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2011 Climate Change Action Clean Coal Technology International Cooperation Project CCT Transfer Project Dispatch Technology

Interaction (USC Coal-fired Power Plant Operation Technology)

Power Plant O&M Technology (Troubleshooting)

Power Engineering and Training Services, Inc. (PET)

Table of contents

Sheet No. 1. Failure patterns 35

2. Process of failure solutions

7 10

3. Case study on damage of secondary RH tubes at Unit 1 boiler of Misumi Power Station

12 24

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1. Failure patterns

Failure patterns (Facilities)


Failure proportion of different facilities
Mechanical equipment
Gas turbine 8.0% Boiler 57.0% Turbine 23.0% Desulfurization 5.0% Other environmental equipment, 7.0%

Control 7.0% Electrical 10.0% mechanical 83.0%

Electrical related equipment

Other electrical equipment, 18.0%

Generating facilities, 36.0%

Transformers, 10.0%

Outside switching stations, 36.0%

Control related equipment


Control equipment for common equipment, 28.0%

Plant control equipment, 49.0%

Turbine control equipment, 11.0% Boiler control equipment, 12.0%

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Hereby I would like to explain what the failures are like at The Chugoku Electric Power Co., Inc. (CEPCO) in view of different facilities. From the year 1967 to 2008, in addition to the detailed accident reports, 1,581 pieces of failures had happened at the power stations. When these failures are categorized in terms of different main facilities, we can understand that the failures related to mechanical equipment account for 83% of the total. Moreover, if we further classify the failures related to mechanical equipment, we get to know that the failures related to boiler equipment account to 47% (8357%) of the total. Next to it are the failures related to turbine equipment which account for 19% of the total. Besides, the failures related to gas turbine equipment account for 6%.

Failure patterns (Factors)


Major factors causing facility failure

Influence of natural environment 4.0% Incomplete manufacturing 15.0% Operational error 10.0%

Others 1.0%

Inadequate maintenance 70.0%

Inadequate maintenance accounts for approximately 70% of all major factors causing facility failure. Besides, operational error accounts for an additional 10% of all major factors causing facility failure.

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When we next examine the factors involved in major equipment failures, we find that the inadequate maintenance and inspection accounts for approximately 70% of all major factors causing equipment failures, while operational errors account for an additional 10%. (For your information) By the way, what about the features of the factors causing failures? In the aspect of mechanical equipment, inadequate maintenance and inspection lead to more failures than operational errors. On the contrary, in perspective of electrical and control equipment, operational errors tend to bring about more failures.

Purposes and methods of equipment maintenance


The purposes of equipment maintenance are to eliminate facility failures and process troubles as close to zero as possible and to minimize the losses incurred. Different methods of planned maintenance are indicated as below. Maintenance method Planned maintenance PM
Preventive maintenance

TBM
Time-based maintenance

Daily inspection

Periodic inspection

BM

CBM

Rotary facility diagnosis Stationary facility diagnosis

Breakdown Condition-based maintenance maintenance

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Risk-based Corrective maintenance maintenance

CM

RBM

1. Purposes of equipment maintenance The purposes of equipment maintenance are to eliminate facility failures and process troubles as close to zero as possible and to minimize the losses incurred. The essential thing for equipment maintenance is to restore the equipment to the original state. However, in some cases it is also desirable to improve the equipment for the purpose of achieving higher reliability of the equipment concerned. 2. Methods of equipment maintenance Planned maintenance can be classified into preventive maintenance (PM), breakdown maintenance (BM), and corrective maintenance (CM). Furthermore, preventive maintenance can be divided into time-based maintenance (TBM) and condition-based maintenance (CBM). In addition, time-based maintenance (TBM) can be divided into daily inspection and periodic inspection. To ensure effective planned maintenance, it is better to incorporate the three methods of TBM, CBM, and BM in an optimal way. (Please see the procedures for selecting RBM on the next page.) 3. Introduction to different maintenance methods By TBM (Time Based Maintenance), we carry out facility inspection, conditioning, cleaning, spare parts replacement, and so on in a periodic manner or on an inspection cycle base for the purpose of preventing sudden accidents and process failures. By CBM (Condition Based Maintenance), we carry out facility inspection, conditioning, cleaning, spare parts replacement, and the like on the basis of the results of on-condition monitoring and onstream inspection (OSI). On-condition monitoring aims to diagnose and monitor the facilities in the state of operation. In contrast, on-stream inspection aims to check the facilities and test the facility soundness when they are in a stationary state. By BM (Breakdown Maintenance), as for the facilities which impacts on operation and production are not that significant, we just have them repaired after breakdown. This method is used when we decide that breakdown maintenance will have positive effects on the whole from the standpoint of productivity. CM (Corrective Maintenance) is a method for equipment improvement so that the maintenance and repair could be implemented more easily or the equipment might even be able to work without maintenance. Besides, in some cases for equipment improvement, we also conduct corrective maintenance just for the purpose of improving productivity of the equipment itself.

2. Process of failure solutions

Process to deal with failure


Things to do when failure occurs Make quick and right decision on failure conditions (Actions to be taken by operation team) Basic concept for taking actions

Minimize the impacts on the systems and electrical facilities while trying the best to maintain the plant output.

In the case of main equipment failure, make a decision about whether it is necessary to shut down the unit or it is workable by just lowering the output. If the unit needs to be stopped, try to stop as mildly as possible. Contact the parties concerned Report the accident (according to corporate rules and applicable laws). Contact maintenance team (to make work preparations, etc.).

Things to do after failure occurs

Actions to be taken by maintenance team)

Examination of failure conditions Look into the conditions of the damage. Inspection of similar locations Look into the conditions of the similar locations. Determination of root causes Figure out the root causes of damage by using FT diagram. Restoration from accident/Prevention of repeat failure Restore the damaged part to the original state and take actions to prevent repeat failures according to the inspection results of causes.

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Here, Let me take the failure of boiler tube leak as an example. I would like to give a description of how we deal with such a failure from the time when it happens until the time of restoration. Such a failure like boiler tube leak may make the generating unit stop. When such a failure occurs, at Japanese electric power companies, we thoroughly investigate the factors causing this failure and identify the root causes. Based on this, we find out solutions to restore the facility and take proper actions to prevent repeat failures. We make these efforts in hope that reliability of the facility concerned may get even higher than that prior to the failure. Moreover, when the serious or highly urgent accidents happen, we also share the accident information with other power stations and ask them to inspect the similar places and take adequate actions in advance. In this way, the lessons of the failure can be learned in a horizontal manner. Consequently, the overall reliability of the entire equipment can be hopefully improved.

Solutions/actions for tube leaks


Actions taken by maintenance side

Confirm the spare parts (Replace the damaged parts) Contact the plant manufacturers Prepare materials and machines for installing scaffold in furnace Arrange jet washing vehicle to remove clinker *In the case that a temporary scaffold is needed in furnace.

If necessary, request the operation side to stop the unit.


Soot blower (Reduce the time for removing clinker when unit is shut down) Request to stop the boiler by forced cooling

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When tube leaks, the maintenance team needs to take the following actions. Check the spare parts (Boiler evaporation tubes); Contact the plant manufacturers; Prepare the materials and machines for installing scaffold in furnace; Arrange jet washing vehicle to remove clinkers; and If necessary, request the operation team to stop the unit.

On this occasion, it is a wise policy to ask the operation team to stop the operation with forced cooling of boiler and start the operation of soot blower. In this way, the maintenance team may get ready to start internal inspection and repair immediately after boiler is cooled off.

Problems arising from tube leaks


(Problems arising from tube leaks) 1. When plant leaks grow, makeup water flow increases. 2. In the case of severe leaks, main steam pressure decreases and feedwater flow increases. 3. Boiler metal temperature changes. 4. Gas temperature goes down in the downstream direction starting from the leaked part. 5. Boiler draft drops. (On-site inspection) 1. Leaking sound is heard. 2. Leaked part is found when fuel is changed (from coalheavy/light oil).
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Generally in most cases, when boiler tubes leak, the makeup water will grow suddenly. In other cases, although makeup water increases, but the amount of increase is slight compared with the normal amount of makeup water. (In the latter cases, we can take time to search for the factors causing this increase.)

Whatever the case is, we have to roughly figure out where the leaks are located and stop the boiler. However, if the conditions of leaks permit, it is better to change the fuel (from coal into oil) and find out the accurate locations of leaks before making the boiler stop.

Before stopping the boiler, it is also necessary for the operation team to carefully check the items including steam temperature, metal temperature of different tubes, quantity and type of the coal remained in bunker, conditions of auxiliary facilities of boiler (such as feed water pumps, fans, and coal pulverizers), etc. At the same time, we also need to pay attention to the conditions of the makeup water for the forced cooling of boiler as well as the waste water treatment facility.

Reporting of facility failure


Purpose of failure reporting
On the basis of the analysis of the failures, Take proper actions to prevent repeat failures. Provide a foundation for the solutions to ensure the safety and enhance the reliability of electrical facilities.
Obligation of accident reporting according to the Electricity Utilities Industry Law Example

10

Damage to main electrical facilities

Accident reporting
(Electric utilities)

Horizontal expansion
(State administration)

What is damage to main electrical facilities? When something is wrong with the equipment that is composed of main electrical facilities, the function of the damaged main electrical facilities will be dwarfed or lost. As a consequence, the unit may stop soon or has to be stopped.
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When the main electrical facilities such as boiler and steam turbine are damaged or broken, the power generating unit may stop automatically through the automatic stop function, or in emergency, the unit may be stopped manually by the operator. In either of the case, the state administration of Japan legally requires the electric power utilities to report the details of accident. Meanwhile, it is also specified by the relevant laws and regulations what to report and how to make such a report. (Purposes of reporting) 1. Take proper actions for the prevention of repeat failures on the basis of the analyses in report. 2. Provide a foundation for the solutions to ensure the safety and enhance the reliability of electrical facilities. 3. Prepare the documentation for reviewing the performance of safety regulations and safety administration. Besides, the power stations in Japan are also requested to submit such accident reports to the head office of the electric power company concerned. At the head office of the electric power company, we not only make analysis and statistics of the accident, but also conduct investigation and give instructions so as to avoid the similar accidents being repeated.

3Case study on damage of secondary RH tubes at Unit 1 boiler of Misumi Power Station

Summary of failure conditions


Failure conditions are summarized as below.
1. Locations of damage Secondary RH tubes at Unit 1 boiler
4th SH tube Separating wall in the upper part of boiler

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2. Condition prior to accident Operated at rated output (1,000MW)

Secondary RH tube

3. History of accident PM13:00 on the day of accident: Makeup water flow was found increasing. Conducted monitoring and patrol inspection. PM14:10: Checked all parts of boiler and detected leaking sound near the left side in the central part of boiler on the 7th floor. PM14:50: Started to stop unit operation. PM17:35: Parallel off Forced cooling. PM17:00 next day: Started internal inspection and repair.

Damage

Primary RH tube

Primary SH tube

ECO tube

ECO tube

Firing

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(Main specifications of Unit 1 boiler at Misumi Power Station) Model: Radiative reheat variable pressure once-through (Indoor type) Maximum continuous rating (MCR): 2,900t/h Pressure: 25.4 / 4.5MPa (SH outlet/RH outlet Temperature: 604 / 602 (SH outlet/RH outlet Fuel: Coal Operation started: June 1998 Manufactured by Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd. (MHI) in 1997.

Location of damage (Overall boiler diagram)

13

#1

#5052
Location of secondary RH damage

#108
References: Detailed report of electric accident, Damage to secondary RH tubes at Unit 1 boiler of Misumi Power Station.

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1. Conditions of damage Location of primary leak (marked in red ) The first tube of secondary reheater (RH) tubes from the downstream direction of steam, No.52 panel from the left side of boiler (#52-R1). Location of secondary leak (marked in blue ) The first tube of secondary reheater (RH) tubes from the downstream direction of steam, No.50 panel from the left side of boiler (#50-R1). The first tube of secondary reheater (RH) tubes from the downstream direction of steam, No.51 panel from the left side of boiler (#51-R1). The first tube of secondary reheater (RH) tubes from the downstream direction of steam, No.52 panel from the left side of boiler (#52-F1).

Location of damage (in detail)

14

Thinned tube due to steam spray

#50-R1

R F

#52-F1

F12

F1

R1

R12

Direction of gas flow


#51-R1 References: Detailed report of electric accident, Damage to secondary RH tubes at Unit 1 boiler of Misumi Power Station. #52-R1

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The photos here show the location of damage at the secondary reheater (near No.5052 panels) The appearance of the leaks looked like as below. #50-R1 The fracture surface was a little bit thin and in the shape of knife edge. The shape of the rupture opening looked like a fish mouth. #51-R1 The fracture surface was thin and in the shape of knife edge. The shape of the rupture opening looked like a fish mouth. #52-F1 The fracture surface was thin and in the shape of knife edge. The shape of the rupture opening looked like a fish mouth. #52-R1 The fracture surface was thick. The rupture opening was in the shape of a fish mouth. Four tubes leaked. In addition, twelve steam tubes (marked in panels were eroded by the steam spray. ) in No.49-51

Damage location of primary leaks


Location of ruptured tubes Presumption of root cause tube Rupture location (direction) Left side of boiler From the header at To the header at secondary RH inlet secondary RH outlet Panel No. Steam first leaked from the tube #52-R1. Due to the leaked steam, the tube #52-F1 ruptured. After that, due to steam leaking from #52-F1, the tube of #50-R1 and #51-R1 ruptured then.

15

Gas flow

Tube No. Right side of boiler

Root cause tube

Likely being an embrittlement damage, the rupture opening (fractured surface) was thicker than other part of damage. Considering this, it was supposed to be the root cause tube.
References: Detailed report of electric accident, Damage to secondary RH tubes at Unit 1 boiler of Misumi Power Station.

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The four ruptured tubes were examined. It was found that except for #52-R1, erosion took place on the outer surface of the tubes concerned. Besides, the rupture openings of the four tubes were all in the shape of a fish mouth. The fracture surface of #52-R1 was thick while that of the other tubes were thin and in the shape of knife edge. Considering all these matters (location and direction of rupture), we could estimate that #52-R1 might be the root cause tube. That is to say, the story could be like this. Steam first leaked from the tube #52-R1. Due to the leaked steam, the tube #52-F1 ruptured. After that, due to the leaked steam from the tube #52-F1, the tubes of #50-R1 and #51-R1 ruptured then.

Procedures of damage inspection


General procedures for damage inspection

16

1. Damage inspection Examine damage locations Identify related locations Refer to operating/maintenance/construction records Conditions before failure/Relevant data 2. Inspection flow chart

For identifying the root causes, inspection is made on the damaged part and the causes are determined on the basis of the inspection results.
Keep damage locations in original conditions.


Inspect similar damage locations
Diameter/Thickness/Appearance PT/MT/UT) Replica examination

Evaluate damage
Damage locations/materials Damage features/Colors Diameter/Thickness)PT, MT, UT)

Fact-finding for damage


Operating hours, times of startup/shutdown Conditions right before damage, volume of makeup water, etc.) Construction records

Design specifications
Pressure/Temperature/Thickness in terms of strength

Damage sampling
Fractographic study, PT or MT Macro/Micro-metallurgical examination

Data analysis Identify causes

Stress analysis

Dimensional inspection/Attachment analysis) Component analysis/Mechanical test)

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In order to determine the factors causing damage, the following tasks are carried out. To examine damage locations, we study the conditions at and around the damaged part (including location, damage features, color, etc.). To identify related locations, we try to make clear the conditions in a broad range related to the upper and lower part of the damage locations. Referring to operating, maintenance, and construction records, we look at the records of previous maintenance, construction, and operation (such as the times and operations of start-up and shut-down, etc.). To clarify the conditions and collect relevant data prior to failure, we can get a picture of the damage conditions and gather the data such as the operating conditions until the time when damage occurs. It is very important to collect the information related to the above-mentioned . Meanwhile, the best caution should be taken to keep the damage locations in the original conditions. Inspection flow chart To determine the root causes, it is necessary to gather the following data and information. To evaluate damage: we look into the locations of the damage (including material, diameter, thickness, damage features, color, etc.). To inspect similar damage locations: we look into the locations of the similar damage (including diameter, thickness, appearance, replica sampling, and so on). For damage sampling: we examine the fractured part (such as fractography examination, metallurgical structure examination, dimensional inspection, attachment analysis, etc.). For fact-finding of damage: we check and review the operating conditions (including operating hours, times of startup and shut-down, construction records, etc.). As for design specifications: we study the conditions of the facilities to make clear such data (as pressure, temperature, thickness in terms of strength, and so on). For stress analysis: we analyze the stress being applied to the facilities, (for example, thermal stress due to temperature distribution and the like).

Determination and verification of the factors causing leaks


Failure Root causes
Ash in gas Steam drain of soot blower Contact of attached metal

17
Result

Verification
Visual inspection of appearance Thickness measurement Visual inspection of appearance Thickness measurement Inspection of fracture and rupture shape Visual inspection of inner and outer surface Crosssection/Crosssection structure examination Review of design strength statement Analysis of material components Non-destructive test (NDT) Annealing record Water quality record Water quality record Combustion control Combustion control

Evaluation

No abrasion thinning was detected. It was found that overall erosion thinning occurred due to steam spray from other ruptured tubes. The fracture opening was not like the narrow one featured by fatigue destruction. Pock-like concave-convex surface arising from corrosion was not noticed. Creep voids and decreased hardness were noticed.

Thinning
Erosion due to steam spray

Fatigue Facility deterioration Corrosion

Repeated load (stress) External corrosion due to combustion gas Internal corrosion due to bad water quality Operating hours/Stress/Metal temperature

Creep Rupture of secondary RH tubes Design/ Construction Poor weld

Condition of use (Temperature, pressure, and atmosphere)

Strength was enough for condition of use. Material specifications were satisfied. NDT was not conducted because rupture did not occur in the welded part. Same as above. Standard values were satisfied. Standard values were satisfied. Standard values were satisfied. Standard values were satisfied.

Weak material strength

Material (Material and size) Weld defects Residual stress

Scale formation due to minerals O&M Partial overheating due to abnormal combustion

Poor water quality control Intrusion of seawater Insufficient combustion air Poor combustion condition

Copyright Power Engineering and Training Services Co.,Inc. All rights reserved. secondary RH tubes at Unit 1 boiler of Misumi Power Station.

References: Detailed report of electric accident, Damage to

Regarding the damage, we explore the possible causes in depth ranging from the primary, secondary, and tertiary ones. After that, we verify the tertiary causes and make evaluation on the basis of the verification results. In most cases, we normally use fault tree (FT) diagram to determine the factors causing damage to piping. Flow chart of FT diagram Failure Dig deep into the causes of damage in the order from primary secondary to tertiary causes. Figure out the verification method to demonstrate the tertiary causes. Make an evaluation of all the tertiary causes. Then, determine the causes of damage by analyzing the evaluation results. As for the failure example stated here, cross-sectional examination and crosssection structural examination have been made to explore the causes that led to the leaks of secondary reheater tubes. As a result, we found that creep voids grew and the hardness dropped. Therefore, we determined that it was creep that caused damage. () Procedures for FTA FTA is short for Fault Tree Analysis.

Inspection results of the factors causing leaks


#50-R1 #51-R1 #52-F1 #52-R1

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Erosion was detected at #50-R1, #51-R2, and #52-F1. (Sacrificed tubes)


Visual inspection of appearance

No erosion was found. (Root cause tube)

Knife edge shape Knife edge shape Erosion was detected Erosion was detected Erosion was detected

No erosion was found.

Knife edge shape Thick fracture

Visual inspection of inner and outer surface

References: Detailed report of electric accident, Damage to secondary RH tubes at Unit 1 boiler of Misumi Power Station.

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In the following, I would like to talk about the inspection results of the factors causing leaks. Visual inspection of appearance There was no trace of erosion on the root cause tube H52-R1. However, as for the other tubes (#50-R1, #51-R1, and #52-F1), an overall thinning due to erosion was detected at and around the rupture opening. Such a thinning might be caused by the steam spray from other tubes. Visual inspection of inner and outer surface No erosion was found on either the inner or outer surface of the tubes.

Inspection results of the factors causing leaks


#50-R1
In front of boiler

19
#52-R1

#51-R1

#52-F1

Cross section inspection

Microstructure

Evaluation

Strength decreased in front of boiler. Microcracks and voids were detected in microstructure.

Strength decreased in front of boiler. Micro-cracks and voids were detected in microstructure.

Strength decreased slightly in front of boiler. No voids were found in microstructure. External erosion was significant.

Strength decreased in front of boiler. Micro-cracks and voids were detected in microstructure.

References: Detailed report of electric accident, Damage to secondary RH tubes at Unit 1 boiler of Misumi Power Station.

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The inspection results of the factors causing leaks are described as below. (Cross section inspection) It was found that the ruptured part in the tubes of #50-R1 and #52-R1 bulged out. (Microstructure inspection) Creep voids were discovered in the ruptured part at the tubes of #50-R1, #51-R1, and #52-R1. However, there was no creep void at the tube #52-F1.

Estimation and verification of factors causing creep 20


Failure Root causes Verification Evaluation Result

Operating hours

Consumption of creep life due to long-time operation Stress higher than allowable one

Unit 1 cumulative operating hours (Operation diary)

The present operating hours were approximately 30,000 hours, not exceeding the time (100,000 hours) to start creep rupture test. The stress was 2.4kg/mm2, lower than the standard value (5.6kg/mm2).

Stress

Calculate stress

#52-R1 creep rupture

Drop of steam flow due to intrusion of foreign matter into tube Increase of heat load due to gas temperature rise Metal temp.

Investigate tube inside by fiberscope and RT

No foreign matter was found inside ruptured tube and at inlet/outlet headers. Gas temperature was about 1,050, within the allowable design gas temperature (1,000100). However, it was +50 higher than the gas temperature in the case of creep life diagnosis (1,000). (Subsidiary factor for the rise of metal temperature) Maximum deviation of metal temperature in the acrossthe-width direction of furnace was about 30, lower than the standard value (60). (Subsidiary factor for the rise of metal temperature) The results of scale inspection exceeded the standard values. (See the table below)

Compare with gas design temperature

Deviation of heat load

Check the data of metal thermometer

Disturbed heat transfer due to the uplift of steam oxidation scale

Examine the inner surface scale of fractured tube

Results of scale inspection


Scale thickness Standard value References: Detailed report of electric accident, Damage to secondary RH tubes at Unit 1 boiler of Misumi Power Station. Measured value Uplift size Uplift range

300m 330m

100m 385m

30% About 40%

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The creep has led to the rupture of the root cause tube #52-F1. The root causes for this are described in this FT (fault tree) diagram. Meanwhile, the creep damage of the root cause tube was found arising from the disturbed heat transfer due to the uplift of steam oxidation scale.

Inspection results of the factors causing creep


Increase of heat load due to gas temperature rise
Steam temp. ( ) Inlet Outlet Trial operation 500 Status quo 480 602 602 Heat absorption (Gcal/hr) 125 150 Gas temp. () Inlet 1,065 1,115 Cavity 1,000 1,050 Outlet 940 Temp.() 970

21

Increase of heat load due to heat load deviation

Exhaust gas temperature distribution


Metal temperature in the central part is high.
Temp.()

Secondary SH Tertiary SH

4th SH Secondary RH

Heat absorption during trial operation Heat absorption during failure


Temp. Heat absorption Flow ratio

Metal temperature distribution

Secondary RH inlet

Tube length Secondary RH outlet Steam temp. (Planned) Inlet/outlet steam temp. (Measured)

Steam flow distribution


Left side of boiler Right side of boiler References: Detailed report of electric accident, Damage to secondary RH tubes at Unit 1 boiler of Misumi Power Station.

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(Increase of heat load due to gas temperature rise) The heat absorption was calculated. The result indicated that the gas temperature in the cavity part of secondary reheater had reached 1,050 (degrees Celsius). The reason for that could be something like this. Due to the ash deposits or so, the furnace, secondary superheater (SH), tertiary superheater, and the fourth superheater (the heat exchanger on the upper side of the secondary reheater) became dirty. Because of this, the heat absorption decreased, and thus the gas temperature at the inlet of the secondary reheater increased. (Increase of heat load due to heat load deviation) The metal temperature in the central part of boiler has got relatively higher. For one reason, as for the secondary reheater (RH), the gas temperature in the central part of boiler is high. For another reason, the steam flow is also small in that part. In addition, the maximum temperature deviation in the across-the-width direction of furnace has reached about 30 (degrees Celsius).

Inspection results of the factors causing creep


Disturbed heat transfer due to the uplift of steam oxidation scale

22

In front of boiler

At the back of boiler

Impacts of different factors on metal temperature


Metal temp. () Design value Gas temp. rise Heat load deviation Scale uplift Estimated temp. of problem tube 613 (Standard) +37 (Approx. 30%) +82 (Approx. 70%) 732 Creep fracture life over 4,500hrs Creep fracture life over 100,000hrs

Factors

References: Detailed report of electric accident, Damage to secondary RH tubes at Unit 1 boiler of Misumi Power Station.

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(Disturbed heat transfer due to the uplift of steam oxidation scale) An inspection was made on the scale condition of inner surface at the ruptured tubes. It was found that the scale was 330m thick and the uplift was 385m. Approximately 40% uplift was noticed along the circumferential direction. (Impacts of different factors on metal temperature) It was estimated that the metal temperature of the leaked part this time was +119 higher than the design value. Among this temperature rise, it was estimated that the rise of inlet gas temperatureheat load deviation had contributed to a metal temperature rise of +37 while a rise of +82 (degrees Celsius) was attributed to the scale uplift. Therefore, in terms of percentage, the contribution ratio of the rise of inlet gas temperatureheat load deviation and that of the scale uplift could be around 30% and 70%, respectively.

Solutions/Actions
Current state (Materials) 9% Cr steel tube Thermal SUS304J1HTB Cr-Mo Permanent measure (Materials) 9% Cr steel tube Thermal SUS304J1HTB Cr-Mo All of the panels No.1-108

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Replaced tubes

Thermal SUS304J1HTB was replaced by 9% Cr steel.

References: Detailed report of electric accident, Damage to secondary RH tubes at Unit 1 boiler of Misumi Power Station.

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We examined the factors causing the leaks of secondary reheater tubes and thus verified these factors. On the basis of the verification results, we worked out the permanent measures to be implemented in the next periodic inspection. The uplift of steam oxidation scale has caused the creep. Considering this, we replaced the material with SUS (Thermal SUS304J1HTB9). With the use of this kind of material, steam oxidation scale is not likely to come into being and lift up. The tubes of No.1-4 in the inner periphery had been replaced. Their remaining life was less than 100,000 hours.

(FYI)

Comparison of steam oxidation scale between different high-temperature materials

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The higher steam temperature rises, the thicker the steam oxidation scale will grow. Therefore, it is needed to develop such steel that oxidation scale can hardly grow. The effective types of steel tubes are steel with high Cr content or steel with fine particles on inner surface, or shot blasted steel.

Source: Excerpts from http://www.hitachipowersystems.us/supportingdocs/forbus/hpsa/technical_papers/EP2003B.pdf, p-10, Fig. 9.

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This figure shows the thickness of oxidation scale that grows when steel tubes have been exposed to high-temperature steam for 1,000 hours. The steel tubes include those such as 18Cr9Ni, 20Cr25Ni, and 25Cr20Ni with high chromium (Cr) content, as well as the 18Cr steel tubes with inner surface shot blasted. The higher the temperature goes up, the thicker the oxidation scale will grow. For this sake, in the case of USC boiler with increased steam temperature, we need to be very careful in selecting materials and designing boiler structure. As for the 18Cr-9Ni tubes with low chromium (Cr) content, about 20m oxidation scale can be developed at the temperature of 600 (degrees Celsius). However, in the case of the 25Cr20Ni steel tubes with high chromium (Cr) content or the steel tubes with inner surface shot blasted, scale drops down considerably and only about 1m scale is initiated.