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Types Densi ty densitometer

Operation

Application

Calibration

Troubleshoot ing

Description

Advantage

disadvant age

The densitometer is basically a light source aimed at a photoelectric cell. It determines the density of a sample placed between the light source and the photoelectric cell from differences in the readings. Modern densitometers have the same components, but also have electronicintegrated circ uitry for better reading. There are two types: Transmission densitometers that measure transparent materials Reflection densitometers that measure light reflected from a surface.

used for measuring color saturation by print professionals, and calibrating printing equipment. They are also used for making adjustments so outputs are consistent with the colors desired in the finished products.

Clean optics Clean optical path Clean standards Clean packing case Reset zero Reset full scale Perform repeatabili ty tests Perform DE* Measurem ents using NIST Traceable Standards Perform Density Measurem ent using NIST Traceable Standards Issue Ceritificate of verification of calibration

a device that measures the degree of darkness (the optical density) of a photographic or semitransparent material or of a reflecting surface.

In print media and photograph y, evaluating prints and negatives before mass printing can be the greatest advantage that densitomet ers offer. A lot of money can be saved since it greatly reduces the occurrence of failed prints and continuous tweaking by calibrating the printing equipment based on the findings of a densitomet er.

microdensitometer

used in the photographic industry

an optical instrument used to

Hydrometers

The liquid to be tested is poured into a tall container, often a graduated cylinder, and the hydrometer is gently lowered into the liquid until it floats freely. The point at which the surface of the liquid touches the stem of the hydrometer is noted. Hydrometers usually contain a scale inside the stem, so that the specific gravity can be read directly. A variety of scales exist, and are used depending on the context. Operation of the hydrometer is based on Archimedes' principle that a solid suspended in a fluid will be buoyed up by a force equal to the weight of the fluid displaced by the submerged part of the suspended solid. Thus, the lower the density of the substance, the farther the hydrometer will sink.

Hydrometer s may be calibrated for different uses, such as a lactometer for measuring the density (creamines s) of milk, a saccharom eter for measuring the density of sugar in a liquid, or an alcoholomet er for measuring higher levels of alcohol in spirits.

measure optical densities in the microscopic domain an instrument used to measure the specific gravity (or relati ve density) of liquids; that is, the ratio of the density of the liquid to the density of water. It is usually made of glass and consists of a cylindrical stem and a bulb weighted with mercury or l ead shot to make it float upright.

Lactometer

The specific gravity of milk does not give a conclusive indication of its composition since milk contains a variety of substances that are either heavier or lighter than water.

used to check purity of milk.

Additional tests for fat content are necessary to determine overall composition. The instrument is graduated into a hundred parts. Milk is poured in and allowed to stand until the cream has formed, then the depth of the cream deposit in degrees determines the quality of the milk.

Alcoholometer Saccharometer
It consists of a large weighted glass bulb with a thin stem rising from the top with calibrated markings. The sugar level can be determined by reading the value where the surface of the liquid crosses the scale. It works by the principle of buoyancy. A solution with a higher sugar content is denser, causing the bulb to float higher. Less sugar results in a lower density and a lower floating bulb.

used for determining the alcoholic strength of liquids a hydrometer used for determining the amount of sugar in a solution, invented by Thomas Thomson. It is used primarily by winemakers and bre wers, and it can also be used in making sorbets and ice-creams

Thermohydrom eter Urinometer


As urine's specific gravity is dictated by its ratio of solutes (wastes) to water, a urinometer makes it possible to quickly assess a patient's a medical hydrometer designed for urinalysis.

overall level of hydration.

Barkometer Battery hydrometer Antifreeze tester Acidometer


used for engine cooling

a hydrometer used to measure the specific gravity of an acid