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Copper Technology Roadmap

March 2004

Coordinated by AMIRA International Limited

Copper Technology Roadmap

Copper Technology Roadmap

March 2004

SPONSORS Anglo American Chile Ltda Antofagasta Minerals BHP Billiton Limited Corporacin Nacional Del Cobre, Chile Phelps Dodge Mining Company Rio Tinto Limited WMC Resources Ltd ASSOCIA TE SPONSORS SSOCIATE MIM Holdings Limited Teck Cominco Limited

COORDINA TED OORDINATED

BY

AMIRA International

FACILIT ATED ACILITA

AND

PREP ARED BY REPARED

Energetics, Incorporated

i Copyright AMIRA International

Copper Technology Roadmap

ii

Copper Technology Roadmap

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Preface .............................................................................................................................................................. v Executive Summary ........................................................................................................................................ vii

Chapter 1. Introduction and Goals ................................................................................................................ 1

Chapter 2. Trends, Drivers, and Challenges ................................................................................................. 3

Chapter 3. R&D Needs and Priorities............................................................................................................ 7

Chapter 4. Implementation: Moving Forward ............................................................................................. 25

For More Information .................................................................................................................................... 27

Appendix A: Roadmap Contributors ............................................................................................................. 29

Appendix B: Bibliography ............................................................................................................................. 31

Appendix C: Anti-Trust Statement ................................................................................................................ 33

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Copper Technology Roadmap

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Copper Technology Roadmap

PREF ACE REFA


In 2003, the global copper industry took an important step on its path towards the future. Led by AMIRA International, nine global copper companies recognised the time was right to work together to address some of the most important technical, economic, and social challenges of the coming decade and beyond. The objective: identify and prioritise long-term, technology-related research needs for the copper industry within the context of social, economic, and market imperatives. The result: the Copper Technology Roadmap, a culmination of a nine-month effort led by AMIRA International, facilitated by Energetics, Inc., and sponsored by nine copper companies, seven major sponsors and two associate sponsors:
Sponsor s Sponsors Anglo American Chile Ltda Antofagasta Minerals BHP Billiton Limited Corporacin Nacional Del Cobre, Chile Phelps Dodge Mining Company Rio Tinto Limited WMC Resources Ltd Associat e Sponsor s Associate Sponsors MIM Holdings Limited Teck Cominco Limited

Approximately 40 technical experts from copper companies, their suppliers and end users, universities, and other relevant organisations gathered at this roadmapping workshop. There, they discussed common technological needs and came to consensus on priorities, forming the basis for this roadmap. The roadmap defines pathways for pursuing technological change in the mining and processing portion of the global copper industry. It focuses on pre-competitive priorities on which companies can collaborate for mutual gain. The time frame under consideration is through to 2020, covering a range of activities and priorities over the near, mid, and long terms. The roadmap includes technological priorities along the value chain, from mine planning through extraction, processing, and recovery to final commodity products (e.g., electro-won and electro-refined cathodes). The ultimate goal is to improve the overall competitiveness and sustainability of the industry. The Copper Technology Roadmap complements other roadmapping efforts within the mining industry. The International Copper Association (ICA) is conducting an ongoing roadmapping effort focused on technology requirements from an end-user perspective. ICAs roadmapping efforts focus predominantly on finished products, while the scope of the Copper Technology Roadmap is limited to mining through to electro-won and electro-refined cathodes. Together, these two roadmaps cover the entire value chain of copper, from ore in the ground to finished copper goods being used by consumers. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has also published three mining technology roadmaps outlining R&D needs in the broader mining industry (not specific to copper), and an education roadmap aimed at attracting people to mining and educating mining professionals. AMIRA completed a similar exercise based on alumina technology with the worlds major alumina producers in 2001.
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To plan and guide the roadmapping effort, the Copper Roadmap Steering Committee was formed in June 2003. The Steering Committee defined the scope of the roadmap and identified goals, metrics, and important topics for technology development in preparation for a roadmapping workshop held on 15-16 October 2003 in Phoenix, Arizona, USA.

Copper Technology Roadmap

OTHER RELEV ANT TECHNOL OG Y ROADMAPS ELEVANT ECHNOLOG OGY


Several technology roadmaps prepared by other organisations are relevant to the copper industry. (See Appendix B for bibliographic information.) The International Copper Association is conducting technology roadmapping activities for copper applications. The U.S. Department of Energy has prepared several roadmaps for the general mining industry (not specific to copper):
The Future Begins with Mining: A Vision of the Mining Industry of the Future (1998) Mining Industry Roadmap for Crosscutting Technologies (1999) Mineral Processing Technology Roadmap (2000) Exploration and Mining Technologies Roadmap (2002) Education Roadmap for Mining Professionals (2002)

COPPER TECHNOL OG Y ROADMAP STRUCTURE ECHNOLOG OGY


The Copper Technology Roadmap follows a logical structure designed to ensure the strategic R&D priorities and pathways are aligned with the industry's goals.
Copper Industry Goals

The Steering Committee developed five goals for the copper industry over the next 10-15 years.
Economic, social, and political forces shaping the copper industry in the future and the challenges and opportunities they create. Research and development needed to respond to the trends and challenges and achieve the goals, organised into three focus areas. Urgent needs are deemed priorities, representing prime opportunities for collaboration.
Activities the industry will conduct to implement the priorities of the roadmap.

Trends, Drivers and Challenges

R&D Needs

R&D Priorities

Implementation

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Copper Technology Roadmap

EXECUTIVE SUMMAR Y UMMARY


Copper is a fundamental building block of modern economies. In 2003, annual production of copper metal was 15.3 million tonnes and was projected to grow at a rate of 2.7% per year. Despite this slow but steady growth in world consumption, supply of copper has generally outpaced demand, and has led to lower prices in recent years. Copper producers are constantly being pushed to contain costs, increase efficiency, and maximise return on capital employed (ROCE). In addition to economic considerations, copper producers often face higher levels of social and environmental pressures on their operations. These factors represent significant challenges to the industry and create a climate supportive of technological innovation. This roadmap considers a changing supply/ demand balance, shifting production and consumption demographics, and increased social and environmental expectations, while also permitting producers to earn acceptable returns for their shareholders. In planning for the roadmap, a Copper Roadmap Steering Committee was formed in 2003. This Committee developed a set of industry-wide goals to guide subsequent roadmapping activities. These goals represent ambitions common to all copper companies and provide guidance when considering collaborative R&D pathways. In the course of developing this roadmap for future collaborative technology development, the industry considered how its future will change in response to trends and drivers over the next 10-15 years, and the challenges these factors may create. While it is nearly impossible to accurately predict the future, we gain insight into the needed development pathways and priorities by considering the driving market, social, and political forces influencing the global
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Copper Industr y Goals Industry Lower the cost of production. Achieve the balance of acceptable economic, environment and social effects. Manage technological risk and investment. Improve safety, health and industry hygiene. Achieve a 10% improvement in energy efficiency through the implementation of improved technology.

copper business. Chapter 2 presents a consideration of these trends and drivers. The Copper Roadmap Steering Committee identified three overarching focus areas that form the industrys strategy for responding to the trends, addressing the challenges, and seizing the opportunities of the coming decade through the development of innovative technology. Together, they hold promise to enable copper producers to achieve their goals presented in Chapter 1. The three focus areas are:
pr oved Capital Ef ficiency and Asse t Im Impr pro Eff Asset Utilisation Copper production requires large amounts of capital assets, including mining and extraction equipment, massive trucks, crushing and grinding mills, flotation tanks, and electrolytic cells. Companies seek to minimise capital cost per ton produced without increasing other production inputs such as labour, energy, and material. w Mining and Pr ocessing T echnologies Ne New Processing Technologies Advances in mining and processing technologies hold promise to reduce costs and processing times, increase productivity and yields, and expand the range of ore types copper producers can mine profitably. velopment Faced with the Sustainable De Dev environmental legacy issues associated with historic mining practices, the copper industry

Copper Technology Roadmap

faces growing pressure to demonstrate that current and new mining ventures will provide long term social benefits and protect the environment. New processes and technologies to reduce the footprint and more adequately predict the environmental and social outcome will assist the copper industry in the journey to sustainability. Copper producers are increasingly seeking ways to minimise the environmental impact and improve the sustainability of copper mining and processing operations. A combination of more sustainable operating practices and new technologies will allow copper companies to continue their commitment to sustainability.

Exhibits 4, 5, and 6 in Chapter 3 provide an overview of the R&D needs identified in each of the three focus areas. Chapter 3 also presents detailed information regarding the eleven priorities. This information provides the foundation on which collaborative R&D projects can be launched. It is important to note that the roadmap does not cover all technological pathways to the future. The roadmap focuses on pre-competitive needs and can be useful in informing private R&D efforts of individual companies, universities, and other researchers. However, it will also assist individual companies in pursuing their own R&D agendas to bolster their competitive positions in the marketplace. Other advances are also likely to come from small companies, independent entrepreneurs, universities, and other researchers who may be more able to assume greater risk. The roadmap complements these other efforts and provides a potential mechanism by which higher-risk R&D efforts regarding shared needs can be pursued through collaboration. A Copper Technology Working Group has been established to oversee the development and execution of collaborative research projects in accordance with the roadmaps priorities. AMIRA International will maintain its role as coordinator as directed by the industry. Several members of the Working Group have already agreed to work together to address one of the high priorities in the roadmap: real-time whole process control. This swift agreement to collaborate provides an early success of the roadmapping effort and will build confidence among copper companies that the technology collaboration model can work. Today, as much as ever, the copper industry faces wide-ranging challenges and opportunities. Many of the needs identified in the roadmap are not new, but the roadmap represents an exciting opportunity for the copper industry to work together on the most pressing issues it faces over the coming decade. By combining the advances promised by this roadmap with independent company discoveries and innovations from researchers, the industry will be prepared to achieve its goals and rise to the challenges of the coming decade and beyond.

The copper industry has identified the research, development, demonstration, testing, validation, and other technological activities needed to achieve its goals in response to the trends, drivers, and challenges shaping its future. Collectively, they represent over 100 individual R&D needs, many of which feed into one another to form larger technology pathways that will help copper producers advance towards the goals and respond to the trends shaping the industry. Exhibit 1 provides an overview of the roadmap. With finite R&D resources available to every copper company, the industry must focus collaborative activities on priorities. Accordingly, eleven priorities have been identified, representing some of the most urgent and promising areas for collaborative technology development. These priorities are of particular interest because they offer significant potential rewards, but are typically too costly, long-term, risky, or otherwise daunting for individual companies to make adequate progress towards independently. The Copper Roadmap Steering Committee has further refined the prioritisation of these items, identifying four of the eleven priorities as top priorities and five as high priorities. These priorities are shown in Exhibit 2. As shown in Exhibit 2, the priorities span the entire copper value chain considered in this roadmap. Additionally, several of the priorities cut across multiple or all process steps. These so-called systems issues may hold the greatest potential for cost reductions, efficiency improvements, or environmental impacts because they capture opportunities that are often missed when companies focus on individual processes.
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Copper Technology Roadmap

Exhibit 1 . Na vigating the R oadmap 1. Navigating Roadmap

Copper Industry Goals Lowering Cost of Production Managing Technological Risk and Investment Improving Energy Efficiency by 10% Focus Areas Improved Capital Efficiency and Asset Utilisation Critical Barriers New Mining and Processing Technologies Critical Barriers R & D Needs and Priorities Mine-to-Metal Optimisation Real-Time Whole Process Control Knowledge Sharing Database Intelligent Comminution Ore System Intelligence In-Situ Mining Dry-Processing Technologies More Efficient Use of Water Integrated Sustainability Model Design for Closure Byproduct Management (Waste to Product) Sustainable Development Critical Barriers Achieving the Balance of Acceptable Economic, Environmental and Social Effects Improving Safety, Health and Industry Hygiene

Other R&D Needs

Other R&D Needs

Other R&D Needs

Implementation by the Copper Technology Working Group

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Copper Technology Roadmap

R&D Priorities Along the Copper V alue Chain Value

High Priority: Ore System Intelligence


Copper Technology Roadmap

Top Priority: Intelligent Comminution

Top Priority: More Efficient Use of Water

ICA Roadmapping Activities

Mine Planning Comminution Separation

Extraction

Electrowinning

Finished Cathodes

Finished Products

Exhibit 2. R&D Priorities Along the Copper V alue Chain Value

Wastes

Wastes

Wastes

Wastes

High Priority: In-Situ Mining

Priority: Dry Processing Technology

Priority: Byproduct Management

SYSTEMS ISSUES (ADDRESSES ALL AREAS)


High Priority: KnowledgeSharing Database High Priority: Design for Closure
Top Priority: Integrated Sustainability Model

Top Priority: Mine-to-Metal Optimisation

High Priority: Real-Time Whole Process Control

Copper Technology Roadmap

1. INTR ODUCTION NTRODUCTION


Intr oduction Introduction
Copper is a fundamental building block of modern economies. In 2003, annual production of copper metal was 15.3 million tonnes and was projected to grow at a rate of 2.7% per year. North America and Europe have experienced slower growth due to an emerging recycling industry. However, consumption in developing economies is growing rapidly. In China, for instance, projected annual growth is currently in excess of 8% per year and some estimates put growth at 10% per year for the next few years. Notwithstanding the slow but steady growth in world consumption, supply of copper has generally outpaced demand, and has led to lower prices in recent years. Declining commodity prices, in turn, put pressure on producers to contain costs and increase efficiency. The capital-intensive nature of copper production encourages producers to focus on maximising the return on capital employed (ROCE). In addition to economic considerations, copper producers often face higher levels of social and environmental pressures on their operations. Many copper producers also face pressure to reduce their energy consumption for both economic and environmental reasons. These pressures may become key drivers of technological change in and of themselves. These factors represent significant challenges to the industry and create a climate supportive of technological innovation. This roadmap considers a changing supply/ demand balance, shifting production and consumption demographics, and increased social and environmental expectations, while also permitting producers to earn acceptable returns for their shareholders.

AND

GOALS

Goals f or the Copper Indus tr y for Industr try


The global copper industry is driven by the need to become more productive while minimising environmental impact and maintaining the highest safety standards. In an effort to articulate the future direction of the industry, the Copper Roadmap Steering Committee established a set of high-level goals and supporting factors and metrics (Exhibit 3). This framework will guide technology development as the industry looks to the future, and align the R&D needs and priorities in this roadmap. Each producer optimises its processes and practices to suit its ore deposits and business conditions. Because ore bodies and market conditions vary from one producer to the next, it is difficult to establish broad, quantifiable goals for the industry as a whole. However, the five goals describe the industrys desired direction for progress in qualitative terms. Additionally, the Steering Committee ving a agreed on one quantitative goal: achie achieving 10% im pr ovement in energy ef ficiency thr ough impr pro eff through the im plementation of im pr oved t echnology implementation impr pro technology echnology. This goal highlights the importance of energy to copper mining and production, indicating a shared opportunity to lower costs and conserve energy.

Copper Technology Roadmap

Exhibit 3. Copper Industr y Goals Industry


GOAL 1. LOWERING THE COST OF PRODUCTION
FACTOR
Higher labour productivity through automation and process control Improved capital productivity and asset utilisation Innovative extraction processes Metallurgical milling design parameters and ore characterisation Improved mining and process equipment Byproduct and co-product extraction

METRIC
Cu tonnes/manyear Capital cost/tonne produced; total assets/tonne Elimination of process steps; productivity increase Capital cost/tonne produced; MJ/tonne

Life cycle costs; productivity increase % recovery; develop new byproducts; US$/Cu tonnes

GOAL 2. ACHIEVING THE BALANCE OF ACCEPTABLE ECONOMIC, ENVIRONMENTAL AND SOCIAL EFFECTS
FACTOR
Adoption of environmentally friendly processing technologies Smaller environmental footprints Socially responsible mineral resource exploitation Residue treatment and reuse Efficiency of water, land, and energy use Life cycle analysis and implications

METRIC
Emissions/tonne Cu produced Ha/tonne produced Acceptable in the communities in which we operate Solid waste produced/tonne; residue converted to new economic use m /tonne, Ha/tonne, MJ/tonne N/A
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GOAL 3. MANAGING TECHNOLOGICAL RISK AND INVESTMENT


FACTOR New mining technology
Financial requirements

METRIC
Capital cost/tonne produced; operating cost/tonne Capital cost/tonne produced

GOAL 4. IMPROVING SAFETY, HEALTH AND INDUSTRY HYGIENE


FACTOR Reducing number of employees exposed to risk METRIC Long-term goal of zero harm

GOAL 5. IMPROVE ENERGY EFFICIENCY BY 10% THROUGH THE IMPLEMENTATION OF IMPROVED TECHNOLOGY
FACTOR
More efficient energy utilisation

METRIC
MJ/tonne produced; MJ/tonne mined

Copper Technology Roadmap

2. TRENDS, DRIVERS, AND CHALLENGES


As the copper industry develops a roadmap for future collaborative technology development, it must consider how that future will change in response to trends and drivers over the next 1015 years, and the challenges these factors may create. While it is nearly impossible to accurately predict the future, we gain insight into the needed development pathways and priorities by considering the driving market, social, and political forces influencing the global copper business.

Land, Water, and Energy Use


Increasing regional pressures over water and land use will continue to create significant challenges for copper producers. Competition for water use among various sectors of the economy is particularly fierce in the arid and semi-arid regions where copper naturally occurs. This competition will drive the industry to consider water purification and recycling as well as the use of saline water in its operations, all of which present significant challenges. Land available for mining and tailings will also continue to diminish due to alternate competing land uses. Meanwhile, the industry may observe shifts in energy sources from coal to natural gas, and ultimately from fossil fuels towards renewable energy sources. Because copper production, and comminution in particular, is energy-intensive, shifts in energy availability and prices have significant impact on copper companies bottom lines.

Markets and Applications


Global market forces will have the strongest effect on the copper industry over the next decade. Rapid growth in copper demand in China, India, Pakistan, Southeast Asia, the former Soviet Union, and other developing regions will drive global demand and significantly shape market dynamics. In the long term, some of these markets may reach the post-industrial state, slowing growth. While these developing markets will fuel commodity copper demand, growth of new, technologically advanced uses for copper could increase copper demand in developed economies. Some finished copper products will be tailored using materials processing techniques (to suit specific applications), increasing the value that copper products can offer. For example, coppers antimicrobial property can be used to increase biosecurity in buildings. Distributed and renewable electricity generation and underground transmission may require new kinds of copper products. Political and social pressures to develop hybrid vehicles may spur copper demand if the copper industry is aggressive in positioning itself as a material of choice among vehicle design engineers.

Environmental Issues
Social and regulatory pressures are likely to have increasing influence on copper production, driving efficiency and sustainability efforts. The number of government and non-government organisations scrutinising the environmental impact of copper mining will continue to grow along with social and political expectations for product stewardship, potentially increasing the industrys liability. As copper demand continues to grow over the next decade, near-term increases in production will come largely from low-grade ore bodies in open-pit mines. Increased production will likewise carry increased amounts of tailings, wastes, and open pits with post-closure unknowns. Further, social and regulatory pressures on open-pit operations are likely to increase in the future.
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Copper Technology Roadmap

The industry remains committed to the sustainability journey. Challenges abound in this area, many dealing with post-closure issues. The industrys difficulty in precisely predicting the long-term water quality from mine rock and tailings presents a challenge for managing these materials. Long-term restoration costs and risks, finding productive uses for mined lands, and growing post-closure liabilities all make post-closure management a daunting but necessary task. Perhaps the biggest challenge in this area is the limited availability of capital to devote to closure, reclamation, and sustainability projects. In the coming decade, the industry will proactively seek more effective ways to make the clear business case for committing resources to sustainable development.

Copper Resources
As conventional copper ore deposits are increasingly mined and depleted, the average composition of available copper resources continues to shift. Much of the easy-to-mine copper has been extracted, pushing copper producers to find ways to profitably extract lower-grade ores, deeper ores, and more complex ore deposits. These more challenging deposits will likely require increased impurity removal costs and energy consumption. Globally, copper producers may seek to explore available copper resources in less politically stable regions of the globe, creating new challenges. Further, roughly 70% of the worlds remaining copper resources are in the form of chalcopyrite rather than oxides, but extraction and processing of chalcopyrite has not yet been optimised for profitability. To offset these rising costs, copper companies will be pushed to customise technologies and processes for the specific ore resources being mined, a concept that holds much promise but has many challenges. Copper companies are also likely to explore other opportunities, such as distributed copper production (mine mouth concept) and continuous copper mining to replace current batch processes.

industry is experiencing a net technical knowledge outflow, fueled by high retirement rates combined with low entrance rates. Attracting talented young people to the mining industry is often difficult for a variety of reasons, including a poor public perception of the industry and the reluctance of labour to travel to and from remote operations. Some developing regions, contrarily, have less difficulty securing qualified human resources. Increasing safety requirements will also shape the way human resources are used in copper mining. Copper companies will increasingly seek to develop processes and methods that require less labour, such as automation and remote operation techniques. These technologies promise to reduce labour requirements by removing people from operations, thereby reducing labour costs and improving safety.

Policy Trends
In addition to environmental policy, other political trends have the potential to drive change in the copper industry. The application of global standards (e.g., labour, environmental) that are not site-specific may create challenges. Changes in royalties and permitting policies may also drive change in copper production; the industry may require less-invasive processes to maintain its license to operate. Also, changing political scenarios across the globe may open previously unavailable regions to the industry (e.g., sub-Saharan Africa).

Sustainable Development
The publics perception of mining will continue to play an important role in determining copper industry activities and business practices. This perception is a direct result of the industrys performance, and will often be shaped by the lower-performing operations. The industry is faced with decreasing public acceptance of mining and increasing demands for environmental friendliness, trends that are likely to intensify in the coming years. Also, the public is likely to increase its emphasis on aesthetics (e.g., mine footprint, noise). The industry must meet this challenge by proactively engaging local communities and the public at large to improve the understanding of mining while continuing to pursue sustainable development.

Human Resources
One trend the copper industry shares with many other industries is a decreasing availability of well-trained technical staff in many parts of the world. In developed regions in particular, the
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Copper Technology Roadmap

One possible strategy for improving the way mining is viewed is to maximise and accentuate the community benefits of mining. The manner in which copper companies leave regions after operations cease will form a legacy by which they will be judged by communities and the general public. By developing a sustainable community that functions after mining operations depart, the industry may find more welcoming local communities, particularly in third-world countries that would benefit from the influx of people and resources that copper mining brings to a region.

Focus Areas f or T ec hnology for Tec echnology De velopment Dev


The Copper Roadmap Steering Committee identified three overarching focus areas to respond to the trends, address the challenges, and seize the opportunities of the coming decade through the development of innovative technology. These focus areas ensure that the technical, capital/financial, and sustainability aspects of technology development are all considered. Together, they hold promise to enable copper producers to achieve their goals presented in Chapter 1. The three focus areas are:
pr oved Capital Ef ficiency and Asse t Im Impr pro Eff Asset Utilisation Copper production requires large amounts of capital assets, including mining and extraction equipment, massive trucks, crushing and grinding mills, flotation tanks, and electrolytic cells. Over the past several decades, many producers have increased equipment size to take advantage of economies of scale. While this has produced significant cost savings, it has increased the importance of using capital assets as effectively as possible. Companies seek to minimise capital cost per ton produced without increasing other production inputs such as labour, energy, and material. In the near and mid term, copper producers will maximise the use of existing capital assets through operational changes that increase equipment availability (up time) and ensure equipment is used cost efficiently when in operation. In the long term, producers can explore innovative extraction and processing pathways that are less capital intensive. w Mining and Pr ocessing T echnologies Ne New Processing Technologies New, improved technologies are often the key for copper producers to realise significant productivity improvements and efficiency gains. New mining technologies can also make extracting certain types of ore profitable where today they may not be economically feasible (e.g., chalcopyrite, deep ores). Advances in processing technologies hold promise to reduce costs and processing times, and increase productivity and yields. In the near term, copper companies can look to other industries for existing technologies that may be applied to improve copper mining and processing. In the longer term, the industry must develop new technologies that meet the
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Industry Structure
The industry is likely to witness further consolidation, both in terms of businesses and in the form of shared technical and R&D resources. Today, the industry is somewhat fragmented and struggles to present itself to the world in a unified manner. Opportunities abound for collaboration that does not hinder competition among firms. As the industry hones its collaborative abilities, it can promote an image of a high-tech industry that has widespread technology transfer opportunities. Increasing global knowledge exchange, via interactions among miners, suppliers, universities, and copper companies, can accentuate technology advancement and propagate operational best practices. Likewise, a copper recycling industry is beginning to emerge in the United States and Europe, but it remains cyclical, fragmented, and marginally profitable on the copper processing side. Risk-versus-reward and uncertainty are key factors in decision-making for copper companies. Individual companies are increasingly reluctant to invest in new technologies, particularly new processes that may cost many millions of dollars, due to a high aversion to risk. This risk aversion is the result of three possibilities: 1) the technology being developed may not work, i.e., the project is technically unsuccessful; 2) implementing the technology may disrupt production; and 3) technology may quickly spill over to competitors who did not assume the risk and cost of developing it. The industry will seek opportunities to work together on precompetitive areas of mutual concern to reduce this risk, benefiting the copper industry as a whole.

Copper Technology Roadmap

unique needs and demands of copper production will be pursued. velopment Faced with the Sustainable de dev environmental legacy issues associated with historic mining practices, the copper industry faces growing pressure of demonstrating that current and new mining ventures will provide long term social benefits and protect the environment. New processes and technologies

to reduce the footprint and more adequately predict the environmental and social outcome will assist the copper industry in the journey to sustainability. Copper producers will also look to new technology to make their processes more benign and to produce useful byproducts instead of wastes. A combination of more sustainable operating practices and new technologies will allow copper companies to continue their commitment to sustainability.

Copper Technology Roadmap

3. R&D NEEDS AND PRIORITIES


The copper industry has identified the research, development, demonstration, testing, validation, and other technological activities needed to achieve its goals in response to the trends, drivers, and challenges shaping its future. Precompetitive needs have been identified in each of the three focus areas: new mining and processing technologies, capital efficiency and asset utilisation, and sustainability. These R&D needs, and the most pertinent challenges and goals driving the needs, are shown in Exhibits 4, 5, and 6. Collectively, they represent over 100 individual R&D needs, many of which feed into one another to form larger technology pathways that will help copper producers advance towards the goals outlined in Chapter 1. integrate individual processes along the overall copper production chain. Sharing non-competitive knowledge among copper producers can help the industry propagate best practices for operations and maintenance. The industry could also benefit by sharing technical expertise and/or facilities for pursuing research on common issues. Dwindling human resources are another area of shared concern for copper producers. By working together to recruit graduates into the industry, copper producers can help each another address the ongoing depletion of qualified human resources, and particularly technical expertise, that the industry has endured in many parts of the world for the past several years.

Im pr oved Capital Ef ficiency Impr pro Eff and Asse t Utilisation Asset
Because copper production is so capital intensive, improving capital efficiency and asset utilisation is an important business objective of all copper companies. While many of the technologies described above also have capital implications, the industry has identified a host of other needs that can have direct or indirect impacts on the efficient use of existing assets and future capital resources (Exhibit 4). New technologies such as automation techniques and smaller-footprint mine designs promise to reduce costs and aid in managing risk and investments. Copper producers also seek to reduce the cost of operations and maintenance through improved sensors and process controls. Some of the most promising areas for research go beyond individual technologies and address system-wide integration, seeking cross-process opportunities in the pursuit of total system optimisation. Overall process control and a mine-to-metal optimisation model are two high-priority needs that can enable copper producers to better
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Ne w Mining and Pr ocessing New Processing hnologies Tec echnologies


Copper producers seek a wide range of new mining and processing technologies to achieve the goals of increased energy efficiency, lower production costs, and management of technological risk and investment (Exhibit 5). Ore system characterisation can improve the efficiency of extraction by providing miners with a better physical and chemical map of ore resources before and during mining. This knowledge can provide further benefits by allowing copper producers to tailor their downstream processes (particularly comminution and separation) based on the characteristics of the ore and waste rock entering the process. In-situ mining holds great promise of improved efficiencies, smaller footprints, and lower costs, but research into solution containment, solution selectivity, and controlling chemical and physical interactions between the host rock and solution is needed to make in-situ mining a viable option for copper deposits.

Copper Technology Roadmap

Comminution is the most energy-intensive process along the copper value chain; therefore, improvements in comminution would yield significant energy savings. Intelligent comminution is a concept that would allow copper producers to improve overall system efficiency by considering downstream implications of comminution (e.g., optimal particle size for separations and byproduct management), and managing comminution accordingly. Better separation technologies can improve efficiencies, lower costs, and reduce wastes while selective mining techniques can reduce the need for separations entirely. Technologies that increase the efficiency of mining, such as improved drilling technologies and continuous mining processes, are also needed. Lower-energy electrowinning and on-line cathode quality characterisation would to allow copper companies to produce their commodity products at lower cost and while adding more value during electrowinning.

corrosion and surfactants. Improved wastewater recovery, treatment, and reuse may allow plants to recycle process water. Copper producers can also seek to reduce water consumption by exploring more dry-processing techniques, though pumping high-solids streams without drastically increasing energy consumption is a challenge that requires innovative technology. Byproduct management is another important sustainability issue for copper producers. Preconcentration techniques to remove byproducts earlier are needed to remove them from further processing, thereby reducing costs and energy consumption. Applying industry best practices and best-available technologies will allow copper producers to manage the impact of tailings and waste rock stockpiles on their environments in the near term, with new techniques sought for additional longer term improvements. Finally, industry-wide selfgovernance mechanisms, such as an industryaccepted code of behavior can help the industry protect the environment while also bolstering its image with the local communities in which it operates as well as the public at large.

Sus tainable De velopment Sustainable Dev


The industrys goals of environmentally acceptable, sustainable operations and improved safety, health, and industrial hygiene are perhaps most appropriate for collaboration as they are shared by all copper producers and are often driven by societal and regulatory forces rather than market forces. To that end, Exhibit 6 outlines the R&D needed to enhance the sustainability of copper production. One critical need is an integrated sustainability model that incorporates economic and financial considerations into planning for sustainability. Such a model can benefit all copper producers seeking to build sustainability into their planning, operation, and post-closure activities. A successful model would use life-cycle analysis techniques to incorporate economic and financial considerations with environmental issues to build sustainability into all investment decisions. Water usage is an urgent issue for nearly all copper producers. Using water efficiently is important for all industries, but it is particularly relevant to copper production because of the arid and semi-arid climates in which copper naturally occurs. One approach to alleviate this problem is the use of abundant saline water, though desalination of salt water is currently expensive, and its use in processes creates new problems of
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COMPETITIVE R&D AREA S BEING PURSUED REAS AL COMP ANIES BY INDIVIDU NDIVIDUAL OMPANIES
In addition to the pre-competitive R&D needs identified in this roadmap, copper companies are independently working on a number of technologies that will enhance their competitive position in the marketplace. Some of these competitive topics are listed below, presented in order to cover the entire range of technology needs in the copper industry. Copper companies are also collaborating in some of these areas, but many are likely to remain as areas where copper companies also pursue R&D activities independently. Heap leaching of chalcopyrite Copper concentrate leaching and hydromet treatment Enhanced biological leach systems Advanced electrowinning technology Smelter technology Deportment of radionuclides and other minor elements Recovery of precious and rare metals Re-generation of oxidising species Interparticle comminution

Copper Technology Roadmap

Exhibit 4. R&D Needs and Priorities: Capital Ef ficiency and Asse t Utilisation Eff Asset

CAPITAL EFFICIENCY AND ASSET UTILISATION

CRITICAL BARRIERS
Chalcopyrite extraction efficiency Downtime of assets Risk versus reward Lack of knowledge sharing (successes and failures)

RELEVANT GOALS
Lowering the cost of production Managing technological risk and investment Improving energy efficiency by 10%

R&D NEEDS
Denotes priority

SYSTEM INTEGRATION

Mine-to-metal optimisation model Optimise process control dynamic plant control and optimisation system advanced optimisation software real-time process chain control understanding of real economic drivers Real-time whole process control, including maintenance of assets

Use knowledge management systems to analyse data Explore continuous copper process concepts Consider customers' needs

OPERATIONS AND MAINTENANCE MINING AND PROCESSING TECHNOLOGIES

Sensors and technology for on-line measurement of efficiency and condition In-situ leach and barrier technology Use of nanotechnology in mining and processing Autonomous mining equipment for open pit and underground mining

Extraction technology for chalcopyrite that achieves >80% recovery through leaching whole ore Smaller footprint/higher throughput designs Automation and robotics technology for mining and transport Material transport alternatives Truck-less mining Knowledge-sharing database and website to provide access to noncompetitive information Virtual work force for maintenance and best practices Share information on critical material uses for design and construction of copper plants (e.g., wear/corrosion resistance) Industry technology associations Collaborative funding of R&D Risk capital corporation for specific strategic knowledge development Opportunities for younger workers Global approach for graduate recruitment and training

KNOWLEDGE SHARING

Expert and facilities sharing for common issues such as comminution, chalcopyrite, and waste management Open source development via the internet

TECHNOLOGY COLLABORATION

R&D links with other industry sectors to help identify step change opportunities Creation of copper research community More extensive public relations work with young people

HUMAN RESOURCES

Copper Technology Roadmap

Exhibit 5. R&D Needs and Priorities: Ne w Mining and Pr ocessing T echnologies New Processing Technologies

NEW MINING
AND PROCESSING TECHNOLOGIES

CRITICAL BARRIERS
In-situ mining techniques Energy-efficient dry separation and comminution processes Mining processes that use less water Economic mining of lower grade ores

RELEVANT GOALS
Lowering the cost of production Managing technological risk and investment Improving energy efficiency by 10%

R&D NEEDS
Denotes priority

ORE SYSTEM INTELLIGENCE

Overall ore system intelligence optimisation of 3D seismic technology for hard rock in-situ MWD characterisation in-situ chemistry 4D and micro-seismic imaging Application of oil industry down-hole analysis
In-situ mining and processing In-situ solution containment Flow path prediction/enhancement Bio-leaching and chemistry enhancements Mining footprint minimisation (technologies for in-situ leaching)

Application of ore characterisation techniques to optimise mine planning Ore characterisation to determine optimal breakage size for separation and disposal

IN-SITU MINING

Controlled interactions (host, water) Efficient solution handling and extraction to surface Nanotechnology/biotechnology to exploit microcracks Selective leaching technology Precision extraction Improved header/cutter design

SELECTIVE MINING MINING EFFICIENCY

Effective selective mining Rapid on-line ore characterisation and recognition techniques More efficient mining In-situ reduction of chalcopyrite to sand More economical drilling technologies that can relay ore body information during drilling Intelligent comminution Preferential mineral liberation New methods for breaking rock Improved dry grinding Crusher tailored to ore Improved dry separation Techniques based on material detection, analysis, and separation Cheaper air classification Lower over-voltage EW anode Reduced EW energy (improved busbar design) Simulation model to optimise EW Improved selectivity Zero-emission smelting

Drill materials and smart drill bits Continuous mining process no drill-and-blast cycle efficient dry comminution selectivity remote operation Low-energy chalcopyrite particle size reduction Particle predictive breakage model Selective breakage of minerals Materials and coatings with better wear and corrosion resistance On-line characterisation of floatability More efficient flotation cells Improved fine particle sorting On-line cathode quality characterisation Practical Cl- EW system (no gas) Increased value-added for EW Direct EW from solution

COMMINUTION

SEPARATION

ELECTROWINNING

10

Copper Technology Roadmap

Exhibit 6. R&D Needs and Priorities: Sustainable De velopment Dev

CRITICAL BARRIERS

RELEVANT GOALS
Achieving the balance of economic, environmental and social effects Improving safety, health and industry hygiene

SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

Understanding and managing waste rock and tailings Closure issues Establishing clear business case for sustainability Water issues

R&D NEEDS
Denotes priority

INTEGRATED SUSTAINABILITY MODELS

Integrated sustainability model economic approach and financial tools for mine discovery, development, operation, and closure integration of risk analysis Better life-cycle analysis methodology quantification More efficient use of water water recovery from tailings better extraction techniques dry processing technologies Better water recovery techniques improved thickeners purification/ion removal pumping control reliability

Improved geotechnical models for slope stability Techniques for site-level sustainability reviews Geochemical and surface chemistry models coupled with hydrology to minimise acid rock drainage Use of saltwater surfactants corrosion issues low-cost desalination Innovative waste water treatment/byproduct recovery Large-scale dewatering technology Pumping high-solids streams at lower cost and energy Infrastructure and human capacity for sustainable postmining use Acid rock drainage prediction, prevention, and control Selective ion exchange resins for impurity removal Phyto-remediation Submarine disposal of tailings Impervious liners Predictive models of drainage based on oxidation of metal leaching in waste rock non-ore stockoile Reward system for sustainable processing Improved approach to local communities Study of the true impacts of mining on society/environment Marketing of mining

WATER

POST-CLOSURE LAND USE BYPRODUCTS AND WASTES

Post-closure pit lake geochemistry knowledge transfer New uses for closed mines Contaminated site remediation Conversion of waste into products Pre-concentration to remove wastes from further processing Uses for byproducts from tailings Co-disposal of wastes Byproduct recovery from leach solutions and waste non-ore stockpile Energy recovery from low-grade heat Industry code of behavior meaningful, verifiable universally agreed upon (license to operate) Open exchange of environmental best practice experience Method to work proactively with governments on permitting issues

SELFGOVERNANCE MECHANISMS

11

Copper Technology Roadmap

R&D Priorities
With finite R&D resources available to every copper company, the industry must focus collaborative activities on priorities. The eleven priorities identified here represent some of the most urgent and promising areas for collaborative technology development. These priorities are of particular interest because they offer significant potential rewards, but are typically too costly, long-term, risky, or otherwise daunting for individual companies to make adequate progress towards independently. The top priorities for collaborative R&D efforts are:
Mine-to-metal optimisation Integrated sustainability model Intelligent comminution More efficient use of water Design for closure In-situ mining Knowledge-sharing database Ore system intelligence Real-time whole process control Dry processing technology Byproduct management

As shown in Exhibit 7 below, the priorities span the entire copper value chain considered in this roadmap. Additionally, several of the priorities cut across multiple or all process steps. These so-called systems issues may hold the greatest potential for cost reductions, efficiency improvements, or environmental impact because they capture opportunities that are often missed when companies focus on individual processes. Each of the top priorities is presented in greater detail in the one-page diagrams that follow. Each diagram includes the following information:
A more detailed description of the priority Several key technical elements of the needed R&D Key milestones in the technologys development path Performance metrics for the technology Technical capabilities needed and opportunities for collaboration Linkages to other technologies and developments Next steps for beginning to address the priority

Exhibit 7 . R&D Priorities Along the Copper V alue Chain 7. Value


High Priority: Ore System Intelligence
Top Priority: Intelligent Comminution Top Priority: More Efficient Use of Water

Copper Technology Roadmap

ICA Roadmapping Activities

Mine Planning

Extraction

Comminution

Separation

Electrowinning

Finished Cathodes

Finished Products

Wastes

Wastes

Wastes

Wastes

High Priority: In-Situ Mining

Priority: Dry Processing Technology

Priority: Byproduct Management

SYSTEMS ISSUES (ADDRESSES ALL AREAS)


Top Priority: Mine-to-Metal Optimisation

High Priority: Real-Time Whole Process Control

High Priority: KnowledgeSharing Database

High Priority: Design for Closure

Top Priority: Integrated Sustainability Model

12

Copper Technology Roadmap

TOP PRIORITY

MINE-TO-METAL OPTIMISATION

The concept of mine-to-metal optimisation integrates many technical elements of mining and processing technology. The objective is to develop a model of the whole copper production process from mining the ore in the vein through production of copper metal and tailings disposal. Better understanding of key mining, metallurgical, and operational parameters including ore body characterisation, economical particle transfer, material movement, and energy use patterns will help create the framework for the development of the model. The copper industry is already using a number of discrete models for unit operations such as flotation and comminution. These existing models provide a likely starting point for developing an integrated, continuous copper production model. The development strategy will include a review of existing models, identification of the gaps not covered by these models, and the establishment of priorities for proceeding. The model will encompass knowledge on explosives technologies (for blasting), grinding, leaching, flotation, and also geotechnical modeling in order to relate processing back to the ore system itself. Although challenging, the various pieces of research to develop the technical knowledge needed for mine-to-metal optimisation will yield benefits in their own right.

TECHNICAL ELEMENTS
Ore body intelligence to allow understanding of the ore Determination of optimal particle transfer size Characterisation of energy use along the mining/processing chain Techniques for waste minimisation and prevention early in the chain Analysis of material movement Review of existing (discrete) models and strategies for integrating them

KEY MILESTONES
Completion of review of existing (discrete) models Identification of gaps in the set of models Establishment of priorities for the development of an integrated model Multi-site model testing (possibly at sites chosen for expert site review in RealTime Whole Process Control

PERFORMANCE METRICS

Reduced energy use Increased throughput Higher percentage recovery Higher product quality Reduced capital requirements Increased capital efficiency

OPPORTUNITIES FOR COLLABORATION


Modeling experts: JK Mineral Research Centre; MinnovEX, software vendors Energy, waste, and other technical issues: Research institutions

LINKAGES TO OTHER DEVELOPMENTS


Explosive technology Grinding technology Leaching technology Flotation Geotechnical modeling Ore system intelligence priority

NEXT STEPS
Prepare a project scope of work Identify expert reviewers Copper Technology Working Group to determine interest in project initiation and oversee project if initiated

13

Copper Technology Roadmap

TOP PRIORITY

INTEGRATED SUSTAINABILITY MODEL

Traditional project evaluation methods based on discounted cash flow analysis are limited in their ability to consider broader sustainability issues. A new way of evaluating the overall mine cycle including economic, social, and environmental aspects is needed to fully account for sustainability, closure costs, and other benefits and liabilities. Better metrics are needed for the three key components of this new triple bottom line model -- economic, social, and environmental, particularly the last two. Methods for quantifying and summing the impacts of each component (both positive and negative) will also be required. An overall model that integrates all of these impacts into a few key meaningful metrics will provide decision-makers with a new and more complete way of evaluating mining projects. A key milestone is the development of meaningful metrics for the social and environmental components of the new methodology. The development of a prototype integrated model and a demonstration of its applicability with existing cases will help advance the uptake of this new methodology.

TECHNICAL ELEMENTS
Quantitative metrics economic social* environmental* Methodologies to integrate metrics into overall decisionmaking models for project valuation

KEY MILESTONES

PERFORMANCE METRICS

Development of meaningful metrics

Demonstration of the applicability of prototype model(s) using historical examples Uptake by companies based on successful demonstration

Development of prototype, ready-to-test integrated models

* Social and environmental risks are handled in a quantitative manner, including real options analysis to capture opportunities and threats and to perform better valuation of closure costs.

OPPORTUNITIES FOR COLLABORATION


International Council on Mining and Metals (ICMM) Cooperative Research Centre for Sustainable Resource Processing International Institute for Economic Development

LINKAGES TO OTHER DEVELOPMENTS


ICMM's Global Reporting Initiative Real options analysis developments from the financial community Internal company models Review of triple bottom line reporting initiatives

NEXT STEPS
Determine if compendium of metrics already exists; begin gap analysis once compendium is complete Identify current best practices in valuation for sustainable development Identify current and best practice in handling the implications of closure Copper Technology Working Group to determine interest in project initiation and oversee project if initiated

14

Copper Technology Roadmap

TOP PRIORITY

INTELLIGENT COMMINUTION

Comminution is the most energy-intensive operation in copper production. Improving comminution techniques can lower energy costs while also potentially offering other benefits, such as less maintenance or reduced environmental disposal costs, by reducing the amount of fines produced. By combining ore system characterisation with knowledge of how different ores break, copper producers can tailor blasting and comminution approaches to minimise costs. Better understanding of and exploiting the relationship between blasting and comminution are critical components of this effort, and results from the priority regarding ore system intelligence will feed into this activity. Studies and modeling of how particles break and selective breaking equipment are needed to achieve preferential breakage of rock. Existing R&D efforts in this area, including current and proposed AMIRA projects, are the logical starting point for addressing this area. In the longer term, the industry should explore how to apply novel ways of breaking rock (e.g., microwave, electric pulse) to copper ore systems. Ultimately, the copper industry desires intelligent comminution that combines comminution, blasting, and fracture modeling, and also considers downstream operations such as separations to optimise overall system efficiencies. Also, improved comminution processes may make previously uneconomic ore deposits economically viable and allow copper producers to profitably mine and process new types of ore bodies.

TECHNICAL ELEMENTS
Improved materials to enhance existing systems and enable new processes Rheology analysis of material before comminution Models of comminution machines for improved design and control Monitoring capability for comminution during operation Breakage models, particle-size relationships Understand state-of-the-art fracture techniques (e.g., microwave, electric pulse) Demonstrated value of 3D liberation modeling Preferential breakage and liberation techniques Size classification improvements to reduce recycle

KEY MILESTONES

PERFORMANCE METRICS

Establish project to develop selective breakage machine Develop concept of intelligent comminution system to show how pieces fit together Establish a repository to make information on R&D efforts available

Reduced cost (energy consumption, maintenance costs) Increased throughput More useful waste product (avoids fine particles)

OPPORTUNITIES FOR COLLABORATION


Capabilities Needed: Expertise in mathematical modeling, mechanical engineering, comminution management, testing technologies, sensing, materials, part suppliers

LINKAGES TO OTHER DEVELOPMENTS


Electronics & sensing Prediction of flotation performance based on feedstock Data management Water management Classification and dry separation Industries that blast/crush with different motivations and different technologies

NEXT STEPS
Get previously planned AMIRA projects started Write two-page concept paper to assess industry needs (AMIRA) Circulate among companies for project participation decisions Individual companies will independently study competitive consequences of success Engage part suppliers to develop practical concept Copper Technology Working Group to determine interest in project initiation and oversee project if initiated

15

Copper Technology Roadmap

TOP PRIORITY

EFFICIENT USE OF WATER

The availability and quality of water, particularly in remote locations, is critical to mining operations. The mining industry's strategy for using this natural resource will include finding ways to meet its needs with alternative water resources such as salt water and recycled water. The ability to adapt to different types of water sources in the future will require a deeper understanding of the impact of water quality on mining processes and on materials of construction. Understanding the operational envelope within which current processes operate with respect to water, including any limitations imposed by current water sources, will establish a basis for comparison with the use of alternative water sources. In addition to examining water sources, the industry must ensure the efficiency of water use in each process, examining dry alternatives where feasible, minimising evaporation and other losses, and maximising water recovery. Numerous water conservation studies and related activities have been undertaken by governments and other technical bodies around the world, presenting opportunities for collaboration and knowledge transfer.

MORE

TECHNICAL ELEMENTS
Water sources recycle water makeup water (treated or untreated; if untreated, fresh or saline) Impact of water quality on process chemistry and materials of construction

KEY MILESTONES
Technical and economic review of water treatment processes (desalination and other)

PERFORMANCE METRICS

Understanding of the operational envelope with respect to varying water quality Integrated site water model balance Review of unit operation water requirements Process alternatives Efficient dewatering equipment Characterisation of water losses Loss (e.g., evaporation) minimisation Compliance with global standards

Process water use

Cubic meter of make-up water per tonne of copper

Water recovery processes


Water losses

Quality of released water

OPPORTUNITIES FOR COLLABORATION


Sustainable development processes: United Nations, World Bank, CRC, government water boards

LINKAGES TO OTHER DEVELOPMENTS


Dry processing techniques Rheology pumping efficiency

NEXT STEPS
Review water management and use Review capabilities in evaporation minimisation Copper Technology Working Group to determine interest in project initiation and oversee project if initiated

16

Copper Technology Roadmap

HIGH PRIORITY

DESIGN FOR CLOSURE

The complexity of mine closure issues such as liability, restoration costs and risks, and the sustainability of the community beyond the active life of the mine are best addressed through a holistic approach to designing for closure. Water quality, slope stability, land use, and other environmental and societal sustainability issues must all be considered. Ensuring long-term water quality will require the ability to accurately predict water quality. To accomplish this, geochemical, mineralogical, and hydrological modeling of waste rock heaps, non-ore stockpiles, and tailings facilities must be scaled up and validated with real data sets. Mechanisms for pyrite oxidation based on climate and location must be better understood. Current understanding of the long-term geotechnical stability of waste non-ore stockpile dumps and tailings facilities is very limited and must be expanded. Possible options for beneficially using the mined land and infrastructure post-closure must be identified and evaluated. Further, post-mining community issues should be considered and addressed with appropriate stakeholders throughout the exploration, development and operating stages of a mine. The industry can contribute to the creation of sustainable communities by ensuring that the mineral capital is transformed into infrastructure and human capital in the most appropriate way. The industry needs a general performance metric with which to compare itself rather than detailed criteria. The goal is a sustained or enhanced biophysical and socio-economic environment so that the surrounding community can continue to be sustained without the presence of or input from the mining company.

TECHNICAL ELEMENTS
Prediction of water quality from waste rock heaps and stockpiles understanding of pyrite oxidation based on climate and location geochemical and mineralogical modeling hydrology modeling and hydrogeology Mine site remediation and rehabilitation pit lake geochemistry/hydrology phytoremediation Long-term geotechnical stability

KEY MILESTONES
Delineation of mechanisms for pyrite oxidation Validation/scale-up of existing geochemical models Backward-looking geochemical and mineralogical models for water quality Ways to use mine and associated infrastructure postclosure best practices guidelines resource materials

PERFORMANCE METRICS

Sustained or enhanced biophysical and socioeconomic environment

OPPORTUNITIES FOR COLLABORATION


Post-closure issues: International Council of Mines and Metals (ICMM) Open cut mines: World Coal Institute Acid rock drainage: International Network for Acid Prevention, Acid Drainage Technology Initiative, Mine Environment Neutral Drainage, Australian Council for Mine Environmental Research

LINKAGES TO OTHER DEVELOPMENTS


Long-term reliability of impervious liners Heap and non-ore stockpile leaching Knowledge sharing

NEXT STEPS
Review current work and initiatives related to design for closure Identify research experts in pyrite oxidation and coordinate development of a scope of work Copper Technology Working Group to determine interest in project initiation and oversee project if initiated

17

Copper Technology Roadmap

HIGH PRIORITY
In-situ mining is essentially an underground leaching system in which solvents are pumped into the ground and copper-rich solutions are extracted and sent to subsequent processing. This approach conceptually combines several of the steps in the traditional copper value chain: extraction, comminution, and separation. In-situ mining also avoids large open-pit mines, thereby minimising the corresponding public perception issues and the disruption to the surrounding environment. The technique is used to mine other minerals (e.g. uranium), but several challenges make in situ copper mining difficult: ore body characterisation, rock fracturing and penetration with solution, selectivity, chemistry, and containment. While reducing the footprint of copper mining is a benefit of in-situ mining, the real driver is economic in nature. In situ mining could allow copper producers to mine ore bodies that are not economically feasible using conventional methods because of their physical or chemical characteristics. In the long term, the main opportunity for in-situ mining may lie with deep ores (~1500 m) at relatively high temperatures (80C). In-situ mining in three-phase environments is particularly challenging; however, it is highly important and valuable to the industry because chalcopyrite occurs naturally in three-phase systems. An important objective of this effort is to understand the characteristics that make ore bodies more amenable to in-situ mining so it can be applied to those that are best suited to the technique. In-situ mining is ripe for collaboration because it is an area of high risk but high potential return. Further, knowledge gained through R&D aimed at in-situ mining will likely be applicable to traditional heap leaching and control of ground water contamination, increasing the value companies are likely to receive by pursuing the technology and thereby somewhat lessening the risk.

IN-SITU MINING

TECHNICAL ELEMENTS
Identification of types of ore bodies that are particularly viable Key issues include containment and delivering reactants to minerals (for two- and three-phase systems) Plume mapping (sub-surface water) Hydro-geological mapping Techniques to manage liquid chemistry to achieve reasonable yields Improved corrosion resistance of materials Investigate ways to avoid or handle undesirable materials (e.g., arsenic) Properly manage public perception of in-situ mining

KEY MILESTONES
Conduct baseline study to gather existing knowledge about in-situ mining from other industries (6-12 months) Conduct gap analysis Conduct fundamental understanding and analysis work to adapt or develop technologies to address most significant challenges (e.g., containment, activation, etc.) Identify target ore system with key characteristics that are a driver for in-situ mining Develop test concept for target ore system that aims to provide technical challenges can be overcome (3-5 years)

PERFORMANCE METRICS

Economics (recovery and yield) Environmental impact Scale and size of operation that is feasible

OPPORTUNITIES FOR COLLABORATION


Capabilities Needed: Geological modeling, fluid modeling, hydro-geochemist, bio-chemist Administration: Project Champion who can lead the effort

LINKAGES TO OTHER DEVELOPMENTS


Fracturing, sealing, and fluid recovery (petroleum extraction) Activation technologies (coal mining) Containment technologies (environmental remediation) Copper heap leach chemistry and models Hydro-geological models Bioleaching containment models Ore system intelligence priority feeds in-situ mining

NEXT STEPS
Write two-page concept paper to assess industry (AMIRA) Circulate among companies for project participation decisions Individual companies will independently study competitive consequences of success Copper Technology Working Group to determine interest in project initiation and oversee project if initiated

18

Copper Technology Roadmap

HIGH PRIORITY

KNOWLEDGESHARING DATABASE

The theme of sharing information is one that resonates throughout the copper industry. Copper companies can learn from each other as well as from other industries using similar processing steps and facing analogous environmental and waste handling issues. Web-based technology for sharing information is readily available and should be exploited for the benefit of the entire industry. Environmental and health/safety case studies, best practices, and related publications/data would be a good starting point that would be unlikely to arouse any controversy within the industry. Eventually the database could cover a wider spectrum of topics, possibly even common specifications and standards. The involvement of vendors and equipment suppliers would make the database more comprehensive and may represent a source of revenue for its maintenance. The ability of the industry as a whole to make substantial progress both technologically and in social and environmental acceptance will depend on the willingness of copper producers to share knowledge and work together toward common goals.

TECHNICAL ELEMENTS
Identification of administrator/host Identification of information to share environment/safety technical successes/failure best practices expert advice and vendors equipment specifications Identification of potential funding sources Investigation of existing models (e.g., Seeker Saver, Data Metallogenica, Quadrem) Use of a staged approach start with top priorities add environmental information

KEY MILESTONES

PERFORMANCE METRICS

Development of a proposal detailing approach, scope, and cost Project initiation Completion of prototype system Active knowledge-sharing system Collaborative R&D project tracking system component Feedback mechanisms

Hits/week News items/month Sponsor excitement Value of information Interactions among users

OPPORTUNITIES FOR COLLABORATION


Funding sources: Sponsors, vendors and equipment suppliers (in the longer term) Administration: Host, software programmers

LINKAGES TO OTHER DEVELOPMENTS


Tracking/reporting on collaborative R&D projects Technology scanning activities

NEXT STEPS
AMIRA to prepare proposal for industry review Copper Technology Working Group to determine interest in project initiation and oversee project if initiated

19

Copper Technology Roadmap

HIGH PRIORITY

ORE SYSTEM INTELLIGENCE

Improved ore system intelligence, the ability to characterise an ore body and its host rock, can allow copper producers to determine the most effective extraction and processing techniques based on the composition and orientation of the ore body. Data on the ore and other materials forming the ore system is already being gathered in mining operations. However, technologies and techniques from other industries (the oil industry in particular) could benefit copper mining by providing a more complete mapping of the ore system before as well as during mining. Copper producers seek to take greater advantage of the learning opportunities they have each time they drill, blast, or otherwise interact with an ore body. By gathering the relevant data before and during mining, producers could create and continually refine a 3D model of the ore system that shows the geological, mineralogical, chemical, geotechnical and processing characteristics of the ore body. Gathering this information prior to mining would allow optimum design of mining and processing stream. This technology could also be used to map ore continuity. Ore system intelligence can also be used to customise mining equipment to the materials being mined. Ultimately, copper producers would like smart mining operations that use the best mining techniques as dictated by ore system intelligence, in real time. Improved ore system intelligence feeds into several other top priorities described in this chapter, notably mine-to-metal optimisation and in-situ mining.

TECHNICAL ELEMENTS
Interactive map to use during mining (e.g., with acoustic topography) Investigate what technologies are available (down-hole probes, cameras, etc.); adapt non-intrusive characterisation techniques to suit copper mining Use 3D seismic, 4D micro seismic techniques during operation Adapt or promote the development of new analytical techniques for direct measurements (wireless data transmission, data analysis, continuous update of ore system characteristics; get additional information during drilling/blasting) Model fracture frequency (ore body dependent) Wireless technology to gather data at mine site and transmit to central analysis center.

KEY MILESTONES

PERFORMANCE METRICS

Accuracy
Refine ore identification and characterisation techniques to operate at same resolution as mining capability (1-3 years) Develop deployable 3D modeling capability for green field use (2 years) Standardise technology to be applicable to many/all ore bodies (5+ years)

Resolution Repeatability of measurement Number of independent characteristics that can be measured Actual value of information gathered

OPPORTUNITIES FOR COLLABORATION


Capabilities Needed Needed: 3D computer modeling, down-hole probe expertise (oil companies), meteorologists, high-performance computing, image management specialists, geologists to interpret images, physicists (laser technology)

LINKAGES TO OTHER DEVELOPMENTS


Feeds into the mine-to-metal optimisation efforts and in-situ mining Data management for information gathered during drilling If desired material is in fractures (links to comminution), use ore intelligence to determine most effective comminution approach

NEXT STEPS
Write two-page concept paper to assess industry (AMIRA) Circulate among companies for project participation decisions Individual companies will independently study competitive consequences of success Copper Technology Working Group to determine interest in project initiation and oversee project if initiated

20

Copper Technology Roadmap

HIGH PRIORITY

REAL-TIME WHOLE PROCESS CONTROL

Improving control of the entire copper production process in real time will have numerous benefits in terms of cost, performance, efficiency, and sustainability. Real-time control has the advantage of allowing immediate adjustments to operating conditions, thereby reducing the amount of material (metal-bearing as well as fuel, water, and other consumables) that is wasted when processes are not operating as planned. A first step in the development of real-time whole process control is a survey of existing technology and best practices in the copper industry. An understanding of how (and how much) of the large quantities of data generated by process control systems are used is also needed. An industry benchmark could be created via an expert review of the types of technologies currently used at copper mining companies. This benchmark could shed light on any gaps or weaknesses that exist in the technologies available and/or their application in the copper industry. Vendor participation in the survey and the subsequent analysis may enrich the results and accelerate the development of any needed technologies.

TECHNICAL ELEMENTS

KEY MILESTONES

PERFORMANCE METRICS

Identification of current process control systems and technologies Identification of existing instruments and sensors Characterisation of data use Identification of gaps in process control, sensors, instruments Creation of standard protocols for software and other systems Development or adaptation of technologies and software for copper process control Identification and optimisation of strategies Expert review of current process control technologies, instruments, and sensors 3 sites to be reviewed creation of a benchmark vendor participation Completion of gap analysis Identification of specific projects to address gaps

Increased equipment reliability Reduced unscheduled maintenance Increased throughput Lower energy use Lower cost per ton of metal produced Improved use of consumables

OPPORTUNITIES FOR COLLABORATION


Sensing and process control technologies: Sister industries such as chemicals, instrument vendors Review of current technologies: Third party expert (mining consultant or other)

LINKAGES TO OTHER DEVELOPMENTS


Software models and tools Sensors and instrumentation Maintenance strategies

NEXT STEPS
AMIRA prepares problem statement and identify experts to conduct review Experts review prior surveys Copper Technology Working Group to determine interest in project initiation and oversee project if initiated

21

Copper Technology Roadmap

T OP PRIORITY P RIORITY
Copper producers face growing pressure to minimise their water use, particularly in the arid regions where copper ores typically are found. The industry has identified dry processing technology as a priority to respond to these pressures. Dry processing not only will allow copper producers to reduce their water use, but also promises to ease environmental issues by producing less fines. The industry will develop this technology using a staged approach that delivers incremental improvements, ultimately leading to dry processing. By maximising the degree of processing done in a dry state, overall water usage can be reduced and necessary wet processing can be analysed to maximise the effectiveness of water use. For example, mining operations may evolve to where rock is broken, gangue is removed, and then water is introduced to process the remaining ore, allowing the gangue to be dry-processed. Other technologies that will feed into the development of dry processing technology include dust suppression, dry classification, selective liberation (i.e., to liberate wastes before separation), and physical sorting techniques. Successful dry processing will rely on preferential breakage. Fundamental studies and modeling to understand how different types of rocks break can enable copper producers to take advantage of these breakage characteristics and perform some liberation and separation without the use of water. Other potential dry separation techniques may include simple size separation, density-based separation using vibration, or physical sorting based on characterisation.

PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY

DRY

TECHNICAL ELEMENTS
Key issues include: dust suppression, classification and separation, dry liberation Possible separation techniques include: simple size separation with selective breaking, density-based separation using vibration, physical sorting based on characterisation Examine dry separation technology outside industry Develop better ways to get materials into dry separation processes (selective loading) Develop ways to abrade minerals off at fracture, and then use size separation Improve accuracy of 3D modeling of surface abrasion at small scales Achieve dry pre-concentration

KEY MILESTONES

PERFORMANCE METRICS

Water per ton of mineral processed balanced with energy per ton
Pre-concentration project is up and running In 10 years, pre-concentration enables a 25% reduction of ground material

Effective copper throughput to assess how much loss is acceptable Environmental impact of waste streams (quantify metric for processing of new wastes, less fine wastes)

OPPORTUNITIES FOR COLLABORATION


Capabilities Needed: modeling of particle movement Potential Partners: equipment suppliers, food industry, cement industry

LINKAGES TO OTHER DEVELOPMENTS


Fracture surface abrasion is successful for other minerals Cement industry Dust suppression techniques (underground mines) Working bulk processing industry, diamond industry Military work on bunker penetration for ore penetration NASA ore system sensing technologies (moon probes, surface/particle handling and analysis)

NEXT STEPS
Write two-page concept paper to assess industry (AMIRA) Circulate among companies for project participation decisions Individual companies will independently study competitive consequences of success Distribute proposal currently being prepared to companies for consideration Copper Technology Working Group to determine interest in project initiation and oversee project if initiated

22

Copper Technology Roadmap

PRIORITY

BYPRODUCT MANAGEMENT

A modern copper mine may excavate one million tons of rock per day to obtain 10,000 or 20,000 tons of copper. Very little of the remaining 980,000 tons of material is ever used. Better characterisation of this material and the other byproducts of copper mining may present opportunities for their beneficial use. Once specific applications have been identified, existing mining processes may be modified to facilitate the use of the byproducts in the future. Planning for future reprocessing will increase the percentage of byproducts converted to new uses as well as the efficiency of this conversion. Another aspect of byproduct management is the recovery of valuable constituents from the ore and leach solutions. The ultimate benefit is a reduction in overall mining requirements and the construction of new mines. Effective byproduct management will benefit the community by reducing mining operations and creating industries based on the recovery and use of byproduct materials. In addition to the technical challenges to byproduct recovery and use, there are market barriers as well as the fear of future liability of the mining company associated with this material. Actions must be taken to eliminate this fear.

TECHNICAL ELEMENTS
Characterisation of existing materials Modification of existing processes for more effective use of byproducts, and reprocessing for optimal use of the resource in the future ore byproducts waste rock tailings slag leach solutions leach residue

KEY MILESTONES
Pyrite removal from tailings Selective recovery of elements from leach solutions Discovery of alternative uses for byproducts tailings for bricks and agricultural uses slag as insulation and abrasive materials waste rock as a construction material Overcoming barriers preventing entry into known markets

PERFORMANCE METRICS

Percentage of byproducts converted to new use

OPPORTUNITIES FOR COLLABORATION


Other industries with similar issues: Examine strategies used by the construction, cement, and agriculture industries

LINKAGES TO OTHER DEVELOPMENTS


Ore body modeling Modeling of existing tailings and waste Byproduct industries for sustainable community developments

NEXT STEPS
Develop a scope of work to address byproduct utilisation issues Look to the chemical industry for ion-selective organics that will extract traces of various elements Copper Technology Working Group to determine interest in project initiation and oversee project if initiated

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AMIRA INTERNA TIONAL IS LEADING ONGOING COLL ABORA TIVE R&D EFFORTS ALIGNED NTERNATIONAL OLLABORA ABORATIVE ROADMAP NEEDS

WITH

While the Copper Technology Roadmap is an important milestone in the industrys drive to collaborate on pre-competitive technology development, it is not the first time copper companies have worked together on common needs. AMIRA International has coordinated many R&D projects for copper technology and continues to lead ongoing efforts that address many of the priorities identified in the roadmap. A partial listing of completed and current projects relevant to the priority needs in the roadmap is presented below. Please contact Joe Cucuzza at AMIRA International for information regarding these projects1 (see For More Information on page 27 for contact details)
o-Me tal Optimisation: Projects P483 and P483A Mine to Mill (completed projects) Mine-t Mine-to-Me o-Metal Time Whole Pr ocess Contr ol: Project P9L Mineral Processing reviewed process control; Realeal-Time Process Control: ongoing projects P705 and P706 are exploring electrowinning and solvent extraction, respectively. wledge-Sharing Database: Project P420A Gold Technology includes a database of CIP Kno Knowledge-Sharing performance aspects. oduct Management: Completed projects P479A and P479B Pyrometallurgy address Bypr Byproduct aspects of slags and refractories from copper smelting operations; project P671 Minor Elements is exploring the fate of minor elements in copper smelting. The projects P645 and P645A addressed gold flotation as a byproduct from copper base metal flotation circuits. egrat ed Sustainability Model: The Cooperative Research Centre on Sustainable Resource Int Integrat egrated Processing (CRC SRP) in Australia will commence work on an integrated sustainability model. ficient Use of W at er: Project P424 (process water treatment completed). Proposed More Ef Eff Wat ater: AMIRA projects include review of water treatment in P762, P881 minimisation of process water evaporation, P831 treatment of sulphate-rich mine-water. Water efficiency and disposal has been the focus of an AMIRA strategic initiative with industry during 2003. In-Situ Mining: Project P768A improving heap bioleaching is based on the bioleaching of copper, especially chalcopyrite (current). pr oved Comminution: Project P9N (simulation and control of mineral processing circuits, Im Impr pro current); project P667A (SAG mill monitoring, current); project P879 (microwave technology, under development); future CRC SRP Program 2 initiatives, e.g., ore pre-concentration and ecoefficiency metrics. ems Int elligence: Project P436 Geophysics in Mining, tested different geophysical Ore-Syst Ore-Systems Intelligence: technologies in various mines; project P685 (automatic spectral logging of core, chips, and powders - completed); Project P9L, M, and N (JKMRC point load test - current); project P818 (RoM stockpile inventory modelling proposal in development). Dr y Pr ocessing T echnology: Future CRC SRP Program 2 initiative with AMIRA includes project Dry Processing Technology: P902 to review status of dry processing technologies.

The AMIRA system designates projects and project proposal by a P followed by a number. When the project is extended or renewed a letter is added. Some projects are extended many times hence P9N, a mineral processing project is in its 43rd year.

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4. IMPLEMENT ATION: MOVING MPLEMENTA FOR WARD ORW


The Copper Technology Roadmap is a living document that will evolve as the challenges and priorities of the industry shift in response to new trends, competitive pressures, and opportunities. By working together to develop the technologies outlined in this roadmap, the industry can adopt a proactive stance to shape its future and better prepare for a dynamic, evolving marketplace. Collaborative R&D projects entail several challenges not faced when companies work independently on research: balancing information sharing with competitive advantage, intellectual property and other legal issues, and administrative complexity, just to name three. However, despite these complicating factors, collaborative R&D can serve the industry by directing the finite R&D resources of each individual company towards common challenges that are too risky, long term, or technologically complex for any company to pursue alone. Further, while the benefits of environmental and sustainability projects are not always direct or obvious, the entire industry faces social and regulatory pressure in this area, making these shared concerns particularly ripe for collaboration. AMIRA International stands ready to help copper companies navigate the complex waters of collaboration, but individual companies must make the final commitments to work together for the betterment of the industry as a whole. To begin the collaborative process, the industry may seek to move forward with one or two nearer-term opportunities that can serve as test cases. By achieving an early success, the industry can test the collaborative process and individual companies can gain confidence in the process and their peers within the industry. To implement the roadmap, the Copper Roadmap Steering Committee has agreed to form a Copper Technology Working Group. This Working Group will have the responsibility to implement the outcomes from the roadmap, as well as a wider brief which includes an ongoing review of the long-term goals of technology development for the copper industry as a whole. Several of the members of the Working Group have already agreed to begin collaborating on one project addressing a high-priority need in the roadmap: real-time whole process control. This agreement to collaborate on a high-priority R&D project indicates the early success of the roadmapping effort, and the Working Group will continue to discuss other potential collaboration opportunities in the months and years to come. AMIRA International has already prepared Project Briefs that further describe several possible projects for circulation among the Working Group as a first step to assembling project teams to work on specific tasks. Achieving early successes is important in maintaining momentum generated by the roadmap and convincing companies that the technology collaboration model can work. The success of this roadmap will be measured by the number and scope of collaborative R&D projects that follow it and, ultimately, the degree to which the needs identified herein are met with technology and business solutions. By working together, the copper industry can ensure the success of the roadmap by reaping the rewards of collaboration in the form of lower costs, higher efficiencies, improved sustainability, and a more prosperous future.

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FOR MORE

INFORMA TION INFORMATION


AMIRA International www.amira.com.au

The principal AMIRA officers involved in the development of the roadmap initiative were: Dick Davies Vice President - Strategic Development Level 2, 271 William Street Melbourne VIC 3000 Australia Phone: +61 3 8636 9993 Fax: +61 3 8636 9900 dick.davies@amira.com.au David Stribley Business Unit Leader - Sustainable Development Level 2, 271 William Street Melbourne VIC 3000 Australia Phone: +61 3 8636 9976 Fax: +61 3 8636 9900 david.stribley@amira.com.au For more information, please contact: Joe Cucuzza Business Unit Leader - Resource Identification Level 2, 271 William Street Melbourne VIC 3000 Australia Phone: +61 3 8636 9958 Fax: +61 3 8636 9900 joe.cucuzza@amira.com.au Joe Cucuzza Business Unit Leader - Resource Identification Level 2, 271 William Street Melbourne VIC 3000 Australia Phone: +61 3 8636 9958 Fax: +61 3 8636 9900 joe.cucuzza@amira.com.au

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APPENDIX A: ROADMAP CONTRIB UT ORS ONTRIBUT UTORS


This roadmap was prepared by Energetics, Inc., of Columbia, Maryland with input from the following contributors: Organisation R epresentativ e Representativ epresentative Organisation R epresentativ e Representativ epresentative AMIRA International ..................... David Stribley* AMIRA International ....................... Joe Cucuzza* AMIRA International ........................ Dick Davies* AMIRA International ...................... Paul Greenhill Anglo American .............................. David Sykes* Anglo American .............................. Jake Timmers Anglo American ............................. Paul Dempsey Antofagasta ................................ Holger Bannach Antofagasta ................................. Christian Thiele BHP Billiton .................................... Mike Eamon* BHP Billiton .......................................... Bob Watts BHP Billiton ................................... Ross Gallinger Codelco ........................................... Luis Castelli* Codelco ..................................... Fernando Geister Codelco ..........................................Pedro Morales CSIRO Minerals ................................ John Rankin Parker Centre .............................. Martin Houchin Energetics................................ Jack Eisenhauer* Energetics.................................. Nancy Margolis* Energetics......................................... Ross Brindle Intl Copper Association ....................Hal Stillman Intl Copper Study Group .......... Martin Ruhrberg JKMRC Queensland Univ. ....... Emmy Manlapig JKMRC Queensland Univ. ............. J P Franzidis Outokumpu ....................................... David Green Outokumpu ..................................... Collin Bartlett Phelps Dodge .............................. John Marsden* Phelps Dodge .................................. Rick Gilbert* Rio Tinto ............................................. Ray Shaw* Rio Tinto .......................................... John Rickus* Rio Tinto ........................................... Lucy Esdaile SMI Queensland Univ. .............. David Brereton University of Utah ............................. Mike Nelson University of Utah ............................ Michael Free WMC .................................... Bruce Wedderburn*

* denotes Copper Roadmap Steering Committee Member


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APPENDIX B: BIBLIOGRAPHY
International Copper Association Technology Roadmapping Activities. Contact Hal Stillman, Director of Technology, ICA, 212-251-7241, hstillman@copper.org. U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Industrial Technologies Program, Mining Industry of the Future. (1998). The Future Begins with Mining: A Vision of the Mining Industry of the Future. [Online], Available: http://www.oit.doe.gov/ mining/pdfs/vision.pdf. U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Industrial Technologies Program, Mining Industry of the Future. (1999). Mining Industry Roadmap for Crosscutting Technologies. [Online], Available: http://www.oit.doe.gov/mining/pdfs/ ccroadmap.pdf. U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Industrial Technologies Program, Mining Industry of the Future. (2000). Mineral Processing Technology Roadmap. [Online], Available: http:// www.oit.doe.gov/mining/pdfs/mptroadmap.pdf. U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Industrial Technologies Program, Mining Industry of the Future. (2002). Exploration and Mining Technologies Roadmap. [Online], Available: http://www.oit.doe.gov/mining/pdfs/ emroadmap.pdf. U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Industrial Technologies Program, Mining Industry of the Future. (2002). Education Roadmap for Mining Professionals. [Online], Available: http:// www.oit.doe.gov/mining/pdfs/edroadmap.pdf.

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APPENDIX C: ANTI-TRUST STATEMENT


This statement was read out to all participants in the Copper Technology Workshop prior to each days session.
COPPER TECHNOLOGY ROADMAP WORKSHOP 15-16 OCTOBER 2003 PHOENIX, AZ, USA STATEMENT ON USA ANTI TRUST LAW As you know, the U.S. antitrust laws (and those of many other countries) prohibit competitors from entering into agreements that will restrict competition. Antitrust regulators and potential private plaintiffs often look suspiciously at meetings, such as this, that include representatives of various competitors because such meetings provide an opportunity for improper communications that could lead to unlawful agreements or understandings. It is therefore very important that all participants understand the kinds of discussions that are and are not appropriate, both in formal sessions of the workshop and in informal discussions that may occur before or after the meetings. Agreements to fix prices are a criminal violation of the U.S. antitrust laws and constitute felonies, which are punishable by enormous fines for corporations, as well as jail terms and fines for individuals. An agreement to fix prices does not require agreement on a specific price level, but can apply to any agreement or understanding which has the tendency to raise or stabilise prices. The agreement does not have to be written or explicit; an implicit agreement can be inferred from statements and conduct of competitors. Therefore, under no circumstances should participants discuss their or anyone elses current prices or anticipated future prices. This includes discussions of expected or possible price trends, as well as specific prices for particular products. There also should not be any discussion of current or anticipated production capacity or utilisation, or possible cutbacks or increases in production. The level of production has a direct impact on prices, and discussions about production levels has often been pointed to in antitrust cases as evidence of an agreement to fix or affect prices. In addition to these clear, strict rules, I want to provide some guidance with respect to the subject of this workshop. The purpose of the workshop is to discuss technological issues confronting the copper industry that may be appropriate for joint R&D efforts. Where joint efforts either do not affect competition (for example, most efforts to address safety issues) or may result in more efficient solutions that are unlikely or too costly to be achieved through individual actions by industry participants, the U.S. antitrust laws generally view such joint activities as positive and pro-competitive. However, the antitrust laws and antitrust regulators do not favour joint activities where the effect of cooperation is to reduce the incentive to innovate and improve by eliminating the competitive reward that market participants could otherwise obtain by being the first or the best at addressing a technological problem. It is appropriate to identify and discuss various technological issues during the workshop sessions and to exchange views as to which are most important and most appropriate for joint R&D activities. However, no participants statements here should be viewed as committing his or her company to engage in joint activities with respect to any or all of the projects that may be discussed. After the workshop has concluded, it will be important to review the projects proposed to determine whether joint activity by some or all industry participants would be lawful. That legal review can be undertaken separately by the participating companies or jointly, through counsel retained by AMIRA International or a group of workshop participants. Just to re-emphasise, the rules mentioned above apply not only to the formal workshop sessions, but to all discussions between competitors before, during and after the programs. 3 October 2003

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INDUSTR Y REA CTION TO ROADMAP NDUSTRY EACTION WORKSHOP OUT COMES UTC
Closing Comments from Copper Roadmap Workshop Participants 15-16 October 2003, Phoenix, AZ, USA The face-to-face interactions and hallway discussions were powerful and helped to bring the industry together. We were able to identify critical issues and formulate plans to address them. The hard part is trying to make the roadmap a reality. The challenges ahead will require a higher level of energy and commitment to make it happen. - Mike Eamon, BHP Billiton This is a great group of people AMIRA got together, and the workshop was very well run and facilitated. For all of these projects, as we proceed to next steps it is important to remember to work with bite-sized, manageable pieces. Some of these projects are huge; we must further prioritise activities. A healthy combination of pre-competitive projects weve identified here and competitive activities that many of us are working on will bring changes to the industry. Combining the activities many of us are working on independently with the precompetitive roadmap projects will be powerful. - John Marsden, Phelps Dodge We have a good opportunity to change the long winter mindset that a lot of copper mining companies have developed by building a close relation based on technology development. The way to do that is to pick at least one project where different companies can develop a new idea. In some areas, even if we have a new idea we cannot develop the technology alone; we now have an opportunity to do it together. Codelco is committed to continuing on roadmap project. Luis Castelli, Codelco I saw that the problems we discussed are problems we all have. Some of the companies represented here are large, and others are small. We are probably the only company without systematic research, so for us the roadmap is an opportunity to address certain aspects of certain problems by cooperating with other companies. - Holger Bannach, Antofagasta We all have an opportunity to influence the world to use more copper in business and personal life. - Hal Stillman, International Copper Association I was concerned that, getting together for the first time, the industry would be hesitant in discussing needs, but this was not the case. This indicates that there are some real common issues to be addressed in a concerted and collaborative way. We must try to stay the course and reach a logical conclusion of what we started to today. We will need to communicate within our own organisations to get support and move things forward. - David Sykes, Anglo American AMIRA can provide mechanisms to collaborate, but individual companies will have to provide people and resources to implement the roadmap. This will test of how serious we are. We should start with some projects we can actually do to build trust that we can work together. They may not be the biggest or sexiest projects, but they have to deliver outcomes. - Ray Shaw, Rio Tinto The roadmapping process is quite effective, an excellent way to quickly come to consensus on important issues. - Mike Nelson, University of Utah
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AMIRA International Limited ACN 004 448 266 ABN 60 176 687 975 Level 2 271 William Street Melbourne 3000 Australia Phone: +61 3 8636 9999 Fax: +61 3 8636 9900 Website: amira.com.au