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10 ids (ex people laws) 2-3 sentences (Any choices? like 10 out of 15?

) 4-5 short answers paragraph give examples (choices?) 3 essays (choices?) Heres the link to another ETST 1 Final Review Google Document (its nearly identical): https://docs. pli=1 RACIAL FAULTLINES ON PDF- ENJOY! Reminder: Your final exam is Thursday 6/14 8am-11am. Is it true that it's going to be a blue book exam? So no multiple choice? YES STUDY GUIDE NOT ALL of what may be on the exam is on this list, NOT ALL that is on this list will be on the final. A Time to Break Silence: this was the reading we had to do on Martin Luther Kings Letter from Birmingham Jail. Its significance was that he advocated that black men stay out of the Vietnam War. His argument was that it was particularly violent, it wasnt something one morally wanted to be involved in, but more so why should black men defend a country who doesnt defend, protect, or serve them. (A Time to Break Silence was delivered by Martin Luther King Jr., on April 4, 1967, at a meeting of concerned clergy and laity at Riverside Church in New York City, New York. The essence of the speech focused on the war in Vietnam. The belief of the clergy took the theme of silence is betrayal. The conclusion was reached that they must speak out against the war over the objection that peace and civil right do not mix. King viewed such comments as a tragic misunderstanding of the world. He emphasized that he was not at the meeting to speak to China, Russia, the National Liberation Front, and/or Hanoi. He was there to speak to his fellow Americans who have the responsibility of ending the conflict that has extracted a heavy price on Vietnam and America. Regarding the importance of getting involved in the Vietnam War, King enumerated seven major reasons to bring the war to an end based on moral vision. He stated that Vietnam is connected to the struggle he and others have been fighting in America for the poor. However, the buildup of the war has broken the program by society going mad over the war. As a result, the war is as an enemy of the poor, which has taken away vital resources from programs for the poor. He has also considered the dilemma the sons of poor Americans who are fighting and dying in extraordinary high numbers in Southeast Asia are facing as tragic, especially when they were not even able to attend the same school in

America, or live on the same block, which he referred to as manipulation of the poor. He believed that change would come to America through nonviolent action. Therefore, he must raise his voice against the violence inflicted on the oppressed for the sake of America and cannot remain silent. He affirmed the motto of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference is "To save the soul of America," which cannot be saved if it is destroying the souls of people across the world. Additionally, as a winner of the Nobel Peace Prize, his belief is that this commission require him to work harder than ever for "the brotherhood of man," thus, his calling extend beyond national allegiances. He declared that he share with all men the calling to be a son of the living God; that God is concerned with the suffering of helpless and outcast children; that ministers are called to speak for the weak, the voiceless, victims of our nation, and its enemy; that Vietnam has been living under the madness of war for three continuous decades; and there will be no solution until we hear the broken voices of Americans and Vietnamese. With respect to continuing protest of the war, he requested the churches and synagogues to continue urging America to disengage from Vietnam and encouraged the ministers to seek conscious objector's status. He brought up that America is on the wrong side of the world's revolution, because we now consider property and material things more important than people; thus, we are approaching spiritual death. On the issue of the importance of people, he revealed that all over the world men are revolting against the old system of exploitation and oppression, and new systems of justice and equality are being born. As a result, we should desire love to be the ultimate force and saving grace of life and not death and evil. Additionally, he reinforced that powers without compassion; might without morality; and strength without sight, will drag America down the corridor of shame; therefore, we must rededicate ourselves to a beautiful world, which is the calling of the sons of God. H-e ended his message with an eloquent poem written by James Russell Lowell, addressing the issues of love not war; good not evil; light not darkness; and how God is keeping watch over His people. Debating the Civil Rights Movement: a View from the Trenches: By Charles Payne, overall coverage of the civil rights movement. It discusses the SNCC (King had to be guilted into attending), (student non-violent coordinating committee) and Ella Bakers involvement. Also discussed the top-down approach: - kind of like going backwards in order to learn something. For example in the civil rights movement we often think Rosa Parks a random, ordinary woman who played a part in a bigger picture and she was just someone who got caught in the movement, when in reality she was more than a coincidental catalyst because she herself also spent her life fighting small fights for her own rights as a black woman before the bus incident. She actually worked as a secretary for E. D. Nixon at the Montgomery branch of NAACP and had already refused to comply with bus segregation laws several times before the historical incident. The top-

down approach neglects smaller historical facts like that and mythologized the movement into a mere protest-based event, led by the exceptional few. History from below: (Phrase from Racial Faultlines) Refers to the way history is written; the people who are in power are the ones who get to write history according to their perspective; those who are subordinated are unable to have a say in the way in which history is recorded -How history is written and by whom -Perspective of subordinated is omitted from history (Is the author saying that this book is written from that perspective?) Bayard Rustin: He was an activist in the non-violent movement. He initiated the Freedom Rides to challenge segregation. The freedom rides were important because they showed how the united states government was particularly not interested in desegregating the nation due to the lack of protection they afforded the people on the freedom rides, and the violent outbursts in towns on the stops that were overlooked. Black Panthers: They were a political party for African Americans. Very left wing, and they followed more along the lines of the views of Malcom X where they were violent towards people that were violent towards them. They were a great deal less passive (or agressive?) than MLKs followers. Their symbol was created because a black cat is easily recognizable. They were all for black power, completely through with asking the whites for equality and more into demanding it. Had the: Black Panther Party 10-point program. Basically it pointed out 10 things that they wanted. Summary: demanded freedom, employment, free healthcare, decent housing, decent education, citizen rights to black and oppressed people. Black Power: it was advocated (foremost) by the black panther party, but a term used in general for african americans who demanded equal rights, and not just equal rights, but a power over white americans where they no longer had to be oppressed. It could be somewhat violent, as was seen the first time someone called it out during one of the mississippi marches. They shouted black power! and people responded in a particularly rowdy way. Brown v Board of Education: United States Supreme Court case in which the Court declared state laws establishing separate public schools for black and white students unconstitutional. The decision overturned the Plessy v. Ferguson decision of 1896 which allowed state-sponsored segregation. Handed down on May 17, 1954, the Warren Court's unanimous (90) decision stated that "separate educational facilities are inherently unequal." (from wikipedia) The significance of this was what we talked about in class. Yes, they gave Blacks equal rights but they simply treated the symptoms and not the problems. Once those rights were extended there were still systems in place that suppressed blacks. So on the outside it looked like the US was willing to comply, but really all it did was open up new avenues for segregation Chinese Exclusion Act 1882: Those revisions allowed the U.S. to suspend Chinese immigration, a ban that was intended to last 10 years. This law was repealed by the Magnuson Act on December 17, 1943.

This was significant that the Chinese Immigrants were seen as taking the White man jobs(A threat to free labor ideology). So this was the result of anti-chinese sentiment in California. (Racial faultlines) (wikipedia) it was part of a large system of racial segregation that was the undercurrent to the united states. Citizens Councils: The White Citizens' Council (WCC) was anAmerican white supremacist organization formed on July 11, 1954. the group was well known for its opposition to racial integration during the 1950s and 1960s, when it retaliated with economic boycotts and other strong intimidation against black activists, including depriving them of jobs.By the 1970s, following passage of federal civil rights legislation in the mid-1960s and stronger enforcement of rights by the federal government, the influence of the WCC had waned considerably (wikipedia) COINTELPRO: (an acronym for CounterIntelligence Program) was a series of covert, and often illegal,[2] projects conducted by the United States Federal Bureau of Investigation(FBI) aimed at surveilling, infiltrating, discrediting, and disrupting domestic political organizations. The FBI has used covert operations against domestic political groups since its inception; however, covert operations under the official COINTELPRO label took place between 1956 and 1971.[3] COINTELPRO tactics included discrediting targets through psychological warfare; smearing individuals and groups using forged documents and by planting false reports in the media; harassment; wrongful imprisonment; and illegal violence, including assassination.[4][5] [6] The FBI's stated motivation was "protecting national security, preventing violence, and maintaining the existing social and political order."[7] (wikipedia) **This is relevant to the course in part 12 of Eyes on The Prize about the murder of Fred Hampton, the leader of the Chicago fraction of Black Panther. It was an FBI operation masqueraded as a raid and initially presented to the media as a shoot-out when it was actually a murder. After a breaking in at the FBI head quarter in 1971 the Counter Intelligence Programs operations was disclosed to the Foreign Miners Tax Law 1850:public. Ella Baker: she was a civil rights activist, african american. She often worked behind the scenes for organizations such as the NAACP and MLK. She worked the with SNCC a little, urging them to be nonviolent and giving them the motivation to do their first sit-in Emmett Till: was an African-American boy who was murdered in Mississippi at the age of 14 after reportedly flirting with a white woman. (wikipedia) We watched a video, possibly Eyes on the Prize He basically grabbed the hand of a white women and asked her out on a date, and it was reported that he grabbed her waist and said inappropriate things to her. He was murdered for this.

Foreign Miners Tax Law 1850: The Foreign Miners Tax, first adopted in 1852, represents the early response of the Yankee-controlled California state legislature to the large number of Chinese immigrants who came to the state during the Gold Rush. Ostensibly, this law required all foreign miners to purchase an expensive mining license, but it was written in such a way as to primarily handicap Chinese miners. It is the first of many times to come that the federal law that made non-white immigrants ineligible for citizenship would be used by the state against Asian immigrants in what was to appear to be a racially neutral law. Free labor ideology: This will probably be an essay question. Read more about it in Racial Fault Lines. Look up free labor ideology in the index at the back of the book for specific pages. Basically about rising entrepreneurship in the early united states, specifically california. White men were afraid that with entrepreneurship and free capitalism the Mexicans would take the jobs that white men were rightfully entitled to. Slowly but surely, Mexicans were robbed of their land, and the white man became the dominant power while Mexicans no longer owned large expanses of property like they used to. They also pretty much married into white families. (Would someone mind scanning a few key pages and insert them as images in this document? Thanks) Fugitive Slave Law 1852: It declared that all runaway slaves be brought back to their masters. This is relevant because at the time of California becoming popular and rising economically, while they did not like Mexicans they didnt mind blacks. However, they still didnt want them there solely because they didnt want to have to deal with the southern states and the runaway slaves. Gadsden Purchase 1853: The Gadsden Purchase (known asVenta de La Mesilla, or Sale of La Mesilla, in Mexico[2]) is a 29,670-square-mile (76,800 km2) region of present-day southern Arizona and southwestern New Mexico that was purchased by the U.S. Senate on April 25, 1854 and signed by President Franklin Pierce, with final approval action taken by Mexico on June 8, 1854. The purchase was the last major acquisition in the contiguous United States, adding a large area to the United States. The purchase included lands south of the Gila River and west of the Rio Grande. The Gadsden Purchase was for the purpose of the US's construction of a transcontinental railroad along a deep southern route. It was also related to reconciliation of outstanding border issues following theTreaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, which ended the Mexican American War of 184648. (wikipedia) Garra Uprising 1851: This spark that set up the Garra uprising was the attempt by the United States authorities to collect a state tax on Indians, although, the long term causes of the uprising originated from decades of white encroachments into Indian territory. The rebellion began as a raid to get food. Led by Garra a small band of Cupeos allied with some Yuman raiders stole a herd of sheep near the Colorado River killing five Americans. When they returned to the Agua Caliente ranchera on November 21, 1851, Garra ordered his men to kill all the whites in the region, with the exception of William Marshall, an American who had married a Cupeo woman and who ran a local store. Marshall, evidently joined in slaying three other Americans and in attacking Warner's rancho the next day. The Cupeo's took all of the livestock and movables from `Warner's ranch, but Warner himself was absent and escaped certain death.

These raids and killings, along with subsequent pursuit and skirmishes with the Hispano-Anglo expedition, constituted the Garra rebellion. ( Gente de razon: Mexican ranchero elite: They were the families who married into white/anglo/europeans families in California. Eventually all the Mexican ranchero elite were stamped out or married into white families to the point that they had lost their original heritage. Gente sin razon: greasers: (from racial fault lines): literally people without reason, on the other hand were viewed as nonwhite: and not significantly different from pureblood Indian savages: in the state. Henry Leyvas: was caught in fight with some white boys that was not his fault. A man died and Henrey Leyvas was charged with the murder the sleepy lagoon murder and he was part of the 38th street boys. The police took this incident as a way to show their authority over the Mexican American Youth. While Henry was in jail it was the most violent outbreak against mexican youth in zoot suits that the city had ever seen. Part of the zoot-suit riots. We watched a film on it in class. House of La Beija: watched a film on it in class, about the drag/vogueing scenes. Talked about the balls, it is siginificant because it shows the how gay men try to fit into society, its all about assimilation and oppression. IMF: The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is an international organization that was created on July 22, 1944 at the Bretton Woods Conference and came into existence on December 27, 1945 when 29 countries signed the Articles of Agreement[1]. The IMF's stated goal was to stabilize exchange rates and assist the reconstruction of the worlds international payment system post World War II. Countries contribute money to a pool through a quota system from which countries with payment imbalances can borrow funds on a temporary basis. Through this activity and others such as surveillance of its members' economies and policies, the IMF works to improve the economies of its member countries.[2] The IMF describes itself as an organization of 188 countries (as of April 2012), working to foster global monetary cooperation, secure financial stability, facilitate international trade, promote high employment and sustainable economic growth, and reduce poverty. The organization's stated objectives are to promote international economic cooperation, international trade, employment, and exchange rate stability, including by making financial resources available to member countries to meet balance of payments needs. use example of IMF, Such as Maquiladoras. Indenture Act 1850: "Act for the Government and Protection of the Indians" in 1850 to indenture loitering or orphaned Indians, practically enabling Americans to appropriate any Indian for work. Mirroring of the racially based judicial system of the mining camps, this law defined special sentences for a category of Indian crimes. In southern California, this law allowed the continuation and expansion of the peonage system to secure labor supply on the cattle ranches. In northern California, the law modified the peonage system into something close to slavery. Hunted down for labor in the mines, the Native Americans did not receive wages but only food and clothing for their work. Often, the masters kept the food supply so short that the Indians

starved. Similar to the Mexican peones and Chinese wage workers, the Indians made white miners economically jealous of the advantage the Indians provided to their maste (online) (racial fault lines): law prohibiting indians from serving as witness in any legal proceeding involving a white person ; was relevant because it was part of manifest destiny and the gold rush. It gave whites the power over indians as part of a white mans burden, where they believed the indians to be nothing but savages or animals. James Meredith: American civil rights movement figure, a writer, and a political adviser. In 1962, he was the first African American student admitted to the segregated University of Mississippi, an event that was a flashpoint in the American civil rights movement. (wikipedia) part of the eyes on the prize documentary. He participated in a civil rights march in Mississippi where he was shot and injured. Jennie Livingston: she is the director of Paris is burning, the film about NY drag balls. Little Rock Nine: the first set of nine african american children to attend a desegregated school in Little Rock AK. Kansas National Guard had to assist them to class, it was a particularly vulgar affair on behalf of the white citizens of the town. People harassed the kids constantly, and it was a miserable year. It was relevant because it shows how difficult the road to desegragation was. Maquiladoras: we watched a film on it. They are the factories in Tijuana, Mexico(next to the border I believe? not sure). It shows how they manipulate and violate the rights of mexican women workers, via pollution, low pay, toxic contamination to drinking water, dangerous working and living conditions due to the presence of the factories etc. Naturalization Act 1790 only free white persons eligible for citizenship... That any alien, being a free white person, who shall have resided within the limits and under the jurisdiction of the United States for the term of two years, may be admitted to become a citizen thereof, on application to any common law court of record, in any one of the States wherein he shall have resided for the term of one year at least, and making proof to the satisfaction of such court, that he is a person of good character, and taking the oath or affirmation prescribed by law, to support the Constitution of the United States, which oath or affirmation such court shall administer; and the clerk of such court shall record such application, and the proceedings thereon ( Ozawa v. US 1932: was a case in which the United States Supreme Court found Takao Ozawa, a Japanese man, ineligible for naturalization. In 1922, Takao Ozawa filed for United States citizenship under the Naturalization Act of 1906 which allowed white persons and persons of African descent or African nativity to naturalize. He did not challenge the constitutionality of the racial restrictions. Instead, he attempted to have the Japanese classified as "white." (WIKI) People v. Hall 1854: This California Supreme Court case ruled that the testimony of a Chinese man who witnessed a murder by a white man was inadmissible, largely based upon the prevailing opinion that the Chinese were "a race of people whom nature has marked as inferior,

and who are incapable of progress or intellectual development beyond a certain point, as their history has shown; differing in language, opinions, color, and physical conformation; between whom and ourselves nature has placed an impassable difference" and as such had no right " to swear away the life of a citizen" or participate" with us in administering the affairs of our Government." ( Pettus Bridge: The Edmund Pettus Bridge is a bridge that carries U.S. Highway 80 across the Alabama Riverin Selma, Alabama. Built in 1940, it is named for Edmund Winston Pettus, a former Confederate brigadier general and U.S. Senator from Alabama. The bridge is a steel through arch bridge with a central span of 250 feet (76 m). It is famous as the site of the conflict of Bloody Sunday on March 7, 1965, when armed officers attacked peaceful civil rights demonstrators attempting to march to the state capital of Montgomery.(wiki) Prison Industrial Complex: is a term used to attribute the rapid expansion of the US inmate population to the political influence of private prison companies and businesses that supply goods and services to government prison agencies (wiki) its important because if private companies fund prisons, the more people the more profit. Therefore, more people than ever have been sent to prison. Its only steadily inclining. We watched a film on this (Visions of Abolition). Done through uneven application of laws. Three strikes law, the law about crack cocaine. Racial formation: an analytical tool in sociology, developed by Michael Omi and Howard Winant, which is used to look at race as a socially constructed identity, where the content and importance of racial categories is determined by social, economic, and political forces (wiki) -process where social, economic and political forces determine the content and importance of racial categories (faultlines) Racialization: refers to processes of the discursive production of racial identities. It signifies the extension of dehumanizing and racial meanings to a previously racially unclassified relationship, social practice, or group.[1] Put simply, a group of people is seen as a "race", when it was not before. (wiki) Scottsboro Boys: were nine black teenage boys accused of rape in Alabama in 1931. The landmark set of legal cases from this incident dealt with racism and the right to a fair trial. The case includes a frameup, all-white jury, rushed trials, an attempted lynching, angry mob, and miscarriage of justice. (wiki) this was in one of the films we watched. (do we know what film? I totally forgot which film this was) ( what was the significance?) significance of scottsboro boys: This probably deals with the on-going trend of giving blacks equal rights, such as giving them a trial, but its not really all that fair. The jury was all white and the trials were rushed. Special Housing Units: The Federal Bureau of Prisons' solitary confinement units are known as Special Housing Units (SHU). know about prisons, who is in them, who profits from them, possibly how men are treated is not humanitarian. Know Pelican Bay Prison.

Sleepy Lagoon: A place in Los Angeles where the youth deemed a makeout spot. It was where the zoot suite riots originated. It was the place Henry Leyvas was accused of his supposed murdering. SNCC: Student Non-violent coordinating committee, college students in Greensborough Alabama. Organized sit-ins, practiced non-violence, and were credited with the freedom rides. Stokely Carmichael: was a Trinidadian-American black activist active in the 1960s American Civil Rights Movement. He rose to prominence first as a leader of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC, pronounced "snick") and later as the "Honorary Prime Minister" of the Black Panther Party. Initially an integrationist, Carmichael later became affiliated with black nationalist and Pan-Africanist movements.[1] He popularized the term "Black Power".[2] (wiki) Ten Point Program: all the black panther demands were of equal rights for blacks from White Americans. that might be worth a look, but basically it was 10 points that the black panther party was demanding from the White Americans. 1.We want freedom. We want power to determine the destiny of our black and oppressed communities. 2. We want full employment for our people. 3. We want an end to the robbery by the capitalists of our black and oppressed communities. 4.We want decent housing, fit for the shelter of human beings. 5. We want decent education for our people that exposes the true nature of this decadent American society. We want education that teaches us our true history and our role in the present day society. 6. We want completely free healthcare for all black and oppressed people. 7.We want an immediate end to police brutality and murder of black people, other people of color, all oppressed people inside the United States. 8. We want an immediate end to all wars of aggression. 9. We want freedom for all black and oppressed people now held in US federal, state, county, city and military prisons and jails. We want trials by a jury of peers for all persons charged with so-called crimes under the laws of this country. 10. We want land, bread, housing, education, clothing, justice, peace and peoples community control of modern technology. Vagrancy Act 1855: Nicknamed the greaser act thinly disguised as an anti-vagrancy statute. The law defined a vagrant as "all persons who are commonly known as 'Greasers' or the issue of Spanish and Indian blood... and who go armed and are not peaceable and quiet persons." Punish them to use them as slave labor.
That law allowed the police to arrest, using force if is necessary, and to deport or send to forced labor any person suspected of being a vagabond.

Vagrancy Law 1850: Persons and proprietors of land on which Indians are residing, shall permit such Indians peaceably to reside on such lands, unmolested in the pursuit of their usual avocations for the maintenance of themselves and their families : Provided; the white

person or proprietor in possession of lands may apply to a Justice of the Peace in the Township where the Indians reside, to set off to such Indians a certain amount of land, and, on such application, the Justice shall set off a sufficient amount of land for the necessary wants of such Indians, including the site of their village or residence, if they so prefer it Venus Extravaganza: One of the house leaders in Paris is burning film. She was a transgender saving up for the operation working as a prostitute. Sadly by the end of the film she was murdered. Walter-McCarren Act of 1952: Otherwise known as the McCarran-Walter Act, the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1952 was meant to exclude certain immigrants from immigrating to America, post World War II and in the early Cold War. The McCarran-Walter Act moved away from excluding immigrants based simply upon country of origin. Instead it focused upon denying immigrants who were unlawful, immoral, diseased in any way, politically radical etc. and accepting those who were willing and able to assimilate into the US economic, social, and political structures, which restructured how immigration law was handled. Furthermore, the most notable exclusions were anyone even remotely associated with communism which in the early days of the Cold War was seen as a serious threat to US democracy. The main objective of this was to block any spread of communism from outside post WWII countries, as well as deny any enemies of the US during WWII such as Japan and favor good Asian countries such as China. The McCarran-Walter Act was a strong reinforcement in immigration selection, which was labeled the best way to preserve national security and national interests. President Truman originally vetoed the law, deeming it discriminatory; however there was enough support in Congress for the law to pass. Zoot Suit Riots: Part of the sleepy lagoon murder cases. While Hank Leyvas was locked up a riot broke out between mexican american youths, those who wore the zoot suits, and military servicemen. The incident triggered other similar attacks. military men would go out at night looking for those dressed up as zoot suiters and beat them, it then turned into any mexican they could find. the zoot suiters would fight back. police would arrest the mexican afterwards and just send the military back to their ships. Anthony Leang - Once again, Im placing my notes here for all those who didnt read or only read some. Remember theyre not that great. If you have any other points you want to add, dont be shy to do so. Ill take any donation... I mean pats on the back after finals. :) Week 5 Reading Notes I. Introduction a. California and Race i. He states California has a different way in how race and racialized group relationships were defined. ii. California disproves these simplistic assumptions and provides unique opportunities to study both the evolution of racializing discourses and the hierarchical structuring of racial inequalities in a context where more than two racialized population contest for group position within the social structure. (pg. 2)


European- American population in Californias history i. For various sectors of the EuropeanAmerican population, located at different levels within the emergent class structure, racializing discourses and practices served as mechanisms to create, extend, or preserve their social position in the period during which white supremacy was being systematically institutionalized. (pg. 3) ii. Basically they were competing against Native Americans, Mexicans Americans, and Asian Americans in the labor market and land ownership that eventually led to white Anglos into pursuing any opportunities in downgrading their competitors. c. Mexican Americans vs. Native Americans. Africans, Chinese, and Japanese? i. Basically, he compared Anglos actions towards Mexicans vs Native Americans. Mexicans had a lighter treatment compared to the Native Americans because Mexicans had the ability to assimilate better along with them have white blood in them. ii. Blacks remained unwelcome because of their association with a slave system that was antithetical to the society being created in California. Consequently, blacks were relegated to the lower end of the new class society. (pg5-6). iii. The Japanese and Chinese immigration had led them to be threat to the white workers class, so they faced lots of hostility with the involvement of government action like the Chinese Exclusion act of 1882. Or the case of Asian Indians with U.S vs Thind which the state claim he cant gain citizenship because he wasnt white skinned even though he has Aryan(white) blood. iv. Racial Categorization in White mans eyes in California: Mexicans > Blacks > Asians > Native Americans d. California: Manifest Destiny and free labor ideology i. Minorities were basically kept down with the Manifest Destiny ideal that all white man should stay superior above the inferior races. Basically used in California to keep the minorities down and stabilized. ii. Like Manifest Destiny, the underlying tenets of the free-labor ideology squarely affirmed the superior position of European-American men As a consequence, racial lines in California quickly became linked with class divisions in unexpected and complicated ways. Outward struggles over access and group position within the class system were given concrete form and substance by the underlying racialized struggle among its chief protagonists. (pg 13). II. We Desire Only a White population in California a. In so doing, I want to argue that Californias racial patterns were not monolithic but contained multiple racial histories that were unique in their own terms while also sharing elements with the racial formation process elsewhere in the United States (pg. 17) b. Basically describes the history of Mexican California that the discovery of Gold sparked the migration of white anglos and soon after the Chinese, Japanese, and Africans. They wanted to keep a stable Capitalist system which is the reason they opposed slavery. This eventually led to many conflicts in position of work which became a threat in the eyes of the White anglos idea of free white labor. III. The True Significance of the word White a. Although these prejudices undeniably affected their initial impressions of Mexican society, white immigrants actually assigned Mexicans an intermediate location in the new

society they imposed in the region. Indeed, compared to the treatment ultimately afforded other racialized groups in California, the experience of Mexicans in the nineteenth century was without parallel (pg. 45) b. Talks about examples of how Mexicans were able to assimilate because of their blood, romance language, held Christian beliefs, practiced traditions but many struggles between Anglos and Mexicans were very class-specific who bitterly contested control of the states best farm lands. IV. The Ravages of Time and the Intrusion of Modern American Civilization a. This case study demonstrates that the central role of racial status in shaping group relations at the same level was clearly reflected in the placement of local white and nonwhite populations in this emerging class structure. (pg 104). b. Basically White male immigrants were farmers, proprietors, professionals, and white-collar employees, while the other ethnic male groups were unskilled manual workers. V. Before the March of Civilization He Must Give Way a. Moreover, by straightforwardly defining the indigenous Indian population as nonwhite, European Americans in a stroke denied Indians the citizenship that they had grudgingly extended to the white Mexican population (pg 107) b. John Caughey has characterized the campaign against the Indians as one of the most disgraceful chapters in the entire history of the state (pg 129) VI. Unfit and Incapable of Being Associated with Whites on Any Terms of Equality a. The Indians ostensible heathenism and savagery resulted in their being placed at the extreme end of the new racial hierarchy. Their unambiguously nonwhite racial status and alien cultural practices made a population unworthy of assimilation into Anglo society on any terms. (pg 131). b. The Indians were ruthlessly segregated onto reservations, became a marginal element in the new Anglo economy, and were subjected to violent pogroms no other racialized ethnic group experienced in the state. (pg. 150). VII. Racialized Class Conflict and Asian Immigrants in Anglo California a. American capitalists sought to utilize Chinese labor White workers, on the other hand railed against the Chinese because of the threat they ostensibly posed to their status as a free laboring class (pg. 154). b. This chapter talked about how the Chinese and their role in California example as Chinese women as prostitutes (very little). His arguments were that the white workers decided to fight against the Chinese instead of joining them to fight capitalism because they wanted to keep their white privileged racial status. VIII. In the Hands of People Whose Experience Has Been Only to Obey a Master Rather Than Think and Manage for Themselves a. By the mid-1880s, however, a new threat to white racial entitlement emerged in California: Japanese immigrants. At the end of the nineteenth century, Japanese farm laborers, labor contractors, and small farmers became the next formidable challenge to the class opportunities that white Californians sought to retain for themselves (pg. 183) b. The Japanese were more experience and had a higher education then the Chinese, but they still posed a threat to jobs, wages, working conditions, and overall status of free white labor in the state. Even though Mexicans owned farm lands as well, whites werent as hostile to them as the Japanese. He argues this throughout the chapter.

Week 6 Reading Notes I. Debating The Civil Rights Movement: The View From The Trenches a. Questioning History i. We could and should ask these questions about any significant historical phenonmenon, but it may be especially important to understand how they apply to the history of the civil rights movement (pg. 99-100) ii. The way we think about that period continues to shape how we think about race relations in our time and how we think about the larger problem of creating a more just society (pg. 100) b. Civil Rights Movement Trend i. Basically argues about how Civil rights movement is associated with Martin Luther King Jr., Rosa Park, Malcolm X etc, but not about the other small supporter ones like Harry T. Moore, A. Philip Randolph, Septima Clark, Ella Baker, J.A. Delaine, Charles Hamilton Houston, or Fred Shuttlesworth. ii. Charles goes on to list the reasons this may have occurred like historians thinking ordinary people arent that important, Importance of leadership rather than small values, would lose a sense of how African American community is, and etc. c. Women movement among the civil rights movement i. It was also movements of women, when we think of civil rights leaders, the names that come easily to mind are mostly men. In fact, at the local level, a disproportionate share of the leadership came from women (pg. 124). ii. The idea that women arent capable of taking the roles of leadership, but also fighting for their rights as blacks. The role of women is somehow demoted to cleaning, cooking, helping out the men, but the men do most of the leadership roles. d. Historical Language and Historical Memory i. Charles argues that the Souths racial system was segregation but in his own definition he defined it as White supremacy as a more accurate term. ii. Civil rights came to be commonly used as a summary term for the struggle of African Americans For African Americans, the struggle has always been about forging a decent place for themselves within this society, which has been understood to involve the thorny issues of economic participation and self-assertion as well as civil rights (pg 129) II. Congested Terrain a. Historians Again i. historians as a whole have not examined in any detail the everyday posing discursive conflicts, and physical battles that created the conditions for the success of organized, collective movements (pg 56) ii. Bascially hes going to shifting focus away about public spaces, workplaces and transportation. Hes going to remap and talk about black struggles with the transportation. b. Black struggles with transportation i. For many black workering-class riders, simply getting on the bus was a struggle in and of itself. It was uncommon, for instance, for half-

empty busses or streetcars to pass up African Americans on the pretext that space needed to be reserved in anticipation of additional white riders ii. There were other issues of Blacks not getting to their right destination or having to pay full admission, but never got on the bus because it drove off already. c. Small Victory among transportation i. There was a story about a bus driver in College Hills at Birmingham, which is known for the most racist drivers, where a bus driver asked 3 white women to make room for black passengers. In many cases the white people were the troublemakers. Blacks were still sitting in the back though. ii. Incidents such as these were important , for they illumined to black riders that small victories were indeed possible within the framework of separate but equal, not to mention instilling a sense of fear or frustration in those white riders who witnessed successful acts of black resistance or white operators who defended black space at the expense of white d. Other recorded but unknown facts in history i. At the forefront of black resistance were young people who had been radicalized by the war(transportation wars*) and whose backgrounds ranged from servicemen to zoot suiters, militant female high school students to young household workers (pg 63) ii. Although black womens actions were no less violent or profance than mens, gender differences did shape black womens resistance (pg 69). iii. Blacks were depicted as noisy and loud. Thinking they were always cursing. But in reality, the white section of the bus was mostly the loudest and usually uses of racist comments against the blacks. iv. There was a sort of Unity at the back of the bus when one black person is putting up a resistance another person helps, historians got it wrong that there was no sort of unity among the transportation and that they just accepted it. Week 7 Reading Notes I. a. The Ballot or the Bullet (author: Malcolm X) Non violence or Violence? i. I believe in action on all fronts by whatever means necessary (pg 23). ii. Hes arguing basically that he thinks the black community should do whatever it takes for civil rights. b. The American Dream? i. I dont see any American dream; I see an American nightmare (pg.24). ii. Being an American to him is that they have privileges and be treated equally. c. Government Conspiracy

i. The government uses gerrymandering against the blacks for voting. (Basically splitting up the black communities into different district lines), so that majority of the votes are not blacks ii. Democrats or Republicans try to gain black votes saying they will provide them solutions to their problems, but never do so. d. What does he propose? i. So where do we go from here? First, we need some friends. We need some new allies. The entire civil-rights struggle needs a new interpretation, a broader interpretation. We need to look at this civil-rights thing from another angle from the inside as well as from the outside (pg 31). ii. The political philosophy of black nationalism means that the black man should control the politics and the politicians in his own community has to be re-educated into the science of politics so he will know what politics is supposed to bring him in return. (pg 38) II. After the Bombing a. Colonialism and Imperialism i. This international power structure is used to suppress the masses of dark-skinned people all over the world and exploit them of their natural resources, so that the era in which you and I have been living during the past ten years most specifically has witnessed the upsurge on the part of the black man in Africa against the power structure (pg. 160). ii. The newly awakened people all over the world pose a problem for what is known as Western interests, which is imperialism, colonialism, racism and all these other negative isms or vulturistic isms (pg. 161). b. Trick to being non-violent? 1. He explains how the white man has tricked the blacks into using non-violent tactics for civil rights. ii. He uses the Ku Klux Clan who uses fear to suppress black violence. He also uses news/press that makes blacks look more criminal like that makes blacks not want to look like that. c. African Mindset i. He argues that the white man are making blacks hate their African heritage. ii. It made us feel inferior; it made us feel inadequate; made us feel helpless (pg. 169) d. Being an American again i. Basically he questions the black communities who think they are American, but doesnt get the same treatment of a white American. ii. Just because youre in this country doesnt make you an American (pg. 172). III. Meditations on the Legacy of Malcolm X a. Malcolm X i. In 1992, within a context constructed by ubiquitous images of Malcolm as the essential black man, the juxtaposition of the words Malcolm and feminist rings strange and oxymoronic (pg. 280).

ii. She questions if Malcolm was still alive today, would he support feminism as much as he supports civil rights? b. Malcolms Ideas i. Malcolm did not hesitate to re-examine his ideas and consider the possibility of radical shifts in that position. He was not afraid to explore the likelihood that his ideas could not stand the test of the complexities he encountered in his political travels. (pg. 282). ii. I am not certain about the political path Malcolm himself might have taken had he not been assassinated at such an apparently critical juncture in the evolution of his political philosophy and practice. (pg. 282). c. Male Dominance i. She complains about Malcolm quotes of using the black man as a notion of black people. ii. There were issues with Shabazz and Malcolm where Shabazz wanted to work, but he wasnt supporting that idea. d. Purpose i. My purpose is to try to begin to liberate his legacy from the rigid notions of male dominance that were a part of the ideological climate in which Malcolm grew to personal and political maturity. (pg 286). IV. A Time to Break Silence (author: martin luther King) a. Vietnam Status i. Our government felt then that the Vietnamese people were not ready for independence, and we again fell victim to the deadly Western arrogance that has poisoned the international atmosphere for so long. (pg. 235). b. American Compassion vs. American Capitalism i. America believes they were helping Vietnam and stopping Communism. ii. Here is the true meaning and value of compassion and nonviolence when it helps us to see the enemys point of view, to hear his questions, to know his assessment of ourselves. For from his view we may indeed see the basic weaknesses of our own condition, and if we are mature, we may learn and grow and profit from the wisdom of the brothers who are called the opposition. (pg. 237). c. Protesting the War i. Were spending money on a war that should be used to help social issues in America in improving the community. ii. A nation that continues year after year to spend more money on military defense than on programs of social uplift is approaching spiritual death. (pg. 241). d. The people are Important i. Our only hope today lies in our ability to recapture the revolutionary spirit and go out into a sometimes hostile world declaring eternal hostility to poverty, racism, and militarism. (pg 242). V. Letter from Birmingham City Jathe(Author: martin luther king) a. A call of Unity

i. an open letter published in Birmingham, Alabama, on April 12, 1963, by eight local clergymen in response to civil rights demonstrations taking place in the area at the time. ii. The clergymen agreed that social injustices existed but argued that the battle against racial segregation should be fought solely in the courts, not in the streets (pg 291) b. Martin Luther King Jr. response i. "Injustice anywhere is a threat to justice everywhere (pg. 292). ii. he argued that not only was civil disobedience justified in the face of unjust laws, but that "one has a moral responsibility to disobey unjust laws. (pg. 295). c. The People i. Oppressed people cannot remain oppressed forever. The urge for freedom will eventually come. Something within has reminded him of his birthright of freedom (pg. 297). d. His hopes i. In spite of my shattered dreams of the past, I came to Birmingham with the hope that the white religious leadership of this community would see the justice of our cause, and with deep moral concern, serve as the channel through which our just grievances would get to the power structure (pg. 299). VI. The Idea of Ancestry a. Blacks in Jail i. The poem is basically about a black person in jail and seeing other people in jail that is just like him ii. They stare across the space at me spawling on my bunk b. Family in Jail i. I dont believe they are really his family, but I think he consider them his family saying mother, father, grandparents, siblings, etc ii. This probably shows his relationship with the people blacks in jail Week 8 Reading Notes 1. The Riddle of the Zoot(Author: robin Kelley) a. Purpose i. The purpose of this chapter is to rethink Malcolms early life, to reexamine the hipster subculture and its relation to war;time social, political, economic, and ideological transformations. Pg. 163 b. Zoot Suit Purpose? i. The combination of his suit and body language encoded a culture that celebrated a specific racial, class, spatial, gender, and generational identity. East Coast zoot suiters during the war were primary young black (and latino) working-class males whose living spaces and social world were confined to Northeastern ghettos, and the suit reflected a struggle to negotiate these multiple identities in opposition to the dominant culture pg. 166

ii. In a world where clothes constituted signifiers of identity and status, dressing up was a way of escaping the degradation of work and collapsing status distinctions between themselves and their oppressors. Pg. 169 c. Opposition to what? i. Throughout the reading, the Zoot suit was a opposition to being drafted to the military or a refusal to work in hard labor. d. Results? i. Zoot suiters and jazz musicians, in particular, were the subject of ridicule, severe punishment, and even beatings. Civilian hipsters fared no better. The black and latino youth exhibited a cool, measured indifference to the war, as well as an increasingly defiant posture toward whites in general, annoyed white servicemen to no end. Pg 173 2. Bring Music to the People Race, Urban Culture, and Municipal politics in Postwar Los Angelas a. Mexican Americans and African Americans i. The readings were basically about them and their interaction as youths, dancing, wearing zoot suit, going out with their women, etc. ii. As part of a cultural corollary to ongoing political struggles for dignity and equality, jitterbugs, zoot-suiters, and R&B lowriders exercised their right to freedom of assembly in public spaces (pg. 694) b. Music Bureau i. Music Bureaus founding fathers employed the rhetoric of civic responsibility, claiming that music should receive the same support given schools, libraries, and museums (pg.697) ii. The bureau of music is basically a city government position on bring music to the people which will better themselves and communities c. Argument? i. That the power of music will help to bring the community between all races and ethnicity together while ignoring racial tensions and differences. ii. The chorus is helping to relieve those tensions and bring harmony (pg. 697) d. There were resistance too i. There were some struggles the Mexicans Americans and African Americans had to face, like the police force or laws that government pass to restrict their fun or party. ii. the LAPD officers, along with conservative Los Angeles City Council members, were afraid that whites, blacks, Mexicans, and Filipinos might be allowed to dance together (pg 693) 3. Mexican Americans and Whiteness a. Theyre white? i. By law and biological blood, they are considered white. An example is the census and other legal documents when filling up the race and ethnicity category. ii. Mexicans were white within the meaning of the naturalization laws (pg 99).


Socially do we really consider them white? i. When we see Mexican Americans, we dont consider them white. We consider them Mexican, so this brings up the issue of biological vs. what we see. c. Discrimination still i. Segregated in public schools, MexicanAmerican also faced significant discrimination in employment (pg 100) ii. So if they were considered white? Why didnt they get the same privileges as white? d. Overall i. In all these respects actual social behavior failed to reflect the legal norms that defined Mexican Americans as white. Although white as a matter of law, that law failed to provide Mexican-Americans with a privileged status. (pg. 101). ii. Anglo judges, as we have seen, did the same, ruling that Mexicans were co-whites when this suited the dominant group and non- white when necessary to protect Anglo privilege and supremacy (pg 101). 4. Octavio Ignacio Romano-V a. Many Mexican Americans? i. Instead, what emerged from his search were but different lifestyles which represented different historical trends, a variety of individual experiences, and multiple intellectual currents in short, many Mexicans, just as today there are Many Mexican Americans (pg 50). b. Mexicans decisions to have variety among them, meaning there are different types of Mexicans. i. In short, the three ideological currents actually gave individuals alternatives from which to choose. These alternatives, in turn, represented relatively new historical manifestations at the turn of the century cumulative changes that had been taking place in Mexico. They represented, therefore, the historical development of thought and not the rigid, unbending and unchanging Traditional culture so commonly and uncritically accepted in current sociological treatises that deal with people of Mexican descent (pg. 51). c. Mexican Assimilation i. Just as could be expected from a pluralistic population exhibiting multiple histories, people of Mexican descent have adjusted to life in the United States in many different ways, including the Pachucos self-separation from history, the organizers of labor unions, the publishing of bi-lingual newspapers, and the increasingly militant student population. (pg 58). d. Overall Mexicans are complex i. Mexican Americans families have individuals who no longer speak Spanish, who speak only Spanish, or who speak a combination of both. In short, the same complexity that is found in the general Mexican-American population is also found in the family or virtually every Mexican American. (pg.61). Week 9 Reading Notes 1. Is Paris Burning? a. Being female vs. being male

i. To choose to appear as female when one is male is always constructed in the patriarchal mindset as a loss as a choice worthy only of ridicule. (pg 263). ii. Black male in drag was a disempowering image of black masculinity which helped to sustain sexism and racism. b. Paris is Burning film i. For in many ways the film was a graphic documentary portrait of the way in which colonized black people(in this case black gay brothers, some of whom were drag queens) worship at the throne of whiteness, even when such worship demands that we live in perpetual self-hate, steal, lie, go hungry, and even die in its pursuit (pg.264). c. Reviews of the Film i. portrait of black gay pride (pg. 265) the movie is a sympathetic observation of a specialized, private world (pg. 265). ii. Livingston got reviews as tender hearted, mild mannered, virtuous white woman daring to venture into contemporary heart of darkness to bring back knowledge of the natives. d. The drag balls i. A traditionally a place where aesthetics of the image in relation to black gay life could be explored with complexity and grace. ii. Being seen as a image of the bottom where theyve been rejected by everybody and loved by no one, only escalates their cause to wanting to be loved. iii. people who cannot suffer can never grow up, can never discover who they are (pg. 268). 2. Madonna, Plantation Mistress or Soul Sister? a. White folks on Black folks and Black folks on White folks i. White folks who do see black pain never really understand the complexity of black pleasure (pg.269). ii. No black woman I talked to declared that she wanted to be Madonna, but they were easily influenced by her choices and strategies. b. Madonna, Sexuality and Black male stars i. When it comes to entertainment rivals, Madonna clearly perceives black male stars like Prince and Michael Jackson to be the standard against which she must measure herself and that she ultimately hopes to transcend (pg. 270). ii. Though black women are disgusted by Madonnas flaunting of sexual experience are enraged because the very image of sexual agency that she is able to project and affirm with material gain has been the stick this society has used to justify its continued beating and assault on the black female body. c. Madonnas videos i. They appear grotesque. The only role black females have in this video is to catch contemporary casting of the black female as Mammy (pg. 271) ii. Lets face it, by doing this, Madonna is not breaking with any white supremacy, patriarchal status quo; she is endorsing and perpetuating it. (pg. 271).


Madonnas questioning? i. No one associate as Madonna being racist or

sexist, but instead as being cute. ii. To say nothing, however, is to be complicit with the very forces of domination that make blonde ambition necessary to Madonnas success (pg. 272). 3. Gender/ Racial Realness: Theorizing the gender system in Ballroom culture a. Ballroom purpose i. The purpose for these ballrooms is to avoid discrimination and violence among their own kinds. To help one another in need. ii. The ballroom is a community and network of black and Latina/o women, men, and transgender women and men who are lesbian, gay, bisexual, straight, and queer. (pg 367). b. The Gender system i. Is a ballroom community creation that serves as the basis for its gender and sexuality and kinship relations ii. Its basically a identity system for them to identify themselves as. Situations as if you are a MTF (male to female) and that person have sex with a male. Would he be considered straight? c. Surviving Queerphobic Space i. The genders and sexualities in ballroom culture are subjectives, insofar as members identify and fashion themselves by and through the convergent notions of sex, gender, and sexuality within ballroom culture and as those meanings are imposed on them in society. ii. The notion that a MTF has a harder integrating process then FTM is understandable. MTF are losing their male status to becoming a female status which they face sexist views while FTM are improving status anyways. Thats why most gay men stay as men to keep the status while not changing their personalities. d. Racial Realness and the Gender System i. Moreever, his term real is a significant here because it reflects the integral function of the concept of realness within the ballroom community, a concept that also helps to explain the efforts of its members to avoid discrimination, violence, and exclusion (pg 377) ii. Ultimately, ballroom community members understand that they are seen through a racist and homophobic lens propagated and internalized by various sectors of society (pg 380).