its implementation. Steps towards a sustainable development. A White Book http://www.novatlantis.ch/index A detailed technical-scientific analysis by 10 Swiss scientists came to the conclusion that such a vision is indeed for R&D of Energy-Efficient- .php?id=60&L=1 technically feasible. Technologies ECO2-Calculator http://www.novatlantis.ch/index ECO2-Privat shows you how much energy and CO2 you consume as well as where you consume an especially
February 2012 Page 107

.php?id=29&L=1

Topten online search tool for http://www.topten.ch/ energy efficient appliances

large amount or astoundingly little in comparison to people in other countries. The tool also shows you how much energy or CO2 you could save where with which measures. In addition, ECO2-Privat calculates the energy required for production of the goods and services that you consume (so-called grey energy). originally developed in Switzerland, is available for use in 17 countries and also assists public purchasers in their sustainability actions. The 7 Mile Step program applies to municipal buildings and building projects that are entitled to municipal subsidies (e.g building regulations, financial support). Reasons must be given in exceptional cases. After examining a building project's feasibility, a decision will be taken whether it meets the general specifications for the 2000 Watt Society. - Determine the energy standard for municipal buildings according to the Master Energy Plan. - Prepare the path towards the 2000 Watt society as a long term perspective. - Provide a far-reaching stimulus to the sustainable development of the city's municipal buildings.

7 Mile Steps for Energy and Resource Efficient Building Construction and Management.

7 Miles Steps and Master Energy Plan

7 Mile Steps: 1 New Buildings New buildings are to achieve the MINERGIE-ECO standard. ECO corresponds to Mile Step 5). The MINERGIE-PECO standard will be met. 2 Existing Buildings For refurbishments, the standard for MINERGIE modernisation must be implemented as first priority. All refurbishment work will meet the MINERGIE-modernisation threshold. Comfort ventilation is not necessary. The standard for MINERGIE in new buildings (or even MINERGIE-P) will be met. 3 More efficient use of electrical power http://www.stadtAll new and refurbished non-residential buildings will meet the additional MINERGIE specifications for lighting. zuerich.ch/hbd/de/index/hochba First priority will be given to the procurement of highly efficient office and household appliances according to u/nachhaltiges_bauen/english.ht www.topten.ch. All household appliances must meet the energy category class A or A+ (cooling appliances) at ml minimum. In larger non-residential buildings the power requirements for processes (e.g. kitchen, laundry) are to be identified and optimised. 4 Renewable energy sources At least 40% of the total heating requirements of new buildings are to be provided by renewable energy sources. For existing buildings it is 50% of the heating for warm water. Total heating requirements are to be provided by renewable energy sources. 5 Health and building materials The building must provide a healthy indoor environmental quality. Values will be well below limits or recognised guidelines. Eco-friendly building materials with no health risks according to ECO-BKP are to be used. www.ecobau.ch, Grey energy associated with building construction is to be determined during planning and optimised. 6 Architectural competitions and study assignments Ecological sustainability is a decision-making criteria in architectural competitions and study assignments. The building concept will contain measures to ensure energy-efficient and environmentally friendly mobility. 7 Management Energy statistics will be collected and building operations optimised. Goals will be agreed upon with large energy users and other energy-intensive buildings. The energy consumption of buildings will be assessed according to a defined energy standard. Energy procurement is to be carried out according to ecological criteria (Power: at least naturmade basic). The 7 Mile Steps Program defines the energy standard for buildings in accordance to the municipal energy policy. In 2002, the city council adopted a Master Energy Plan that calls for: > reducing fossil fuel (oil and gas) consumption in municipal buildings by 15% by 2010 (compared with 2000 levels),
Page 108

Building Department for municipal buildings

The City of Zrich

February 2012

> reducing carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from fossil fuel used in municipal heating and vehicles by 15% by 2010 (compared with 1990 levels), stabilizing the consumption of electrical power in municipal buildings by 2010 to the level used in 2000. In addition to promoting efficient and renewable energy use, the Master Energy Plan requires municipal buildings to be exemplary beyond government regulations. As with the MINERGIE standard, this also applies to buildings that receive support from the city. The city of Zurich estimated the effect of the urban 7 mile step politics on the future primary energy http://www.novatlantis.ch/index 7-mile steps effect analysis consumption and the greenhouse gas issues of the building sector. Result: The model calculations show a big .php?id=20&L=1&tx_ttnews[tt_ by the building park model of effect of the 7 mile step politics. To reach the 2000-watt aims, nevertheless, it is essential to complement the The City of Zrich news]=103&tx_ttnews[backPid] the City of Zurich existing mile steps. This concerns in particular the building-related electric uses as well as devices, lighting, =1&cHash=fd25f72abc commercial cold, wash / dry and other areas. http://www.stadtICLEI Local Governments zuerich.ch/prd/de/index/stadten for Sustainability twicklung/aussenbeziehungen/z City of Zrich has been represented in both networks since 1993 Climate Alliance / Alianza del uerich_international/staedtenetz Clima e.V. werke/iclei_klima-buendnis.html http://www.stadtzuerich.ch/prd/en/index/stadten As part of Zrich city council's legislative focal point to create alliances and take politics actively beyond country twicklung/aussenbeziehungen/z Eurocities borders, the City of Zrich was represented in the Eurocities city association in the summer of 2007. uerich_international/staedtenetz werke/eurocities.html Sustainability in public construction Common platform of public builder from cantons and cities with recommendations for sustainable planning, eco-bau building label for http://www.ecoconstruction and operation of buildings. Eco-bau is a common platform of the public building departments sustainability and public bau.ch/index.cfm?Nav=15&ID= from federal, cantonal, and city governments with recommendations for sustainable planning, building and building 18&js=1 maintaining of buildings and systems. Eco-bau offers checklists and other instruments for sustainable material decisions, mainly for tenders http://www.ecoECO-BKP Merkbltter bau.ch/index.cfm?Nav=15&ID= 15 http://www.ecoEmpfehlung SIA 112/1 bau.ch/index.cfm?Nav=15&ID= 11 http://www.bbl.admin.ch/kbob/ KBOB 00481/00492/index.html?lang= Koordinationskonferenz der Bau- und Liegenschaftsorgane der ffentlichen Bauherren KBOB de http://www.icleiSustainable Procurement europe.org/index.php?id=procur ement Procura+ is an initiative designed to help support public authorities in implementing Sustainable Procurement Zurich is member Procura+ Campaign http://www.procuraplus.org/ and help promote their achievements. of the campaign The Federal http://www.rumba.admin.ch/de Ressourcen- und Umweltmanagement der Bundesverwaltung (RUMBA) = Federal Resources and Environmental Authorities of the RUMBA /rumba_fachgruppe.htm Management Swiss Confederation European Energy Award The City of Zurich is committed to implementing the 2008 building www.energiestadt.ch The City of Zurich GOLD standard as a guideline. In 2000, the City of Zrich was awarded the national label Energy City for its efficient
February 2012 Page 109

naturemade

Minergie

energy use and promotion of renewable energy. In 2005, it has been recertified on a higher level and has received the European Energy Award GOLD for continuing their legacy of consistent, long-term energy policy and planning naturemade is the quality mark for ecologically produced energy (naturemade star) and energy from renewable sources (naturemade basic). The mark is awarded after thorough inspection by the Association for environmentally sound energy (VUE). http://www.naturemade.ch/Engl naturemade stands for credible quality and ecological improvement. isch/Label/label_e.htm naturemade enjoys wide support. Environmental and consumer organizations, renewable energy associations, major energy consumers and large, medium and small energy suppliers and producers are all represented in VUE and on its Board. MINERGIE is a registered quality label for new and refurbished buildings. MINERGIE-Standard: The standard requires that general energy consumption must not to be higher than 75 % of that of average http://www.minergie.ch/basics. buildings and that fossil-fuel consumption must not to be higher than 50 % of the consumption of such html buildings. The MINERGIE-ECO-Standard adds ecological requirements such as recyclability, indoor air quality, noise protection etc. to the regular MINERGIE-Requirements. Link Content / Goals / Targets Zero-heating-energy construction of new research establishments in Dbendorf A Sustainable New Building for Aquatic Research: Eawag, the nationally and internationally active aquatic research institute, is committed to the responsible management of water and other vital resources. Its Forum Chriesbach office building is the embodiment of its own sustainability principles. It functions without conventional heating and cooling systems (HVAC) and, besides electricity, needs only marginal energy supply. The innovative sanitary system NoMix toilets with urine separation and rainwater flush not only furthers environmental protection but is also used in current research. Thanks to low operating costs, the 5 % additional investment capital required to construct the building is fully paid back within about 13 years. A competition for an energy concept was carried out for the refurbishment of the Triemli city hospital. The winning concept responded to the energy standard set by the 2000-Watt-Society. The target is a reduction in energy use per person in Switzerland from the current amount of 6000 W to 2000 W (with 500 W from nonrenewable sources) by 2050. 2000-Watt-Society; Verification of sustainability in the project competition: Seniors' Residence Trotte, Zurich 2000-Watt-Society Zero-Energy-Building complex, Minergie-P-Eco 2000-Watt-Society 2 storey residential; Specifications for project planning 7 milesteps: towards MINERGIE-P, appliances www.topten.ch, renewable energies 60% from waste incineration plant; solar power contracting on roof area, pilot project fr MINERGIE-P-ECO retrofit, provisions for energy efficient mobility; Special features of Glatt 1: Minergie-P modernisation, Ecological selection of materials, Renewable energy, Optimisation of grey energy and material flow http://www.bafu.admin.ch/org/index.html?lang=en
Page 110

Case Studies

Forum Chriesbach

http://www.forumchriesbach.eawag.ch/index.htm

Triemli Hospital

http://www.nzz.ch/nachrichten/zuerich/die_2000-wattgesellschaft_ist_machbar_1.1223542.html http://www.stadtzuerich.ch/hbd/de/index/hochbau/geplante_bauten/altersheim_trotte. html


http://www.stadt-zuerich.ch/hbd/de/index/ueber_das_departement/medien/medienmitteilungen/2009/august/090803c.html

Seniors' Residence Trotte, Zurich Letzigrund Stadium, Zrich Eulachhof Swiss Federal Office of Statistics Glatt 1 - CCEM Retrofit Federal Office for the Environment FOEN
February 2012

http://www.eulachhof.ch/

Minergie

Swiss Federal Office of Energy SFOE Administrative centre Guisanplatz 1 Bern School Leutschenbach

http://www.bfe.admin.ch/index.html?lang=en

Minergie

MINERGIE-P-ECO-Standard; Vorgaben des Bundes bezglich Nachhaltigkeit http://www.infodiensthttp://www.bbl.admin.ch/themen/00612/02209/02458/index.html?lan ausschreibungen.ch/ausschreibungen/?id=467e2640-b2a5-102c-80bf-001f29e7574e; g=de http://www.nachhaltigkeit.org/201004084506/stadtplanung-bauen/nachrichten/nachhaltige-qualitaet http://www.stadtzuerich.ch/hbd/de/index/entwicklungsgebiete/leutschenbach.html A project to develop an office building floor lamp that would meet the MINERGIE standard was carried out by the Building Department with the support of the municipal energy saving fund and the local utility (EWZ). Instead of developing its own lamp at a high cost, the city conducted a competition, which had the added Office building floor benefit of promoting the development of innovative products in the market place. A range of products from lamp that would various manufacturers met the strict technical specifications for energy and lighting that had been meet the developed. MINERGIE In the end, the city was able to obtain the lamps at a very reasonable cost, and will save US$660,000 standard (800,000 Swiss francs) over a period of 20 years. The other partners gained market advantages due to an innovative and competitive product. The 800 lamps purchased by the city triggered extra sales of over 5,000 floor lamps that correspond to a power saving of around 600 MWh per year. Lighthouse for sustainability: Science City is also ETH Zurichs largest sustainability project. Thanks to a favourable transport policy, over 80 percent of the students and staff can reach the campus by public transport; a dynamic underground storage system ensures that ETH Zurich will massively reduce the CO2 Science City http://www.sciencecity.ethz.ch/nachhaltigkeit/index_EN emissions in Science City; moreover, the campus buildings were constructed and redeveloped in such a way Campus that they are energy-efficient and can be run with the maximum possible conservation of resources. Numerous experimental projects also contribute toward the sustainable operation of the university, such as the student-run solar cinema in the summer months. Information Built to the Minergie Eco standard Science Laboratory http://www.sciencecity.ethz.ch/nachhaltigkeit/nachhaltige Photovoltaic cells (20 kWp) on the roof (HIT) Science City bauten/index_EN Connected to a dynamic earth storage system (from approx. 2013) campus Flexible room dividers in the usage-neutral outer zone Minergie Eco certificate (No. ZH 001) The basic Minergie standard means the buildings offer a higher degree of comfort thanks to a high-quality shell and an efficient air replacement system. The additional Eco Sports Centre http://www.sciencecity.ethz.ch/nachhaltigkeit/nachhaltigestandard indicates that the method of construction is healthy and ecologically sound. Science City bauten/index_EN The building is connected to the new energy concept for Science City so it will be able to make use of the planned energy storage facility (resulting in a further reduction of over 200 tonnes of CO2 per year)

February 2012

Page 111