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AFWAL-TR-81 -3154 VOLUME I

p'-

DESIGN METHODOLOGY FOR BONDED-BOLTED COMPOSITE, JOINTS Vol. 1. Analysis Derivations and Illustrative Solutions
L. J. Hart-Smith

Doyiglas Aircraft Company McDonnell Douglas Corporation Long Beach, California 90846
S_

DTjC
L

February 1982
TECHNICAL REPORT AFWAL-TR-81-3154 Final Report for Period August 1979 - June 1981

0IL

SJUL221982d

Approved for public relean; dirtribution unlimited

U4-

I
FUGH7 DYNAMICS LABORATORY

'-

AIR FORCE WRIGHT AERONAUTICAL LABORATORIES AIR FORCE SYSTEMS COMMAND


WRIGHT-PATTERSON AIR FORCE BAIE. OHIO 4U433

::.

Qg, 07 212

U 5 .5

NOTICE When Covernment drawings, specifications, or other data are used for any purpose other than in connection with a definitely related Government procurement operation, the United States Government thereby incurs no responsibility nor any obligation wnatsoever; and the fact that the government may have formulated, furnished, or in any way supplied the said drawings, specifications, or other data, is not to be regarded bit implication or otherwise as in any manner licensing Lhe holder or any other person or corporation, or conveying aiy rights or permission to manufacture use, or sell any patented invention that may in any way be related t~hereto. Thi's report has been reviewed by the Office of Public Affairs (ASD/PA) and is releasable to the National Technical Information Service (NTIS). At NTIS, it will be available to the general public, including foreign nations.

This technical report has been reviewed and is

approved for publication.

"VIPPERLA B. VENKAYYA Project Engineer

/I'

FRKEERICK A. PiCCLOtIC, Lt Ci, Branch USAF Chief, Analysis & Optimization

FOR THE COMMANDER

RA VV.. KUSTER, Ji Chi

C,

USAF

Structures & DynCVics Civ.

"If your address has changed, if you wish to be 'emoved from our mailing list, or if the addressee is no longer employed by your organization plea.se notify AWALFERA, W-PAFB, OH 45433 to help us maintain a current mailing list". Copies of this report should not be returned unless return is required by security considerations, contractual obligations, or notice on a specific document.

Unclassified
S9CURITY CLASSIFICATION or THIS5 PA040 (l~ia" bealmEntered)

REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE


______________________________________

EDITUCOS BEFORE COMPLETING FORM


RECIPIENTSZ CATALOG NUM9ER

AFFO-F

UMSR

2 GOT ACCESSION NO.:1

4.

TTLE

andSubttle

TYPE OF REPORT A PERIOD COV.ERED

DESIGN METHODOLOGY FOR BONDED-BOLTrED COMPOSITE JOINTS Volume I. Analysis Derivations and Illustrative Solutions
7. %UVHOR(s)

j.Auqust

Final Report 1979 - June 1981 1.PERIORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER

S.CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBER(s)

L. J. Hart-Smith, Ph.D.
2. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS
-

F33615-79-C-3212
1. PROGRAM ELEMEN4T, PROJECT, TASK

flouglas Aircraft CompanyARAWOKNINUBS

/McDonnell Douglas Corporation


LongBeach,__California__90846
OFFICE NAME AND ADDRESS
4II.

Project_____ 2401__02_28
12. REPORT DATE

Proet

62401F0

CONTROLLIN

Flight Dynamics Laboratory (AFWAL/FIBRA) AF Wright Aeronauti cal Laboratori e Wright-Patterson AFB, OH 45433
IT7MOITORING AGENCY NAME A ADDRIESS(If dillorent froem CmoItoallif Office)

February 1982 IS NUMBER


Of PAGES

99

IS. SEfCURITY CLASS. (of this rapert)

Unclassified
ISO.DCL ASSI FICATI ON/ DOWN GRADING

IS. OISThIBvTION STATEMENT (of thisi Report)

SCiULt

Approved for public release; distribution unlimited.


17. DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT (of thle o.9as0ro1 wnl*#d in Bloc0k 20, It diffe~rent frmw Report)

IV.

KEY WORDS (Conrfnue on, twvora. aide It necessary and identify by' blocl,rnmnba)

Adhesive Bonded Joints


BoledJoitsJoit

Computer Programs
_nalsi

BoddBolted Joints Joints Condd/olited


ABSTRACT (Continue ovi ;,veto,

Joint Analsisn JopintDsig

aid& Ifnecownmy anc: Identify by block numbet)

Lvanced

*This

report contains recent developments in three aspects of joints in adfibrous composite structures: (1) nonlinear analysis of adhesivelybonded stepped- lap joints and doublers, (2) niultlrow mechanically fastened

anotdjoints.i aeosac strutures, deenpd in3)d nonlinear~e alyi cobneeddbonde metal structures as well as those for composites. The analyses are based on continuum mechanics techniques and have beer. coded into three Fortran IV

cobind bnde joins iaeospae an (3 srucure, noliner aalyis

DD 'J A1

1473

1 OBSOLETE OITIOP14 OF' I NOVS IS SECUJRITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS5 PAGE flea~n Data Entered)

Unclassified
SIMUNITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAG@U(;;

Dm. Kniew.40

0. ABSTRACT (Continued) *digital computer programs A4EI, A4EJ, and A4EK respectively. The report contains explanations of the derivations of the solutions as well as sample worked problems to illustrate both the capabilities of the programs and the behavior characteristics of the real structures.

Unclassified
SECURn' V CLASSIFICATION

OF TITg PAGE(Whe~n D&t@ Entered)

PREFACE This oloqy report for presents the by results Composite the California of the investigation Contract Company,

into Design McDonnell August 1979

MethodThe Douglas to June

Bonded-Bolted performed Long L. J. Beach,

Joints, during

F33615-79-C-3212.

work- was 1981. Dr.

Douglas

Aircraft

Corporation,

the period

Hart-Smith was the Principal

Investigator. Wright-

This work was sponsored by the Air Force Flight Dynamics Laboratory, Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio. the Project Engineers. Dr. V. B. Venkayya and Lt. P. J.

Conrad were

The

computer

coding

for

the

programs

A4EI,

A4EJ

and

A4EK will

be

made

availablc through the Aerospace Structures Information Analysis Center.

tiii

TABLE OF CONTENTS ISection I SUMn. RY .... ............ .............................. . Page 1.

NONLINEAR ANALYSIS OF ADHESIVE-BONDED STEPPED-LAP JOINTS ......... .......................... AND DOUBLERS ........ 2.1 INTRODUCTION ....... ....... ........................ ....... .............. ....... 2.2 SYMBOLS........ ....... 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 NONLINEAR ANALYSIS OF ADHESIVE-BONDED STEPPED-LAP JOINTS . ... ...................... SAMPLE SOLUTIONS ......... ....... ....... ... EXPERIMENTAL EVIDENCE ...... ....... LOAD REDISTRIBUTION DUE TO DISBONDS IN ADHESIVE ....... ....... .... IN STEPPED-LAP JOINTS . ..... ....... ........... CHECKS ON ACCURACY CF THE SOLUTIONS ........ CONCLUSIIONS ...... ......... ........................

5 5 6 7 19 27 30 35 35

NONLINEAR ANALYSIS OF MULTIROW BOLTED JOINTS IN FIBROUS COMPOSITE ... 37 ...................... AND METAL STRUCTURES ...... ... ... 37 3.1 INTRODUCTION ....... ... ........................ ... 38 3.2 SYMBOLS ...... ....... .......................... ;39 3.3 LOAD-DEFLECTION CHARACTERISTICS FOR A SINGLE FASTENER "
.

3.4

3.5
3.6 3.7 3.8

"44 LOAD SHARING BETWEEN MULTIRUW FASTENERS.."."..-.."." FAILURE CRITERIA AT FASTENER HOLES . . . .. EXPERIMENTAL DETERMINATION OF InPUT DATA. FOR COMPUTER.',..' . ANALYSIS . . . . .. . ... . . . . . . ... . . . .. I. . . 55 ... ............ SAMPLE SOLUTIONS............ ......... ..... '64 CONCLUSIONS ...... ....... ................... 67 67 69

S4.1

. . ......... NONLINEAR ANALYSIS OF BONDED/BOLTED JOINTS . .. ....... .. ....... INTRODUCTIOM . . ..... ....... 4.2 REPAIR OF DEFECTIVE BONDED JOINTS BY MECHANICAL ATTACHMENTS

4.3 4.4

REPAIR OF DAMAGED STRUCTURE BY BONDING AND BOLTING,........- 5 79 COMBINATION OF BONDING AND BOLTING IN FAIL-SAFE STRUCTURES .

TABLE OF CONTENTS (Concluded) Section mage 4.5 4.6 ANALYSIS OF FAIL-SAFETY OF BONDED/BOLTED STRUCTURES CONCLUSIONS ..... ..... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .............................. ...............................
.2

. . . . . ..

. ..

85 87 89

REFERENCES ....... APPENDIX .......

...

Accession For DTIC TAN Just it


__atioL

- .

Di st ribut ion/ Availability Codes Dist |SpavilBI

INSpECTEED

vi

II
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS Figure 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Page

HI

NOTATION AND GEOMETRY FOR ADHESIVE-BONDED STEPPED-LAP JOINT ANALYSIS ............... ........................... REPRESENTATIONS OF ADHESIVE NONLINEAR SHEAR BEHAVIOR ..... .. EIGHTEEN TYPES OF ADHESIVE BEHAVIOR IN BONDED JOINTS . . . ... ADHESIVE-BONDED JOINT LOADED BY IN-PLANE SHEAR ............. .... STEPPED-LAP ADHESIVE-BONDED JOINT ..... .............. ADHESIVE SHEAR STRESSES AND STRAINS IN STEPPED-LAP BONDED JOINT .................................. ADHEREND STRESSES IN STEPPED-LAP BONDED JOINT ..... ........ IMPROVEMENTS DUE TO FIRST REDESIGN OF STEPPED-LAP BONDED JOINT IMPROVEMENTS DUE TO SECOND REDESIGN OF STEPPED-LAP BONDED JOINT ....... ..... ............................ ... RFSIDUAL THERMAL. STRESSES FROM BONDING TITANIUM TO GRAPHITE.

7 9 14 18 19 21 21 23 23
25

. . ..................... .?.

F
.

II 1? 13 14 15
16

TENSILE LOADS ON STEPPED-LAP BONDED JOINTS WITH THERKAL MISMATCH .................................... .... COMPRESSIVE LOADS ON STEPPED-LAP BONDED JOINTS WITH THEPMAL MISMATCH ....... ............................ ... FAILURE OF STEPPED-LAP ADHESIVE-IONDED JOINT ..... ......... PREMATURE FAILURE OF STEPPED-LAP BONDED JOINT BY DELAMINATICN STRENGTH LOSS AND LOAD REDISTRIBUTION DUE TO DISBONDS IN .................... .......... STEPPED-LAP JOINTS . ....
STRENGTH LOSS
AD

26 26 28 29 31 32 33 34 34 40 41 42 42

LOAD ,~

ETDBoI-iTI

nutD Tn

nTcRnNnK

TN

STEPPED-LAP JOINTS . ............ 17 18 19 20 21 22 23

....... ....... ....... STRENGTH LOSS AND LOAD REDISTRIBUTION DUE TO DISBONDS IN STEPPED-LAP JOINTS ........................ ....... . COMPRESSIVE LOAD ON SMALL STEPPED-LAP JOINT WITH DUCTILE .... ADHESIVE .................................... PREMATURE FAILURE OF ADHERENDS DUE TO DISBOND IN ADHESIVE . FASTENER LOAD-DEFLECTION CHARACTERISTICS .............. .... DEFORMATIONS IN MECHANICALLY-FASTENED JOINT ..... ......... IDEALIZED FASTENER LOAD-DEFLECTION CHARACIERISTICS..... ..... STRESS TRAJECTORIES AROUND BOLTS FOR TENSILE AND COMPRESSIVE LAP SHEAR ....... ..........................
vii

!.

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS (Continued) Figure 24 25 26 27 28 29


30

Page LOADS AND DEFORMATIONS ON ELEMENTS OF BOLTED JOINT .... ...... RIVETED FUSELAGE SKIN SPLICES ..... ................ ... WING PANEL JOINT AT SIDE OF FUSELAGE .... ............. ... RAMBERG-OSGOOD NONLINEAR CHARACTERIZATION OF STRESS-STRAIN BEHAVIOR .......... ........................... .... BEARING/BYPASS LOAD INTERACTION FOR LOADED BOLTS IN ADVANCED COMPOSITES ............ .......................... ... EXTREMES OF BEARING-BYPASS LOAD INTERACTIONS ........... ....
IDENTIFICATION CODE FOR BEARING-BYPASS LOAD INTERACTIONS

45 47 47 49 52 52
53

31 32
33

OUTER ENVELOPE OF BEARING-BYPASS LOAD INTERACTIONS .... ...... BOLTED COMPOSITE JOINT ............ ....................
INFLUENCE OF HOLE CLEARANCE ON STRENGTH OF BOLTED JOINTS
. .

54 57
58

34 35
36

BOLTED METAL JOINT .............................. ... COMPARISON BETWEEN BASIC AND REFINED FUSELAGE SKIN SPLICES .
BOLT LOAD DISTRIBUTION iN POORLY-DESIGfED MULTIRW* f OLT ED

59 61 63 63 69 70 71 73 73 74 75 76 77 79 77:! 81

JOINT ........... 37 38 39 40
41

.......

............................

BOLT LOAD DISTRIBUTION IN IMPROVED DESIGN FOR MULTIROW BOLTED JOINT. .......... ....... ............................ STEPPED-LAP BONDED/BOLTED JOINT ........... ....... ..... LOAD TRANSFER THROUGH BONDED/BOLTED STEPPED-LAP JOINT WITH NO FLAWS ............ ........................... ... LOAD TRANSFER THROUGH ADHESIVE-BONDED STEPPED-LAP JOINT WITH NO FASTENERS ........................................
LU M r naNU iRn O ULTLUEuV I
nIIlnIIIuVI

nn

IIl J

.s

42 43 41 .45 46 :47 48 47 49 '

LOAD TRANSFER THROUGH FLAWED BONDED JOINT REINFORCED BY BOLTS LOAD TRANSFER THPOUGH FLAWED BONDED JOINT REINFORCED BY BOLTS LOAD TRANSFER THROUGH FLAWED BONDED JOINT REINFORCED BY BOLTS POTENTIAL MANUFACTURING PROBLEMS WITH STEPPED-LAP BONDED JOINTS ............ ........................... .... ADHESIVE-BONDED REPAIR OF DAMAGE TO FIBROUS COMPOSITE STRUCTURES ............... ..................... .... SIMPLIFIED ANALYSIS OF LOAD SHARING WITH BONDED REPAIRS ... LOAD TRANSFER THROUGH BONDED/BOLTED FIBROUS COMPOSITE PATCH EDSTIMPLI IEDONAYI &FELOA SHRNGWTHBNEDFREPAIRS.. ... . ... . INDEPENDENT ACTION OF FASTENERS AND ADHESIVE IN LOAD REDISTRIBUTION DUE TO BOND FLAW.. . . . ...... . ...... . .... viii

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS (Concluded) Figure 50 51 52


-

.,, USE OF ADHESIVE BONDS TO PROVIDE FAIL-SAFETY FOR RIVETED JOINTS IN THIN STRUCTURE ..... .................. ..... NEED FOR FAIL-SAFE FASTENERS IN THICK BONDED STRUCTURES USE OF BOLTS AS FAIL-SAFE LOAD PATHS IN BONDED STRUCTURES .

81 83 83 84

53

DAMAGE CONFINEMENT BY CO3INATION OF BONDING AND BOLTING . . .

tj
Ix

~~i.

ix

TABLE Number 1 STRENGTH OF VARIOUS FLAWED BONDED STEPPED-I.AP JOINTS . ..... Page 33

,--1

Ii

SECTION I SUMMAR Y

i
feature of aerospace where for fatigue advanced structural damage can They often represent reductions in sites demanding compositc

It

has lon, been recognized that the critical the joints between the elements. and stress-concentration are even more and These situations they strength,

design is static initiate. structures loads

because mask

are brittle in

lack the ductiniLy to which is so

redistribute of

(and

imperfections

analysis)

characteristic

conventional metal alloys used widely throughout the industry. This report examines three aspects of the analysis and design of joints in advanced fihrous composite structures: (1) nonlinear analysis of adhesivelybonded stepped-lap joints and doublers, and (3) (2) multirow mechanically fastened for IV work and were joints in aerospace structures, and bolt.d jr";nts. metal st.,'ctures computer continuum digital the USAF m~rhanics as well

nonlinear analysis of combined bonded iociude nuriiieaiiIties been and coded into three needed Fortran This The analyses are based on respectively.

The methods dcveloped tecnniques A4EI, and have

as those for composites. A4Ej, A4EK,

programs

builds upon prior contract Flight Dyrnamics

research for the NASA Langley Research Centel Laboratory in which elastic-plastic analyses

develooed for adhesively--bonded the A4EG and A4EH programs. The mite-ri a in Section 2

stepped-lap joints and doublers and coded as

on

iionl i near

analysis

of

adhesive--bonded for elastic, the load A have been coded -nany of t.yne of

stepped-lap joints anJ doublers conta.ns elastic-plastic, and bi-inear adhesive models. into the computer The program samrle A4EI which is used characteristics conposites. applicatior,

derivations The analyszs to

demonstrate of the

of thick stepped-lap bondeu .loints beLween metal solutions cover- the or in-plane effect shear; compression, the

and fibrous thermal by

tension,

r-ceidual

stresses due to curing the adhesive at elevated temnperature or to co-cure and bonding of the composite to the metal; the improvement of joint strengtth

optimizing the the changes in

joint proportions, critical

particularly

those of the end metal around and across flaws.

tab; of The with

failure mode with temperature and/or the nature

the applied loads; and the load redistribution of exoerimental evidence

importance of having such an analysis method available is unsuitably proportioned stepped-lap joints. The nonlinearities included in the new in analysis method

emphasized in terms

as to the problems anti weaknesses associated

in

Section

for the

multirow

mechan;cally

fastened

joints

aerospace

structures

include

fastener load-deflection fasteners, fasteners, the and the

characteristics,

the provision of the bearing

for clearance around members between loads the in bypass

elastomechanical interaction

deformation between

and

establishing the failure loads at each station. into a Fortran IV digital computer program

The analysis has been coded A4EJ. The solution is by

continuum mechanics rather than finite elements, and the computer run times are therefore extremely short. This greater definition of the internal load transfer within older fibrous simpler required such a joint requires analyses and the Sample and report thin considerably indicates are metal greater just input data than data will to illustrate be the cover thick what to

to be generated. composite structure,

solutions

presented,

strucLure,

capabilities of the analysis.

The combined bonded/bolted joint analysis

in Section 4 of this report needs 2 the and 3. The is is illustrative a nominally typically so no better than adhesive

no

new

derivations show

beyond

those

in is

Sections typically because

examples perfect

how the

combination Joint

adhesive-bonded benefits

alone,

much stiffer than the fasteners. substantial prior damage

However,

the combination

shown to have and of metal are such The several

in the context of repair of improperly bonded structure of it the is for is in-service fibrous perfect widely repair of damaged composites structures, real-world A4EK or that structure, laminated in thick bonded are and

to delivery, confinement While to

structures. difficult

recognized

bonded/boited there defects for

joints

justify warrant

thus

situations which structures when combined

having the

capability to design

and analyze damage.

allowance single

made for

separate analyses A4EI for bonded joints and A4EJ for bolted joints have been into the computer program combined bonded/bolted

joints.

The

sample

solutions

presented

pertain

to

fibrous

composite

structures, If one

but the program is equally applicable to all-metal

structures.

highlight were to be it would have (or laminated metal)

singled

out

from.the of

new developments in thick fail-safety

in this fibrous

investigation, composite

to be the use

fasteners

structures to provide

by prevent

inq the wide-spread delaminations that could otherwise be initiated by quite local damage. While the fasteners carry virtually no load as long as the bond and "iaminate are intact, to work in the more efficiently structure, not they enable any remaining adhesive after damage as accept load themselves to relieve splices. the The This condition could arise anywhere as well

load on the bonds or resin interfaces. just

at the locations of the original

examples shown for this prohlem encourage the belief that, with the analyses generated by the A4EK program, it should be possible to thus design sufficient strength of fail-safety the damaged into thick composite could be structures. so high as to The residual safe structure

permit

operation at the original suclu outsi,,,

strain level Aith only a loss of effective area in that ...

the damaged area, with no notch effect to reduce the load carrying capability
ILIn

3I

SECTION 2 NONLINEAR ANALYSIS OF ADHESIVE-BONDED STEPPED-LAP JOINTS AND DOUBLERS

2.1

INTRODUCTION analysis for the internal stresses and strains in the

The elastic-plastic

stepped-lap adhesive-bonded joints Is documented in References 1 and 2. Those analyses are modified here to account for the features added since then. The orlginal solution in Reference 1 produced the digital computer program A4EG for bonded joints. 'This was expanded in Reference 3 to produce the program A4EH for bonded douhlers as well as bonded joi,-ts. The difference between the two is that, for bonded joints, the entire load is transferred throuqh the adhesive while, for bonded doublers, only a fraction of the load is so transferred, with the remainder staying in the continuous member. As part of the Primary Adhesively Bonded Structure Technology (PABST) program, these earlier programs were expanded to include variable adhesive properties along with the earlier variable adherend properties. This new analysis, coded as the Fortran IV program A4EI is reported in Reference 2. (The earlier proqrams should now be considered superseded.) For the first time it became possible to analyze such effects as load redistribution around bond flaws, the strength loss due to pinch off of the adhesive at the edges of the overlap, and the consequences of porosity. Also, the logic was improved to reduce the already short run times and to minimize the amount of data input. The nonlinear analysis presented here covers all of the material in Reference 2, as coded in the program A4EI, as well as new developments not yet coded. These include the bilinear adhesive model used for double-lap joints An Reference 4. This is not necessary for improved accuracy, but facilitates the generation of a set of solutions for a range of applied loads. The solution here also includes a variable bond width along the length of the joint, as with finger doublers, which is incorporated in the combined program

(S

ODfO

A4EK for bonded-holted joints. 2.2 SYMBOLS A, B, C, H, J, K


A', B', C', D'

Integration constants Effective disbonding (zero to unity range) Young's moduli of adherends Number of ddhesively bonded surfaces (one or two) Adhesive shear moduli overlap (length of bond) Length of individual step in joint Running loads introduced along length of joint Direct stress resultants in adherends Temperature change (ToTu)

D El, E2 Gel, Gp!


2Total
.

step

P1, P2
-T1,

T2

AT
ti,

operating -cure
t:

Thicknesses of adherends w2 Widths of adherends Axial (longitudinal) coordinate parallel to load direction of plastic portion of step Coefficients of thermal expansion of adherends Adhesive shear strain Elastic and plastic adhesive shear strains Axial (longitudinal) displacements of adherends
Thickness of adhesive layer

ws, w, x

XPLength C1, CL2 .Y y, y 61, 62


"n

Exponents of elastic and bilinear adhesive shear stress distribution

I
Tel, Tp Subscripts
1, 2 e, el, p, p1

Adhesive shear stre~s Elastic and plastic peak adhesive shear stresses

Different adherends at each end of joint Elastic and plastic adhesive behavior Value of quantity at start of step (x 0)

ref

1
I

(I

(I
iI
*
______

2.3

NONLINEAR ANALYSIS OF ADHESIVE-BONDED STEPPED-LAP JOINTS


shown in Figure 1, alonq with for the analysis. The into two to four stages,

A representative idealized stepped-lap joint is the sign convention of this joint and is nomenclature conveniently analysis

necessary subdivided

depending on the adhesive strain.

G. 1,7.-
P
2T.,

S
-6x (REFERENCE)

LEic,O,.01 t t /2
JOINT GEOMETRY

t~ E,\
T+
---

* PLASTIC.TO.ELASTIC TRANSITION
S

2 DISPLACEMENTS AND ELEMENT LOADS

ep

ELASTIC-TO-LASTIC TRANSITION

ADHESIVE SHEAR STRESS DISTRIBUTION

FIGURE 1. NOTATION AND GEOMETRY FOR ADHESIVE-BONDED STEPPED-LAP JOINT ANALYSIS Equiiibrium And Compatibility Equations The analysis begins with the equilibrium equations for a differential element of one of the steps.
dx dT2 P2 dx in which w is the bond width. pl + F(I-D)-w = ,

(1)

:1+

- F(i-D)T'w

= 0,

(2)

W is

the lesser of w1 and w2

(3)

The factor F is used to distinguish hetween single and double adhesive bond

I7

surfaces.
F = 1 for one layer of adhesive (single shear) F = 2 for two layers of adhesive (double shear) 4 (4)

The term D represents the effective disbond or porosity at that step, and the shear stress T characterizes the adhesive on the reduced area that is fully stressed. The factor 1-D is needed to relate the adhesive shear stress T to the dirferential motion between the adherends in terms of adhesive stress-strain characteristics measured adherend forces T, and T2 refer to on unflawed adhesive bonds. The the total load in the adherends,

rather than the loads per unit width modelled in Reference 2. Those loads may actually be in one or two physical members, depending on the number of adhesi ve-bonded surfaces. The thermoelastic relations for the adherends are: d6l
=
--

Ti 11 t2w 1

+ a,(AT),

d6 2 dx

T2
= + a2(AT),

(5)

dx

E2 t 2w 2

in which
AT = Toperating - Tstress-free = Toperating - Tcure (6)

and is usually negative. As a first approximation,


S= (62 - 61)

the adhesive shear strain is represented as


(7)

/ n

and is assumed to be constant across the thickness of the adhesive. This approximation violates the stress-free edges of the adhesive and results in a significant overestivate of the elastic adhesive shear stresses at the ends of the overlap; however, the error becomes progressively smaller as the adhesive is strained more into the nonlinear or plastic state. Differentiati)n of Equation (7) and the *elimination of the displacements via Equations (5) leads to the result
dy 1 /d6I -- = -1 2 dxf
T

d61 dx

Il(
-

Ta

T1
Eitiwi

+ (__ - a)AT).

(8)

n \E2tav

f.t

A further differentiation and (2),

of Equation (8),

in conjunction with Equations (1)

leads to the expression

dy F(1..D)w( 2dx T)

+
1 fl\~it Eiw

II

:
E2t2ww

+ E.
ttW2W-1(p E2 t 2 w2

(9) (9)

Within the elastic

region of adhesive behavior,

as with light applied loads related to

or near the middle of the bonded overlap, the shear strain by the equation . = Gely (for y - ye

the adhesive stress is

(10)

while, throughout any plastic adhesive areas, r T constant. (for y Ye(11)

For the nonlinear behavior of a bilinear elastic model, =

tel + G 1 (Y-ye)

(Ge

)y

+ G Y.

(for y > y in Figure 2. There is

(12) no need for

These various

adhesive models are shown

any more complicated adhesive models. ELASTIC-PLASTIC MOOEL FOR INTERMEDIATE LOADS 1CnM MODEL I r. ~ELA1-LST

1-

S\

-.

x,

----

M LBILINEAR CHARACTERISTIC

ADHESIVE SHEAR STRESS,


1*1

0o +YP) ADHESIVE SHEAR STRAINY

FIGURE 2. REPRESENTATIONS OF ADHESIVE NONLINEAR SHEAR BEHAVIOR 9

Elastic Solution The combination of Equations (9) and (10) yields, tial equation for the elastic behavior,
21yG
2-

as the governing d'ifferen-

+y 1
T)

P1

F(I-D)
(Etltwi

)
flE 1t1Wi

P2 Ezt~w2
(4

E2t1 d~x 2W2 or, on introducing the coefficient

X=

F(1-D )-.

+(14))

d2y x2y = cor-tant.

(15)

The elastic adhesive shear strains are then expressed as y = A cosh(Xx) + B sinh(Xx) + C
in which
1(P1 P2
,

(16)

C= X

+ -Ezt 2 w2 Eitwj

/
in turn, making use of Equation

(17)

Integration of Equations (1) and (2) leads to the expressions


T,= T1,,_ + pix-

(10),

F(I-D)Ge wIA sinki(Xx) + [Beosh(lx')-l + C.l,(8

and

T2

Tr
ref

P2X + F(l-D)l
elPX

sinh(Xx) + ""

osh(Xx)-1

Cxl.

(19)

depend on the origin The values of the integration constant TIe and T2 In the coding of the computer program A4EI, it is convenient adopted for x. "to adopt the start of each step as the origin of x for that step. Integratino Equations (18) and (19) again and substituting the integrals into Equations (5) yields the following

10

<1

1 11

IIX
refi
+

pix

cqi(AT)x +

Ti
Br

+ -

F(
De

A-

Cosh(

inh(xs)

.x x

(20)

and

62= 62

ref

+ c2(AT)x +

E2 t 2w 2

T2

ref BC

x -

--

F(I-D)Gew

. [A I- (cosh(xx)-1i The subroutine in the FORTRAN the equations above (or,

- (sirnh(Xx)IV digital strictly,

Xx )

(21)

computer program A4EI used to solve those in Reference 2 without the The

more

variable width effect) ing analysis technique

for the elastic adhesive behavior employs the followto determine the integration constants A and B.

notation ref is used to identify the start of any step or bonded zone within the overlap. The constant A in Equation (16) follows from evaluation of Equation (16) at x O. Thus

-y
ref

-C,(2

(22)

with the constant C given in Equation (17). The other constant B can be deduced by differentiating Equation (16) once and equating the result to that given by Equation (8). Thus

AX sinh(Xx) + BX cosh(Xx) ....


so that at x
=

+ (ca.-al)AT

(23)

I T'rf
BXn
--

ref
+

(a'i)tATJ

(24) 62 at the end of thnat step then follow


(20), and (21), respectively. These,

E 2 t 2w

E1 t 1 w 1

The values of y, T, Tx, T2,


from Eqijations (16), (10),

6, and
(18), (19),

in turn, specify the initial conditions for the next step.

11

]I

For the assume, overlao.

special

case

of

the

first step set to of

of the joint, initial one

it

is

necessary However,

to the

or prescribe, So it is

a complete necessary

conditions.

actual conditions which must be satisfied are shared between both ends of the adjust of the initial conditions iteratively until the other houndary condition is the bonded overlap. Plastic Solution The inclusion of plastic nonlinear behavior in the analysis is similar to that above for the elastic solution, with one of the major complications being the unknown location of any transitions between elastic and plastic behavior. The plastic adhesive shear stesss is constant throughout that : satisfied at the far end of

portion (or all) of the step, as given in Equation (11). (9) becomes, for the plastic zor,es,

Therefore,

Equation

d'--y
-xz

Ge

2 x --

n \ Eitw,

P1

E~tqW9

(25)

Thus,

throughout the plastic adhesive areas, xd2y A --el


r \Eitiwi
Ejt
2

1,

P,

P2
w2 /

constant,

(26)

so that Sz Hx2 + Jx + K. (27)

The other constants J and K are determined by directly analogous techniques


with those used for the elastic solution. x 0 and (8), Thus

K ref and,

(28)

fron equations (27)

x x= J =

retf

TrI
E~tJwJ

+ (a2 -aflT(9

\Elt2w2

The adherend loads in the plastic zone follow from integration of Equations (1) and (2), by means of Equation (11), as

12

Ti = Tiref + pix

F(I-D)

Px

(30)

and T2 T2

ref

p2x + F(1-D)wT x. P may then be integrated to yield

(31)

Equations (5) 61
6

ref + cLi(AT)x + rEitiwi

/I
T 1 refX +
-

2
2P - F(1-D)WT

2 X
-

(32)

S~and S62. !2 = 62re + a2(AT)x + SE2t2w2.


Very few individual plastic achieve behavior

T2r f
2

P2X -x-

+ F( -D~w
2

(33)

steps of stepped-lap bonded joints or doublers have fully Any plastic (or other nonlinear) steps, behavior are is rebecause in structures order to

throughout. fatigue

frequently confined to the ends of the outermost the excellent

behavior for which bonded

nowned, it is desireahle not to operate the adhesive beyond its proportional limit for frequently recurring loads. (11he piastic strength is best reserved for overloads and for local load redistribution dround flaws.) in performing it is elastic-plastic aualyses of adhesively-bonded joints, necessary to compute the extent of the step a transition to elastic behavior. are shown in Figure 3. Starting from Therefore, stepped-lap

under considera-

tion to see whether there is

The

various

possible and (28),

behaviors

Equations (27)

7 lX2 . + Jx + yref'

(34) given by equation (29). It is necessary to find

in

which the constant J is

the lesser value of x for which Y = Y Equation (34) ir first rearranged to read 0, given by (36) (35)

HXp2 + JXp + (yref - ye)

so that the maximum extent of plastic adhesive zone is

13

0ZLL1
(OR FULLY NEGATIVE
EOQJIVALENT BEHAVIOR

(OR FULLYNEGATIVE EQUIVALENT) I

A FULLY P.A.

TO PLASTIC ELASTIC PLASTIC TO $1IGN REVERSAL ULL SEARSTRSWITHOUT PLSTC

THROUGHOUT ELASTIC C. PERFECTLY REVERSAL WITHOUT S:IG13

IOR

EQUIVALENT) FULLY NEGATIVE

(OR FULLYNEGATIVE EQUIVALENT)

(ORINVERTED SEQUENCE.TO.)

0. PLASTIC TO ELASTIC WITHOUT SIGN REVERSAL

WITHOUT k. ELASTIC TOPLASTIC SIGN REVERSAL

F. PLASTIC THROUGH PLASTIC WITHSIGN REVERSAL

(fR INVERTED SEnUENCE. TO ISEQUENCE,


-4 "'.)
IT -0-V-

(OR INVERTED
-

0
Tat

OR INVERTEO SEQUECE TO -)
IE, C

G. ELASTIC WITH SIGN REVERSAL

H. PLASTIC TO ELAS71C WITH SIGN REVERSAL

1. ELASTIC TO PLASTIC WITH SIGNREVERSAL

FIGURE 3. EIGHTEEN TYPES OF ADHESIVE BEHAVIOR IN BONDED JOINTS

2(Yf

(37)

The minus sign in front of the radical holds whenever d~y/dx is less than zero, as at the near end of the joint. Now, if the loading is such that y is negative and dy/dx positive at the start of the joint, the appropriate answer is the lesser of

-- +

-re

(38)

In evaluating this dimension, it is important to note that the expression for H in Equation (26) is modified by reversing the sign of the term containing Likewise, the expression for J in Equation (29) the plastic shear stress T After x has is altered because the adherend loads T, and T2 are negative. been computed from Equation (37) or (38), it is compared with the actual step

eng

step

If

step'

that

particular

step

is

fully

plastic

14

throughout, t

and the

values of the various quantities at the far Pnd of the (30), (31), and (33).

step are evaluated from Equations (27), (11),

the difference is examined elastically to see Should x be less than X step' p whether the step remains elastic thoughout the remainder or becomes plastic again at the far end. or It is necessary that dy/dx be in maintained order to at any plastic-to-elastic equilibrium, elastic-to-plastic trnsitions one must ensure

as can be seen from Equation (29).

In solving for the maximum prov,,de both for the at each end of stress. The

possible length of the elastic adhesive zone, the step and for the case of a reversal

case of shear strains of the same sign (positive or negative) of sign

in the shear

latter can arise physically in the presence of adherend thermal mismatch (as between fibrous composites and metals) but occurs most fi-equently as a result of an J zone is imbalance between the known and assumed boundary conditions at the The procedure to determine the length of the elastic of the distance required for

start of the analysis.

thus reduced to an iterative solution

the adhesive strain to become Y If Y or -y e e the elastic zone it is does not extend to beyond the far the load In do-ing so, zone and (30), and (21) (31), end of the it is

(39) step being between the

analyzed,

necessary

compute

transferred

adherends throughout the elastic trough. the length computed (10), for (18), the elastic (20), (11), Equations I (16), (19), (27),

simple to take it back into standard elastic are then

substitute for the (32)

analysis of that portion. end of the step, Equations

Should the elastic trough not extend to the far and (33)

employed for the plastic zonp to the end of the step.

Bilinear Solution The linear portion of the bilinear adhesive model bY the elastic analysis above, is necessary to discuss only shown in F igure 2 is given So it case

just as for the elastic-plastic model. the nonlinear portion here. In this

Equation (9) becomes

15

S(

l
Ejtjwj

l1
E2t 2W,!

dx dx2

T r2

/
-F(l-D)
--

1
-

1
+
-

1/ri

--

SEjtjw 1 or, in terms of Equation (14), d y G\1


___~

E2taZV2

/1

(G el-G 1

--

Eit1w

)
E2t2w2

(40)

P aN
Ye +iP

(41)

dx

eGl
It is

El

E2t2wGe for the

It can be seen that this has the same basic form as Equation (15)
linear elastic solution. G
X, -.

sensible to introduce the notation

G el

()2

(42) is
+

so that the solution of Equation (41) y = Ye + A' cosb(X'x) + B1'-jinh(tx.) in which

C'

(43)

CI
2

P1

(X,') T El twl

P2 E2 t 2W2

-G1

(4 (44

The adhesive shear stress therh follows from Equaxion (12) as


T = G -Y + A'G coah(X'x) + B'%, sinh(Xx) + C
+

.G

(45)

= A'Gi cosh(x'x) + B'Gp1 sinh(;,'x) where

D'GPis

(46)

I
D ('t

PD

P2

.
C. (47)

The loads in the adherends then follow from the integration of Equations (1) and (2) as

Ti

f+ pix

F(I-D)G 1w

,-sinh(V'x) +

cOsh(X'x)-)

DIX

(48)

16

and
T ref T2=TT2.
P 2 X + F(I-D)Gplw

Xp sinh(X'x) +

--

cosh(X'x)Cx1

+ D'x

(49)

The displacements then can be evaluated from Equations (5)

in the form

6=

c(LTT)x + ref + a

Eitiwi

T1

X2-

F(I-D)Gpw i )-).x)
+
.

rA'

B'

(x)
and

-(ii(' (oh(')-)+

(50)

1
6 62e + az(AT)x + -E2t2w2

~ pz2
T2efX - 2

)PI + F(I-D)G

A'BI
I()2

D IX
-. L-(inha(Xlx)-Xlx)

I'
=

(os(Xx)1)+

(w))I

--t.(51)
J)

These

equations

are employed 0. That is

in

much the

same way

as

th se above

for the (43),

elastic and

plastic solutions.

The constant A' follows from Equation

evaluated at x

A'

= -yref -

_Ye C'.

(52)

Similarly, the Equation (24).


Bf=

constant Thus -

B'

is

determined

in

exactly

the

same

form

as

in

/T

(W')f \E Just as with

2 t 2w,

Tr, re-4 E 1 t 1 w/ plastic

(av-)AT)

(53)

the

analysis

above,

it

is

necessary

to

compare overe

the bethe

extent

of each

step with the length The procedure is

over which the nonlinear adhesive

havior can occur.

first to evaluate Equation (43)

entire step length and determine whether or not the strain at the far end of The step can be subdivided the step lies in the linear or nonlinear regime. into nonlinear and linear zones as necessary.

17

In-Plane Shear Loading The derivations above have been presented for in-plane tensile or compressive loading across the bonded joint. 1. Only two changes are needed. The governing equations for in-plane shear as explained in Reference
E.

loading (Figure 4) have precisely the same form, must be replaced by the shear moduli G, and G2 . the distribution parameters A and X' which, adhesive tension weaker shear under strains in-plane the than if the than still same under usually shear shear or compression. However, shear is since the in load

The adherend extensional turn,

moduli

and E2 in in or the

This causes an increase results in were materials in-plane the weak intensity applied tension link those the in

higher peak are usually

adherend direct not the loading,

compression,

adhesive

structure. It is necessary thermal mismatch terms for stress effects do not

also to delete in-plane in-plane

inclusion since in

of the adherend residual adherends.

induce

preloadin2

That effect must be ignored until some more complex analysis is formulated to account for local effects which peak in two corners of the bond a;rea rather than all along two edges. With ductile adhesives, the resultant effect of a small preload strain orthogonal to those induced by the basic applied load is often insignificant anyway.

tAD

ADI4EREND HERENSTRESS DISTRIBUTION

LAP JOINT UNDER IN-PLANE SHEAR

|7"--

/A

ADHIESIVE SHEAR STRESSNDISTRISUTIoN


ADHESIVE SHEAR

SHIEAR DEFORMATION (EXAGGEWFrD)

FIGURE 4. ADHESIVE-BONDED JOINT LOADED BY IN-PLANE S;HEAR

I.

18

2.4 The

SAMPLE SOLUTIONS sample solutions for to adhesive-bonded graphite-epoxy bond steppped-lap joint. joints and doublers

which are given below are mostly concerned with. variations on one basic highload-intensity elastic, stresses titanium and The capabilities residual of the computer program A4EI are illustrated in terms of the different solutions for ultimate, potential strengths, of the thermal induced during cool-down after cure, of the different strenqths in

tensile and compressive load application, and of the load redistribution due to various bond flaws. Part 4 of this report uses this same basic joint as a means of showing how effective mechanical fastening is on its own, in con-

juntion with the adhesive, areas. References 1, 2, 3,

and as a substitute for the adhesive in 5,

disbonded

and 6 contain different sample solutions which

augment the information about the features and capabilities of this program.

iTAI UWTS

TS'RAMITE.IPOXY.-\_-__

STATION WU#msNERs

2 SV " STlps

4 ,ALtL O,.ESONS ININC.HES)

(TYPICAL)

52-.
5 1 2 SCALE (cm) 3 A. SPECIMEN GEOMETRY 6 SCALE IIW.) 1

A
7 'T", - 10UPSI

ADENN I
AOAEINEID!

SM -TERIAL: TITANIUMI SHIEAR 5 ST~tus 4 ANCTANIC) 6 - III ONPSI I)URE'


.STPDLPNAHERED

Fu (/

130 KS1 .I1N

"7, - 4JI/?l
1. 4 SHEAR $TRAIN

"

SI'

'1

"yf 62

OI 2 HTS GRAPHITE MATERIAL: 1 - 45% C*PLIES' E - 11.2 %l0e PSI

CL. a C D EEDPOETE

ADNEUIVE THICKNESS; n - 1.005 IN.

B. ADHESIVE PROPERTIES

FIGURE 5. STEPPED-LAP ADHESI~rt jNDED JOINT

f19

Basic Joint Description This basic joint is ately not optimized, shown in Figure 5. It is a hypothetical joint, deliber-

to expose the design problems.

The adhesive properties

are not specific to any particular adhesive hut representative of an adhesive which has a higher service temperature capability than the ductile adhesives used on the PABST program, in conjunction with somewhat more ductility tnan exhibited by the first generation of high-temperature brittle adhesives. The following illustrative example of solutions the analysis perform two functions. and, in They the and

demonstrate process,

the

capahilities many of the

program

A4EI in

explain

important

considerations

the

design

analysis of stepped-lap adhesive-bonded

joints.

The computer code

itself is

listed in Volume II of this report, along with the user instructions. Solutions In Absence Of Residual Thermal Stresses Figure 6 shows the adhesive shear stresses and strains Figure 5, associated with the

simplest solution of the joint in (Strictly, have hut been these

neglecting the thermal

stresses.

for this case, the adhesive properties used in the analysis should those which are apply to curves at the stress-free temperature, about 3000F, he compared later with equivalent solutions stress effects and it would be confusing

accounting for the residual

thermal

to cover two perturbations simultaneously.) Three curves are shown in Figure 6; for the adhesive elastic capability, for the failure of the joint in the adherend, and for the potential is sought. bond strength of the adhesive had the adherends been stronger. when the joint right, there is on the left. strength The peaks in This information is typical of the answers obtained curves or, the

Note how,

in the strain

none of the flattening out associated with the stress curves of the stress and strain curves properties at each occur at the steps It can he seen adherend station.

(discontinuities)

from the strain curves,

on the right,

that even at ultimate load only a small

fraction of the adhesive is loaded beyond the elastic adhesive strain, so the accumulation of creep under sustained load is improbable. Indeed, over half of the adhesive is strained to less than 15 percent of its failure strain

prior to failure of the adherend.

20
I.

II
I'

I
-

STRESSES NORESIDUAL THERMAL *0) STRENGTH A. ELASTIC


*26,267

L,1/I01.

0.20(AT

'

'6

9. ULTIMATE STRENGTH * 3015 L1MN.11 STATION 1 CRITiCAL AT SADHEREND SONSSTRENGTH- $1,511 LIAN. C.POTENTIAL ADHESIVECRITICAL AT STATION'l

A. 0*15c

0.071

oN

0.1"
0

.200

w4

ADHESIVE
$HEAR STRESS WSHl 5 ADHESIVE SHEAR 0.10 STRAIN U

SCALE:

FIGU!RE 6. ADHESIVE SHEAR STRESSES AND STRAINS IN SrTPPED-LAP BONDED JOINT


*NO *g STRENOTI.OF ADNERENO I is T"JAWAL1I REUSIS NER61DUAL
LIT - SI

Of AO.IE9ENDS2 STRIIENGTH

LOAD S

LOAD

NI

CRITCAL

E CRITICAL

lOADIN 1 ADIORECONDI.TIONi LOADA II ADHEHENOSI

SAIN A. ULTIMATE JOINT STRENGTh (34,076 LB/IN.)

STATION

$
LOADT RISA
'-,I

to

AOIIER14OS2 SIRENIITI OF

I ADONIRNO OF STRENGTH
LOlAD KIAL OVERLOAD KSIN Al TWO STA004 IAIFN~,- III TITANIUM 3

CRITICAL..~.,w 4PAILUREOF

*I

N I LOADINAD IENO

Is

LOADIts AOlIIREhI(

fi

ISCALE
I

S~~TATIO

. PO)TENTIAL POND STRENGTH 151.519 LB/IN.)

STATIO SAII

111CHIlS I

FIGURE 7. ADHEREND STRESSES IN ScTEPPED-LAP BONDED JOINT % 21

This design is

in Figure 5 was

deliber'Ately

not optimized,

to highlight some

characteristics of stepped-lap adhesive-bonded joints, limited not by the adhesive, but by the thin, the titanium plate, further information, as shown in Figure 7. beyond that in

The ultimate strength fails in by the

excessively long end step on Figure 7 shows the is provided

This end step frequently 6, which

fatigue if the joint proportions are not sized carefully. Figure analysis of such joints with the program A4EI. Improvement Of Joint Strength By Optimizing Proportions Armed with information of the type shown in about modifying the that, equal, design to improve the good.

Figures 6 and 7, joint strength.

one would set It is evident

since the adhesive shear strains at each end of the joint are roughly the overall stiffness balance is Any further impovement in that

regard would probably be thwarted by the constraint that the fibrous composite laminate must consist of an integral number of plies. The need for stiffness balance is why there is such a pronounced thickness buildup at the right side of Figure 5. thin, it too long, or both, lest it too thick, However, it joggle the is since the titanium end step is It fibers in either too weaken

should be modified.

is preferable not to make A tip thickness in the So a redesign the

the laminate and thereby

the other member more than it should shorten that step, decrease the minimum

strengthened itself.

range 0.030 inch to 0.050 inch is adhesive

usually found to be optimal. shear stress there.

as well as lengthening some of the middle steps to Since composite

adherend is be shortened.

weakest at its end step,

as shown in Figure 7,

that also should showing how

Figure 8 depicts the results of such a reanalysis,

the ultimate strength was increased from 34075 lbs/in. to 38033 lbs/in. This is a rather small increase, and was sufficient to reduce the potential bond strength from 51519 lbs/in. to 38033 lbs/in., since the adhesive is now critical Therefore, one should perform a further redesign of the joint with the only variable left - an increase in the number of steps. The results of such a further design iteration are shown in Figure 9. The ultimate (and potential bond) strength was increased to 46363 lbs/in. initial This represents a substantial design the in Figure step 6, increase over the 34075 lbs/in, how important it it niu st is to be of the showing rather than the adherends.

properly recorded

proportion

details.

However,

22

STRISSES 110 RESIDUALThERMAL I I.IT

ACRERERDI OfP S. TRENGTH

InAR4e1611.S NPITH COMPARE


8.111SAT 34.067 LOAEN

IKIPSJAMI

S LINE P0R U110lIMIZEDRAP STEPLENGTH% IS IN NO15TE CHANr tENSTH INOVERALL ANDINCREASE


.I

F4gum7
VERY SMALL MARGIN IN TITAURISTEP LA hHHHN

4*SIIEAq
*

ADHESIVE R.ig
STRAIN

STATION
STRENGTHOF AOWIIRNDS I

Ij

916

ILOAD
--

114
,EiP/E 1011.
-

OFEll ATROOT Epoxy INGRAPHITE STEP

-.

LOADIN AHIHISRSO9,2

1E

STATIONSTATION SCALE

NO0 RESISUAL THERMALSTRESISES

isTREIIGTH

I OFADHRERING

6.2S.

F
E.IN[ US -POR

**

Z#O AT 49.321 LlIN%.

LOAD
RIPSflN 46

TIP MABIE NEAq O

ll...OTAIS.~ ~~COMPAREIWITHRIAT6.3 FIRST REDESIGNI NT mestI

Ii113I.

STATIUMN ADHESIVE

6 $HEIR 1.3 $TRAIN WINSTRENGTH OF AOHERENDIS?

0325

LOAD

*ICN

2 2

11 I2 13 14

'

STATION
SCALE IINCHETI a 1 2

STATION

FIGURE 9. IMPROVEMENTS nUE TO SECOND REDESIGN OF STEPPED-LAP BONDED JOINT ?3

also

that, is

for

this

relatively

thick

stepped-lap the

bonded

joint,

the

bond of

strength

still

substantially

less than

lesser

adherend

strength

66300 lbs/in. and that still effective in

further refinements

will be progressively less

increasing the bond strength.

These examples suffice to demonThe design iterations are much more

strate the design refinement techniques.

straightforward for thinner adherends, which are subjected to lighter loads, For a real design, one would need to analyze the joint throughout the entire operational condition. environment, A comparison and of iterate Figures 6 the (and design 7), 8, for the most severe the and 9 shows that

So it critical location in every instance is the thin end of the titanium. is here that further design refinements would be applied. These would take the form of a greater number of shorter steps, up below that for the strength build up. to keep the rate of load build However, a word of caution is and

necessary. step

The critical are tape

step in Figure 9 is by It the

already only 1/4 inch long, thickness of the

increments be it

limited or cloth.

finite

composite design

material, iteration

would

be easy to continue

this

process to the degree that the precisivon to such questionable ends, it

demanded of the manufacRather than use sense to do

turing techniques would be beyond any reasonable tolerances. the program A4EI increase only one more design iteration, its strength,

would make more

by thickening the end step to 0.040 inch to

and the next step likewise to 0.080 inch and then to tolerances in chem-milling the titanium and laying of such a final analysis, with all

1J-

use the computer program to assess the strength iosses to be expected due to reasonable manufacturing

up the fibrous composite. other variables far end of tne

The results

as in Figure 9, joint. These

were an elastic strength of 21032 lbs/,n,, are, in fact, significant strength decreases that it is

and an ultimi~te strength of 39957 lbs/inch, with the adhesive critical at the

I,

with respect to the configuration analyzed in Figure 9, confirmin. going to be difficult to improve upon that design. One very important characteristi: of the design of stepped-lap is not apparent such or in Figures 5 through 9 is have The 00 fibers is on adjacent that the the best
900

joints which rather tend than to

that experience has shown that the to the adhesive, fibers to the a

joints ply.

t:450 a

reason

transverse available

roll This in

under the shear transfer loads and the resin splits between the fibers. imposes severe constraint options

designer

24

regard to optimizing the joint details,

particularly if

the fiber pattern has It should be apparent

been set by conditions outside the bonded joint area.

that the joint area should be considered more in setting the fiber pattern. The fiber pattern must not deviate much- from a uniformly dispersed quasi-isotropic pattern if the laminate is to be free from the weak cleavage fibers are bunched planes associated with laminates in which parallel together rather than interspersed.

Effect Of :,esidual Thermal Stresses From Bonding Dissimilar Adherends

When advanced fibrous composites are bonded to metal adherends at an elevated


)a

temperature attack,

to

cure

the

adhesive

and

give

it

resistance

to

environmental

"residual
(half an shrinkage

the metal tends tc, shrink during the cool-down. That induces stresses and strains in the adhesive for all but joints so short inch also or so) that they are alleviated in by adhesive creep. The introduces tensile stresses and compression in in Figure 10 for the basic steppedthe metal

These effects are shown the composite. lap bonded joint shown in Figure 5. Figures 11 and 12 show what happens when

RESIDUAL THERMAL STRESSES 31F ASSOCIATED WITH AT

LA12 DRAW ( "o iLAROED SCALE) IROWEEARID

NOT! THATINTEGRAL OF
SHEAR STRESSES S ZERO

TEOMOPR INtT: lNUM


ADHERING I

[
ADHEISVE SHEAR 2,

~LOADh

;KIFS/IN.!

STAT'A1N

STRESS
(Kill

42

,8I

-'

AHE LOAD

SCALE
IINCHESI

ROTETrismA!I3IIAL LOAD VUPV:i


ARE PRECISIELYEfAUAL AND C OMl&Ii F

FIGURE 10. RESIDUAL THERMAL STRESSES FROM BONDING TITANIUM TO GRAPHITE-EPOXY

25

RESIDUAL THERA:AL STRESSES A. ELASTIC STRENGTH - I1.20 LIAN LN!IN. 8. ULTIMATE STREGI4 - 24 Sl.S ADHERER') I CRITI(CAL AT STATIOIN C POTENTIAL BONO STRENGTH - 4,164 ADHESIVE CRITICAL AT STATION I ASOCIATED WITH IT

L
LAM. 011 TENSILE LOADS IN ADNEREND I C 4,S

LOAD (KIPS/IN.)

a A

ADHESIVE

SHEAR STRESS (KISll

4|I 3 2

5 4 STATION

IN ADHERENOS 2 TENSILE LOADS

0 -1

(KIPSAiN.I

[
1

nJ
2 3

I_

I
4 SCALE
INCGHES a

I
7

I
1 2
1 1 2 2 3 4 S 4 7 Il

4 5 STATION

STATION

FIGURE 11. TENSILE

LOADS ON STEPPED-LAP BONDED JOINTS WITH THERMAL MISMATCH

RESIDUAL THERMAL STRESSES ASOCIATED WITHAT- -3SF A. EtASIlCSTRENGTH - -lELS/IN. 0. ULTIMATE STRENGTH- 2-35.I LRIN. ATSTATION 2 AOHEROS 2 CRITICAL 0 -22 LOAD (IIPS/1N.

r.

STRENGOTH -6.862 LI/N. POTENTIAL BOND


ADHESIVE CRITICAL ATSTATION 1 STATION
p p

[
1
-

STATION 2 3 4 s
'

~~

COMPR.ESS!E LOADING ,MOOO., .ANTLY

AlHIESIVc
ST"EFss .4

STATION

2 UIPSJlN.)
@VYERY CLOSE TOc PURELY COMPRESSIVE LOADING IN ADHERENDS 2 SCALE: (INCHES)

LOAD

-4a-

1-

FIGURE 12.
.*

COMPRESSIVE LOADS ON STEPPED-LAP BONDED 0OINTS WITH THERMAL MISMATCH

26

tensile and compressive shear loads are superimposed on the residual shown in Figure 10. It is significant that 'he tensile shear

stresses stresses

combine with the tensile residual stresses at station 8, on the right hand side of the joint while station 1, on the left., is critical for compressive loading. tensile different, It is very clear that it is necessary to analyze the for both the are modes

and compressive the critical The end

shear loads locations

separately,

because

strengths

are different

and even the critical not at all thermal is

are different. tend to detract

step on the titanium joint is for example. joint strengths, it

critical stresses that

under compressive

loading,

While the residual

from the overall in

self-evident

they are helpful

regard to ensuring that there is

some very lightly loaded

adhesive to help resist the accumulation of adhesive creep. 2.5 EXPERIMENTAL EVIDENCE

The

importance at

of

having

available

computer

program

like in

A4EI,

or the R&D

earlier A4EO and A4EH codes, occurred

can be gaged

from the premature failures which bonded joints several

metal-to-composite

stepped-lap

Some of these problems programs over the years at various establishments. are discussed here, to explain them and to encourage their avoidance in the future. Since their history is irrelevant to the present it discussion, no

identification

or credits are given here.

Nevertheless,

should be noted

that these are real problems and have occurred far toi frequently. happens ".-n th end step on the metal is made too Iona
3

Figure 13 and

4 too thin.
a problem

ws

ab

It breaks off!

Usually the metal yields under static loading,

permitting a secondary failure elsewhere with no indication of this cause of The great bulk of evidence that the long thin end step load redistribution. is has occurred in fatigue the Figur, testing. bond, 10, there Quite is apart also the from the tensile

mechanical

load

transferred

through

residual thermal stress,

as shown in

and the stress concentration

due to the steps, which are more frequently chem-milled rather than machined. The test specimen shown in Figure 13 had a thickness of 0.030 inch on the end tab and a length of over an tab of that thickness, inch. The author's experience if 27 it were in double suggests that a shear. The A4EI length of only a quarter of an inch would have been more appropriate for a particularly

S!

program permits a systematic parametric study of such joints to be made for a small fraction of the cost of even one such test specimen. This can greatly reduce the need for test specimens and maximize the usefulness of those

actually tested.

SE LOAIN

END METAL TAB STILL GLUED ON, BROKEN OFF METAL ADHEREND

DELAMINATION FAILUREI COMPOSITE STILL BONDED TO METAL

FIGURE 13. FAILURE OF STEPPED-LAP ADHESIVE-BONDED JOINT


Further experimental evidence on the use of the A4EG program to design

stepped-lap titanium to graphite-epoxy bonded joints is given in Reference 6. This was a much easier task than similar work on the F-15 tail and F-18 wing and tail because, for the A-4 graphite-epoxy stabilizer program it was ,, 4.-u a L,,,,. ductile adhesive, Epon 951, and the titanium was only 0.?5 inch thick. During several tests, at progressively more complexity, the failures were consistently in the fibrous composite outside the Joint area. Tests on that same program, described in References 1 and 7, highliqhted the potential problems that can occur due to wrinkles in the fibers at the tip of an embedded titanium plate. That is why the joint shown in Figure 5 includes a tapered fiberglass-epoxy wedge beyond the end step, co-cured with the basic graphite-epoxy laminate to eliminate both the wrinkling and the ahrupt termination of such fibers if they had simply been butted up against the end step. Quite apart from reducing the structural efficiency by carrying around excess

28

material, such abrupt termination of the fibers just beyond the tip of the titanium splice plate can actually weaken the strength to below that which would be attained had those plies been replaced by low-modulus filler material 14, to prevent them from picking up load. a simplification of a which is This is explained in Figure somewhat more complicated condition in

which the delamination was actually initiated by the combination of shear and peel stresses. The example on which Figure 14 is based had a tip thickness in excess of 0.1 inch, with ove. 50 percent of the central plies terminated The consequent stress concentration was far worse there being longitudinal. The number of plies which can be than normal design practice permits. simultaneously terminated safely in a graphite-epoxy laminate, without fear of inducing delaminations, is closer to four rather than more than twenty, whether there is a joint in that vicinity or not. Likewise, it is important to thoroughly intersperse the cross plies rather than lumping them together, because of the substantial residual tensile stresses in the resin, which has typically two to three times the coefficient of thermal expansion of aluminum alloys. Just because a laminate is not warped, it does not mean that it is ................. +........^............... i actually due to relief of Such internal Any -a, a ,t-srss. n stresses which would otherwise be worse.

"TEST AREA
' ..... FRACTURE

FRA TUR

FIB R O U SC O M P O S ITE
-DELM.INTIU

~LOAD

INTRODUCTION AREA

METAL

INITIAL FAILURE AT "A" BECAUSE THNCKNESS "" IS EXCESSIVE AND

LOAD INFIBERS "C"CANNOT BE UNLOADED THROUGH RESIN MATRIX


FINAL FAILURE, AT "D". IS BY PNT -SC1TONTENSION ON THE TOP FACE AND SHEAROUT (NOT SHOWN) ON THE LOWER FACE

FIGURE 14. PREMATURE FAILURE OF STEPPED-LAP BONDED JOINT BY DELAMINATION 29

While on this subject, a 900 ply within at all to the resin is than a behave case, rather lateral like a

it

is

appropriate to digress a little cured at the on a usual 00 350 F or monolayer.


0

and explain that 250F In does not latter such t450 the

laminate

transvers

test

free to contract laterally (perpendicularly develop internal stresses, while in the former is resisted layer If as by adjacent a fibers in the is 8, the 900 occur, within typical in laminate

to the fibers) case or 00

contraction Thus will

directions.

prestressed even under

and usually also pre-cracked. delaminations tension-tension fatigue loading. The purpose of mentioning

too many such plies are bunched together, discussed Reference

some of the items above is

to point out that

if

certain good design principles are not followed in designing bonded steppedlap joints in fibrous composites, the analysis given here would become quite inadequate and would and need to be replaced by a far more within the complicated for model which checked not only for the adhesive and gross adherend behavior but also checked each every resin interface laminate possible

failure there, 2.6

instead.

LOAD REDISTRIBUTION DUE TO DISBONDS IN ADHESIVE IN STEPPED-LAP JOINTS

when titanium to fibrous composite stepped-lap joints are co-cured and bonded with an adhesive film, as is done on the F-I1 and F-15 by McDonnell and was done on the A-4 R&D horizontal tail by Douglas, it is virtually impossible to manufacture a bad joint unless there is something like a bag failure which would ruin the laminate easy as well as the joint. However, caused if one were to it precure all the details separately and then try to secondarily bond them. would be relatively details, Indeed, to have major disbonds the joint is the A4EI (PABST) by poor particularly if introduced

fit of the

thick enough to warrant several steps. The variable adhesive Primary Adhesively in Reference 2, stepped-lap again bonded program program, during the as

such has been found to be the case elsewhere. into

properties Bonded permit joints.

Structure

Technology

described below,

an assessment

of the'effects

of such misfits in

Three such examples of this are discussed

using the

basic joint in Figure 5 as a reference.

.1

30

I!
Figure 15 shows the consequences left end 'of the joint, Figure 16 of the two end steps being disbunded at the shows the load redistribution due to the

middle three steps beind disbonded, end tw

arid Figure 17 shows what happens when tne It is immediate'ly obvious that the

steps on the right are dishonded.

ST{k'ES.ES TH4ERMIAL wor&Esin)UAL

P!

F041 UT-T 01lT.-

S
LOAD
XIOAD.) 4 IP M I

S ~7-

7.o a2
ADHESIVE CRITICAL AT StATiON1 3 ULTIMATE UN1iAAT LOAD OF 8.h11LIINII.

,NADHERCtiO, LOA DA
I
1I

ADHESIVE SHEAR
STF-ISS

t--OISBOND- ! ".'~~~

i6

aI

CO"DITIONS lIN ADHERE/OWS 4 iRITICAL C

I I ILOAD

VS--OlstO"D--

LOAD IN ADHERENDS 2

,2

1 5 11 ATION SCALE (INCHES) U

7 2 1 2 3 e 5 STATION 11 7
S

FIGURE 15. STRENGTH LOSS AND LOAD REOISTRIBUTION DUE I'O DISSONDS IN STEPPED-LAP JOINTS load redistribution due to the disbonds is Figures 8 to hond flaws is could central 11 of Reference 2 for far more substantial thick bonded then shown in The

uniformly

adherends.

reason for this much qreater sensitivity of the larger more complex joint to that there are no large areas so lightly loaded that the flaw Figure 16 is are no be missed or to which the load transfer could be moved. flaw is so intense that the critical adhesive

particularly significant in the sense that the load redistribution around the conditions longer located at the ends of the overlap, Figures but at the edge of the flaw.

15 to 17 have been prepared from the thermal-stress-free solutions an6 the predicted strengths are well down from the 34067 lbs/inch in Figure 6 for nominally perfect bonds in the same specimen. Table I enumerites some of the predictions when thermal stress terms are included. The strength losses

31

41 RESIDOUAL TIIERMlAL STRESSES


ACCOUNTED FOR I-IT - 0 TEElCiti. T LOAD140so AD HESIYF CRIIIAL ATSTATIONG I ATULTWgATFE LOAD OF Islas4 tll"I.

ERo

LOAD III ADILRENO 1I*

LOAD

ACRO13

4 STATION

LOADIN AOFIERENDS 2

LOAD

I
5 SCLtE.L N 1 6 a

I~~Kil~l I(. 2 STATION 2

FIGURE 16. STRENGTH LOSS AND LOAD REDISTRIlBUTION DUE TOO ISBONDS IN STEPPED-LAP JOINTS

4O RESIDUAL THERMAL STRESSES ACCOUNTED FOR1.T - I

I
I

* ADHESIVE CRI7ICAL AT STATIONS I ATULTIMATE LOADOF14 713L21111N.

TENSILE LOADING

so

L
LOADINIADMRENEN I

so

SHEARI STRESS

4-

sb
.

s.~ INO

CRITICAL CONDITIONS IN ADHERENOS

LOADIN ADIIERLNOS 2

I
I 2

2I

~~

STATiON SLALE. r!~E71I**~4**-r**~


01N11) a

'

4J

STATION

FIGURE 17. STRENGTH LOSS AND LOAD REDISTRIBUTION DUE TO DISBONDS IN STEPPED-LAP JOINTS 32

TABLE 1. STRENGTH OF VARIOUS FLAWED BONDED STEPPED-L JOINTS

BASELINE SPECIMEN, AS IN FIGURE B, NO BOND FLAWS

LEFT END TWO SnTEPS DISBONDED, AS IN FIGURE 15

iMIDDLE THREE STEPS CISRONDED, AS IN FIGURE 16

RIGHT END TWO STEM DISBONDED, AS IN FIGURE 17

THERMAL STRESSES ASSOCIAl ED WITH .AT - -300F ULTIMATE STRENGTH SOLUTIONS GIVEN
TENSION

STR'ENGTH -21.659 LB/IN. MAXIMUM ADHESVE


SHEAR STRAIN
*

21,814
0.110 AT S

15,911
0.200 AT 6

8430
0.200 AT 6

0.106

ADHEREND I CRITICAL AT STATION 7


COMPRESSION

1 AT 7

ADHERENDS NOT CRITICAL

ADHERENDS NOT CRITICAL

STRENGTH - - 35.684 LB/IN.


MAXIMUM ADHESIVE

-8699 -020 AT3 ADHERENDS NOT


CRITICAL

-16,710 -0.2 AT 3 ADHERENDS


NOT CRITICAL

-17.974 -0.2 AT 6 ADHERENDS


NOT CRITICAL

SHEAR STRAIN- -0.193 AT STATION 1 ADHERENDS 2 CRITICAL


AT STATION 2

are even more sIuhtanti-al report,


recovered by

Further analyses,

,reo areas.

fld

^ involve

have been made to predict how much of that strength loss could be
bolting through the disbonded Those solutions

the use of the combined bonded-boltea joint analysis program A4EK. Figures 15 to 17 fail to show one other important effect of disbonds in stepped-lap bonded joints only because the adherends are so thick and strong that the adhesive is the weak link. This the end steps are disbonded, the entire section of the adherends, just as if they side a sound joint. This effect is shown
a more ductile adhesive.

other important effect is that, if load is now carried in a reduced had been notched or cut down outin Figures 18 and 19 which is not
for the thick

for the same joint as used in Figures 15 to 17, but for a thinner joint with
This effect could not be demonstrated

joint in Figure 5. This situation of a disbond weakening the adherends more than the adhesive would be prevalent for well-designed joints between thinner adherends, in which the adhesive had a considerable margin with which tolerate some reasonable level of disbonding. to

33

RESIDUAL THERMAL STRES1

STATION

ASSOCIATED WITH.1T -3 F ULTIh;ATE ST ENGTH - ;IM1 Ll/IN. ADHERIENDS CRITICAl.ATSTATION 4 STATION (KI0150M

2
.

ZO.D

-lf

LOADIN AD1ER1 N, I

I-3
. MAXIMUM EFFECTIVE THICKNESS OF FINDOUS COMPOS4TE SECTION (ATFAILURE LOCATION) - !.INICH AS OPPOSE TO CAI INCH IF THERE WERE NO DISSONGS

-2 AOI~rIIVE
SHEAR STRESS
-3
-,iI

I-.
N 1 2 3 4
i

1
i "

a
"

7I

--

I
FRACTURE--

CONSTANT LOAD
-..

I
-4

KISIJLOAD -zo

"II.'
-6 6.o1 9 ' Y.s A2

Nl

I
IN AOIIREISOS2 LOAD

hIN

IES ) CH AL E: (IN SC

FIGURE 18, COMPRESSIVE LOAD ON SMALL STEPPED-LAP JOINT WITH DUCTILE ADHESIVE
STATWXN ,,
RESIDUAL THERMAL STISS5 WITH,IT - 3110F-. ASSOCIATED ULTIMATE STRENGTH - -64N LU/ IN. AIRhtfNOD I CRIIICAL ATSTATIONZ

STAT'O% 4 5 6 1,2 7, 3 "" " LOAD (ZIFIlJ

-l

ADHESIVE
STRESS

-2

-20

-*.12 -1V,

FLOA.. SIO 3 4 ""

INADHEREND I 5 N 7S

IRSI)

If..
_1 ;.*-..LGAD

(KIPILNI

LOAD

INAOHFRENOSZ

--4
-

$10o

ADHESIVE PROPERTIES
-I i

STITANIUM 7 C.ELE $CA IIN.I I.: a


2

HTS GRAPHITE.

.-- J

"

""JOINT GEOMETRY

EPOXy

(ALL DIMENSIONS IN INCHtSI

FIGURE 19. PREMATURE FAILURE OF ADHERENDS DUE TO DISBOND IN ADHESIVE

31

2.7

CHECKS ON THE ACCURACY OF THE SOLUTIONS the computer program A4EI is A4EG version, that it is

The logic within with the original

now so complex, now difficult

in comparison sample

to devise

solutions to exercise all options within the coding to verify its accuracy. The last hugs were not found until after over fifty complex joints had been analyzed with several different conditions for each, However, in there are some maintaining the

techniques which have been developed which can be useful program. The most obvious give a precisely can be ones are mathematically trivial, of uniform adherends solution. residual with in a Likewise, thermal

but very precisely stress

important. joint

The should

thermal-stress-free solutions

case devised

doublie-lap

symmetric

anti-symmetric Also, a

problems.

problem run with a tensile load and negative AT, for example, can be compared with what should be a precisely opposite answer for a compressive load and the positive AT. Such checks cannot verify that all parts of the program are

operational, hut they are an easy way of exposing a problem due to misreading a card, or to cards out of sequence, which could not be detected from a very complex solution because there is grossly wrong. 2.8 CONCLUSIONS joints and account for variations is a valuable in no basis for questioning it, unless it is

The ability to analyze adhesive-bonded the adhesive, either in properties

or geometrically,

asset.

This is particularly true in regard to the load redistribution around flaws. * The computer tions of graphite-epoxy that the program A4EI laminates. of is particularly joints, as usaful between in optimizing titanium edge the propormembers and

stepped-lap

bonded

Both analysis and test over many years have shown joints can be particularly in particular, sensitive as well to poor as to any

strength

such

detailing of the end step of the titanium, gross mismatch in adherend stiffnesses.

.35

Since this is a continuum mechanics analysis,

rather than one based on finite

elements, the computer run times are extremely short. However, the actual run time depends on just where in a joint it becomes critical. Run times are typically fivc times as long if the joint is critical at the far end rather than at the near end where the analysis began. The sample solutions described here show that the computer program A4EI will be a useful tool in analyzing adhesive-bonded stepped-lap joints and doublers, particularly because of its nonlinear capabilities, without which failure prediction is virtually impossible.

36
?I

SECTION 3
NONLINEAR ANALYSIS OF MULTIROW BOLTED JOINTS FIBROUS COMPOSITE AND METAL STRUCTURES

T 3.1

22IN

INTRODUCTION

The analysis of the load sharing in multirow mechanically fastened joints in aerospace structure tions metals and empirical are which has, very in the past, and been limited have to tend to linear elastic for typical without solutechniques. forgiving These sufficed deform ductile

catastrophic

failure and redistribute the load according to plastic, behavior. precise

rather than elastic,

Some of these existing analyses have been used very effectively to failure predictions are lacking. The manner in which the end

obtain great insight into the behavior of multirow bolted joints, even though fasteners tend to pick up a disproportionate share of the load has long been understood. at some And any sculpturing load to redistribute which to analyses the art ago the have of load been transfer run. more is These evenly will be just as effective at some indeterminate failure load as it lesser tools which specified have is had for existing splice contributed quite evident been designed much a designing to

mechanical established

splices and this techniques.

from a new analysis here of an efficient decade according

However,

the advent of the greater use of advanced

fibrous composite materanalysis methods for is that fibrous comanalysis is or could are needed even be

ials has necessitated thc development of mechanically fastened splices. One reason posites are so brittle that a more precise

improved for this

load-sharing

no material yielding to mask approximations because there is inaccuracies in the predictions. The analysis for that aspect linear. feature However, in the same brittleness causes Since a need around the analysis. the clearances fasteners

for a basic nonlinear some-

times about the same as the maximum possible stretching of fibers between the fastener rows, it is obviously necessary to account for any initial

37

Even if it should transpire that clearances or preloads at the fasteners. hole clearances in bolted fibrous composite structures are eventually shown to he unacceptable for much primary structure, this new analysis might well There is another need for he the key to demonstrating such a conclusion. including nonlinear behavior in the analysis of mechanically fastened joints This need is due to the non-catastrophic bearing in fibrous composites. damage that occurs in the iwnediate vicinity of fastener holes whenever the holes are not close enough together- to fail by tension through the hole. Thus, even though fibrous composites are customarily regarded as linearly elastic to failure, they still need a nonlinear analysis for bolted or riveted joints While the justification for improving the existing analysis capability is

greater for fibrous-composites than for ductile metals, it makes sense to include in the analysis developed any extra features necessary to permit a A better characterization ,ett.er analysis of bolted metal structures also. of the load transfer distribution at typical fatigue loads can then be For this reason, the analysis developed here includes nonlinear obtained. behavior of the members between the fastener rows. 3.2 SYMBOLS

d E F
Kell Kp1 k

Fastener diameter, can vary along length Young's modulus Stress level in Ramberg-Gsgood model deflection characteristic Stiffness of element of bolt load versus

~Station identi fication


length, or distance between adjacent stations Fastener load, varies along length Running shear loads, assumed constant along length Internal loads in members, vary along length Temperature Temperature change (Toperating - Tassembly) Thicknesses of members, can vary along length Widths of members, can vary along length

2.Step P
P1, P2

T 1 , T2 T AT
t
1

, t

WI,

w2

38

n
U2 6L1

II
Coefficients of thermal expansion

Displacements of members Strain in members

0 Suhscripts 0, +, 1, 2 k e, p
Ulzt
-

Stress in members

Sign convention for displacements Identification of each member Station number identification Elastic and plastic values, respectively
Ultimate value, at failure

fr

Contribution due to friction load transfer

3.3 LOAD-DEFLECTION CHARACTERISTICS FOR A SINGLE FASTENER The transfer of load through mechanical fasteners (bolts and rivets) within a joint is characterized in terms of the relative displacement between the Figure 20 depicts the simplest possible members at each fastener station. The take-up of any initial mathematical model for such load transfer. clearance is shown to be friction free but, in principle, it would be quite force throughout that straightforward to include a constant (Coulomb) Any further load applied to the extremities of the displacement increment. joint induces a shear load in that fastener as the relative motion is resisted by the shear strength of the fastener. hut there linear, as shown, contribution prior to failure. is also The initial load transfer is usually a significant nonlinear more complex possible to (horizontal) to adopt a or to

The straight-line non-linear behavior shown

No in Figure 20 is the simplest such representation possible. In some instances it would be representations are necessary. have an ambiguous (nonunique) solution if a perfectly plastic nonlinear mathematical model were used, so It is preferable positive slope, however small, interference-fit fastener, of in the model. course, there In is

the case of a netno ilitial clearance

contend with while, for multirow joints, it is possible that the "other"' fasteners may induce a positive or negative preload on the fastener under consideration.

39

.i'RE

"WCOMLINEAR

GREATvy O"A

TRANSiER

"

aT

SCTERFER)NC

FITS)
RELATIVE DISPLACEMENT

FIGURE 20. FASTENER LOAD-DEFLECTION CHARACTERISTICS in uri.;r to ... ipleent such a necessary to c eti ie also ?odf precisely ect.on what curve as in Figure 20 it is meant by the is

relative

by reference to Figure 21, The points A and C move

c- to its equivalent for double-shear fasteners. apart under the load P. Those points are

sufficiently repiote from the fastener, at station 1, that the displacenients at A and C can be considered to be uniform across the section. The relative motion between stations A and C can be considered as the sum. of three 1 b-.tween .components; the gross section stretchi.nt (or co.;ressior) ,n member A and B, the gross section stretchiio
combination of th.,, local disturti.ons

in sne!,iher 2 between B and .,


th Lf ;,b. ) evcnty

and the
-f the

fastener and the shear deformatiGn (arid/or ;otatlo'KO of the fastener itself. By isolating out the first two such conpunents, one is left with what is

It Iz speflfc to a given fastener referred to as the fastener flgxibillty. in particular materials, but is independent of the location chosen for stations A and C. Such charActeristics rre customa!-ily deduced by measuring the relative motion between stations A and C and removing mathematically the amounts that the members I nd 2 wold and BC, respectively,
13ye

stretched over the increments AB It Is important to

had there been no fastener at B. 40

%M7A.UREV
P

OR COMPUTED)

DELTAS 6SHOWNN (6. 62. TOTALr) STATIONS SHOWN.

LNE WITH FASTENER

(MEASURED EXPERIMENTALLY)

REF R

~LENGTHS

bqT THE ACTUAL

*Il
A REF B C FINAL FASTENER LOCATION DEFORMED POSITIONS SSHOWN BY DOTTED LINES

-OTAL EFFECTIVE FASTENER RELATIVE DISPLACEMENT AND INCLUDES DISTORTION OF CROSS SECTION AT FASTENER STATION

FIGURE 21. DEFORMATIONS IN MECHANICALLY-FASTENED JOINT include the local distortion of the members around the fastener holes within

the characterization of the fastener flexibility to simplify the analysis of such joints for the load sharing between fasteners, as is explained in the next section. The load-deflection curve shown in Figure .20 applies direction only. The more general case, in Figure "?, characteristics for load in the opposite direction. It for load in one includes also the is customary to

associate positive loads and deflections with tensile lap shear, as depicted in Figure 21. The elastic hehavior for both tensile and compressive behavior so the initial elastic lines have the same slope. However, since the stress trajectories in each case are so different, as shown in Figure 23, one must provide for different proportional limits and The mathematical model shown in Figure 22 is nonlinear behaviors. appropriate for the fastening of both fibrous composite and metal members, with the use of suitable (different) coefficients to characterize the is usually identical, lobd-deflection curves.

41

0 P = U

'

UDi

PUTP PV=POSITIVE
KV- NEGATIDLT = DISPMLENT

U.ULT ULTIMATE 0 r INITIAL KIM


-=

M ELOIW

IUTN(GEL)

Wu.rSTWN

OFASTENER FL1EPY

Oi.JTi

AIK

RECTrl (KYGEL)

DLM

BNOE TINIALIiA

S~~~MIGHTf

BE PRESENT AND THAT PRE11M INOIJCE BY OWHEN FATENIERS

MAY N MAY 01I ES(OPLTO)

All ORl O.T411 IMTIVE. HUMqDR, ULQP N luTIV WME DLTOIW. AS ASGREAT LEAST BE ALG5E3ICALIY AT DLTOY MWUST

MIGH MAEMWYNGTIE0TLTN

USlY

HWVR

FIGURE 22. IDEALIZED FASTENER LOAD-DEFLECTION CHARACTERISTICS

*1
,

1 II '
;I
tI

, i
/,,I
:

*
. ,,
I t]

A. TENSILE LAP WHEAR

B. COMPRESSIVE LAP SHEAR

FIGURE 23. STRESS TRAJECTORIES AROUND BOLTS FOR TENSILE AND COMPRESSIVE LAP SHEAR

42

The mathematical description of the load transfer characteristic in Figure 22

is as follows:

0
Kel (6 - 6+)

for 60
for 60+
6

<* 60+1

(54)
(55)

- - 6el+'

P = Pe+ =Pei+ + Kpi+(6 - 6el+) P = P

for 6 = for
6

e+

(56) (57) (58)

el+ _ 6 56 p+I
6

for 6 =

pl+,

66
Eel(0_ -6) P = - Pe (-ve)

< 6 <S 6 ,(59)


0((60)

foruel- _ for 6 = 6e~

Pel- e:-K

pl- (el(

-)fo 6)

6 m. < 6 :2rL p-_

.6el-, 6

(61)

ueIt)
The negative relations cover thermal the possibility mismatch

for 6

(62)

are needed both for compressive external loads and to of internal dissimilar (self-equilibrating) members fastened loads induced at by one together

between

temperature and operated at a different temperature. the iterative analysis, prior to convergence. described below,

They are also needed in

to cover those intermediate analyses

Load transfer due to friction associated with tightly clamped assemblies can easily be accommodated in such a model. However, particularly in the case of fibrous composites with a resin matrix, the reliance upon frictional The load

transfer in long-life aerospace creep to relieve possible the even preload,

structure is Also, short in

questionable. the many

resin would which have of

structures is

countersunk clamp-up

fasteners

to achieve a in the

flush exterior, term. load

there

often not much

Leaving aside the questions transfer,

estimating the magnitude of any frictional 43

the modifications

Iq

to Equations (54) P = Pfr = constant

to (62)

would be for 0 _6 6+

(63)

in place of Equation (54), P = Pfr + Kel(6 - 60+) instead of Equation (55). P fr

and for 60+ _ 6 < 6el+ Likewise, Equation for6 0 (63) S (64)

would he complemented by

(65)

and Equation (59) P Pfr - K el(6-

would become - 6) for el-

6-

(66)

The other equations would remain unchanged. The preceding discussion concerns the load-transfer characteristics of either a single-fastener joint or of one fastener isolated out of a multirow joint. The next section of this paper ad-resses the subje-t or calculating just how the load paths. is shared between multiple it is fasteners when there are redundant load

After that,

necessary to consider the failure criteria,

station

by station, to identify just where any failure would occur, and at what load. 3.4 LOAD SHARING BETWEEN MULTIROW FASTENERS A variety of analysis techniques is this task because of a restriction here is chosen because it is adhesive-bonded analysis, Section 4 of this report. The Reference available for the solution of the problem Most are rendered unsuitable for The method adopted equivalent nonlinear in later integrated, with the is to linear behavior.

of load shaeiny between multirow fasteners. compatible

1, with which it

known

boundary

conditions are likewise

are not it

at

both

ends to

of the one end.

joint,

while

the in

unknown

conditions

confined

Therefore,

solving the problem iterativel y, .Joint (preferably that which is

is

appropriate to start at one end of the loaded to improve accuracy)

more critically

and to assume a value for some unknown there.

The assumption may be of the (or the edge

total joint strength or the displacement at the first fastener

44

I
of the joint) induced by a specified load. along the joint, one can interpret By then calculating progressively requirements, all boundary satisfying both equilibrium and compatibility the consequent predictions
dt

the other end of the joint, The development of this

The initial

assumption can then be modified afs necessary until

conditions are satisfied at both ends of the joint. iterative technique is initial assumption is the progressive

Actually, unless the explained in References 1 and 2. very close, or has been refined by prior iterations,

calculations will diverge and the appropriate change to the previous estimate is recognized in terms of the nature of the divergence. the typ4cal equations for each step of the joint is

The establishment explained

of

The conditions of equilibrium are that, between stations k and k+1

in Figure 24.

for member 1

"TX(k+l)

T(k) -P(k)

+ P1X(k)

(67)

(k21
T(k-3)-

P2I-/I
p_ _J ,

,I

STATION NO.

k-2

tIk) k.1 GICONTIUITY. GEOMETRY DISCONTINUITY

h2l

k FASTENER ON

LSTATI

T Zilk+l)

-Pkl

T20lkl

44Pik)

*
REFERENCE INITIAt STATION Wk

B. FREE-BODY DIAGRAMS
DEIrERENCE NATION (kW1)

POSITION-

II'

4-FINAL POSITIONS "-AA-ND4-(k)

SHIEAR )FFORMAIION A No AROUND

i
*

(2(k-'l1k

C. DISPLACEMENTS UNDER LWAD

FIGURE 24.

LOADS AND nEFORMATIONS ON ELEMENTS OF BOLTED JOINT 45

in which Ti is the member internal is

load,

being positive for tensile loads, P positive for tensile lap

the shear load transfer by that fastener and is

The remaining term pi9 is usually absent from test coupons shear, as shown. but represents the running shear load that may be present in such real structures as the splice at thV root of a wing under bending loads. The sign convention for pl. and when it acts the joint area. Tz(k+l)
p2

likewise,

is that each load is

taken to be positive

in the same direction as a tensile

load in the member outside

Similarly, for the same element of member 2,


-

T2(k) + P(k)

P2L(k)"

(68)
In a double-shear joint,

Figure 24 illustrates

a single-shear application.

the two portions which would make up members 1 or 2 would be combined and the fastener load transfer P would be changed from single to double shear values. Similarly, The form of Equations (67) and (68) would not be altered. in what follows, the subscripts summation of properties as well as of loads. To ensure that the analysis (and complies possibly It the I and 2 refer to any appropriate

with compatibility thermal) is material properties mathematically in

requirements, not permissible even of Figure

one at 20. each

must all that

use the mechanicil of uniqueness sometimes what is to use any ideal could

of the members. though

Because

requirements, elastic-plastic be done for is required

characterization, terms

fasteners,

Effectively,

the stiffness

of each member between

adJacent pair of fastener stations, making due allowance for variations in width (as with lollipopping to reduce the load picked up by an end fastener) as well as in thickness. Figure 25 shows typical sculptured skin splices for the fuselages and of it pressurized is to transport the is aircraft. fatigue Because than such tn skins taper are the relatively thin, splices more effective improve It to rout the edges of uniformly strength thick

doublers

thicknesses of sich members. cyclic variztion in are turn, in might be initiated clistomarily It

in the sense that the ioint geometry along the splice permits any cracks V:hich -- om the hples to grow slowly into visible areas. That, repairs. tapered the Thicker members, members, capacity as to shown account such as wing skins, in Figure 26. The

also much safer,

permits more prompt spliced herF is by developed

analysis

techniques.

for both of these appropriate to also include in the analysis provision for 46

has

thermally

Induced

strains

and

some provi sion

for

the

running

shear

load

discussed above.

SKINN

DOUBLER

INTERCOSTAL DOUBLA r-, TAPERED SPLICE

A TYPICAL LONGITIMINAL SKIN SP=IC

0- TYPICAL. TRANSVERS SKIN SP=C

FIGURE 25, RIVETED FUSELAGE SK~IN SPLICES

II

~~~~TAPERED SPLICE PLATE


WMT
I'M"S~f4

p'

TAC

U ATC

~J~hOARD STRINGEWi

FIGURE 26. WING PANEL JOINT AT SIDE OF FUSELAGE


47I

For fibrous will suffice include

composite materials, but, limit. can be for ductile behavior nonlinear The

a linearly-elastic materials to of like

gross material alloys, the joint the

behavior one must be

aluminum of

some

permit each well

loading segment

beyond

material can

proportional calculated beyond small what and not

stiffness by

to any level

of accuracy desired but any improvement the publicised (bilinear) model the is

in accuracy model

achieved

Ramberg-Osgood

(Reference 9)

or even a two-straight-line worth the added can be containing complexity. by

likely to very of purely 450 model. Other

The nonlinearity Ramberg-Osqood

fibrous

composites

represented

fiber patterns,

some 00 fibers

aligned with the

load direction,

can be treated as linearly elastic to failure. The extension of the members between stations k and k+l is 6'(kI) - 61 (k) = o,6T.(k) and
6 2(k+l)
-

given by (69)

': 2 .(k)

(k)

(k) + stepped

(k) members, for the the strains strain local (54) derive can be considered to

(70)
be the

since, uniform (69)

for uniformly between which (70)

stations, is the

except

deformation to (62). from any

around

fasteners, and

accounted

for in

Equations

In Equations temperature

thermal ly-induced

differential AT = Toperating - Tassembly and the mechanically induced strains

(71)
c, and C2 are deduced on the basis of as depicted in Figure 27.

the member loads and the material behavior,

Any running load is the joint and,

considered to be applied uniformly the strains in Equations

along the (69),

length of

in calculating

the stretching

is taken to be that which would he associated with the average member load in each segment. Since the fastener loads are treated as step discontinuities at each station, it follows from Eq.ations (67) and (68) that the average loads causing the stretching of each member between stations k and k+l are

""( (k)

P(k) + P' 2E(k)1

(72) 48

and
TZ(k)
= T2(k) + '(k)
-

P2(k)/

(73)

The corresponding stresses are 01(k)


=

T1(k) / [LW(k)t1(k)]

(74)

and
0

2(k) =

(k)

/[W2

(k)t2(k)]. such as fibrous composites,

(75) the equivalent

For linearly

elastic materials,

strains would be Ck= (k a I IU


C2(k) 0= Wak

(k) /

(k)(76)

E(k)" E2

GIII
/LRCYAN (0.7E)
I

(77)

utt

F47

F-.-i..E

1+

STRESS, 0

PROPORTHM&A

LIII?
E=l-

r~AORCAN (E)

STRAIN, FIGURE 27. RAMBERG-OSGOOD NONLINEAR CHARACTERIZATION OF STRESS-STRAIN BEHAVIOR

49

J.4~v

**Mi

In

terms

of

the

Ramberg-Osgood

material

characterization

for

ductile

materials,

C.= +
I Ei

(E F o . n - )i

(78)
E iF.7

Care must be exercised in using the formulations in Equations (78) because some of the published mathematical models do not agree precisely with the The discrepancies are usually small material properties given in MIL-HDBK-5. is necessary to input into the solution strength and strain failure properties at each station which are precisely consistent with Equation (78). but it Having determined the member strains, per Equations the (76) to at (78) the as next

appropriate, the relative displacement between station, follows for Equations (69) and (70) as

members,

6(k+l)

62(79) (k+i) - 61(k+l)

as shown in Figure 24. This, in turn, permits a new increment of fastener load transfer to be evaluated on the basic of Equations (54) to (62). Actually, for the example shown in Figure 24, there would be no transfer of

load at station (k+l). Therefore, between stations (k*l) and (k+2), Equations (67) and (68) would be modified to read

'k+2) =T(k+l) + Plk(k) T, T,


and
Tz(k+2 ) =T2(k+l) - P2Z(k).

(0 (80)

(81)

Equations (69) through (79) would be applied in precisely the same manner for the next increment of the joint. In analyzing such a multirow joint, one can specify the load(s) in members 1 and 2 at the start (left end) of the joint and seek such a value of the first fastener load that the boundary conditions are satisfied at the far (right) end of the joint. Alternatively, in seeking the elastic and ultimate joint strengths, one can specify the displacement differential 50 between the members

However,

at the first row of fasteners and iterate on the assumed applied load until satisfaction of the boundary conditions at the other end of the joint indicates the convergence has been attained. The application situations requiring relations of the methods described above, for tensile is loading, to

in which the applied

loads are compressive

straightforward,

only some sign changes and modifications to the Ramberg-Osgood (78). The same method can be adapted also to in-plane shear

loading, just as was done in Reference 2 for bonded stepped-lap joints, by replacing the various Young's moduli E by the shear moduli G = E/2(1+v). While the analysis can thus be made to compute the load sharing for a specified applied load, the lack of suitable test data make it difficult to predict the failure strength for in-plane shear loading. 3.5 FAILURE CRITERIA AT FASTENER HOLES 'Having computed the bearing loads and bypass loads at each station throughout the joint, it is still necessary to assess whether or not that combination is capable of causing the joint to fail. In the case of conventional metal members, this customarily is a simple problem since only interaction composites, interaction
illustrated

ductile minimal

is

considered

between

the

two load components.

With fibrous

however, that is not so. The use of a linear or kinked for composites is explained in References 10 and 11, and
in Figure
23

narrow

strips

is

the

loading, The linear interaction for I.t.ns.le consequence of a tensile (through-the-hole) failure for

regardless of the ratio of bearing to bypass load. or greater bolt spacing, is seen to permit

The use of wider strips, and tension The question In most

distinct bearing

failure modes, so a two-straight-line interaction is necessary. of just what constitutes the optimum width-to-diameter ratio, in the sense of maximizing the joint strength, cases it is discussed fully in Reference 11. However,

is found that having the bolts just a little too close together to sometimes a weaker

permit bearing failures maximizes the strength.

joint is preferred, on the basis that bearing failures are more forgiving. That aspect of joint design in composites is beyond the scope of this paper. For the present it suffices to say that any analysis of multirow structural joinits in fibrous ctinposities should cover both possibilities. 51

t,
tBEAR~ING CUTOFF

~TOTAL LWAD
TTLLA

0 IGLOAD

-SEARING LOAD

S,

YPASS LOAD

TENSION-THROUGHTHE-HOLE FAILURES

'BYPASS LOAD FIGURE 28. BEARING/BYPASS LOAD INTERACTION FOR LOADED BOLTS IN ADVANCED COMPOSITES Figure 28 has been prepared for the imost usua! test case, However, the general case must include compression as well, tensile loading. as in Figure 29.

NO INTERACTION (MATHEMATICAL. RATHER THAN PHYSICAL! OUTER ENVELOPE_.,

BEARING LOAD /rEARING FAILURE NO INTERACTION

THE-HOLE FAILURES

COMPRESSIVE BYPASS LOAD

[mm!P
52

TENSILE BYPASS LOAD

NOTE: ONLY TWO BASIC CONDITIONS POSSIBLE. OTHERS ARE MIRROR iMAGES OF THESE TVIO.

FIGURE Z9. EXTREMES OF BEARING-BYPASS LOAD INTERACTIONS

It is important to note that, as shown in the bottom of Figure 29, all possible seemingly different combinations of bearing and bypass load can in fact be reduced to one of only two cases, by identifying as the bypass load the numerically smaller load on one side of each fastener station. For fibrous composite materials, these bearing-bypass interactions are strongly dependent upon the fiber pattern as well as the material constituents and, in the case of tension-bearing well. It is evident, interactions, are dependent on the geometry as however, tlat each of the interactions can be defined

by three points with straight line interpolation, as shown in Figure 30.

BEARING
LOAD .F F C NOTE HOW TENSILE AND COMPRESSIVE BEARN STENGTHS

BEARING
LOAD D

OOSE FIT

MAY DIFFER

FITI

\-

BYPASS LOAD

BYPASS LOAD

FIGURE 30. IDENTIFICATION CODE FOR BEARING-BYPASS LOAD INTERACTIONS The physical explanation of the various line segments in Figure 30 is as pius

Along AC, the criterion is that the total load (bearing follows. bypass) is sufficient to fall the net section while, along BC, there would be The a local hearing failure, which would transfer load to other fasteners. line EF represents a gross-section compressive failure through the filled fastener hole while, along E'F', the inability to transmit direct bearing through a loose fastener reduces the compressive load capacity because of the Along FD, the combination of bearing and bypass reduced effective section. The heights of the points B and D above the origin 0 are strongly dependent on whether the load is stress is sufficient to induce a bearing failure.

53|

transferred head double-shear

through

simple

shear

pin, be

a countersunk in the

fastener, between different

or protruding singlelocations and of

fasteners with washer. attachments would

Likewise,

one difference

apparent

points B and D. data. The rectangular

The generation of curves such as in

Figure 30

for fibrous

composites relies on either testing or empirical

interpretation of prior test

outer

envelopes

in

Figure data.

29

are

only

mathematical

curiosities which,

nevertheless,

must be input

included

in the computer coding to

be able to recognize improperly shown load is the difference must be some explained there

Since the tensile bypass load load and the bearing materials.

between the total net section interaction for even The physical

the most

ductile

This is

in Figure 31.

limits on the envelopes shown constant for tensile load the

in Figure 31 are that the net section strength is and is not reduced by any applied bearing constant and is stresses, total bearing allowable is bypass (or carry-through)

load while,

for compression,

the sum of the applied bearing and coded to detect

The computer program is

CONSTANT TOTAL ISEARING STRESS ENVELOPE

Ti]P-TI:I-

o.,,o

"0 0
-

"

FAILURE ENVELOPE
CONSTANT TOTAL LOAD

COMPRESSION

TENSION

P~q

bq-

- Frb-

_.F_'
P- wivl (fU. klhI

"""

+, b ''' y"

SF~bypni

or lgeas

NOTE: ENVELOPE SHOWN IS FOR DUCTILE METAL ALLOYS

FIGURE 31.

OUTER ENVELOPE OF REARING-BYPASS LOAD INTERACTIONS

54

incorrect If possible, any violation of this situation. modified and noted. If not, the solution is aborted.

input

data

is

Obviously, fasteners

the likelihood is

of a failure at some intermediate

station between but the

remote because of the lack of any bearing stress there, sculpturing criteria to soften be the load on the end fastener, each location.

computer coding should cover that possibility for such a case as improperly proportioned the failure along the fibrous The it is lines of Figure 25. composites, are Since the joint strength varies from station to station, must determined for For in References and 13. It 10 and 11 can be used. should be noted that

the methods described in References 12

standard methods described

for evaluating the equivalent properties

for ductile metals

customary to express the failure criteria differently - gross section strains for fibrous composites and net section stresses for ductile metals.

3.6 EXPERIMENTAL DETERMINATION OF INPUT DATA FOR COMPUTER ANALYSIS The analysis above has been coded as the Fortran A4EJ which instructions the amount is described are provided. of data needed in Volume II of this IV digital computer program report where complete user for

In comparison with the earlier program A4EI there is the a considerable for to define problem bolted

stepped-lap bonded joints and doublers,

increase in joints. that

Unfortunately much of the data must be generated on the basis of tests

are specific to individual fasteners in particular members and must be repeated for different thicknesses, diameters, fiber patterns, and so on. Further, many of the past tests on this subject, less ambitious it recording as in References 10 and 11,

were conducted with established

of the data It is

because the needs now that the

here had yet ,to be identified.

hoped that,

analysis has been developed,

will be possible to plan a new test program fibrous composite structures. situation and structures. for the present, data 14

for bolted and riveted joints in Despite this seemingly body of for

unpromising experimental of the metal

there for contains

is

a the an

considerable mechanical empirical fasteners.

empirical

available of

attachment formula

Reference

load-detlection

chara-teristics

individual

55

.5
5t

-E

(82)

where E is Young's modulus of the members being joined, diameter, and t, and t 2 are the member thicknesses. Established values of the coefficients A and B are
A = 5.0
, ,

d is

the fastener

B = 0.8

for aluminum rivets

(83) (84)

A = 5.0/3

o.86 B =

for steel fasteners

and the the author of Reference 14 has recommended the use of


A
=

5.0/1.6

0.82

for titanium fasteners.

(85)

Whenever members of different moduli are fastened together, it H

would seem to

be appropriate to use the lower modulus as the primary value of E and to ddjust the thickness of tj or t Unti 2 to compensate tor the higher modulus. there is a significant data base established to endorse or refute the use of Equation (82) for fibrous composites, it should be '.%ed with caution. But, in the absence of other verified information, there would seem to be little alternative to the use of that or similar formulae. Now, having established the slope of the linear portion of the loaddeflection characteristic in Figure 22, it remains to establish the proportional limit and the nonlinear behavior. The end of the elastic curve can be estimated as the yield bearing strength of the weaker member at each fastener station. This strength Pe will obviously vary along the length of a stepped joint as the member thicknesses progress from the unbalanced ends of the joint to the balanced middle. The ultimate strengths p can be established the same way. are not as well defined. Obviously, there is much testing remaining to be done to make full use of this analysis, but the considerably increased definition available in the solutions demands a conunensurate increase in the input data. However, the slopes K of the nonlinear portions

56

3.7 SAMPLE SOLUTIONS Three examples illustrate the capabilities of this new analysis program. concerns a design for fibrous of composite structure splice while another is is after-the-fact analysis a thick metal and the third One an

a design

study in thin metal splices. Graphite-Epoxy Wing Spar Cap Splice Figure program, large 32 summarizes the results which of an be analysis, built from by the A4EJ computer

of a design for a spar cap splice at the side of a fuselage for a aircraft might advanced composites. much more the load intensity is

transport

Because of the high aspect ratio of the wing, severe than on any existing F-18 wing skin root splice length bolts joint. shown fittings, application, which is is

with the possible exception of the presumably much more heavily loaded F-16, a,,4i, it or F-18. wi't ,, thrae The total rows of inches

than are any of the horizontal perpendicular

tails on the F-15, ?0.275

in Figure 32

to the thirteen shown in each row,

is quite a massive

3D EDGE DISTANCE 2.86 cr (1.125 IN.)

ITS GRAPHITE-EPOXY FIBROUS COMPOSITE 50% 45. 12.5% W0 FIBER PATTERN: 374% Ow, STRIP WIDTH = 3D, 216 an (1,125 IN.)

T _Z1miOS
302 an (1.188 IN.) 3.1 alm (1 IN.)(125 4D PITCH

THICKNESS 13 OF 0.9 an (3/1 IN.) DIAM. BOLTS

0.12 IN. IN.)

PREDICTED FAILURE LOAD=225.5 kN (50703 LB) PREDICTED GROSS SECTION FAILURE STRAIN= OOM PREDICTED NET SECTION FAILURE STRESS=349A MPS (50.7 kW) PREDICTED FAILURE MODE: TENSION THROUnIH FIRST FASTENER HOLE RATIO 1.5 PEAK BOLT LOAD (AT ENDS)= 22.7 kN (S093 I) MINIMUM BOLT LOAD (IN MIDOLE)= 14.8 kN (3317 LB)

FIGURE 32.

BOLTED COMPOSITE JOINT 57

One very

significant

result shown 0.0039,

in Figure 32 is roughly

that the predicted the

gross

section failure strain


|*

strain is

half way between

loaded hole One should

level

of 0.0035 and that

for unloaded

holes of 0.0042.

not, therefore, as the result

expect any significant improvement in strength to be possible of even the most thorough redesign. The other significant

finding is that, because the members cannot possible be tapered down to a point, and the first fastener could not be located there anyway, the load distribution is not uniform. The end bolts pick up 1.5 times as much load at that ratio would have much higher still The siqnificant point to be recognized to design a linearly tapered had here those in the middle. is that it is not Actually, possible

there been no tapering at all.

multi-row

mechanically fastened joint which approaches the uniformity in load transfer of a bonded scarf joint.
CLEARANCE RADIAL 10.0I0.NGHI /-NET FIT

( Z I(si Pbr

73.111

A 70

O4b-2 2 (PSI)

V.411

57,446

A. NET FIT FASTENERS


61614i. RADIAL CLEARANCE

C. LOOSE FIT FASTENERS

ULTIMATi

JOINT STRENGTHS

I]

A. 00,713LS
S 0. 7.S7 LB

C. 45.60A L.

amt 1 (PAU I)

W4n0HIN 5.0 72.3166 0.011i4


.037.N

0r

II ll2

(r )

48

4 OTE: THIS ILLUSTRATION.IS AN ENLARGED

JOINT IN DETAILATTHEENDOF THE THE PRiECEDING FIGURE

B. CLOSE FIT FASTENERS

FIGURE 33.

INFLUENCE OF HOLE CLEARANCE ON STRENGTH OF BOLTED JOINTS on the basic solution the end fasteners. because it in Figure 32 dur The 0.001 inch

Figure 33 records some perturbations to minute radial and gross clearances

around

clearance

actually

increases

the strength

softens

the end

fasteners and decreases their bearing loads slightly.

The gross clearance of

I!58

..

I
0.010 inch around the end fasteners, on the, other hand, unloads them so much that more of the basic load is carried through to the next fastener station, It Is reduree and the laminate strength also. clear that, in tapered splices like this, it is important that the outermost be a Otherwise there will loose. not are in particular fasteners In metal structures, however, there would disproportionate loss of strength. where the thickness has been be enough yielding to redistribute the loads and failure. increase strength prior to

Metal Ving Skin Splice The splice shown in one of many splices actually tested in the development of the wing skin splice at the side of the fuselage for a large The fasteners near the tip of the splice plates are of transport aircraft. Figure 34 is

(IJON.I

iJ~li.)

0.751 .1N

ET.(

PLC&
483ZI

T8 IN
2 13
(Q 84 IN I

- E.,VtTSWNNLiMEAMANALYSIGAT4FIPLIEDOROG 11.6 1,.605 05.4 37.0 8.323 146. 4-2 7.64 193.5 C7iONSSSQF273,tMPS 39.3 4,947 2%.2 54-4 12.232 "1.9 276.1 (4KOM)

F.ZSTENER 4k0) LOAD& SxIN NET ) (MPs)

NOr BAL.ANCE NEIWM END FASTUNER LOAVS. DUE TO THM6WQ OF V!CE STmA7S
40.675 40.041 37 14S 2.o0, 21.2b4 12.379 SF.CTM4 STWMMS (OWS) 151.6 16.6 1.4.7 169.6 (uPa) 179.5 StJC. STRAP 21.97; 24.012 23.U8S (2.2 IS)PN4 24."Z PKS)26.027 NET SECTIO KS))lS, SPCE NP.(92.3 6109,66.5 I MI PASTURER: 360O.0 ThES.ESONIP4*TEPW IMANG $ESS .APEM ST

*
*

.EST FALUME IN SKIN THRIR, RGH.T DiW FASTEN1R. WWHS .iOTH krT TENSON AND iKRM STWSE ARE PRUICTED TO UV MMM
ANALYYSISPTEDIC1TATEFAL,. AT MM6 UECTI 11(

TROECOFP$W*)50.6K$u)

FIGURE 34. BOLTED FETAL JOINT The success of lesser diameter than the others to equalize the load sharing. this design, using older method, established at least ten years prior to this analy-is, can be gaged from the predicated net section failure stress of 50.8

59

,i

1
ir

ksi,

in

comparison

with

the

design

target

of

52

ksi.

The

seemingly

disproportionate thickness of the splice platEs wheee the skins butt togethe*r is needed to try and equalize the load transfer at each end of the overlap. The first and last bolts shown do transfer- close to the same load. indicates some of the quite extensive internal definitions of Figure 34 the load

transfer and stress states within the joint that this analysis can provide. Metal Fuselaq& Skin Splice

-i'
The thick tapered splice shown in Figure 34 is thinner fuselage edges structure, on so it is more and unsuitable for use in the much usual to employ there, scalloped as shown or in lovipopped splice plates doublers Figure 25. This is true for bonding such structures also. Apart from the difficulty of handling thin tapered strips without damaging them, there is a further reason for preferring a wavy edge to the splices. The variation avony the ed..e ,mTkes earlier crack detection possible, minimizing both the likelihood crack of catastrophic failure and the size of if it repair needed. were concealed exposed for A skin under a could grow far longer before detection tapered doubler rather than

uniform

periodically

visual

inspection by a routed sculptured edge.

Figure designs,

35

presents

comparison uniform

between with

different the same

fuselage number of

skin

splice for

with a

ba.ic

splice

rivets

reference. Since it has been shown in Reference 1i that the load on a fastener induces a hoop stress around the hole of the same order of magnitude as the average bearing stress, the fatigue life of the lollipopped designs shown by test. The skin is The it most reasons for increases

should be much greater, frequently critical

as has often been

through

the first row of attachments. in that outermost

omitting every second fastener

row are that

the static stength of the joint, because of the reduced net area loss, and it means that any cracks which may initiate have fur t her t o grow before they These advantages outweigh the could join up and rip the'-skin apart. consequent increase of bearing stress on those end fasteners, with respect to

having ha(, twice as many fasteners to share that load.

60

3/ID-IN1.ADRIVETS-.,

I~. 714.-IC

=o
3163 IN.o -'

3 FULL ROWS OF RIVETS PER SIDE

2 FULL AND 2 HALF ROWS OF RIVETS PER SIDE

RIVET LOAD (L9)

Y24

112

224

RIVET LOADS ILI)

213

118

103

215

1EARING STRESS (K9I) SKINJI 011S (KSIll

1 6.3

1i 11.5

II 17.1

i3.3

SKIN1EARING STRESS is (KIl) SPLICE NEARING STRESS 12 (KSIl SKINSTRESS (KSl)I 5. SPLICE STRESS (KSIh 11.1

is 11 1.6 14.1

is 1 11.8 6.0

24 24 15.2 5.6 13.3

LI

INTERNAL LOADS FOR COMMON 1P LOAD OF 840 LB/IN.


mETES

1. ULTIMATE STRENGTHS ARE2121 LI/IN. FOR BASIC JOINT AND2411 WiIN.FOR LOLLCPOPPED SPLICE. CORRESPONDINGI WITH REMOTE SKINSTRESSES OF 48 AND64 KSI.REPECTIVELY
2. EACH SPLICE IHASTHE NAMENUMNBER OF RIVETS.

3. FURTHER OTIMIZATION OF REFINED SPLICE COULD ENHANCE FATIGUE LIFE9Y REDUCING ENDFASTENER LOAD. NUTULTIMATE STRENGTH WOULD NOT INIPROVED.

"E

FIGURE 35. COMPARISON BETWEEN BASIC AND REFINED FUSELAGE SKIN SPLICES

The softening by scalloping which, is shown in Figure 35, is also applied to slightly thicKer structure, where strirgers are spl 4 ced, for example. The computer program A4EJ now makes it possible to perform parametric studies to optimize the proportions of all such design details. It might even be possible now to design by analysis rather than test, for the first failure to occur in the splice plate, which is easier to replace than the skin. In thin sheet-metal structure, it is common to have multiple splice elements which do not all start at the same fastener location. There are therefore two or more rows of fasteners which are subjected to peak loads. Once the use of this program A4EJ has been mastered, it is possible to obtain a reasonable representation of the internal loads in such splices, as shown in Figure 25, by selectively lumping the skin and doubler together to cover one end of the joint, while the 6oubler and splice would be lumped together to characterize the other end. This takes two runs and obviously will not cope with all such situations. There is a need, therefore, to try and modify the existing coding to account for multiple splice elements some day. The limit to such work is anticipated to be in the computer run times. For example, if 61

it takes 100 iteration cycles to solve a problem with a single (or symmetric) splice, it would take 10,000 cycles if there were two splice plates of different widths. That must be weighed against the cost of inputting two models to approximate the problem with two runs on the present program. The author believes that there is a case for a three-member splice analysis, but not for any more than that, even though the recoding effort would be the same. Eventually- designers must face up to standardized design concepts within the capability of then current analyses for any future project or incur the ever increasing expense in money and time of specific detailed finite-element analysis or physical testing, for gains that are often imperceptible with respect to simpler concepts if dore well. Improvement Of Bolted Joint Designs To Enhance Fatigue Lives None of the examples discussed above would qualify as a poorly designed joint, so they provide no standards against which other joints can be assessed., It is appropriate, therefore, to include a comparison between a multirow bolted joint in which no design finesse at all was employed and one in which a reasonable degree of expertise had been applied. This comparison is evident in the different designs and analyses shown in Figures 36 and 37. These joints are idealized in the sense that there would have to he support structure to react the eccentricity in load path and that the bolt failure in Figure 36 could easily be avoided by a double-strap splice design with the bolts in double shear. Nevertheless, there are several important conclusions to be drawn from these examples. While the uniformity of load transfer in Figure 37 is far superior to that

shown in Figure 36 (withing 4 percent for normal operating loads), the inefficiency in Figure 36 is nowhere near as severe as similar analyses in adhesively bonded structures would suggest. The forty percent inefficiency shown would become much higher for thinner more extensible members and for more rows of bolts, however, but would probably never approach the 10 to 1 ratio needed between the peak.and minimum adhesive shear stresses in durable bonded joints. The ultimate strengths of the two joints shown in Figures 36 and 37 differ by

62

3IN.

BOLTS

0IN.

WIDTH PERR ROW

TOTAL LOAD (LB/ROW) 10.000 20.000 30.000 40.000 03,042 (ULTIMATE) 2.337 4,675 7,032 9,533 10,490"

INDIVIDUAL FASTENER LOADS 1928 3656 5472 7162 7597 1669 3338 4992 6500 667 1828 3656 5472 7162 7597

-. .

. ... 2,337 4,675 7,032 9.588 10.490

RATIO PMAX/PNm 1.40 1.40 1.41 1.48 1.53

'SHEAR FAILURE (HIGHEST ASSOCIATED NET SECTION ALUMINUM STRESS - 68.9 KS4I NOTE: COMPATIBILITY OF DEFORMATIONS AGGRAVATES NONUNIFORM LOAD DISTRIBUTION AS LOAD IS INCREASED, BECAUSE MEMBERS YIELD ONLY AT HIGHLY LOADED ENDS, NOT
EVERYWHERE.

FIGURE 36. BOLT LOAD DISTRIBUTION IN POORLY-DESIGNED MULTIROW BOLTED JOINT

.1.01

OF FASTENERS

TAL -(I 10,000 20,000 30,000 40,000

) 2030

INDIVIDUAL FASTENER LOADS 1995 1951 1995 3989 5973 3902 5844 7722 8881 3989 5973 7582 9044

RATIO ,.,/P.m 2030 4060 6105 8257 1 .0 1.04 1.04 1.07 1.09

4060 6105 8257

46,387 (ULTIMATE)
_

9709

ii

7832

j9044

_iilii 9709

ULTIMATE FAILURF IN NET SECTION OF ALUMINUM (AT AVERAGE STRESS OF 74.2 KSI) AT OUTEvhAOsT ROV . OF BOLTS. NO BOLT FAILURES.

FIGURE 37.

BOLT LOAD DISTRIBUTION IN IMPROVED DESIGN FOR MULTIROW BOLTED JOINT

63

only

percent.

While

that

represents

significant

improvement,

the

inevitable criticality of the net section at the outermost fasteners makes it very difficult to make major improvements to the ultimate strength of joints by techniques which yield substantial benefits in the fatigue resistance of the joint. fasteners The fifteen percent reduction in bearing stress on the outermost in Figure 37 could easily double the number of load cycles neeeded

to fail the joint in Figure 36. Figure 37 joint in transfer. represents Figure 36. only a Yet it single came estimate of proportions within 4 percent of a to improve the perfect load (which

This implies that the theoretiral

benefits of scarf joins

are in practice not fully obtainable because of the finite thickness at the outermost bolts) can be approached very closely with relatively far less effort. In other wuds, tne benefits fron; a little bit of design finesse are substantial and should always be sought. to be gained from precise optimization Conversely, the residual benefits are disproportionately small in

comparison with the effort expended to improve on the first refinements. In the example shown, it is not obvious enhance that reducing the diameter because of the

outermost

fasteners

would

the jesnt

stren~gth

the bolt

strength would decrease faster than the stiffness. IT a similar design for a double-shear joint, however, the computer program A4EJ w3uld provide a rapid estimate of any benefits to he gained by such a modification. most unlikely that a joint with such an abrupt load transfer as shown in Figure 36 would be designed today. However, that situation could arise in service due to a fatigue crack grown through a continuous member like a wing spar cap, for example. Thus, tolerance the new analysis can be used as also to investigate the damage of bolted structures as well the load It is

transfer in the virgin structure. 3.8 CONCLUSIONS The nonlinear behavior and joint analysis represent increased internal definition of this new bolted beyond the prior state of

considerable

extensions

the art.

64

This

increase

in

analysis

capability

in

turn

demands

more

extensive

experimental fields. Even without

data base for input.

Some such information may be provided also loaded fasteners in specific stress

by other analysis programs for individual

precise

data,

however,

the

program

can

be very effective

for

parametric studies using only estimated input values. Since this is elements, needed is a continuum mechanics analysis, rather than one based on finite short, The amount of input

the computer run times are extremely in

significantly greater than for the earlier stepped-lap bonded joint number of parameters needed

analysis proqram A4EI because of the increase to define the behavior at cach station.

The sample solutions oa\crr1ed :,-t useful tool in analyzing and ietal structures.

-htw that the computer program A4EJ is ,joints, in

a M

multirow boltNd

both fibrous composite

6S

SECTION 4 NONLINEAR ANALYSIS OF BONDED/BOLTED JOINTS 4.1 INTRODUCTION Separate nonlinear analyses for the load transfer in adhesive-bonded joints

and multirow bolted joints are given in Sections 2 and 3 of this report. When adhesive bonding is used in conjunction with mechanical fastening, one cannot sum the individual of each load path differ. of the combined regarded bonding, thorough such a analysis load method transfer, joint strengths because the individual So also do the strains to failure. reported here for is to be able accounting the compatibility stiffnesses The function the

to characterize

of deformations. may be

Depending on one's point of view,

one purpose of this irvestigation

as exposing once and for all the futility of combining bolting and to increase joint strength, by means of a nonlinear analysis so that there combination. can no longer be any doubts However, that would of not there is installing about the inefficiency of attitude a to be 4 a reasonable

adopt because,

in a broader context,

a very legitimate need to know fastener through bonded

such things as the consequence

joint not to augment the shear transfer but to tie in to some other structure Also, of course, the introduction of load in test coupons or fitting. throuqh a bolt via bonded-on reinforcing doublers is a widespread standard practice. By far the biggest joint justification analysis for the development is to be of such in a combined imperfect

bonded/bolted structures.

capability

found

Here there are many classes of problems in which the combination

of bonding and bolting offers unique advantages, and these provide the real The sample solutions presented in this payoff from this new capability. report have been selected specifically to explain such applications as well as to illustrate the capabilities of the analysis program. of these applications is the repair of what was originally purely adhesively bonded The first group intended to be

structure but which has suffered from either flaws

67

which

occurred was

during even

manufacture employed as

or a

from

damage

in The

service. fix second

Such for group The

a a of

combination

standard aircraft. fibrous

production

design/manufacturing these applications structures,

problem on those

one modern made from

is the enhancement of the damage tolerance of thick bonded composites. prior

particularly

understanding of fail-safety due to the combination of rivets and bonding has been far less than adequate, so the opportunity is taken here to present a thorough discourse on this subject in the process of illustrating the capabilities of the analysis program. Briefly, for light-loaded structure,

adhesive bonding provides a fail-safe load path to overcome the weakness caused by tearing along a line of fasteners. For heavily-loaded structure, on the other hand, mechanical fasteners can be very effective in preventing widespread unzipping triggered by what was initially quite localized load redistribution around a damaged or defective bond. There is
,

no discussion here of the derivation of the analysis methods used in


....... r.* ,_.tai I t program, ^s t" '

been covered fully in Sections 2 and 3 of this report. is can do and computer difference the reader in analysis is referred to the user manual for the full is that

The combined program and listings of the The biggest bonding

capable of much but not all of what the separate programs A4EI and A4EJ codes (Volume II of this report) details.

capability

absence of adhesive

permitted the inclusion of nonlinear adherend behavior as well as nonlinear load-deflection curves for the fasteners in the bolted joint program A4EJ, while remain for the bonded/bolted program A4EK, the adherend deformations of is must the not

linearly elastic to be able to compute the load transfer through the

adhesive bond. Since prior work has shown that gross yielding adherends triggers progressive failure of adhesive bonds, this considered a significant limitation. analysis program A4ET has permitted

The shorter length of the purely bonded the inclusion of an extra subroutine to

massage the input data and improve the computer run times. Thus, these three new program3 each have unique capabilities. However, the earlier stepped-lap joint analysis programs A4EF, MEG and A4EH have no capabilities not found in the A4EI program. Yet their more limited capabilites are associated with a far shorter computer code so that they may be more desirable for small computers or for subroutines in bigger programs on larger computers.

68

4.2 REPAIR OF DEFECTIVE BONDED JOINTS BY MECHANICAL ATTACHt ENTS Section transfer joint. 2 of this report both contains the several to sample solutions of the and load three

through a These

substantial

titanium basic

graph te-epoxy perfect

adLesive join,

bonded

include fasteners,

nominally

different disbonds. of mechanical the original

The purpose of this section is The basic joint geometry is

to show how the addition can modify The shown in Figure 38.

in the form of 5/16-inch titanium bolts,

solutions.

composite laminate is

0.81 inch thick, while the titanium is

0.51 inch thick,

and the overlap is 5.0 inches. It was shown in Section 2 of this report how, by progressive redesign, the joint strength could be increased significantly by optimizing the proportions. However, these refinements are not compatible with the use of bolts to provide an alternative load path with which to repair local disbonds due to misfit during manufacture or damage in service. So the original equally-stepped geometry is used in these new examples, with only a shortened end step on the titanium.

S0.312S IN.
BOLTS

('O-'CURII LiED00 00 FIBROUIS O COMPOSITE SIDES) / (BOTH

I '
1

I
11 17

TIT 2 IUM PLAE


3

STATIO UMERS I 0L .0 iN A- 3PECIMEN GEGMETRY

19

"I

1 Ib14

7
B~I

I AUFRENOD TITANIUM MATERIAL . 1" 0.10bPSI tuF 130 KS1

SHEAR STRESS 4 IKSI) 2 3I 1

0.077u -, 0.2

STQAIB SHEAR ADHESIVE THCKNESS 0.005IN. a. ADHESIVE PROPERTIES

ADHERE,NOS 2 / MATERIAL: HTSORAPHITE.EPOXV 11 45ESACtWT 00oE0 PLIES) C 10.0.R10SP' - to KS1 C. AOHERENS PROPERTIES

FIGURE 38.

STEPPED-LAP BONDED/BOLTED JOINT

69

Figure 39 describes the load transfer through the bonded-bolted

joint and is

directly comparable with Figure 25 in Section 2 for a purely bonded joint. The addition of seven rows of fasteners to this joint is actually predicted to decrease by the joint comparing strenqth, Figure 39 from with 34,322 the lb/in. to 33,096 lb/in., here as in revealed equivalent solution

Fiqure 40 for precisely the same joint without any fasteners. this decrease is might given a change In failure mode and location. increase it in strength, clear shown that in the the assessment addition increase 39, the of the of

The reason for transfer to an

While other examples load

show a small in Figure

39 makes In

fasteners joint

unflawed

adhesive-bonded

joint

does

not

strength transfers shown could

significantly. in

the example the fasteners

Figure alone,

adhesive any

over 98 percent of the total loadi. Figure 41 that

That may seem surprising, acting without

since it adhesive,

have transferred 28,380 lb/in., or 83 percent as much as-the adhesive alone. The reason why the combination a does not work argument well together is the gross these of dissimilarity in stiffness hetweeio the two load paths. three solutions seem to make strong Taken together,

against the combination

NO RESIDUAL THERMAl. I1MESSESACCOUNTED FOR (AT-G) 0 .i ADHESIVE NOT CRITICAL TENSILE LOADING 4 -

LOAD IN AOIEREND I

1KIPS)

LOAD

ADHESIVE (K|III .: .{ j i I 1 3 4 5 4 7 $ 1 10 11 12 13 14 IS

,,STATION

"

IV..",'

LOAD INADHEMERD 2 FIOROUS COMPOSITEADHEREIIO 3 CRITICAI. AT FIRST EItI _._ . . _.... .r .,., ..

11 __

13D14 1

LOA (KIPSII.)

IOIELOADS

17

44

If STATION

II
TOTAL LOAD TRANSFER
-

33.@N Ll

ADHESIVE LOAD TRANSFER SOLT LOADOTRANSFER

3 .T71 LB A ISE to
IARELY I PERCENT (B SCALE.

OF TOTALI

(INCHES)

FIGURE 39. LOAD TRANSFER THROUGH BONDED/BOLTED STEPPED-LAP JOINT WITH NO FLAW 70

NO RESIDUAL THERMAL STRESSID ACCOUNTED FOR (,%T-01 I f.. )i "0lle ADHES1IV NOT CRITICAL TENSILE LOADiND 4IL

LOAD IN ADIEREIfO I
2l .

TITANIUM CRITICAL AT

(KIPS) LOA

,ig,.'.,

ADHESIVE
''

I"

STRESS 44511
1 F 2 3 4 N 7 1 STATION I I411

SHiAFI

"I.
12 131415

4LOAD IN ADHEREND 2

_____________________________

FIBROUS COMPOSITE

7 1 10 0 It 11 131411 STATION

LOA5

NOTIRiTIC-A"

LOAOTEIANSFER 34,32l L1 IONI.0 1N.WIDTfI1 SEVEN J01N1.WITH Of SAME IRANSFER 0.3215 IN.FASTENERS AUOE9 - 33.096 LB

"LOAD

N IPATiON 7 B

I 10 11 02 131410

SLIGHT REDUCTION INSTRINGTHI DUE TOBOLT HOLE IN THICK FNDOF FIBROUS COMPOSITE

SCALE iNCHES)

FIGURE 40. LOAD TRANSFER THROUGH ADHESIVE-BONDED STEPPED-LAP JOINT WITH NO FASTENERS

NORESIDUAL THERMAL STRESSES ACCOUNTED FOR (AT-0) TEIKSILE LOADINO 4 3fTSLOAD LOAD IWADHEREND I TITANIUM NOTCRITICAL

777
2

11IKIEII
BOLT13

3 4

1MN

Ib7 1

I 10 i

12

13041

.1li
j

Ol

1 0 1 STATION

10II 1

1213 14 B

STATION

18) 11 12

13141B"

JOINTSTRENGTH * U.B LICAE FATRERS NOT CRiTiCAL SHEAR STRERGT


57&0 LI H ION

I.EIN WIDTH)

(NHSALE0

MS

FIGURE 41. LOAD TRANSFER THROUGH BOLTED JOINT WITHOUT ANY ADHESIVE 71

Such a pessimistic prediction has adhesive bonding and mechanical fasteners. been found to be true for several joint geometries investigated during the course of this work. A well manufactured, well designed bonded joint is very

difficult to improve upon, particularly when one considers the design refinements described in Figures 8 and 9 of Section 2 of this report to increase the bonded joint strength. additions of rivets or bolts. Before proceeding to the more fruitful bolting, Figure 41. middle. joints, below, The This where is the it end is appropriate bolts pick up to applications of combined comment less the the with at on a surprising than The do of bonding and feature in of the Such techniques as the special shortened

end step on the titantium plate are not quite compatible with the subsequent

much

load ends.

those

in marked load

contrast peaks

behavior

adhesive-bonded reason for this

transfer

alleviation in Figure 41 is that the end steps are quite thin and, therefore, " those fasteners have a much lower effective stiffness than those nearer the If the members being bolted together were uniformly middle of the joint. thick, the end f steners would incur a voJyuPuIortflodte share of the load, just as for bonded joints.

When the bolts are used to substitute for defective

or damaged bonds,

the

pessimistic picture above changes dramatically. This is shown in Figures 42, 43, and 44, which are directly equivalent to Figures 15, 16 and 17 of Section 2 of this report for flawed bonded joints without fasteners. The

strength increases due to such bolted repairs are seen to be substantial even though they remain much weaker than the baseline joint What is of special interest in Figures 42, 43 and 44 is in Figure 39 or 40. that the fasteners

still transfer so little of the load. Their effectiveness follows from relieving the stress and strain concentrations in the adhesive immediately adjacent to the flaw, other words, rather than in the load they transfer themselves. from the presence of the bolts is more effectively. are shown in the (While In the benefit

that they permit

the remaining adhesive to work unrepaired flawed bonded .ioints

The strengths of the lower left corners of

SFigures

42,

43 and 44 for comparison.

the geometry of the joint in

Figure 38 here and Figure 5 of Section 2 is slightly different hecause of the shortened and titanium step here, the effects are insignificant, as can be

t72
Ik

I
NOIC RESIDUAL THERMAL STRESSES CCOUNTED FOR (AT-R)

a----

0a

TENSILE LOADING

ADHESIVE CRITICAL ATSTATION FASTENIRS NOTCRITICAL ADHESIVE SHEAR


STRESS

3 n LOAD

LOADIN AIHEREFND I TITANIUM ADHERINC NOT CAIICAL

[
I 1Ki)2 1 4 S 6

DSA

7 7
STATION

1511

12t13141k

'" "A -IV OA-"L S~NOT 1 BOLTLOAES


(LB) TOTAL LOAD TRANSFER

.LOADINEAOHEREN

E2
FIBROUS COMPOSITE AOHfREIIG CRITICAL

"

-.. :"

2 1213

3 4 1IM1

1678 STATION I17 720

E1 64

11 12 131411 63 I 12

LOAD qKIP$) 2

OLT LOAD

TRANSFER

26.274 LI (ON 1.0-IN. WID'TH)

a 6

9 A

I10

11

141 13 1 z 16 34

ADHESIVE LOAD TRANSFER BOLTLOAEJ TRANSFER

22.554 Ll - 2713 LB (11 PERCENT OF TOTAL) SCALE (INCHES) 0

STATION

LDMPRABLE STRENGTH WITH ADHESIVE ALONE- 1.11 LI STRENGTH OF UNFLAWIED JOIN' - 33,869 LE

FIGURE 42. LOAD TRANSFER THROUGH FLAWED BONDED JOINT REINFORCED BY BOLTS
NO RESIDUAL THERMAL STRESSES ACCOUNTED FOR IAT-0)

"B

20

TENSILE LOADING E IN ADHEREND LOAD

AfIHESIVE

TITANIUMIAOHERtEN NO I" CRITICAL

CRITICAL I IKIPS)2 ATSTATION ADHESIVE SHEAR STRESS


I KS I J

LOAD

FASTENERS NOTCRITICAL 0. DISBOND LOAD IN ADITEREND 2


1 2 3 4 5 6 1 1 I t1 1 1 12 1 11 4 15

STATION

... f.. 1 2 3i

"FIBROUS COMPOSITE ADHERENR NOTCRITICAL


LOA0TRANSFER BOLT"1-_-l'. I

3TAT i

_. . LRIPS) STATIONAT 4 I 02.

10 11 1t-ttS
'1

LOAD
T

BOLTLOADS ILEI

I,)3

1 16 20 '

12'62 I I'I I

TRANSFER TOTALLOAD ADHIESIV' LOADTRANSFER BOLTLOADTRIANSFER

- 24.027 LN ION1.0 IN.WIDTH) " 20.611 LB - 340 LI (14PERCENT OF TOTAL)

B 7 S I STATION

10 II

12 13 1406

WITHADIHESIVL ALONE - 01.131 LB COMPARALLE .TRENGTH STRENGTH OF UNFLAWED JOINT 323060LIB

SCALE [INCHES)

FIGURE 43. LOAD TRANSFER THROUGH FLAWED BONDED JOINT REINFORCED BY BOLTS 73

*RAMA& ITPrAUS ACCOUSTO FOR (t.1-41 so 4AMIOUAI. Co... %

4f

CRITICAL WIAENES NOT

F ..
"I- "'-. ".. 11 4 2

HEMI~t tOA01tS 'I INADMINE11 LOA*S


TITANIUMAOHIRKE4 NOT CNITICAL

I
V1.0153
1 MSP

44.45$I

2t~~~OAD
-

ULT LOAD TRANSAE

tL
4S 6 0 313 4 4. 1642 14 I

2 IgLO IIIIAMP4EREU

IT3TA30|
A.. 2 OA$ I -1 1 0 7 PTATIOS 61

COPISIT!, I D4ORIR. NOTCRITICAL LOAD -1 _.1.--1 ,M-

L 111.1,1. M

4K

4OAI4SALI3AOT113'tfl

S23,t1% 1 2 3

is 11

1,)14 1i,

S'1M114AE *OT.k

to 21.611 (,OkMCIcIEIT Of TOTal SCALE

TIO

C(m&Alaa

SRMOTH.TN A

VALSS

14,P93 L1

,4)31

S11.1S31 01 U,'LASVl0 JOINT -31.@k toL

FIGURE 44, LOAD TRANSFER THROUGH FLAWED BONDED JOINT REINFORCED BY BOLTS seen by comparing the pure.ly bonded joint wi~alyses here and ?4,'075 lb. in Niguc 6 of Section 2.) W'iMle it is is true that i'e predicted qr-:ater
load
-

34,322 lb. in Figure 40


'S

strangth

for, the

fasteners

alone,

in in

Figure 41, Figureb 42,


an ultimate

than for any oat te it


with sub-tart'al

repaired

bonded/bolted joints

43, and 44,

sh(.,uld e ackntiwledgei that Figure 41 represents


dainaqe to the laminate at much

condition,

loser load levels. in service than te


because is the

The bonded/bolted repaired joints would last much longer same Joint with no adhesive.
weak link with fibrous

:t is not clear whether the


adherends is not the .ight

reoaired ,jointI would default to the greater ultimate strength with fasteners alone composite

delamination of the adhe.rends well trigger quite a different fin.il failure. adlesive - it

so the initial

failure

This use of tha combination of-bonding and bolting for repairs is thus seen to expose very real benefits which the assessment of the nominally perfect '. hond in Figure 39; could not revEal.

~74

/--TITANIUM

ADHI|IV1

LAYI!

/r

lSEOUS C"GMFOIE LAMIIIATE

STEE

FI,

LAIDUP ORI ITANIUM PLATE

SCO CIURiE ANO SONDEDD 4MT

SIATIONS I TITANIUMPLATES DUE TO A$YMETFRV MISALIGNEDI II POIEEURED COOPOICTE SKIN

If HALF TIIARIUM PLATE CAW3OTSE SUtOD SIDEWAYS. STEPS IS PLATE AqO SREAWILL INTERFERE. CAflING LARGE.WIDESPREAD VOIDS IN 5010

~~..

COWCrITE FISRtO&S

7 / VOIDS DUE 70 MIFT

EDUCED 6010 AREA out 10 MWAL166001117 S VZO4EAST IOND0NG OF PRECDUAE DETAILS

THICKNE$ISS NMWATCH ALSO CAUSS V0921

FIGURE 45.

POTENTIAL MANUFACTURING PROBLEMS WITH STEPPED-LAP BONDED JOINTS

The likeClihoiod of needing such repairs due to manufacturing difficulties be minimized hv the selection of the design and fabrication concept. explained in Figure 45, conjunction ensures an with excellent in which the central and bonding any of of fit without titanium the the fibrous co-cure composite

can

This is virtually to be

stepped plate used in likely

difficulties

encountered with the bonding together of pre-cured details. the pre-preq between split external iiJ... quality bond
uuF I i ....

Even sandwiching generated

titanium plates will path for any

not result in a top volatiles

because

....

there

is

no escape

the

cur , t..

if

prfect. te fi.t were otherwisp

4.3 REPAIR OF DAMAGED STRUCTURE BY BONDING AND BOLTING The new analysis metnods can be applied also to the repair of general damage to structure, part icuarly for fibrous composite structures, regairdless of whether such damage occured at tne site of an existing joint or not. any such patch can are redundant between tht he recarded as two joints back-to-back, However, sense in tbintact that the and the same damage, is member and analysis methods apply. load paths surrou(irin for the repair of local Since theory there shared itself.

interrupted load the repair

structure 75

Actually,
than be

if the repair is too stiff, it could even attract more load locally
structure encountered. the most basic This Is not the place for a full be explained to make the

the original avoided, but

discourse on the topic of the details of bonded repairs and the pitfalls to principles must present discussion effective.

A, M

ES MIMIAL 3

AGE

DAMNAGE S AREACURSES UP &VCVTnmc A LARGER *OLE PATCH

___

_TAMEDi

HGA " COVT LAVRAY&


00 TI
__J ___TA 2611111

NIcTItN o U PATCH

A- HA.V E THICKENIE AtN MOLE IN SRO A ER FO f LIEEVE CRITICAL I& &,ADIlhaivi 0O01 CO*OITI 0 COINSNITIE

REPAIR

FIGURE 46. The usual

ArNE$1VE-90NHDED REPAIR OF DAM4AGE TO FIBROUS COMPOSITE STRUCTURES proc in in the redair of local FIRo area is first trimmed to a to

struct~ure

is

shown

Figure 46. the dmeAe

The damaged area is

smooth contour. not be filled.

Dependi(ng on the application, Finally,

the resulting hole may or may covered by a larger patch,

transmit so*,w (or all) of the load which had been Interrupted by the damaged area. There are two potential sites at which the bord may become critical. One is at the outer pnrimeter of the patch and the otner is at the edge &f the hole. overlooked. The fact tPat care must be taken at both locations is often here have been premature failures, with excellently detailed patch, which were due to the abrupt thickness

I
! _

rurui':s at the edge of the

76

NM
discontinuity at the edge of the hole. been wh.n complicated scaled and up. by the While fact that the hond The understanding of this problem has seems had to have been up, in the the very same

what area in a

repair concept which had been tested satisfactorily in small scale had failed been scaled change adhesive thickness had not been and that omission changed the relative strength of the adhesive Therefore, adherends, resulting expect pronounced the stress failure mode. at both to develop one should to relieve concentrations

perimeters of the adhesive bond annulus,

as shown in Figure 46,

the maximum strength from such a bonded repair. Having attended to such design details for bonded repairs, to analyze the next step is severely in strip loaded can be line with the

Iithe
is a load

repair

conce.pt. along a Before

.y inspection, diameter the analysis

the of

most that

location principal

unit strip direction.

of the hole,

performed, however, it is necessary to establish how much of the load remains in the skins, to be diverted around the hole, and how much passes through the patch, over the hole. establish Strictly, oe would need a finite-element analysis to but the method described in Firare 47 provides a

that prpcisely.

.-

E'. tI

STRIP

DiU

___,

Ep'

'_

S(IFFNESS FROM C TO k 6 er b D STIFF)IESS FROM A TO 0


k 3D -

STIFFFdeS OF PATCH FROM A TO a LOAD IS SHAFRED ROUGHLY IN RATIO OF RL LATIVE STIrFNESSES. S0 LOAD PASSING THR.-UGH UNIT STRIP OF BOND SHOWN IS
*-" 3 E Pt Of TOTAL

IWa)BOFHAVIOR OF UNREPAIREC SKIN WITH HOLE

(b-) LGAD SHARId(; AFTER PAICH BONDED O,14

FIIUJRE 47.

SIMPLIFIED IIEiTHD OF ANALYSIS OF LOAD SiAMING WITH BOIIDED REPAIRS

* I

77

reasonably pocket

close approximation The load

which can intensity

he evaluated along the

with nc to be

more

than

calculator.

strip

analyzed

can

then be established by load sharing in proportion to the relative stiffnesses of the load paths, A simple but is as shown in part B of Figure 47, powerful in an rule isotropic to remember plate under in this kind of

particularly that a hole

assessment

uniaxial

loading

increases in diameter or radius precisely three times as much as the same length in an area remote from the hole, as shown in part A of Figure 47. Thus, third the stiffness of the load path diverted around an open hole is as great as for the original structure. This softening only one is quite

heneficial, around an

since it three hole the open

diverts load away follows in an infinite in the

from the damaged area. in Reference remote

The deduction 15. With the level thus

of the factor

from the classical plate given patch and

analysis of the stress field

relation

between

load

the

stress

established,

these new analysis programs can be used to analyze either purely

A sample solution is shown in Figure 48 to bonded or bonded/bolted repairs. illustrate the capabilities of the A4EK program in this context. On theirj own, the bolts of would lb. be predicted inch it tr, be instad should capable of be 9535 noted of an even per the greater inch for is load the an

transfer,

9581 Again,

per

lb. that

combination.

however,

9581 lb.

K"

ultimate value,

attained only after substantial

damage around the bolt holes,

while the 9535 lb. strength would be achieved with no such damage.

The bolts in way they cure

the repair shown in Figure 48 would often be the most practical the patch That and clamping the parts together, particularly of heat if to would leave only the need The reliable in-service is for application of as fibrous it seems

of locating are thick. the

adhesive.

repair

composite at first in many causes by cases,

structures sight, quarters inferior careful

by adhesive One thc out.

bonding alone major small The problem amount laminate

not as simple is already

however. is that

which

recognized

of moisture strengths of

absorbed by laminates it is so first in doing some

bond

or co-cured

unless

removed

drying

impracticality

particularly

for larne thick composite structures, means that high-strength bonded repairs cannot always be relied on. Therefore, the repair of large composite structures may he forced to depend on mechanical fastening and an

78

No

9.1~

11 ~~~

WSp

i
n .. ams
too.

lMIt%. BOLTS SPWA*'M IKII

rr-

Il.

/.-

PATCH

i0-

'r -Da l4

PATCHGCOWTAY
r' -0 -l

PTDA LI-o F1LLAE9ARE

(THINNED) AT SOFTEPED (I[F PATCH LOU TOTALLOADTRANSFER ADHESIVE LOAI? I1ANSF LOADTIIANFER

ATAILIPJT OF EDGE

IolN OUS IJI.WIOnTI4) LI SOLE.


3438 Li
97 LO1

PATCH ..

NOLL DEO

STIFFNESS OF LOAD PATH ACROSS HRU6 . HOLE ,. .., A."ix1 TI ROUGH PATCM STIFIFHlItZ OF LOAD PATH Q IN WJ AOIJUONOLL 'CEskip Mn - -3. Igo ACCEPMS $I11.3 OF LOAD 20 PATCH

"
"A"HEiff
STRESS IKSfl

LT

(I PNCE31'T OF TOTALI

ALONE SOLTS *TRENGTHWITH4 Ll ANDN0 ADHISlV - 1511 .11ICE.

FA40tL PI.EOICTIEO 'ATLOAD Of S,1il5 I1)JN * 12,4SLSflN. CORRESPONDING STRAIN INSKIN

4 I
'I

IREPAIR 11 THUS lACK To NORKAL


0 11 2P 3 4 IU 6 I 1 1iOT
..

* Ot~DESIGNl iRFRATINUG STRAIRIS, SOT U.,NENT NATERIAL CAPASIILITY

Sa~%LT LOADI
IOLT LOAM WNITHOUT
ADHEIVE

3
1146

1'aO~IN7
r

~ ~

14"

1184

ZS%'4

Mal)

FIGURE 48. LOAD TRANS'ER THROUGH HON!I EU/5'OLTED FIBROUS .1.. adhesive bond of o,0y about half its normal strength. (In

ru

that case,

the

In the case predicted strength ahove would be reduced to (777 lb. per inch.) of thin composite laminates, on the other, hand, purely bonded repairs are quite practical, because the bond starts oiut much ttrcnger than thin adherends, th6 dryine out prior to bonding is both quicker and easier.

4.4 COMBINATION OI BONDIVG AND BOLTING IN FAIL-SAFE SiRUCTURES a quite wies.pread misconception that mechanical ftsteners can be In considered to always provide fail-safety for adhesively-bonded joints. actual fact, they can do so only in relatively fe.4 instarnces in well-designed bonded structure and not nmany more in poorly-designed structure. The key to There is the differences In behavior lies in the relative strength of the adhesive and Briefly, whenever Th;s is exolained fully in Reference 16. the adherends. the bond is stronger than the miembers being joined, no fail-safe load path is

79
.t tU.*Lf.* U b & a. a*,*-.

would

be

located)

before

it

could

propagate. because,

In

such

case,

rivets adjacent

to to

backup the bond would any disbond or damage, adhesive.

he superfluous

even in

the area

the adherends are simply not strong enough to fail the

In the case of thick members bonded together with such a simple joint concept that the adhesive is the weak link, and catastrophic hord would structure. a local disbond could cause a widespread fasteners through such a represent be used the an improved such being would without members geometry unzipping of the bond. Mechanical

provide a degree of fail-safety and could Certainly, no adhesive bond should ever whenever some such the bon, would use be of weaker a

reinforcement joined. In

than

cases,

the

complex

joint

provide the better solution, by increasing the joint strength and removing the weak-link fuse from the structure. That is not always possible, however,

particularly section, so

for fibrous composite therE are some

structures,

as

is

explained the

in

the next and most

structures

for which

strongest

d damaqe-tolerant structure is obtained by bonding and bolting to gther. It should be understood that, even so, the ultimate strength of the intact structure remain is effectively unloaded defined until by the some adhesive alone, and the to fasteners a load virtually

damage

has occurred

cause

redistribution,

as shown in Figure 49.

WWhereas

rivets

or bolts can therefore he considered the converse is

as fail-safe

load paths This

for thick bonded structures, as a baseline.

true for thin structures. in the members

can be appreciated for- Figure 50 by starting with the riveted, band-free case The fasteners cause a weakness being joined, such skin like a seam of perforations along the joint. And the nature of strucoture is that the more fasteners are broken for the longer is the rrack), the more severe is the load in the adjacent skin and

fasteners.

These conditio.ns permit a catastroDhic tearing whenever the damaged area is la'ge enough or the load sufficiently high. Those unsatisfactory characteristics can he avoided by including adhesive bonding as weil, both as a stronger alterrmative load path and as a means of reducing both the skin stress and the bearing stress along the fastener then, the that rivets! the adhesive bond is Ir actual fact, the rivets or seam. It are is then fair to say, Icad path for su .erfluous then acting as the fail-safe bolts

Sto

DELAMINATION OR DISCSOWV ADHESIVE BONiD

00__ _/0
0
iFASTENURS

-.-.......

0 0 0 001_1__
AHESIV

ooo

.. ,,V

LOAD DUETO

-AROUND FLAW

"REDISTRIBUTION

SHEAR STR-

1 1
LOADTRANSFERHED THROUGH
FASEiNERS IN AREA OF D( ECTIVELOND -

I i
N0 LOADON FASTENERS WHERE B9O SINTACT
"

Ftr-R

49. INDEPENDENT ACTIv," oF Z.,i ll -U. ~ ul ;DUE | r%.Ii .Vv ~ LOAD ~ TO Lis BOND FLAW REDISTRIBUTION IN

...

PASTEINEI ALGA OS

.L I'N'AlT S "
0 c; 0 0

WNEAKER JOINTINHERENTLY THANPANELS-

Iilli0

WEAK tlED'j $U51 ALONDVETE


FASTENER SEAM FASTFNXR LOADS AROUND CRACK

A.

RIVITEDSPLICE WSTHNO ADHESIVE

I.

PROGRESSIVE FAILURE OF RIVETED STRUCTURE

AFTERINITIAL DAMAGE STRESSR BOFAILUE WEAr.UE FUSE .DUCEO .kEDW STRONGER 303%1T PANTLS THAN MOVEtGUT OFSPLICE INTO PANEL

00 W0LhD RE V ASIANOES WNRVASL

V
ADEOSIV ODOUTSIDE

f
V~

001 0

K0?o

aI

LOA-L; DSon NIVETS A14A DAMAGED

INITIAL DAA/

-ADHESIVE

5k

THANAROMERENDS 5050 It STAONGER IN WHICH AGTE IF SPLICE A.IA RAIS'CRCEEl, NY ADOESIVELY SOOEI[D DUUqLLR$.WEIIK LINK1$ tOVED OUTOF . IN 0 F"sft, AS SPLICE INTOBAXLL

FIGURE 50. USE OF ADHESIVE BONDS TO PROVIDE FAIL-SAFETY FOR RIVETED JOINTS

IN THlIN STRUCIURRE 81

-ll

whenever the bond is stronger than the adhesives and should be eliminated to save weight and cost and to remove possible sites for damage initiation. If so-called the chicken rivets are of the added to a design only because of doubts preparation or quality control for

about

reliability

surface

that cost would be better spent on improving tne bonding techniques There are sufficient good service records of honded to remove the doubts. structures to have full confidence In bonding alone, proved that the design. bonding, and manufacture are done properly. Advanced composite structures have done much to expand the use of adhesive bonding in highly-loaded structure because they are so brittle that the structural efficiency of purely bolted or riveted composite structures is often unacceptably low. That is one reason

why so much such structure is purely bonded. * 4.5 ANALYSIS OF FAIL.-SAFETY OF BONDED/BOLTED STRUCTURES an explanat...on of why the cominatior,. of bonding and bolting can be the most appropriate for thicker structures, particularly The purpose of this section is to when made from fibrous composites. illustrate the use of the new analysis program A4EK to characterize such a Thi section above contains situation. Figure 51 shows the area of concern representative of a bonded/ool"ted spar Even under cap and skin combination in fibrous composite construction. normal pounds. operating Now, if loads, either the total the load would be some tens of thousands of skin or the spar were to be broken, but not the other, a resin interface adjacent to the bond would be overloaded and tend to The only restraint would be the fasteners whch have much more shear unzip. The adhesive itself strength than the resin or possibly even the adhesive. is not the weak link because it is so much tougher properties ind stronger than the in in Therefore, the resin resin matrix. place of those for the adhesive. are used in the analysis The analyses of this problem shown

'

Figures 52 and 53 show that the structure would indeed start to unzip and that the fasteners are capable of arresting such delamlr, ations before they spread very far. This behavior is directly analogous: with that repnrted in Reference

tI

17

for

purely

bonded

stiffened

metal

structures.

In

fict,

82

A PARTIAL FRACTURE Or ADHESIVE BONDED STRUCTURE

CONDITIONS IN ADHESIVE AS DELAVIENATION SPREADS -SAME CRITICAL

BONDIG STRUCTURE I. GROSS DELAMINATION OF THICK ARESTRONIIR THANADHESIVE WHEN ADHERENOS FASTENERS-,--,.._ /-DELAMINATION ARREITED AS

FASTERS ACCEPT LOAD

!]

FAFTEN(SF LOAD

t-----. AOHESIVE &IONTLY LOA DED ,


FASTENERS UNLOADED

TRANSFER
C. SELF-ARREST OF DELAMINATION WHEN FASTENERS AREUSED IN COMSINATION WITHADHESIVE FOR HIGHLY LOAOED SYRUCIURE RENODELAUEMNATIONS. THE &ELOND MEMBER WOULD NOTE: IF ADHESIVE WERE STRONGER THAN ADHERENOE.THERE WOULD

IV
i

SIMPLY FAILAT THESAMELOCATION ASTTHE FIRST. IN THATSITUATION. FASTENERS WOULD NEVERFEELANYLOAD AND WOULD DESUPERFLUOUS

EIIRE 51. NEED FOR FA.ILSCArnE tr


S.... ..
k''#/-l Iw

C Cn-,rl
I J I I--IL~r

C
III

-,-iL.-v Onln,-,-,
IIIA, U/IIL LJVb U Jl

I I"
rUU

r eI-rlL.

i-GROWr" OF DELIMINATIDN TSKIN RUC-UPAR G TP ---

$11-RME T5

SIII..

STRENGTH 12.000LE PEM-ER

WlB I1. ENI.OI. ________

I ZERO

t/

'IT

!AtURE AT1

Ii_,I iLI+
IB
l

-3 1 l_

i
. ! l_

"
TSIN

-I.I
j-

!N

.104 IN.-TP

.;_

'

.
@I

PROPERTIES i-i it FOR " POSSIBLE FRACTURE PSlI. G

"40"

SSTRUCTURAL

SAADJACENT

GEOMETRY

TO ADHESIVE BON N.90 PSI. =114 0ml

FRCUE

3'

II

I 0 1

II

11

1'

ZINO OftLAMINIATIOl; FAILUIIE AT11.40LI


ADHESIVI IEAR05IT Mill SII FASTENER LOAD Ll 1I.) 9E I 8 B 0 74
@6

I1:1

1:
' '1

10

AT W0.3 LB OE LAMINATION. FAILUIRE

A01o15,,..,,I.,,,, II

"A,

"

PARTMELDAUD ILBI
A 40-Il ANIJIATION, tAILOB! AT 12.0% I L'

112111 11"
III ST
H

I "i

SI

ADESIVE SIEAK ITAO FAMTINS. LOAD 1010


B :~ [l

ia

SIIi

l
0

:
IB 1 1 i

bAtISllH SIIM ITLISUMBIi FASTENERl LOADits)

, a

I:1 I
low,

I1

I
7 i1

1, 4., i
4121

Ii
2181,

11

~
lFAVliLN

I
ai2 is

I:

I ACHISIVt BONlDFI41L~lINE ba AT 12,00 Ll ILOAD It$ I

tlus

113

~ji

'1. 04

BY ADHERINDSTRNOMH

FIGURE 52.

USE OF BOLTS AS FAIL-SAFE LOAD PATHS IN BONDED STRUCTURES

".

83

S[
I).!2LIMITED

JOINT STRENGTH BY AD"ERENOS. NOT FASTENERS ON ADHESIVE

CATASTROPHC DIELAMINATION AT REDUCED STRENGTH. IF NO FASTENERS PRESENT

I.

IELFARSITOF

S;
SIAKFASTINER

DUETO LOAD RAMSFERREO BY FIRST TWO FASTEENFRS

INITIALDELAMINATION.

LOAD DOES NOTCONTINUE TOGROW

0.04

42 -ADHESIVE SHEAR STRAIN CONTINUES TO0IIdNU1H. SHOWING R1 TENOENCY FUR 2OLAMINATION TOGROW INITIALARREST

II1.42

2AFTAR

Is

(IN.) DELAMINATION NOTE:JOINT GEOMETRY DEFINED IN PREVIOUS ILLUSTRATION

FIGURE 53.

DAMAGE CONFINEMENT BY COMBINATION OF BONDING AND BOLTING

stiffnesses calculated by the A4EK program for various joint geometries and
assumed or known disbonds could be fed into the pocket-calculator solutions in Reference 17 to expand the capabilities of each individual analysis. Several problem significant observations analyzed in Figures in thick, result structure can be drawn 53 is a from Figures 52 and 53. good example of the need Local The for

52 and

fail-safe to one

fasteners if the

highly-loaded bonded structures. in catastrophic were only failure due to bonded, without

damage The area,

member

would

unrestrained

delamination

fasteners.

presence of the fasteners

confines the delaminations

to quite a small

making repairs quite practical. While the bond alone is not as strong as the adherends, the fasteners are and they can reduce the loss of strength due to the initial damage to only a loss of effective area without any notch as

factor.

The contrihution of the adhesive in this case is of fasteners in with- a good the bond. particularly since the delamination

so slight that the to occur in a

combination laminate

sealant would perform just as well tends

with the adhesive,

rather than

The choice between adhesive and

sealant

should then be based on producibility

considerations to maximize the quality

84

Iof
'

the

structure.

It

is

important

that

the

bonding

medium

should

flow

Sover

as not to wet the surfaces nor so much as to flow out all neither so little So the ideal material for such an application will have the the place. compatihle with tle available heat-up rate for a given most cure cycle

application.
4.6 CONCLUSIONS The new nonlinear analysis of bonded/bolted joints is particularly useful in The method can be used to the context of damaqed or imperfect structures. analyze the residual strength of such structures. i These achieve analyses any have confirmed that bonding over and bolting together do not in

significant

advantage

adhesive

bonding

alone

well-designed Intact structures. !11The program makes A oEK ~damaged or defective bonded structures by matching the various deformations through each load path. The question of using fail-safe rivets in bonded structures is more complex generally recognized and a thorough explanation of the entire story than is Rivets are usually superfluous in lightly loaded structure, but is provided. bolts can be very valuable for heavily loaded bonded structures. possible the analysis of the bonded/bolted repair of
-

"i

11

85

REFERENCES

1. L.

J.

Hart-.Smith,

"Adhesive-Bonded

Scarf

and

Stepped-Lap

Joints",

Douglas Aircraft Company, January 1973. 2. L. J. Hart-Smith, to

NASA Langley Research Center Report CR-112237,

"Further Developments Symposium on

in the Design and Analysis of Composite

of

Adhesive-Bonded presented Minneapolis, 3. M. K. Smith, Joint AFFDLTR-78-38, 4. L. J.

Structural Joints", ASTM

Douglas Aircraft Company Paper 6992, Joining Materials,

Minnesota, April 1980; published in ASTM STP 749. L. J. Hart-Smith and C. G. Dietz, Company, "Interactive Composite USAF Technical Report

Desi qn",

Douglas April 1978.

Aircraft

Hart-Smith,

"Adhesive-Bonded

Double-Lap Joints",

Douglas Aircraft

Company, , _ 5. L. J.

NASA Langley Research Center Report CR-112235, January 1973. Hart-Smith, Joints Paper in 6224, "Advances Composite presented California, in the Analysis to SAMPE 19th and Design of AdhesiveDouglas Aircraft and Symposium

Bonded Company

Aerospace

Structures",

National

Exhibition, Anaheim, 6. L. J. Hart-Smith,

April 1974. Joints for Composites Paper -

"Adhesive-Bonded Douglas

Phenomenological

Considerations",

Aircraft Company

6707,

presented to Techonology Conference Associates Conference Composite Technology, El Segundo, California, March 17978. 7. C. E. Thompson and L. J. Hart-Smith, "Composite Material

on Advanced

Structures

Joints", Douqlas Aircraft Company IRAD Report MDC-J0638, July 1971, 8. T. K. O'Brien, Composite January 1981. "Characterization NASA of Delamination Onset and Growth in a Technical Memorandum 81940,

Laminate",

Langley

87

9.

W. Ramberg

amd

W. R. Osgood,

"Description of

Stress-Strain

Curves

by

Three Parameters", 10. L. J. Hart-Smith, Company,

NACA TN 902, 1943. "Bolted Joints in Graphite-Epoxy Composities", NASA Langley Contract Report NASA CR Douglas 144899,

Aircraft

January 1977. 11. L. J. Hart-Smith, "Mechanically-Fastened Joints for Advanced

Composites - Pnenomenoloqical Considerations and Simple Analyses", Douglas Aircraft Company Paper 6748, presented to Fourth DOD Conference on Fibrous Composites in Structural Design, November 1978. 12. F. P. Cozzone, Pins Made M. A. of Melcon Aluminum and F. and M. Hoblit, Steel Alloys, "Analysis Product of Lugs and Engineering, San Diego, California 14-07

Shear

Val. 21, Pp. 113-117, May iqn. 13. M. A. Melcon and F. Pins", 14. M. Hoblit, "Developments in the Analyses of Lugs and 24, pp. 160-170, June 1953.

Product Engineering, Vol.

T. Swift, the

"The Effects of Fastener Flexibility and Stiffener Geometry on Stress Intensity in Stiffened Cracked Sheet", Douglas Aircraft Report MDC-J6502, Mechanics", pp. 419-436, February Noordhoff 1974. 1974. Also published in of Fracture

Company Technical "Prospects Co., 15. Leyden,

international

Publishing

Netherlands,

S. Timoshenko and J. N. Goodier, "Theory New York, Second Edition, 1951, pp. 78-80. L. J. Hart-Smith,

of Elasticity",

McGraw-Hill,

16.

Differences Between Adhesive Behavior Douglas Aircraft Company, Phoenix,

in Test Coupons presented

and Structural

Joints",

Paper 7066,

to ASTM Adhesives D-14 Committee, 17. L. J. Hart-Smith,

Arizona, March 1981.

I
2!

"Adhesive Bond Stresses and Strains at Discontinuities ASME, Jnl Eng Matls & Tech, Vol. 100,

and Cracks in Bonded Structures", pp. 16-24, January 1978.

88

APPENDIX This appendix (AFWAL-TR-81-3154, Vol II) has been intentionally omitted from this report because the computer software contained therein is limited to DOD agencies only. Other requests for the software should be submitted in accordance with AFSC Sup 1 to AFR 300-6 (DOD Dir 4160.19 dtd 2 Apr 73). must be submitted to AFWAL/FIBRA, Wright-Patterson AFB, OH 45433. Requests

89