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COLUMNS Column : A column is a vertical member in a structure used to transfer the loads from slabs to the foundation below.

Columns are the primary components in a multi-storeyed building. The design of the column plays a vital role in structural design, as any lapse leads to total collapse, unlike other structural components. So the Design Engineer should be well versed with the computation of forces acting on the column & the proper visualisation on the behaviour of the columns under such forces. Column Classification: Le Le (Minimum) Le (Maximum) Pedestal 0 2.5 b Stub 2.5 b 4 b Short 4b 12 b Long >12 b 60 b

If the slenderness ratio (Le /D ) is less than 3, those vertical members are called Pedestals. If the slenderness ratio is greater than 3 , those vertical members are called Columns. 1.0 Classification of Columns: A column may be classified based on different criteria such as (a) shape of cross- section (b) slenderness ratio (c) type of loading (d) pattern of lateral reinforcement (a) Shape of cross-section :

The common shapes of columns in practice are (1) Square columns (2) Rectangular columns (3) Circular columns (4) L-shaped columns (5) T-shaped columns (6) Cruciform (Swastik) (7) Hexagonal columns.

..2.. (b) Based on slenderness ratio: If the slenderness ratio (effective length of column to least lateral dimension ) is less than 12, it is called as short columns. (Clause 25.1.2 of IS: 456-2000) If the slenderness ratio (effective length of column to least lateral dimension ) is greater than 12, it is called as long columns or slender columns. However, the maximum slenderness ratio of a column should not exceed 60. (c) Type of Loading : Column can be classified as (1) Axial loaded columns (2) Axial load with uniaxial moment (3) Axial load with bi -axial moment (d) Based on Types of lateral reinforcement Column can be classified as (1) Tied column (2) Spiral column (3) Composite column (1) Tied Columns : The main longitudinal bars are enclosed within closely spaced lateral ties.

(2)

Columns with helical reinforcement: The main longitudinal reinforcement bars are enclosed within closely spaced and continuously wound spiral reinforcement.

..3.. (3) Composite Columns: The main longitudinal reinforcement of the composite columns consists of structural steel sections or pipes with or without longitudinal bars.

Braced & Unbraced columns : (i) Braced Columns: Columns can be planned in a structure so that they do not have to resist any horizontal loads due to wind or earthquake. Thus, for example, when the columns of water-tower are braced, the wind load is taken by the intersection of column bracings. In tall buildings lateral supports like shear walls can be provided so that the lateral loads are taken by them. Such columns are called braced columns. (ii) Unbraced Columns : Other columns, where the lateral loads have to be resisted in addition to vertical loads by the strength of the columns themselves, are considered as unbraced columns.Bracing can be in one direction or in more than one direction, depending on the likelihood of the direction of the lateral loads.

..4.. 2.0 STRUCTURAL BEHAVIOR OF COLUMNS The main purpose of columns in a structure is to carry compressive loads. Though the columns are mainly meant for to carry only compressive loads, they will also be subjected to bending occasionally either due to rigid connection with the beam or due to eccentric loading. For the design of these columns the greater of the above two bending moments has to be considered. Even in simply supported structures, at times, the columns will be subjected to bending moment due to partial fixity. This moment on the columns either due to rigid connections with the beam or due to eccentric loading is called initial moment. The behaviour of a column in a structure essentially depends upon its slenderness ratio. This slenderness ratio decides whether the column is short or long. In case of a short column the column reaches to its ultimate strength earlier to buckling. Thus for the design of short column we need not consider the effect of buckling. Where as in case of long columns (Slender Columns), the column buckles earlier to reaching its ultimate strength. Thus for design of these long columns the effect of buckling also has to be considered. In case of long columns, the column will be subjected to some extra bending moment in addition to the above said initial bending moment. When all other factors such as grade of materials, cross sectional area etc. are constant a short column will carry more load than a long column. In other words the load carrying capacity of a column decreases as its length increases. 3.0ARRANGEMENT OF STEEL REINFORCEMENT IN COLUMNS If the columns were subjected to only compressive loads, there wouldnt have been any need to provide steel reinforcement in column. But columns will be subjected to bending moments either due to eccentric loading or due to rigid connection with beam. In case of slender columns, the column will be subjected to bending due to buckling in addition to the initial bending due to external loads. Because of these bending moments tensile stresses will be developed in columns. In order to resist these tensile stresses columns have to be provided with steel reinforcement. In columns steel reinforcement is provided longitudinally along the length of the column. This reinforcement is called longitudinal reinforcement. In order to keep these longitudinal bars in position, these bars have to be tied up with some bars of small diameter. These bars are called lateral ties. In general steel reinforcement is arranged equally on all faces in case of columns subjected to only axial load where as in case of columns subjected to bending also in addition to axial load the longitudinal bars are arranged at the faces in the plane of bending.

..5.. If the column is subjected to large bending moment M as compared to axial load P (say e = M > 0.5 ) assume bars to be equally placed on opposite face like D PD doubly reinforced section. If P is large compared to bending moment M (say e = M < 0.5 ) assume. D PD bars to be uniformly placed all around the periphery. 4.0 IS CODE RECOMMNDATIONS FOR DESIGN OF COLUMNS 1).Unsupported length of column: (Clause 25.1.3 of IS 456-2000) The unsupported length L of a compression member is defined as clear distance between the end restraints. In the case of column in a framed structure, unsupported length is taken as follows for the different structures. (a) Beam-slab floor construction: It is the clear distance between the floor and the framing into the columns in each direction at the next higher floor level.

..6.. (a) Flat Slab construction: It is the clear distance between the floor and lower extremity of the capital, the drop panel, or slab whichever is the least.

(c)

In columns restrained laterally by struts(as in case of a staging for overhead tanks), it is the clear distance between the consecutive struts in each vertical plane, provided two such struts shall meet the columns at approximately the same level and the internal angle between vertical planes through the struts does not exceed 135 .Such struts are expected to have sufficient rigidity to restrain the column against lateral deflection.

..7.. (d)` In columns restrained laterally by struts or beams with brackets used at the junction, it is taken equal the clear distance between the floor and the lower edge of the bracket provided that the bracket width equals that of the beam strut and at least half that of the column.

2) Effective length: (clause 25.2 of IS 456 -2000) The effective length of a column is a length between points of zero bending moment or between the points of contra flexure of a column in that plane. It depends upon the end conditions as regards restraint against rotation and that against transverse displacement. Effective Length of Compression Members (Table 28 of IS 456 2000) Degree of End Restraint of Compressive Member Theoretical Value of Effective Length 0.5L 0.7L 1.00L 1.00L --2.00L Recommended value of Effective Length

Effectively held in position and restrained against rotation at both ends (Both ends fixed) Effectively held in position at both ends, restrained against rotation at one end (One end fixed & one end hinged ) Effectively held in position at both ends, but no restrained rotation (Both ends hinged) Effectively held in position and restrained against rotation at one end, and at the other restrained against rotation but not held in position Effectively held in position and restrained against rotation at one end, and at the other partially restrained against rotation but not held in position Effectively held in position at one end but not restrained against rotation, and at the other end restrained against rotation but not held in position Effectively held in position and restrained against rotation at one end but not held in position nor restrained against rotation at the other end (One end fixed one end free)

0.65L 0.80L 1.00L 1.20L 1.50L 2.00L

2.00L

2.00L

..8.. Typical idealized Effective length of Column Sl.No. 1 2 3 4 Boundary Conditions Simply supported at both the ends Fixed at both the ends Fixed at one end and hinged at the other Fixed at one end and constrained against rotation at the other end 5 Fixed at one end and free at the other end 6 Columns in Portal frames with fixed bases & having lateral sway Sl.No. Boundary Conditions 7 Columns in Portal frames with hinged bases & having lateral sway 8 Interior Columns in Multi storey frames above G.L. 9 Exterior Columns in Multi storey frames above G.L. 10 Crane carrying Columns in braced buildings Effective length L 0.65L 0.80L 1.20L 2.0L 1.50L Effective length 2.0L 0.80L 1.20L L

Determination of effective length of Column and Type of Column: When there are longitudinal and cross walls in both directions, the frame is assumed to be a non- sway frame. In such cases, the effective length lies between 0.65L to L, where L represents buildings frame may be taken as follows: (ii) For any intermediate storey Leff =L= unsupported Length = floor to floor height depth of shallower beam(300mm or more depending on the span) (iii) For Top storey Leff = 1.20L where L is unsupported Length as defined above. (iv) For Columns in bottom storey When plinth beams are not provided Leff =L= Distance between bottom of footing to the underside of the shallower beam at first floor level. When plinth beams are provided Leff =L= Distance between top of plinth beam to the underside of the shallower beam at first floor level. It may be noted that plinth beams are normally provided just below ground level and not at the ground floor level, so that peripheral walls can retain the plinth filling. If there are no walls first floor as in case of apartment buildings in cities where parking space is provided underneath the entire structure above rests on the columns. In this case, there is a possibility for way to occur and hence the effective lengths of the columns below are taken equal to 1.2L to 2L depending on the end conditions. Here L is length of column from the soffit of shallower beam of first storey to the bottom of footing.

..9.. 3) Slenderness Limits: The Column dimensions should be selected in such a way that it fails by material failure only and not by buckling. To ensure this criterion, the code recommends that the clear distance between restraints (unsupported length) should never exceed 60 times the least lateral dimensions of the column ( Clause 25.3.1 of I.S 456- 2000 ). (The unsupported length of a column shall not exceed 60 times its least lateral dimension when both of its ends are either fixed or hinged) For unbraced columns, it is recommended that this value is limited to 30. In cantilever in addition to the above restriction ( L 60 b), the value of L = (100 b 2 / D ), where D is depth of cross section measured in the Plane under consideration and b is the width of cross section (Clause 25.3.2 of I.S 456 -2000). (The unsupported length of a column shall not exceed (100 b2 / D) when one of its end free i.e. unrestrained.) 4) Minimum Eccentricity : ( Clause 25.4 of I.S 456 -2000) Every column to be designed for a minimum eccentricity emini. ( in any plane) equal to the unsupported length / 500 plus lateral dimension / 30, subject to a minimum of 20 mm. For a column with a rectangular section, for bending about major axis x x bisecting the depth of column D exmini. = l / 500 + D / 30 20 mm ( whichever is greater ) Mini. Eccentricity, eminib for bending about major axis y- y bisecting the width of the column eymini. = l / 500 + b / 30 20 mm ( whichever is greater ) For non-rectangular & non-circular cross-sectional shapes, it is recommended that, for any given plane emini = le / 300 20 mm (whichever is greater ) where le = effective length of column in the plane considered. Note: When mini. Eccentricity requirement control, the bending only about one axis at a time shall be considered and NOT as a case of biaxial bending. For a given lateral dimension h, the mini. Unsupported length up to which emini. =20 mm can be obtained as follows: L/500 + h/30 = 20mm L = 500 (20- h / 30) Max. unsupported length up to which emini. = 20 mm is given as follows h in mm L in metre 150 7.50 200 6.67 230 6.17 250 5.83 300 5.00 350 4.17 380 3.67 400 3.33 450 2.50

..10.. 5) Longitudinal Reinforcement: (Clause 26.5.3.1 of I.S 456 -2000) (i) Minimum Reinforcement: The Longitudinal bars must, in general, have a cross sectional area not less than 0.8 % of the gross area of the column section. In very large sized columns (where the large size is dictated, for instance, by architectural considerations, and not strength) under axial compression, the limit of 0.8% of gross area may result in excessive reinforcement. In such cases, the Code allows some concession by permitting the minimum area of steel to be calculated as 0.8 % of area of concrete required to resist the direct stress, not the actual (gross) area. (ii) Maximum Reinforcement: The max. cross-sectional area of longitudinal bars should not exceed 6 % of gross area of column section. However, a reduced maximum limit of 4 % is recommended in general in the interest of better placement and compaction of concrete and, in particular, is lapped splice location. (iii) Minimum Diameter : Longitudinal bars in columns should not be less than 12 mm in diameter and should not be spaced more than 300 mm apart (centre - to centre ) along the periphery of the column. (iv) Maximum Diameter: 40 mm for Fe 415 & Fe 500. (v) Common Diameter of bars used: 12,16,20,22,25,28 (vi) Minimum number of bars: 4 in rectangular columns ; 6 in circular columns & one bar located at each corner or apex in T, L or other cross-sectional shapes. (vii) Common Numbers used: 4,6,8,10,12 (viii) Maximum spacing of bars: 300 mm when measured along periphery of column. (ix) Cover to Reinforcement : A minimum clear cover of 40 mm or bar diameter (whichever is greater), to the column ties is recommended by the code (Clause 26.4.2.1 of I.S 456 -2000) for columns in general; a reduced clear cover of 25 mm is permitted in smallsized columns (D 200 mm and whose reinforcing bars do not exceed 12 mm) . Transeverse Reinforcement : ( Clause 26.5.3.2 of I.S 456- 2000) (i) General : All longitudinal reinforcement in a compression member must be enclosed within transverse reinforcement, comprising either lateral ties( with internal angles not exceeding 135) or spirals.

..11.. (ii) Lateral ties :

(a) Diameter of bars : max., or 6 mm whichever is higher. (b) Pitch : Least of the following (i) Least lateral dimension of column b (ii) 16 times diameter of smallest longitudinal bar i.e. 16 mini (iii) 300 mm Helical reinforcement : Pitch : mini. of 75 mm (core dia / 6) Not less than 25 mm, 3 h

PLANNING ASPECTS 1. Columns should preferably be located at or near the corner of a building and at the intersection of walls.

2.

The spacing of columns shall be such that the span of the beam is not less than 2.5m nor greater than 10.0m. Spans of 4 m to 6 m give normal sizes of beams. Single bay Portal frames may be adopted for spans ranging from 6.0m to 12.0m. The spacing of frame may vary from 3.50m to 4.0m.

3. 4. 5.

The centre to centre distance between columns should be decided based on limitations on spans of supporting beams. Where architectural or functional requirements demand large open space, number of columns have to be kept along the periphery giving large spans for the beams. Columns should be avoided inside a big hall as it makes the functional utility and the appearance and obstructs the clear view and the usable space.

..12.. 6. Where providing a column footing on a boundary poses a difficulty, columns may be taken inside so that the footing is inside the boundary line and floor beams be cantilevered out beyond the columns to support beam carrying walls along the boundary. Brackets may be taken out from the column in continuation of cross beams to support walls along the boundary line. Alternatively, a combined footing or a strip footing may be provided.

7.

Select the position of columns so as to reduce bending moments in beams: Where the locations of two columns are very near (eg) as it occurs when the corner of a building and the point of intersection of walls come very close to each other, then one column should be provided instead of two at such a positions so as to reduce the beam moment. In buildings small offsets (such as PQ) are provided from architectural considerations. Now the question arises whether to provide the column at P or Q. Consider only the point loads(excluding load transferred by floors) transferred by beams B1 and B2. If only column P is provided beam B1 will transfer a concentrated load at Q. In such a case beam B3 will have larger span and subjected to concentrated load at Q thereby there will be considerably increase in bending moment. Instead of this if the column is located at Q , the cantilever moment due to the reaction of B2 at P will relieve the B.M. in B3, thus providing a cheaper alternative. Under certain rare circumstances to satisfy the functional requirements, it may not be possible to provide upper storey columns above the columns at the parking level. Then the column at parking level is required to support the eccentric columns at upper storeys. In such a case the column S at

..13..

parking level is splayed as shown in Fig. or provided with a bracket to support the columns at the upper storey. However, the column at parking level will be subjected to heavy concentrated loads transferred from the columns of upper storey.

8.

Avoid larger spans of beams: When the centre to centre distance between the intersection of walls is large or where there are no cross walls, the spacing between two columns decides the span of the beam. As the spans of supported beams, because spacing of columns decides the span of the beam. As the span(and the length) of the beam increases, the required depth of the beam, and hence its self weight, and the total load on beam increases. Columns are in general, always cheaper compared to beams on the basis of unit cost. Therefore, large spans of beams should preferably be avoided for economy reasons.

..14.. In this case, either one column at C can be provided making ACB a two span continuous beam or two columns can be provided at E and G to form AB a three span continuous beam. In the first case, spans AC and CB will be larger and the beam has to carry two point loads, one at E and the other at G, transferred from secondary beams. This will require heavier section for the beam in the latter case, when two columns are provided one at E and another at G, the beam becomes a three span beam. Length of beam is reduced and it is required to carry only one concentrated load and that too on central span which further reduces the moment in outer spans AE and GB without appreciable increase in design moment in position EG leading to considerable reduction in the cost of beam. On the other hand since the cost of column is nearly proportional to the load on it, increase in cost of columns and footings due to provision of two columns at E and G (carrying half the load), over the cost of providing single column at C will be comparatively less than the increase in the cost of beam due to providing single column. Thus, the second alternative is likely to work out to be cheaper. This is more true in the case of multistory building frames. 8. 9. Projections of columns outside the wall should be avoided as far as possible. The columns should be so oriented that the depth of column should be perpendicular to the major axis of bending. D b X X D y Y b

XX YY D b 10.

Major axis of bending Minor axis of bending Perpendicular to axis of bending Parallel to axis of bending

When the effective length of column in one plane is greater than that in the orthogonal plane, the greater dimensions shall be in the plane, having larger effective length so as to reduce leff /D ratio to increase the load carrying capacity of the column.

..15..

PRACTICAL ASPECTS 1.Trial Section: Least lateral dimension (b) = width of beam .Normally 230 mm or Lef /12 whichever is greater. Area of cross-section of column (Ac) 80 to 100 mm2 per every 1 KN ultimate load carried by the column depending on the grade of concrete used. Area required for concrete is roughly @10 N / mm2 for all

grades of concrete.
Trial section can be fixed initially using the following guide values. Grade of Concrete External columns Internal columns M15 2500 1800 M20 2000 1500 M25 1500 1200

D= large dimension of column = Ac / b Steel strength for Fe 415 Dia of rod in mm 12 16 20 25 2. Ultimate capacity in KN / bar 30 60 90 140 :

Recommended Size of columns Size of columns to be kept as follows: For Square columns For Rectangular columns

: multiples of 50 mm up to 500 mm : multiples of 100 mm above 500 mm.

Circular columns are preferable for dia greater than 200 mm. Practical Sizes of columns adopted in Practise : Square Column 230 x 230 300 x 300 400 x 400 450 x 450 500 x 500 600 x 600 230 x 300 230 x 380 230 x 450 230 x 600 300 x 400 300 x 450 Rectangular column 300x 500 300x 600 400x450 400x530 400x 600 450x600 500 x 600 500 x 800 600 x 700 600 x 800

..16.. Circular Column : 300 dia 400 dia 450 dia 500 dia 600 dia

3. Approximate of load carrying capacity of column for a known section (i) CONCRETE STRENGTH: Concrete area in cm2 100 Load carrying capacity of Concrete in Tonnes M15 M20 M25 4 5 6

(i)

STEEL GRADE Fe 415


Bar Dia. Safe Load carrying capacity in Tonnes As per Vazirani & As per Chandra Hand Chandola book

12 16 20 25 28 32 36 40

2.15 3.82 5.97 9.33 11.7 15.28 19.34 23.85

2.03 3.62 5.65 8.83 11.08 14.47 -----

3. Longitudinal reinforcement : (Clause 26.5.3.1 of IS 456-2000) Ast Dia of Bar Minimum Maximum Mini. Max. 0.8% of 6%(Preferable c.s.area 12 mm 50 mm 4%) of column 4. Other aspects : 1) 2) Normally size of column should not be altered for at least four floors in multi-storied buildings. A section less than 200 x 200 mm is generally not preferred. No. of bars Minimum 4 Spacing of bar Maximum 300 mm

..17.. 3) For columns, rich concrete mixes like M 25 and M20 in the lower storey of multi-storey building will lead to economy. Column sizes should be chosen on the higher side and richer concrete mixes and age factors shall be used in the lower storey. For durability, the minimum concrete mix in all concrete members shall be M20. 4) For achieving economy in shuttering, column size can be kept the same throughout the height of building ( or in steps of a few storey at the least ) reinforcement and the concrete mix as required in the design. 5) Slender columns should be avoided, if possible , as these consume more steel than that required for the corresponding short columns. varying the

6)

In earthquake prone areas, square columns will prove more economical than rectangular columns, as these columns will have to be designed for earthquake effect in each principal direction .

5. Grouping of Columns: There are number of columns in one building and size of all columns cannot be different as formwork is uneconomical. Usually not varying by more than 10 to 20% and which have their effective lengths equal may be grouped together and then the columns are designed for the loads that they carry. The columns carrying maximum load may only be designed in that group and the same section be adopted for all the columns in that group. This saves the computational efforts and save labour during the execution of work. This is of prime importance in practical design.
6. Estimation of Loads: The design of column necessitates determination of loads transferred from beam at different floor levels. Loads are transferred from slabs to beams and then to columns. Hence, slabs and beams are normally designed prior to the design of columns. This method enables one to assess the loads on columns more accurately and thereby and design of column becomes realistic and economical. However, in practice, many times situation arise which require the design of columns and footings to be given to the clients prior to the design of slabs and beams. In such situations, loads on columns and footings are required to the assessed using judgement based on past experience or using approximate methods. The loads on the columns can be determined approximately on the basic of floor area shared by each column. These loads are normally calculated on the higher side so that they are not less than the actual loads transferred from slabs / beams. In such cases, the design of column is likely to be uneconomical.

..18.. In case of load bearing structure (Masonry building ) the loads may be calculated as follows: External wall Internal wall =25 KN/ m / floor =35 KN/ m / floor

In general the load of 20 KN/ m / floor may be taken for calculation of loads on columns. Framed structure: S.No. 1 2 Column Type Residential building Corner column 22 KN/ m2 End row middle 17 KN/ m2 column(Side column) Interior Column 12 KN/ m2 Office building 24 KN/ m2 19 KN/ m2

14 KN/ m2

Add 2 KN / m2 for stair case and Toilet area As per U.H.Varyani: S.No. 1 2 3 Column location Corner Column Exterior Column (Side Column) Interior Column Load intensity over Tributary Floor Area at all supporting levels 25 KN/ m2 20 KN/ m2 15 KN/ m2

When Column loads are calculated on the basis of the tributary area method, 5% extra increase in column loads is incorporated to account for unforeseen items and also for elastic beam shear effects. When Column loads are calculated by the method of beam reactions, 15% reduction in Column loads should be made to get realistic loads. This is due to the fact that slab loads in beams are calculated by the formula wl x / 3 or wlx /6 {3- (lx / ly)2 } which otherwise, lead to excessive column loads. In both the methods, live load reduction in multi storeyed buildings should be made as per relevant code and the column loads, as per modified above, shall be used for column and footing design and also for earthquake analysis. Reduction on Floor live loads: In assessment of loads on columns, the reduction in total live loads on floor may be made as specified under. ..19.. Number of floors carried by the column under % of reduction of total live load on all

consideration 1 2 3 4 5 to 10 10 or more

floors above consideration

the 0 10 20 30 40 50

column

under

No reduction shall be made in the case of columns in warehouses, garages and other buildings used for storage purpose and factories and workshops designed for a live load of 5000 N/m2. However for buildings such as factories and workshops designed for a live load of more than 5000N/ m2 the reduction shown above may be made provided that the loading assumed for any column, is not less than, it would have if all floors had been designed for a live load of 5000 N /m2 with no reduction. Column loads can be cross checked by using 3-D computer (or space frame analysis ) under VL = (DL + LL) Computation of Floor load on Column : (A) Exact Method : This method is used when the beam end shears are known prior to column design. The load on column at each floor level is given by Pufloor = V1 +V2 +V3 + V4 +Pa + Pself where V1,V2,V3,V4 are the end shears of beams meeting at the floor under consideration from all the four directions 1,2,3,4. Pa = axial load coming from above Pself =self weight of the column at the floor under consideration. (B) Approximate Method: This method may be used when the column design is required to be done prior to design of slabs and beams. The loads are calculated based on Tributary area method.

..20.. P = wAN where P = Total axial load W= total loading intensity in KN/m2 A = Tributary area in m2 N= No. of storeys. When column loads are calculated on the basis of this method, 5% extra increase in column loads is incorporated to account for unforeseen items and also for elastic beam shear effects.

When column loads are calculated by the method of beam reactions, 15% reduction in column loads should be made to get realistic loads. This is due to the fact that slab loads in beams are calculated by the formula wlx or 3 wlx { 3- (lx)2 } which otherwise lead to excessive column loads. ly In both these methods, live load reduction in multistoreyed buildings should be made as per the relevant code and the column loads as modified above, shall be used for column and footing design and also for earthquake analysis. Column loads can be cross checked by using 3-D computer( or space frame) under VL = (DL+LL). Moments in Columns: Normally moment on column will be obtained by frame analysis using any standard method. In case of design for corner column for biaxial bending, moment has to be calculated on both direction of column. For this the moment on one direction ( major axis) will be obtained by frame analysis. The moment on other direction (minor axis) will be usually be obtained by approximate method using Table given in IS 456 1964 as given below: Moments in Columns Condition Moments for frames of Moments for frames of two or one bay more bays External (and similarly loaded) columns: Moment at foot of upper Me Ku Me Ku column { --------------- } { --------------- } Kl + Ku +0.5 Kb Kl + Ku + Kb Moment at head of lower Me Kl Me Kl column { --------------- } { --------------- } Kl + Ku +0.5 Kb Kl + Ku +Kb Internal Columns: Moment at foot of upper column Moment at head of lower column --Mes Ku { ---------------------} Kl + Ku + Kb1+ Kb2 Mes Kl { ---------------------} Kl + Ku + Kb1+ Kb2

---

..21.. Note: 1. Notations used in the above table are as follows: Me = bending moment at the end of the beam framing into the column assuming fixity at the connection. Mes = Maximum difference between the moments at the end of two beams framing into opposite sides of the column, each related on the

assumption that the ends of the beams are beams unlocated. Ku= stiffness of the upper column. Kl= stiffness of the lower column Kb= stiffness of the beam

fixed assuming one of the

Kb1= stiffness of the beam on one side of the column and Kb2= stiffness of the beam on the other side of the column.
2. For the purpose of this table, stiffness of a member may be obtained dividing the moment of inertia its length. of a cross-section by the length of the member provided that the member is of constant cross-section throughout

3.

The equation for the moment at the head of the lower column may be used for columns in a topmost storey by taking Ku as zero.

TABLE C1 AXIAL LOAD CARRYING CAPACITY RATIO OF COLUMNS

Fck (N/mm )

Pu/Ag fck

Pt %
0.80 0.90

M15
0.545 0.563

M20
0.508 0.522

M25
0.486 0.496

M30
0.471 0.480

M35
0.460 0.468

M40
0.452 0.459

1.00 1.10 1.20 1.30 1.40 1.50 1.60 1.70 1.80 1.90 2.00 2.10 2.20 2.30 2.40 2.50 2.60 2.70 2.80 2.90 3.00

0.581 0.600 0.618 0.636 0.654 0.672 0.690 0.708 0.726 0.745 0.763 0.781 0.799 0.817 0.835 0.853 0.872 0.890 0.908 0.926 0.944

0.535 0.549 0.562 0.578 0.589 0.603 0.616 0.630 0.643 0.657 0.670 0.684 0.697 0.711 0.724 0.738 0.751 0.765 0.778 0.792 0.805

0.507 0.518 0.529 0.539 0.550 0.561 0.572 0.582 0.593 0.604 0.614 0.625 0.636 0.647 0.657 0.668 0.679 0.689 0.700 0.711 0.722

0.489 0.498 0.506 0.515 0.524 0.533 0.542 0.551 0.560 0.568 0.577 0.586 0.595 0.604 0.613 0.622 0.631 0.639 0.648 0.657 0.666

0.475 0.483 0.491 0.498 0.506 0.513 0.521 0.528 0.536 0.543 0.551 0.558 0.566 0.574 0.581 0.589 0.596 0.604 0.611 0.619 0.626

0.466 0.472 0.479 0.485 0.492 0.498 0.505 0.511 0.518 0.525 0.531 0.538 0.544 0.551 0.557 0.564 0.570 0.577 0.583 0.590 0.597

TABLE C1 (Continued) AXIAL LOAD CARRYING CAPACITY RATIO OF COLUMNS

Fck (N/mm )

Pu/Ag fck

Pt %
3.20 3.40 3.60 3.80 4.00

M15
0.980 1.017 1.053 1.089 1.125

M20
0.832 0.859 0.886 0.913 0.940

M25
0.743 0.765 0.786 0.807 0.829

M30
0.684 0.702 0.719 0.737 0.755

M35
0.641 0.657 0.672 0.687 0.702

M40
0.610 0.623 0.636 0.649 0.662

4.20 4.40 4.60 4.80 5.00 5.20 5.40 5.60 5.80 6.00
1)

1.162 1.198 1.234 1.271 1.307 1.343 1.379 1.416 1.452 1.488

0.967 0.994 1.021 1.048 1.075 1.102 1.129 1.156 1.183 1.210

0.850 0.872 0.893 0.915 0.936 0.958 0.979 1.000 1.022 1.043

0.772 0.790 0.808 0.826 0.843 0.861 0.879 0.897 0.914 0.932

0.717 0.732 0.747 0.762 0.777 0.792 0.807 0.823 0.838 0.853

0.675 0.688 0.701 0.714 0.728 0.741 0.754 0.767 0.780 0.793

Note: The design load of axially loaded short column is calculated when the minimum Eccentricity does not exceed 0.05 times the lateral dimension of column using the formula Pu=0.4 fck As +0.67 f y Asc where Pu is Factored Axial load on the member Ac = Area of concrete Asc =Area of longitudinal reinforcement Based on the above formula and charts given in Design Aid to IS 456 1978 The value of Pu/Ag fck =0.4 + p/100{ 0.67 fy/ fck 0.4} can be found out and tabulated in the above form.

2)

TABLE C 2 TRANSVERSE REINFORCEMENT FOR COLUMNS Maximum Pitch of Lareral Ties

Smallest Dia of Longitudinal bar 12 16 20 25

Dia of Lateral Ties in mm 6 190 250 280 -8 -250 280 300 10 -----

Remarks

But > But > But > But >

b b b b

30 32 36

------

300 300 --

--300

But > But > But >

b b b

Note: 1) Minimum Dia. Of lateral ties is greater of the following: i) 6mm ii) the dia of largest longitudinal bar. 2) 3) Maximum dia of ties is 16 mm. Maximum spacing of ties is least of the following: i) Least lateral dimension of columns ii) 16 times the dia of smallest longitudinal bar iii) 300 mm.

TABLE C 3

STANDARD DESIGN FOR AXIAL LOADED SHORT SQUARE COLUMNS STEEL Fe 415 Column size BXD (mm) 230X230 CONCRETE : Main Steel No. 4 4 8 4 4 4 8 4 4 4 4 8 Dia (mm) 12 16 12 20 16 12 16 25 20 16 16 12 % 0.85 1.52 1.71 2.37 2.37 3.03 3.71 3.89 0.89 1.00 M15, M20, M25 Safe load carrying capacity of Column (KN) M15 M20 M25 293 357 376 439 439 502 568 585 505 523 363 427 445 508 508 571 635 653 624 642 433 496 514 577 577 639 703 720 743 761

Lateral Ties Dia (mm) 6 6 6 6 6 6 8 6 6 6 Pitch (mm) 190 230 190 230 190 230 230 230 250 190

300x300

400x400

4 4 4 8 4 4 4 8 8 4 4 4 12 8 16 4 4 12 8 16 12

20 16 12 16 25 20 16 20 16 25 20 16 16 20 16 25 20 20 25 20 25

1.40 1.40 1.79 2.18 2.29 2.79 1.00 1.23 1.29 1.51 1.57 2.01 2.01 2.36 2.45 3.14 3.68

6 6 6 8 6 6 6 8 6 6 6 6 8 6 8 6 8

300 190 250 300 250 300 300 300 250 250 300 300 300 300 300 300 300

589 589 652 716 734 815 930 997 1014 1078 1096 1223 1223 1325 1351 1551 1708

707 707 770 833 851 932 1141 1208 1225 1288 1306 1432 1432 1533 1559 1758 1913

825 825 888 951 968 1049 1353 1418 1436 1498 1516 1641 1641 1741 1767 1964 2119

TABLE C 3 (continued) STANDARD DESIGN FOR AXIAL LOADED SHORT SQUARE COLUMNS STEEL Fe 415 Column size BXD (mm) 450x450 CONCRETE : Main Steel No. 4 12 4 8 4 4 12 8 8 8 12 8 8 4 4 16 Dia (mm) 25 16 28 20 25 20 20 25 28 32 16 20 22 25 20 16 % 0.97 1.19 1.21 1.24 1.59 1.86 1.94 2.43 3.18 0.96 1.00 1.22 1.29 1.29 M15, M20, M25 Safe load carrying capacity of Column (KN) M15 M20 M25 1166 1247 1254 1265 1434 1514 1521 1532 1660 1758 1787 1966 2239 1765 1783 1882 1914 1914 1701 1781 1788 1799 1925 2023 2052 2229 2500 2096 2113 2212 2243 2243

Lateral Ties Dia (mm) 8 6 8 6 8 6 8 8 8 6 6 6 8 6 Pitch (mm) 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300

500x500

1493 1522 1702 1978 1435 1453 1553 1585 1585

12 8 20 16 12 20 16

20 25 16 20 25 20 25

1.51 1.57 1.61 2.01 2.36 2.51 3.14

6 8 6 6 8 6 8

300 300 300 300 300 300 300

1685 1712 1730 1911 2070 2138 2424

2013 2040 2058 2238 2396 2463 2747

2341 2368 2386 2565 2721 2788 3069

Note : Clear cover assumed : 40 mm for M15 and M20 45 mm for M25 Effective cover = clear cover + diameter of ties + half the dia of the main bar The columns are designed for minimum eccentricity of 20 mm

TABLE C 4 STANDARD DESIGN FOR AXIAL LOADED SHORT RECTANGULAR COLUMNS STEEL Fe 415 Column size BXD (mm) 230X300 CONCRETE : Main Steel No. 6 4 8 6 4 4 4 8 6 4 4 4 8 4 8 6 4 4 4 4 4 Dia (mm) 12 16 12 16 20 16 12 16 20 25 20 16 20 16 12 16 20 16 12 20 16 % 0.98 1.17 1.31 1.75 1.82 1.82 2.33 2.73 2.84 2.99 3.64 1.00 1.12 1.50 1.56 1.56 1.82 M15, M20, M25 Safe load carrying capacity of Column (KN) M15 M20 M25 399 422 440 495 504 504 568 618 631 650 732 468 486 541 550 550 588 499 513 531 585 594 594 657 707 721 739 820 574 592 647 655 655 693 581 604 622 676 684 684 747 797 810 829 909 681 698 752 761 761 798

Lateral Ties Dia (mm) 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 8 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 Pitch (mm) 190 230 190 230 230 190 230 230 230 230 230 230 190 230 230 190 230

230X350

8 6 4 8 6

16 20 25 20 25

2.00 2.34 2.44 3.12 3.67

6 6 8 6 8

230 230 230 230 230

614 664 678 778 858

768 783 882 961

824 873 888 985 1065

TABLE C 4 (continued) STANDARD DESIGN FOR AXIAL LOADED SHORT RECTANGULAR COLUMNS STEEL Fe 415 Column size BXD (mm) 230X380 CONCRETE : Main Steel No. 4 8 6 4 4 4 8 6 4 4 4 8 6 4 8 6 4 4 4 8 6 4 4 4 Dia (mm) 16 12 16 20 16 12 16 20 25 20 16 20 25 16 12 16 20 16 12 16 20 25 20 16 % 0.92 1.03 1.38 1.44 1.44 1.84 2.16 2.25 2.36 2.87 3.37 0.87 0.98 1.31 1.37 1.37 1.75 2.05 2.13 2.24 M15, M20, M25 Safe load carrying capacity of Column (KN) M15 M20 M25 495 513 568 578 578 641 692 706 724 805 884 513 532 587 597 597 660 710 723 742 611 628 693 693 756 806 820 837 918 996 635 653 708 718 718 781 830 843 862 726 744 798 808 808 870 920 934 951 1031 1109 756 774 829 839 839 901 950 964 982

Lateral Ties Dia (mm) 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 8 6 6 8 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 8 6 Pitch (mm) 230 190 230 230 190 230 230 230 230 230 230 230 190 230 230 190 230 230 230 230

230X400

8 6

20 25

2.73 3.2

6 8

230 230

824 902

943 1021

1062 1139

TABLE C 4 (continued) STANDARD DESIGN FOR AXIAL LOADED SHORT RECTANGULAR COLUMNS STEEL Fe 415 Column size BXD (mm) 230X450 CONCRETE : Main Steel No. 8 10 6 4 4 12 8 6 10 4 4 8 8 10 6 4 4 12 8 6 10 4 4 12 8 4 4 12 8 Dia (mm) 12 12 16 16 12 12 16 20 16 20 16 20 25 12 16 16 12 12 16 20 16 20 16 16 20 25 20 20 25 % 0.87 1.09 1.17 1.21 1.31 1.55 1.82 1.94 1.99 2.42 3.79 0.98 1.05 1.09 1.18 1.40 1.64 1.75 1.79 2.10 2.18 2.80 3.28 3.42 M15, M20, M25 Safe load carrying capacity of Column (KN) M15 M20 M25 577 619 834 641 660 705 756 778 788 870 1125 664 674 687 706 752 802 825 833 898 915 1044 1144 1173 714 755 770 777 796 841 891 842 923 1005 1258 816 831 839 858 903 953 976 984 1048 1065 1194 1292 1321 851 892 906 914 932 977 1027 1049 1058 1139 1391 968 982 991 1009 1054 1104 1126 1135 1198 1215 1342 1441 1469

Lateral Ties Dia (mm) 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 8 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 8 6 8 Pitch (mm) 190 190 230 230 190 230 230 230 230 230 230 190 230 190 190 230 230 230 230 230 230 230 230 230

230X500

TABLE C 4 (continued)

STANDARD DESIGN FOR AXIAL LOADED SHORT RECTANGULAR COLUMNS STEEL Fe 415 Column size BXD (mm) 230X530 CONCRETE : Main Steel No. 10 6 4 4 12 8 6 10 4 4 12 4 4 8 8 12 10 6 4 4 12 8 6 10 4 4 12 8 Dia (mm) 12 16 16 12 12 16 20 16 20 16 16 25 20 20 25 20 12 16 16 12 12 16 20 16 20 16 20 25 % 0.93 0.99 1.03 1.11 1.32 1.55 1.65 1.69 1.98 2.64 2.06 3.22 3.09 0.82 0.87 0.91 0.98 1.17 1.37 1.46 1.49 2.73 2.85 M15, M20, M25 Safe load carrying capacity of Column (KN) M15 M20 M25 693 706 715 733 779 830 852 861 925 1071 943 1199 1171 757 770 780 797 845 895 917 925 1235 1265 854 867 876 894 940 990 1012 1021 1085 1230 1102 1357 1328 940 952 962 979 1027 1076 1099 1106 1414 1444 1015 1028 1037 1054 1100 1150 1172 1181 1244 1388 1261 1514 1486 1122 1135 1144 1162 1209 1258 1280 1287 1593 1623

Lateral Ties Dia (mm) 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 8 6 8 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 8 Pitch (mm) 190 230 190 190 230 230 230 230 230 230 230 230 230 190 230 230 190 230 230 230 230 230 230

230X600

TABLE C 4 (continued) STANDARD DESIGN FOR AXIAL LOADED SHORT RECTANGULAR COLUMNS STEEL Fe 415 Column size BXD (mm) 230X680 CONCRETE : Main Steel No. 4 4 12 8 6 10 4 4 8 8 12 8 10 4 4 8 12 8 8 6 4 4 4 8 6 Dia (mm) 16 12 12 16 20 16 20 16 20 25 20 16 16 20 16 20 20 25 12 16 20 16 12 16 20 % 0.80 0.87 1.03 1.21 1.29 1.32 1.61 2.38 2.41 0.93 1.17 1.19 1.46 2.18 2.28 0.86 1.15 1.20 1.20 1.53 1.79 M15, M20, M25 Safe load carrying capacity of Column (KN) M15 M20 M25 853 872 918 969 992 1000 1082 1301 1309 981 1056 1062 1147 1372 1403 584 639 649 649 711 761 1059 1079 1124 1175 1197 1206 1287 1504 1513 1209 1283 1290 1373 1597 1628 723 777 787 787 849 898 1266 1286 1331 1381 1403 1412 1493 1708 1716 1437 1511 1517 1600 1822 1853 861 916 925 925 987 1036

Lateral Ties Dia (mm) 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 8 6 6 6 6 6 6 8 6 6 6 6 6 6 Pitch (mm) 230 190 230 230 230 230 230 230 230 230 230 230 230 230 230 190 230 230 190 230 230

230X750

300X350

TABLE C 4 (continued) STANDARD DESIGN FOR AXIAL LOADED SHORT RECTANGULAR COLUMNS STEEL Fe 415 Column size BXD (mm) CONCRETE : Main Steel No. 4 4 4 8 6 6 4 4 8 4 4 4 8 6 4 4 8 6 4 4 8 4 4 4 8 6 4 4 8 4 4 Dia (mm) 25 20 16 20 25 16 16 12 16 25 20 16 20 25 25 20 25 16 16 12 16 25 20 16 20 25 25 20 25 16 12 % 1.87 1.96 2.39 2.81 1.05 1.10 1.41 1.72 1.80 2.20 2.58 2.82 3.44 1.005 1.047 1.34 1.63 1.72 2.09 2.45 2.68 3.27 0.93 M15, M20, M25 Safe load carrying capacity of Column (KN) M15 M20 M25 776 793 875 955 673 683 748 812 828 911 989 1039 1167 699 708 772 835 854 935 1013 1063 1192 768 913 931 1012 1091 823 834 897 961 977 1060 1138 1187 1314 857 866 929 992 1011 1092 1169 1219 1347 946 1051 1068 1148 1227 974 984 1047 1110 1127 1208 1286 1334 1461 1016 1025 1087 1150 1169 1248 1325 1375 1501 1124

Lateral Ties Dia (mm) 8 6 6 8 6 6 6 8 6 6 8 8 8 6 6 6 8 6 6 8 8 8 6 Pitch (mm) 230 230 230 230 230 190 230 230 230 230 230 230 230 230 190 230 230 230 230 230 230 230 190

300X380

300X400

300X450

TABLE C 4 (continued) STANDARD DESIGN FOR AXIAL LOADED SHORT RECTANGULAR COLUMNS STEEL Fe 415 Column size BXD (mm) 300X450 CONCRETE : Main Steel No. 8 4 4 12 8 12 8 6 4 4 12 8 6 10 4 4 12 8 4 4 12 8 8 12 8 12 8 12 Dia (mm) 16 20 16 16 20 20 25 16 16 12 12 16 20 16 20 16 16 20 25 20 20 25 16 16 20 20 25 25 % 1.19 1.53 1.79 1.86 2.79 2.91 0.80 0.84 0.90 1.07 1.26 1.34 1.37 1.61 1.67 2.15 2.51 2.62 1.01 1.52 1.58 2.37 2.47 3.70 M15, M20, M25 Safe load carrying capacity of Column (KN) M15 M20 M25 831 915 978 995 1223 1252 818 829 845 891 943 965 973 1038 1054 1185 1283 1313 927 1074 1092 1319 1348 1703 1009 1092 1155 1172 1398 1427 1016 1027 1042 1089 1140 1162 1170 1235 1251 1381 1478 1508 1137 1283 1300 1526 1555 1907 1187 1269 1332 1349 1573 1602 1214 1225 1241 1287 1338 1359 1367 1432 1448 1576 1673 1702 1347 1492 1509 1733 1762 2111

Lateral Ties Dia (mm) 6 6 6 6 6 8 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 8 6 8 6 6 6 6 8 8 Pitch (mm) 230 230 230 230 230 230 250 250 190 250 250 250 250 250 250 300 300 300 250 250 250 250 300 300

300X500

300X530

TABLE C 4 (continued) STANDARD DESIGN FOR AXIAL LOADED SHORT RECTANGULAR COLUMNS STEEL Fe 415 Column size BXD (mm) 300X600 CONCRETE : Main Steel No. 8 12 8 12 12 12 8 8 12 12 12 8 12 8 12 8 8 12 8 16 12 16 12 16 12 12 8 12 8 Dia (mm) 16 16 20 20 25 16 20 25 25 28 16 20 20 25 25 28 32 16 20 16 20 20 25 25 16 20 28 25 32 % 0.89 1.34 1.40 2.09 3.27 1.18 1.23 1.92 2.89 3.62 1.15 1.20 1.79 1.87 2.80 2.35 3.06 1.07 1.12 1.43 1.68 2.23 2.62 3.49 0.96 1.50 1.95 2.34 2.55 M15, M20, M25 Safe load carrying capacity of Column (KN) M15 M20 M25 1011 1157 1177 1402 1788 1253 1271 1526 1885 2155 1278 1221 1522 1552 1906 1735 2005 1337 1357 1484 1586 1810 1969 2324 1447 1694 1894 2077 2173 1248 1394 1414 1637 2020 1521 1540 1793 2149 2418 1555 1574 1797 1827 2179 2008 2277 1633 1654 1779 1881 2103 2261 2614 1780 2025 2229 2406 2501 1486 1631 1650 1872 2252 1790 1808 2060 2414 2680 1832 1850 2072 2102 2451 2382 2548 1930 1950 2075 2175 2397 2553 2903 2112 2355 2558 2734 2828

Lateral Ties Dia (mm) 6 6 6 6 8 6 6 8 8 8 6 6 6 8 8 8 8 6 6 6 6 6 8 8 6 6 8 8 8 Pitch (mm) 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 250 300 300 300 300 300 300 250 300 250 300 300 300 300 250 300 300 300 300

300X680

300X700

300X750

300X840

TABLE C 5

STANDARD DESIGN FOR AXIAL LOADED SHORT CIRCULAR COLUMNS STEEL: Fe 415 Column dia (mm) 230 CONCRETE : Main Steel No. 6 8 6 8 6 8 6 8 6 8 6 8 6 8 6 12 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 Dia (mm) 12 12 16 16 12 12 16 16 20 12 16 16 20 20 25 20 16 20 25 28 16 20 25 28 % 1.63 2.18 2.9 3.87 0.96 1.28 1.71 2.28 2.67 0.80 1.06 1.42 1.66 2.22 2.60 3.32 1.28 2.00 3.13 3.92 1.01 1.58 2.47 3.1 M15, M20, M25 Safe load carrying capacity of Column (KN) M15 M20 M25 289 330 385 458 406 447 502 575 625 618 672 746 795 910 988 1137 794 958 1216 1396 928 1092 1349 1530 344 385 439 511 499 540 595 667 717 768 821 895 944 1058 1136 1283 960 1123 1378 1557 1137 1301 1555 1736 398 439 492 564 593 633 687 759 809 918 971 1044 1098 1206 1283 1429 1125 1287 1541 1718 1347 1509 1762 1941

Lateral Ties Dia (mm) 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 8 6 6 6 8 8 6 6 8 8 Pitch (mm) 150 150 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 250 200 200 200 250 250 200 200 250 250

300

380

400

450

TABLE C 5 (continued)

STANDARD DESIGN FOR AXIAL LOADED SHORT CIRCULAR COLUMNS STEEL Fe 415 Column dia (mm) 500 CONCRETE : Main Steel No. 8 12 8 8 12 8 12 8 8 12 Dia (mm) 20 20 25 28 25 20 20 25 28 25 % 1.28 1.92 2.00 2.51 3.00 0.89 1.33 1.39 1.74 2.08 M15, M20, M25 Safe load carrying capacity of Column (KN) M15 M20 M25 1241 1469 1498 1679 1854 1587 1813 1844 2023 2198 1500 1726 1754 1934 2109 1961 2185 2215 2394 2567 1758 1983 2011 2190 2362 2335 2557 2587 2764 2936

Lateral Ties Dia (mm) 6 6 8 8 8 6 6 8 8 8 Pitch (mm) 200 200 250 250 250 200 200 250 250 250

600

Note:

Clear cover assumed : 40 mm for M15 and M20 45 mm for M25 Effective cover = clear cover + diameter of ties + half the dia of the main bar The load arrived above are for circular ties For helical ties the above load shall be multiplied by 1.05