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Consumer's Guide

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around us.

Consumer's Guide
to Intelligence
A Consumer's Guide to Intelligence

Foreword America's Intelligence Community is here to provide you, our civilian


and military customers, with the information and analysis you need to
meet the national security challenges our country faces today. We have
the people and the technology to give you a decisive advantage in
understanding threats ranging from the proliferation of weapons of
mass destruction to terrorism, regional conflicts, and international
crime and narcotics trafficking.

This Consumer's Guide is a road map to the 13 executive branch


agencies and organizations that form the US Intelligence Community.
It shows you not only who we are and what we do, but how, as a Com-
munity, we marshal talent and resources across agencies to tackle the
toughest intelligence problems. The Guide also.describes the intelli-
gence information and products that are available to help you in your
work.

The growing technical sophistication of those we target—and of those


who target us—requires unprecedented innovation and flexibility from
US intelligence. I welcome your ideas on how the Intelligence Com-
munity can better serve the needs of our policy leaders and military
commanders. Working together, we will ensure that our country suc-
^cessfully confronts the national security threats of today and is well
prepared for those of the 21st Century.

• • - - - • • ' . " " - George J . Tenet


Director of Central Intelligence

Reverse Blank
Contents

Page
; Foreword jjj
Introduction vii
Section 1. The Intelligence Process 1
Needs 2
Collection 2
Processing and Exploitation 2
- — Analysis and Production 3
Categories of Finished Intelligence 4
Section II. Collectors 7
National Intelligence Council 7
Central Intelligence Agency 7
Department of Defense 7
Other Departments 9
Section III. Producers 11
National Intelligence Council 11
Central Intelligence Agency 11
Department of Defense 16
Defense Intelligence Agency 16
Military Services, Departments, and Commands -^ 17
National Security Agency 17
National Imagery and Mapping Agency 17
Department of State, Bureau of Intelligence and Research 18
National Warning Staff 20
Department of the Treasury 21
Department of Energy 21
Section IV. Major Products 23
Current Intelligence Publications 23
Dailies 23
Weeklies/Periodicals/Ad Hoc Publications 24
Research Intelligence Publications From CIA 26
Estimative Intelligence Products 26
Warning Intelligence 27
Research Aids 27
Section V. Managing the Intelligence Community 29
PCI Advisory Groups 29
Deputy Director of Central Intelligence for 31
Community Management
Associate Director of Central Intelligence for Military Support 33
Security and Counterintelligence Policy Boards 34
National Counterintelligence Center 34
Arms Control Intelligence Staff 35
Section VI. National Security Classification System 37
Section VII. Major Consumers of Intelligence 39
Section VIII. Glossary 41
Section IX. Abbreviations 49

VI
A Consumer's Guide to Intelligence

Introduction • Biographic reports and psychological studies.

Reduced to its simplest terms, intelligence is • Assessments, briefs, and memoranda on specific
knowledge and foreknowledge of the world subjects, many requested by consumers.
around us—the prelude to decision and action by
US policymakers. Intelligence organizations pro- • Technical analyses of weapons and weapon
vide this information in a fashion that allows con- systems.
sumers—either civilian leaders or military
commanders—to consider alternative options and • Formal estimates thatjinalyze specific interna-
outcomes. Above all, the analytical process must tional situations.
be rigorous, timely, and relevant to policy needs
and concerns. • Daily video reports.

The Intelligence Community (1C) is composed of • Comprehensive research studies.


13 intelligence agencies, including those in the
Departments of Defense, Justice, Treasury, Energy, • Serial publications and situation reports address-
and State, and the Central Intelligence Agency. A ing specialized topics, key countries, or impor-
full description of the Community may be found in tant foreign policy issues.
section V.
Some of the best information used in intelligence
The 1C deals with both classified and unclassified products comes from sensitive sources. To protect
information on foreign activities. Its analysts pro- these sources—whether human or technical—and
duce finished intelligence by analyzing, evaluat- to ensure the continued availability of this infor-
ing, interpreting, and integrating information from mation to the United States, most intelligence is
various sources. The intelligence "process abo classified and carefully controlled on a "need-to-
involves production of intelligence assessments know" basis.
and their timely dissemination to consumers. The
1C offers the intelligence consumer a broad range
of products:

• Warning of looming crises and threats.

• Daily publications and bulletins or briefings


about current developments.

VII
is and
Production

Processing
and Exploitation

VIII
Section I

The Intelligence Process

The process of creating reliable, accurate foreign Dissemination. Delivering the products to con-
intelligence is dynamic and never ending. The sumers who request and need them.
intelligence process or cycle begins with ques-
tions—the answers to which inevitably lead to Feedback. Interaction between consumers of fin-"
more questions. So, essentially, the end of the ished intelligence and the producers to help
cycle is the beginning of the next cycle. intelligence managers evaluate the effectiveness
of 1C support, identify intelligence gaps, and
Through planning and direction by both collection focus more precisely on consumer needs. Feed-
and production managers, the process converts back takes many forms and channels; it may be
acquired information into intelligence and makes direct or through liaison contacts and consumer
it available to policymakers and consumers. Sev- surveys.
eral steps are involved:

• Needs. Establishing the intelligence require- Needs


ments of the policymakers—the President, the
National Security Council (NSC), and other offi- The intelligence process begins when policymak-
cials in major departments and government ers or military commanders express a need for
agencies. intelligence information to help them accomplish
their missions. The needs process involves issue
• Collection. Gathering of raw data from which coordinators who interact with policymakers and
finished intelligence is produced. military commanders to establish their core con-
cerns and related information requirements. These
• Processing and Exploitation. Conversion of large needs are then used to guide collection strategies
amounts of data to a form suitable for the pro- and the production of appropriate intelligence
duction of finished intelligence" includes transla- products. The process represents a partnership
tions, decryption, and interpretation of between the issue coordinators, whose work is
information stored on film and magnetic media coordinated through the National Intelligence
through the use of highly refined photographic Council; the various collection and production
and electronic processes. programs within the Community; and the Commu-
nity Management Staff (CMS) budget process
• Analysis and Production. Integration, evaluation, administered and coordinated by CMS under the
and analysis of all available data and the prepa- auspices of the Executive Director for Intelligence
ration of a variety of intelligence products, Community Affairs and the Deputy Director of .
including timely, single-source, event-oriented Central Intelligence for Community Management
reports and longer term finished intelligence (DDCI/CM).
studies.
Collection are reflected in the National HUMINT Collection
Directive (NHCD). As part of this national effort,
There are five basic intelligence sources, or collec- all HUMINT collection within the Department of
tion disciplines: Defense is managed by the Defense HUMINT Ser-
vice, under the direction of DIA's Directorate for
1. Signals intelligence (SIG1NT) includes informa- Intelligence Operations.
tion derived from intercepted communications,
radar, and telemetry. The National Security Agency The following are some of the principal types of
(NSA), a component of the Department of collection associated with HUMINT:
Defense, is responsible for collecting, processing,
and reporting communications intelligence • Clandestine source acquisition of information
(COMINT), electronic intelligence (ELINT), and (including photography, documents, and other
foreign instrumentation signals intelligence material) of intelligence value.
(FISINT). The National SIGINT Committee within
NSA advises the Director, NSA, and the DCI on • Overt data collection by civilian and military
SIGINT policy issues and manages the SIGINT personnel assigned to US diplomatic and consu-
requirements system. lar posts.

2. Imagery intelligence (IMINT) includes both over- • Debriefing of foreign nationals and US citizens
head and ground imagery. The National Imagery who travel abroad or have access to foreign
and Mapping Agency (NIMA), another Depart- information.
ment of Defense component, is the functional
manager for all imagery intelligence activities, • Official contacts with foreign governments,
both classified and unclassified, within the govern- including liaison with their intelligence and
ment including requirements, collection, process- security services.
ing, exploitation, dissemination, archiving, and
retrieval. 5. Open-source information is publicly available
information appearing in print or electronic form.
3. Measurement and signature intelligence (MAS- It may include radio, television, newspapers, jour-
INT) is technically derived intelligence data other nals, the Internet, commercial databases, and vid-
than imagery and SIGINT. The data result in intelli- eos, graphics, and drawings.
gence that locates, identifies, or describes distinc-
tive characteristics of targets. It employs a broad While open-source collection responsibilities are
group of disciplines including nuclear, optical, broadly distributed through the 1C, the major col-
radio frequency, acoustics, seismic, and materials lectors are the Foreign Broadcast Information Ser-
sciences. Examples of this might be the distinctive vice (FBIS) and the National Air Intelligence
radar signatures of specific aircraft systems or the Center (NAIC).
chemical composition of air and water samples.
The Central MASINT Organization, a component
of DIA, is the focus for all national and DoD Processing and Exploitation
MASINT matters.
A substantial portion of US intelligence resources
4. Human-source intelligence (HUMINT) involves is devoted to processing and exploitation—the
clandestine and overt collection techniques used synthesis of raw data into a form usable by the
mainly by CIA and the Departments of State, intelligence analyst or other consumers—and to
Defense, and the FBI. The National HUMINT
Requirements Tasking Center is responsible for
providing guidance for HUMINT activities, which
the secure telecommunications networks that Such a unit produces periodic situation reports
carry these data. Exploiting imagery; decoding (SITREPS) to be disseminated to appropriate poli-
messages and translating broadcasts; reducing cymakers. It also disseminates other daily intelli-
telemetry to meaningful measures; preparing infor- gence updates and products.
mation for computer processing, storage and
retrieval; placing human-source reports into a form When an international crisis involves, or may
and context to make them more comprehensi- involve, the US military, acting unilaterally or as
ble—these are all "processing," and all collection part of a multinational coalition, the Director, DIA,
agencies in the 1C are engaged to a significant establishes an Intelligence Task Force (ITF) dedi-
degree. Two of the major processors of information cated to round-the-clock intelligence support of
derived from technical collection are NSA and the operational and combatant commands
NIMA. involved. In cases of lesser US military involve-
ment, the J2 initially establishes a Working Group.
These ITFs and Working Groups are made up of
Analysis and Production analysts and other experts from DIA, the military
services, and interested agencies throughout the
Most intelligence organizations assign analysts to Intelligence Community. ITFs and Working Groups
a particular geographic or functional specialty. respond to the requests of participating US forces;
Analysts obtain information from all sources perti- they also produce Defense Intelligence Reports as
nent to their areas of responsibility through the well as briefings and desk notes for the Chairman
collection, forwarding, and processing systems. of the Joint Chiefs of Staff who keeps the Secretary
of Defense and the White House apprised of up-
Analysts absorb incoming information, evaluate it, to-the-minute developments.
produce an assessment of the current state of
affairs within an assigned field or substantive area, Counterintelligence and counterterrorism analy-
and then forecast future trends or outcomes. Ana- ses provide strategic assessments of foreign intelli-
lysts are encouraged to include alternative futures gence and terrorist groups and prepare tactical
in their assessments and to look for opportunities options for ongoing operations and investigations.
to warn about possible developments abroad that
could either threaten or provide<)pporturrities Longer range, more intractable intelligence chal-
for US security and policy interests. The analyst lenges are addressed by grouping analytic and
also develops requirements for collection of new operational personnel from concerned agencies
information. into closely knit functional units. The DCI Coun-
terterrorist Center, DCI Nonproliferation Center,
For example, if the nuclear program of a country DCI Crime and Narcotics Center, and DCI Envi-
were being assessed, the analysis probably would ronmental Center all provide assessments and sup-
involve technical experts and country specialists port for the policy and enforcement communities,
from several agencies, including CIA, the Bureau (see page 13).
of Intelligence and Research (INR) of the State
Department, DIA, the Department of Energy Some intelligence information is sent directly to
(DOE), and perhaps others. consumers, usually by electronic means, because
it is self-explanatory. More often, analysts check
During periods of international crisis or on occa- information to see how it relates to other informa-
sions when intelligence support is critical to high- tion they have received. They evaluate the infor-
level negotiations, an interagency task force is mation and make comments. When information
often created to address critical intelligence needs.
The DCI directs that a particular agency serve as
executive agent responsible for task force support.
has been reviewed and correlated with informa- the IC's principal adviser on warning. All agencies
tion available from other sources, it is called "fin- and intelligence staffs have designated warning
ished intelligence." components, and some have specific warning
responsibilities:

Categories of Finished Intelligence • NSA maintains the worldwide CRITIC system for
the simultaneous alerting of US officials within
Five categories of finished intelligence are avail- minutes of situations that may affect US security.
able to the consumer:
• DIA manages the Defense Indications and Warn-
1. Current intelligence addresses day-to-day ing System (DIWS) to provide accurate and
events, seeking to apprise consumers of new timely warning of developing threats to US and
developments and related background, to assess Allied military interests. Other members include
their significance, to warn of their near-term con- the Combatant Commands, the military services,
sequences, and to signal potentially dangerous sit- NSA, State Department/lNR, the NIO for Warn-
uations in the near future. Current intelligence is ing, and a growing number of US Allies. DIWS
presented in daily, weekly, and some monthly disseminates warning information from DIA and
publications, and frequently in ad hoc written other system members via briefings, weekly and
memorandums and oral briefings to senior quarterly warning products, and, on a priority
officials. basis, ad hoc bulletins.

2. Estimative intelligence deals with what might 4. Research intelligence is presented in mono-
be or what might happen. Like all kinds of intelli- graphs and in-depth studies by virtually all agen-
gence, estimative intelligence starts with the avail- cies. Research underpins both current and
able facts, but then it migrates into the unknown, estimative intelligence; there are also two special-
even the unknowable. The main roles of estimative ized subcategories of research intelligence:
intelligence are to help policymakers navigate the
gaps between available facts by suggesting alterna- • Basic intelligence consists primanly of the struc-
tive patterns into which those facts might fit and to tured compilation of geographic, demographic,
provide informed assessments of the range and social, military, and political data on foreign
likelihood of possible outcomes. Such intelligence countries. This material is presented in the form
is promulgated in forms ranging from oral briefings of maps, atlases, force summaries, handbooks,
to videos, but the most common vehicles are and, on occasion, sandtable models of terrain.
printed documents, of which the IC's flagship is The Directorate of Intelligence in CIA, NIMA,
the National Intelligence Estimate. and the Directorate for Intelligence Production
in DIA are major producers of this kind of
3. Warning intelligence sounds an alarm or gives material.
notice to policymakers. It connotes urgency and
implies the potential need for policy action in • Intelligence for operational support incorpo-
response. Warning includes identifying or fore- rates all types of intelligence production—cur-
casting events that could cause the engagement of rent, estimative, warning, research, scientific and
US military forces, or those that would have a sud- technical; it is tailored, focused, and rapidly pro-
den and deleterious effect on US foreign policy duced for planners and operators. The top prior-
concerns (for example, coups, third-party wars, ity of DIA is to satisfy the intelligence needs of
refugee situations). Warning analysis involves operational forces and their commanders. DIA
exploring alternative futures and low probability/
high impact scenarios. The National Intelligence
Officer (NIO) for Warning serves as the DCI's and
also provides near-real-time intelligence to mili-
tary forces in peacetime, crisis, contingency, and
combat operations. To accomplish this, it oper-
ates the Joint Worldwide Intelligence Communi-
cation System (JWICS) and deploys National
Intelligence Support Teams (NISTs) as needed,
- worldwide. The Associate Director of Central
Intelligence for Military Support, via CIA's Office
of Military Affairs, oversees deployment of CIA
components of NISTs.

5. Scientific and technical intelligence includes


information on technical developments and char-
acteristics, performance, and capabilities of for-
eign technologies including weapon systems or
subsystems. This information is derived from anal-
ysis of all-source data, including technical mea-
surements. Generally, such technical analysis and
reporting responds to specific national require-
ments derived from the weapons acquisition pro-
cess, arms control negotiations, or military
operations. It covers the entire spectrum of sci-
ences, technologies, weapon systems, and inte-
grated operations. This type of intelligence is
provided to consumers via in-depth studies,
detailed system handbooks, executive summaries,
focused assessments and briefs, and automated
databases.
Section II

Collectors

Current methods of intelligence collection gener- MA5INT. As the manager of the CIA's technology
ally fall into two major categories: they are either investment portfolio, the DS&T's Investment Pro-
manpower- or hardware-intensive. Human-source gram Office (IPO) administers priority assess-
intelligence, or HUMINT, requires a considerable ment of intelligence collection projects and the
investment in time and people to obtain the research and development of specialized sys-
desired results but is comparatively less expensive. tems. Other DS&T components assume opera-
In contrast, the satellites and other sophisticated tional deployment of developed systems to
hardware systems that yield enormous amounts of uphold a wide range of HUMINT collection
data in relatively short times are extremely costly efforts, including agent communications. In the
to develop and operate. The collection community imagery collection area, the DS&T supports the
is described briefly below. National Imagery and Mapping Agency with a
cadre of affiliate personnel who serve in techni-
cal positions. Open source collection, a key area
National Intelligence Council (NIC) in the CIA's all-source analysis capabilities, is
administered in the DS&T through the Foreign
The National Intelligence Council's Evaluation Broadcast Information Service (FBIS). This orga-
Group helps ensure that uncertainties highlighted nization is a service of common concern for the
in estimates are transformed into new collection US Government and provides unclassified prod-
requirements. In addition, the Group works with ucts on a wide array of subjects for a variety of
the Assistant Director of Central Intelligence for consumers.
Collection (ADC1/C) and collector agencies to
develop new collection approaches designed to
meet the evolving needs of senior policymakers. Department of Defense '

The National Security /Agency (NSA)—with the


Central Intelligence Agency assistance of the military services—collects, pro-
cesses, and reports SIGINT to the intelligence, pol-
Two of the CIA's four directorates collect icy, and operating elements of the government,
information: including the Department of Defense (DoD).

• The Directorate of Operations (DO), headed by The Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA) ensures
the Deputy Director for Operations (DDO), has the effective acquisition and application of all- _-
primary responsibility for the clandestine collec- source intelligence collection resources to satisfy
tion of foreign intelligence. The DO is divided both current and future DoD requirements. These
administratively into area divisions, as well as requirements include support to military opera-
several staffs, centers, and one division which tions in peacetime, crisis, contingency and com-
deals with transnational issues. bat; weapons system acquisition and planning;
and defense policymaking. DIA, through its Direc-
• The Directorate of Science and Technology torate for Intelligence Operations (DO) compo-
(DS&T) provides collection support to the CIA nent, centrally manages all DoD non-SIGINT
and the Intelligence Community in the areas of
HUMINT, imagery, open source, S1GINT, and
intelligence collection. It directs the Defense The National Reconnaissance Office (NRO)
HUMINT Service, which manages all HUMINT designs, builds, and operates the nation's recon-
collection within the Department of Defense, and naissance satellites. The imagery and signals intel-
operates the defense attache system. Its Central ligence gathered by these satellites can warn of
Measurement and Signature Intelligence (MASINT) potential trouble spots around the world, help plan
Organization (CMO) is the focus for ail national military operations, and alert the United States and
and DoD MASINT matters. its allies of possible attack and other threats against
them. Appointed by the President, the Director of
The National Imagery and Mapping Agency the NRO (DNRO) also serves as Assistant Secre-
(NIMA) is responsible for the collection of imagery tary of the Air Force for Space. The DNRO reports
through the use of both national and commercial to the Secretary of Defense, who, in concert with
assets. It also advises others responsible for col- the Director of Central Intelligence, is responsible
lecting imagery using theater and tactical recon- for managing and operating the NRO.
naissance assets. NIMA produces accurate and
timely imagery, imagery intelligence, and geospa- Military Services, Each military service collects
tial information in support of the nation's military intelligence information within its specialized
forces, policymakers, and civil customers. fields of competence—including information that

' SIGINT Systems Communications Systems IMIIMT Systems Advanced Systems


Acquisition and Acquisition and Acquisition and and Technology
Operations Directorate Operations Directorate Operations Directorate Directorate
would help warn against hostile military action, Command, Control, Communications, Comput-
both strategic and tactical—in response to estab- ers and Intelligence (C4I) as the principal staff
lished national, departmental, and operational officer and functional manager for all source
command requirements: intelligence, counterintelligence, and crypto-
logic matters. As a field activity of C4I, the
• Army Intelligence is headed by the Deputy Chief Marine Corps Intelligence Activity (MCIA) serves
: of Staff for Intelligence. The DCS1NT has Army as the Marine Corps service intelligence produc-
General Staff responsibility for the management tion center, supporting the development of
of collection by Army organizations. This Marine Corps plans, doctrine, force structure,
responsibility is exercised through the US Army training and education, and systems acquisition.
Intelligence and Security Command (USAIN- The MCIA also supports joint expeditionary
SCOM). Subordinate elements of USAINSCOM operations in coordination with theaters, other
collect all-source intelligence information in services, and national agencies.
response to Army, Unified Command, DoD, and
national-level collection requirements.
Other Departments
• Navy Intelligence is headed by the Director of
Naval Intelligence. The DNI commands the The Department of State provides HUMINT
Office of Naval Intelligence (ONI) and is respon- through diplomatic reporting, all of which is avail-
sible to the Chief of Naval Operations (CNO) for able to the Intelligence Community: Chiefs of mis-
intelligence, cryptology (less signals security), sion have responsibility and oversight for all non-
special security, and foreign counterintelligence. military activities in their country, including intelli-
gence collection. Other Executive Branch repre-
• Air Force Intelligence is headed by the Director sentatives in US missions abroad, as part of the
of Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnais- country teams, also contribute to mission report-
sance (AF/XOI), who manages the Air Force sig- ing. These include officers from the Departments
nals, measurements, technical, human, and of Interior, Labor, Commerce, Justice (DBA), Trans-
imagery collection efforts. Signals intelligence is portation (FAA and Coast Guard), and Agriculture.
collected by the Air Intelligence Agency (AIA), a In Washington, the Department has charged the
field operating agency subordinate to the AF/ Bureau of Intelligence and Research with coordi-
XOI. The National Air Intelligence Center nation of external research and related open-
(NA1C), subordinate to AIA, processes and ana- source collection on key foreign policy issues.
lyzes data on foreign aerospace capabilities and
provides products in support of operational, The Department of the Treasury is not formally
acquisition, and policymaking customers. The engaged in intelligence collection but is responsi-
NAIC also provides weapon-system-unique ble for overt collection abroad of financial and
intelligence for targeting and mission planning, monetary information in countries where a trea--
and maintains a detachment (NAIC Intelligence sury attache is posted. Attaches are currently
Assessments) at the Pentagon to support HQ posted in Beijing, Paris, Bonn, Tokyo, Mexico City
USAF. Imagery intelligence is collected and and Moscow. (Note: The Secret Service, Customs
processed by designated units in response to Service, Internal Revenue Service, and the Bureau
national and theater requirements. of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms have no collec-
tion missions for the Intelligence Community.)
• Marine Corps Intelligence is headed by the
Director of Intelligence under Marine Corps
The Federal Bureau of Investigation has primary The Office of Energy Intelligence in the Depart-
responsibility for counterintelligence and counter- ment of Energy (DOE) supports US Government
terrorism within the United States as well as espio- policymakers, as well as the US Intelligence Com-
nage investigations and the arrest of international munity, with timely, accurate, and relevant intelli-
terrorists charged with violating US laws overseas. gence analyses and national intelligence
As a byproduct of its normal counterintelligence production on nuclear proliferation, foreign
and counterterrorism investigations, the FBI may nuclear weapons and materials, science and tech-
generate intelligence and foreign counterintelli- nology, international fossil and nuclear energy
gence information, which is disseminated, as safety and waste developments, and economic
appropriate, to other elements of the Intelligence and environmental assessments relevant to energy
Community. issues.

Intelligence Nuclear 1 Energy


Support Nonproliferation Assessments
Section III

Producers

The vast amounts of data collected by the Intelli- range from quick-reaction, informal oral briefings
gence Community would be of little use without to complex, long-term research studies that may
skilled analysts—supported by specialists such as take months to complete. Virtually all of CIA's fin-
editors, cartographers, and graphics designers— ished intelligence supports national-level policy
tasked to produce finished intelligence. In many deliberations.
respects, analysis and production are the reasons
for the existence of the Community. The principal The Directorate of Intelligence (Dl), serves as the
producing organizations and their respective prod- executive agent for meeting CIA's responsibility to
ucts are described in this section. produce the bulk of CIA's finished intelligence
products for the policymaking community.
Headed by the Deputy Director for Intelligence,
National Intelligence Council (NIC) the Dl was reorganized in 1996 and now includes
three offices which deal with regional issues:
The NIC serves as a senior advisory group to the
Director of Central Intelligence in his capacity as • Office of Russian and European Analysis
leader of the Intelligence Community. It is respon-
sible for determining and promulgating the IC's • Office of Near Eastern, South Asian, and
judgments on issues of importance to policymak- African Analysis
ers. Consequently, most of its publications are pro-
duced by interagency teams and are formally • Office of Asian Pacific and Latin American
coordinated with all intelligence agencies possess.-" Analysis
ing relevant expertise.
The Directorate also houses an office which
At the core of the NIC are the National Intelligence addresses transnational issues and three inter-
Officers (NIOs). The NIOs supervise the produc- agency centers responsible for analysis of weapons
tion of National Intelligence Estimates, other NIC proliferation, international crime and narcotics,
publications, manage the Intelligence Needs Pro- and the environment. Dl personnel are also
cess, provide briefings to senior policymakers, and responsible for analysis of terrorist issues within
focus Intelligence Community collection and ana- the DO Counterterrorist Center.
lytic resources on priority issues. Currently, there
are 12 NIOs who come from various intelligence • The Office of Transnational Issues (OTI) pro-
agencies as well as academia and the private sec- duces analytic assessments on critical intelli-
tor. The NIOs are organized by region—Africa, gence-related issues that transcend regional and
East Asia, Europe, Latin America, Near East and national boundaries. Drawing on a broad range
South Asia, and Russia and Eurasia; and func- of experts in engineering, science, and social sci-
tions—Economic and Global Issues, General Pur- ence disciplines, OTI focuses on four core pro-
pose Forces, Science and Technology, Strategic gram areas: weapons, foreign technologies,
Programs and Nuclear Proliferation, and Warning. economic security, and societal conflicts. OTI
serves a variety of customers in the Executive
branch and Congress with quick turnaround
Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) assessments and in-depth studies. OTI's long-
term strategic assessments draw on inter-disci-
CIA produces a variety of finished intelligence. Its plinary teams and outside experts to assess
substantive scope is worldwide. It covers func-
tional as well as regional issues, and its products
I Deputy Director of Central Intelli-
s I gence'for Community Management*
ipj* National Intelligence Council

I ADCI/Analysis and Production | jDf/piibli&'Affairs'"


•;
ADCI/Adrninistration* "[ /Deptfty Director*
ADCI/Collection : ; ' (DDCI)
Associate Director of Central -JArrris Control
Intelligence for Military Support
OS
SA/DCI Foreign ;
Intelligence Relationships
.'Protocol
DCI Analytic Support Team

Executive Director:
..;"-' iExDir) •' -'
•.. . • •..;..
Agency Ombudsman Office of. Equal , • : ' ~ Center for -. •' Chief,. , Chief.-;-.' • ' --'.SA/DC1. •-;.-.'
: Executive
Alternative-Dispute Employment : ..the Study . Information Financial; Diversity Plans
-''Deputy Executive Secretariat
Resolution Program . . Opportunity**" : of Intelligence . Officer.: ; '-Officer .'--':- \d Programs
'. -' ' Director .'

^Directorate Ofv ^Directorate: of;, Directorate of Science Directorate of-,


Administration/ ;;- Intelligence,; and Technology:; / Operations

- Agency Technology Directorfor : -•:••:;:'.'";."-•,. - .Office of


: Services . Dl Strategic Programs ; 'Analytic Tools7DS<ST/D//
- Business Transformation ; Office of Advanced . ; -: Clandestine Information v .---• ' DCI Counterterror
i Office; ^v^ X_- .___] tojytic Tools IpS&T/pH _ Technology Office IDS&T/DO)- Center ::
i ^Center for CIA Security •" :Office's^: '-;:: . V ; - : : 1 -;II\l-Q--TEL:lnferface:Center: : National'" -
-; Center for ^Policy 5upport_ . : ;HUMINTRequireni
i Support-Coordination': '•••, ;Jasking Center .
Collection Requirements, j 1 investment Program :
and Evaluation Staff / : '
-; Clandestine Information
j.;DCICnme'ahd;:";;1:': | i D S & T Careerists at MIMA/, -
I Narcotics Center [,' Systems and Technology.
4 DCI Nonproliferation ! Directorate .
Center Office of Development
1 DGI Environmental . j and Engineering
| Center •j Open Source Collection
-) Office of Russian and i foffTcToT •-.-
European Analysis I Technical Collection
•; Sherman Kent
j School for Intel. Analysis j L Office of
Technical Service
1 Office of Near Eastern,
-I Office of South Asian, and
Training and Education African Analysis
Business Enterprises -j Office of Asian Pacific and!
* Statutory position
_ nominated by the President,
{ideas to Solutions (I2S) confirmed by the Senate.
flogistics Operations Transnationallssues ** Also serves as Special Assistant
| and Global Support Office of to the DCI for Equal Employment
Support Services Opportunity
i Office of Facilities
| Management -j Council of Intelligence H CIA role
i Printing & Operations fj Intelligence Community role
H CIA and Intelligence
I Photography Group Dl Careerists at MIMA/ Community roles
Transportation Operations Directorate
Services Center March 2000
regional military, economic, and political
data to the environmental community. Specific
dynamics and their impact on US global
DEC programs include assessing transboundary
interests.
environmental crime; supporting environmental
treaty negotiations; assessing the role played by
• The Director of Central Intelligence (DCI)
the environment in country and regional instabil-
Crime and Narcotics Center (CNC) monitors, ity and conflict; and providing environmental "
assesses, and disseminates information on inter- data to civil agencies.
national narcotics trafficking and international
organized crime to policymakers and the law
• Three offices support the production and dissem-
enforcement community. The DCI Counternar- ination of Directorate analysis:
cotics Center was established in April 1989, and
its mission and name were expanded to include
• The Office of Policy Support (OPS) manages the
international organized crime in I994. The Cen- delivery of intelligence to the most senior US
ter is staffed with representatives from all four
policymakers. Two of its major elements are the
Directorates in CIA and includes the direct par- President's Analytic Support Staff and the CIA
ticipation of most Intelligence Community, coun- Operations Center:
tercrime, and counternarcotics law enforcement
and policy agencies.
The President's Analytical Support Staff (PASS) is
the Dl's key interface with senior US policy offi-
• The Director of Central Intelligence (DCI) Non- cials. Its editorial and night teams publish the
proliferation Center (NPC) was established in
Agency's daily products, such as the President's
September 1991 as the focal point for all Intelli- Daily Brief, the Senior Executive Intelligence
gence Community activities related to nonprolif- Brief, and the Economic Executives' Intelligence
eration. The NPC develops and updates strategic Brief. In addition, PASS' Briefing Team provides
plans, enhances collection efforts, and assesses
daily intelligence briefings for the President,
information to provide policymakers with a Vice President, and other senior national
coordinated view on nonproliferation issues. It security officials.
provides central leadership, resource guidance,
and evaluation of Intelligence Community activi- The CIA Operations Center provides CIA leader-
ties that support US policy, military, licensing, ship with 24-hour-a-day alert and warning of
enforcement, and congressional entities involved global events affecting US interests and helps
in stemming the proliferation of weapons of
ensure the accuracy of current intelligence for
mass destruction (WMD)—nuclear, biological, White House-level decisionmakers. It serves as
and chemical—and their missile delivery sys- the first, authoritative, DCI focal point during a
tems. NPC also coordinates and guides intelli- crisis, pending the arrival of appropriate spe-
gence support related to stemming transfers of
cialists. Representatives from other Intelligence
advanced conventional weapons and associated Community organizations are also located in
technologies.
the Operations Center to provide focused, on-
site alert and warning support to the watch
• The Director of Central Intelligence Environ- team.
mental Center (DEC) was established in 1997 as
the focal point for all Intelligence Community
The Office of Support Services (OSS) enables
activities related to environmental issues.
the production and dissemination of finished
Housed in the Directorate of Intelligence, the intelligence and fosters the modernization of
Center produces, integrates, and coordinates
information systems and production support ser-
assessments of the political, economic, and sci- vices. OSS develops and engineers information
entific aspects of environmental issues as they
pertain to US interests. The DEC also provides
handling systems; operates intelligence dissemi- CIA's Directorate of Intelligence. Other consumers
nation systems; and operates, maintains, and include analysts and planners in the branches and
populates the Dl's corporate knowledge and departments of the US Government and military
retrieval systems. In addition, OSS applies quan- services. These products also are available to
titative analytic techniques to solve intelligence researchers and scholars working in academia and
problems; enhances the quality of analysis; and the private sector through the National Technical
provides cartographic, design, multimedia, Information Service's "FedWorld" Internet-based
video, and publishing services to enhance the service.
value of finished intelligence. OSS also provides
training and consulting services for Dl informa- In a related activity, the DS&T administers the 1C
tion systems, software, and knowledge Open Source program, which coordinates con-
repositories. sumer needs, establishes requirements priorities,
finds ways to effectively obtain and handle open-
• Advanced Analytic Tools (AAT) is a joint office source information, and serves as the open source
of the Directorate of Intelligence and the Direc- representative in 1C collection management fora.
torate of Science and Technology. AAT monitors
emerging technologies with potential application The Directorate of Administration (DA) provides
to intelligence analysis. AAT's principal focus is the support structure for CIA's intelligence collec-
to deliver cognitive tools and information sharing tion, processing, and production activities through
solutions for the CIA, with a particular emphasis its key business areas: information services,
on improving the timeliness and quality of the human resources management; facilities manage-
analytic process and products of the Directorate ment; security; and acquisition, supply, and
of Intelligence. finance. The DA provides secure telecommunica-
tions and information technology services, infor-
The Directorate of Operations (DO) produces mation security, records management, personnel
individual unfinished intelligence reports that con- administration and logistical support services. The
sist of clandestinely obtained information that has DA also ensures the physical, technical, and oper-
not been finally evaluated or analyzed. These ational security of Agency personnel, information,
reports are screened and processed in the field and facilities, and equipment.
at CIA headquarters to determine whether the
information is sufficiently significant and reliable Within the directorate, The Printing and Photogra-
to warrant dissemination. The DC/ Counterterror- phy Group (P & PC) provides full-service publish-
ist Center produces finished intelligence on high ing and imaging services to support CIA and
priority terrorist groups and countries that support Intelligence Community production requirements.
terrorism. This includes a monthly Terrorism P & PC supports every 1C agency as well as the
Review of current developments. National Security Council and the White House.

The Directorate of Science and Technology The Center for the Study of Intelligence (CSI)
(DS&T) administers the Foreign Broadcast Infor- stimulates thinking about and promotes a fuller
mation Service (FB1S), an open source service of understanding of the craft of intelligence and the
common concern for the US Government. That CIA's practice of that craft. Originally established
activity monitors, selectively translates, and reports as an in-house "think tank," CSI aids Agency offic-
on a large and growing volume of information ers, the Intelligence Community, outside scholars,
from radio, television, newspapers, magazines and and the general public in reflecting on what intelli-
journals, commercial databases, books and gray gence is, how it functions in a democratic society,
literature. The unclassified products derived from and how it enhances national security. The Center
these materials address a wide variety of subjects also seeks to provide CiA officers with a sense of
for a broad array of consumers. Those consumers how their own work fits into the historical contin-
range from high-level policymakers to the produc- uum of the intelligence profession.
ers of all-source finished intelligence with the

14
•;.
II

General Inspector ,;: Diversity '.;•


Comptroller1"
^Counsel: -General;; : Management

Director of Military Plans, Programs Senior Enlisted


bWadvantaged'.^
Intelligence Staff; ; and Operations ; Adviser - ; less Utilization

Defense Foreign "Legislative M Public Affairs


/Liaison Liaison ;-'•

.;3J'-. Directorate for ':y. ':


Directorate f6r . . ; Joint Military
1 nfo rmatibn Systems,
Administration Intelligence College;
i-a'and Services

Joint Military;: :
ritei.•training Center
Cpunteriritelligence.:
and Security Activity-":

Directorate for Directorate for Directorate for Directorate for


Intelligence ;.. Intelligence Intelligence Central MASINT
Policy Support Organization
Operations : Production / ; Joint Staff
: : Defense .
Intelligence Office
Defense HUMIN
Service i Missile and Space
Intel. Center
National Military
Joint Intel. Center

1 Armed Forces
Medical Intel. Center

15
The Center provides a forum for interpreting intel- In the area of defense planning, DIA is fundamen-
ligence history, assists the Community in defining tal in establishing baseline threat assessments for
and analyzing major issues facing the profession, all operational plans and advocates for continuous
provides opportunities for professional develop- improvement of intelligence support to the delib-
ment of intelligence officers, and seeks to commu- erate planning process. DIA directs the Joint
nicate the role of intelligence in a historical and Requirements Oversight Council's Intelligence,
contemporary context to the American people. CSI Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (ISR) program
also helps identify, interpret, and present key doc- focusing on future ISR capabilities to provide joint
uments and artifacts of the Agency's past to operating forces with dominant battlespace aware-
increase the understanding of the modern CIA and ness and knowledge. Working with operational
the value of central intelligence. forces, DIA's collection managers organize collec-
tion support for military and humanitarian
operations. _
Department of Defense (DoD)
The Defense Human Intelligence (HUMINT)
Overall intelligence management in the Depart- Service (DHS) provides global U.S. military
ment of Defense is the responsibility of the Deputy diplomatic presence with military attaches in over
Secretary of Defense, who has an Assistant 115 embassies and other field elements deployed
Secretary of Defense for Command, Control, Com- worldwide.
munications, and Intelligence (ASD/C3I).
The Central Measurement and Signature Intelli-
Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA) gence (MASINT) Organization (CMO) spearheads
The Defense Intelligence Agency, a Department of significant advances in complex collection tech-
Defense (DoD) combat support agency, is the nology, such as unattended sensors and chemical
major producer and manager of intelligence for and biological detection programs.
DoD. Established in 1961, DIA provides timely,
objective, and cogent military intelligence to war- DIA is DoD's lead element in providing warning of
fighters, force planners, and policymakers. The terrorist threats to DoD personnel and interests
Director, DIA, is the primary adviser to the Secre- outside of the US. An aggressive, long-term collec-
tary of Defense and the Chairman of the Joint tion and analytic effort has been initiated,
Chiefs of Staff on military intelligence matters. designed to provide information which will aid the
Under the auspices of the Military Intelligence local commander's ability to detect, deter, and pre-
Board, DIA oversees the defense community on vent terrorist attack.
intelligence support to deployed forces, assess-
ments, policy, and resources. In addition, DIA DIA produces intelligence on high national inter-
plays a key role in providing foreign weapons sys- est topics and transnational issues including the
tems information to US weapons planners and the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and
weapons acquisition community. information warfare. Intelligence preparation of
the battlefield, foreign threat assessments, and
Directed by a three-star military officer, DIA is analysis of foreign deception and denial tech-
staffed by civilian and military personnel. Head- niques and activities are key components of DIA's
quartered at the Pentagon, most DIA employees intelligence production efforts.
work at the Defense Intelligence Analysis Center
on Boiling Air Force Base or other locations As the driving force in the DoD Intelligence Pro-
throughout the National Capitol Region, Maryland duction Program, DIA focuses intelligence produc-
(Armed Forces Medical Intelligence Center) and tion by leveraging DIA analytical assets with
Alabama (Missile and Space Intelligence Center). Command and Service production centers.

16
DIA's strategic concept for the Joint Intelligence their particular missions and department require-
Virtual Architecture (J1VA) will move this produc- ments. The Army, for example, is charged with pro-
tion community toward a virtual collaborative ducing—on behalf of the Defense Department—
environment and improve battlespace visualiza- scientific, technical, and general military intelli-
tion. Increased emphasis on sharing intelligence gence on foreign ground forces. This material does
with UN, NATO, coalition, and bilateral allies not normally circulate in the national Community.
fuels DIA's efforts to effectively disseminate intelli- However, the analysis performed by the various
gence products to our international partners. research centers (for example, the Army's National -
Ground Intelligence Center in Charlottesville, Vir-
During crisis and contingency, DIA stands up intel- ginia, the Navy's National Maritime Intelligence
ligence task forces in the Pentagon, uniting all Center in Suitland, Maryland, and the Air Force's
defense intelligence resources requisite to provid- National Air Intelligence Center at Wright-Patterson
ing critical real-time support to operational Air Force Base, Ohio) is often used in national-level
commanders. The Joint Worldwide Intelligence intelligence publications.
Communications System (JWICS) and the Joint
Deployable Intelligence Support System QDISS) National Security Agency (NSA)
provide high capacity and reliable connectivity NSA provides its specially controlled SIGINT
between the national level and the deployed tacti- product directly to military commands worldwide,
cal forces. DIA leads the deployment of multi- to the governmental consumers (listed in section
agency National Intelligence Support Teams VII), and to producers of all-source finished intelli-
(NISTs), which provide tailored intelligence sup- gence. Because the SIGINT product is extremely
port to the Force Commander during periods of sensitive, it is normally handled in special chan-
crisis, heightened tension, and military operations nels and is available only to specifically desig-
other than war. nated people. NSA has Signals Intelligence
National Intelligence Officers (SNIOs) who spe-
DIA's role includes leading, centrally managing, cialize in topics and regions similar to those of the
and integrating defense intelligence resources and NIOs. The SNIOs, along with the Deputy Director
activities. Posturing intelligence for the future, DIA for Operations, representjhe Director, NSA, in
invests in more efficient systems and practices, facilitating intelligence liaison for operations and
recruits and retains skilled people and employs information throughout the 1C and with other con-
modern facilities. sumers of SIGINT.

The Joint Military Intelligence College (JM1C) is a National Imagery and Mapping Agency (N1MA)
fully accredited institution of higher learning offer- The National Imagery and Mapping Agency was
ing undergraduate programs and MS degrees in established on October 1, 1996, through the con-
strategic intelligence. It educates selected military solidation of the Defense Mapping Agency (DMA),
and civilian personnel for command, staff and pol- the Central Imagery Office (CIO), the Defense Dis-
icymaking duties in the DoD, national, and inter- semination Program Office (DDPO), and the
national intelligence structures. National Photographic Interpretation Center (NPIC).
NIMA also absorbed the imagery exploitation, pro-
The Military Intelligence Board (MIB) chaired by cessing, and dissemination elements and programs
the Director, DIA, coordinates the activities of the of CIA, DIA, NRO, and the Defense Airborne
Military Intelligence Community. Besides DIA, Reconnaissance Office (DARO). It is organized
members of the MIB include senior intelligence around three directorates—Operations, Systems
leadership within the Department of Defense, the and Technology, and Corporate Affairs. NIMA pro-
Joint Chiefs of Staff, NSA, and the military services. vides ready access to imagery, imagery intelligence,
and geospatial information for military forces and
Military Services, Departments, and Commands government consumers (listed in section VII). NIMA
The military services, departments, and commands is developing imagery information databases which
issue a large volume of intelligence in support of

17
;;.;pepiit^ipirectdr

Off i ce of G e n e ra.l: Commercial Office


Counsel - -' • ;•:•:•

Special Assistant tb'iMRO

Special Assistant-to ^Office of Inspector


pireetor(Y2K) :: • : ;;' ^General: : :•'. :-:

^Operations.: -;jfc.v; uSystems.and ;^S.S Corporate Affairs


•Directorate Technology Directorate 1 •-V Directorate,

: Customer " imagery Technology Procurements


Analysis Systems Office : - •
:;Support,Office : .Offide; and Contracts Support Offic
;: Office .

•:. Information; Architecture and National Imagery -Congressional


Central Imagery
; -Services and.- Requirements and Geospatial .. .and Public
^Tasking Office
Training Office Office ;,Poliey Office 5 -Liaison Office

Geospatial Integrated, « : Hurnan --/-" Plans, Programs


Information and Program ', Resources:. /and Analysis
-* Services Office:, v-; Off ice..' "Office -/ Office

Chief Financial
Executive

will be accessible worldwide and which will be by producing all-source analysis on all countries
capable of merging information with other intelli- and transnational issues, and by ensuring that
gence disciplines. intelligence activities support US foreign policy.
Analytical products are keyed to the Department's
Department of State, Bureau of Intelligence and agenda, but The Secretary's Morning Intelligence
Research (INR) Summary and selected memoranda are read by
senior officials throughout the policy community.
The Bureau of Intelligence and Research supports Most INR analyses are disseminated electronically
Department principals and diplomatic operations

18
^ff £Jj I^F-lf \ f-

Directbr, NSA/Ghief, GSS9 Small-and Disadvantaged


Business Utilization Office
Deputy. Director,

Deputy Director ;Deputy Director:, Deputy Director- Deputy Director


Deputy Director
for Support ;for Information . f o r Corporate .-;: iorTechnology
for Operations
Services System? Security /Management and:;Systems V

a Central Security Service.

to overseas posts and to the Intelligence Commu- The Directorate for Analysis subsumes INR's six
nity. The Assistant Secretary for INR reports offices for regional affairs, the Office for Economic
directly to the Secretary of State and serves as the Analysis, and the Office for Strategic, Proliferation,
Secretary's chief adviser on all intelligence matters. and Military Issues. It also supervises the Office of
Research which organizes conferences and semi-
The Bureau has three major Directorates: nars for the Department and the 1C to tap expertise
outside the USG, and manages the Department's
The Directorate for Intelligence Liaison and Execu- program of outside contract and grant research.
tive Support, headed by the Principal Deputy The Office of Publications edits The Secretary's
Assistant Secretary, coordinates sensitive intelli- Morning Intelligence Summary and prepares prod-
gence activities and ensures that Department prin- ucts for Intelink, the IC's secure intranet.
cipals receive the intelligence they need, when
they need it, wherever they are. The Office of The Directorate for Intelligence Policy and Coordi-
Intelligence Operations and Coordination moni- nation develops guidance for the Department's
tors sensitive intelligence programs and activities. participation in Intelligence Community policy
The Current Intelligence Staff (the INR Watch) is discussions on intelligence collection and counter-
co-located with the Department's Operations Cen- intelligence issues, and provides feedback on 1C
ter to ensure that senior officials quickly receive products and changes in intelligence require-
intelligence on fast-breaking events. The Watch ments. It coordinates intelligence support for dip-
provides intelligence to crisis management groups lomatic operations, and supports chiefs of mission
and maintains close contact with watch centers of as they exercise their own and the Department's
other intelligence organizations. The Bureau's statutory authority for overseas operations. The
executive office handles budgeting, information Directorate also includes two analytic offices, the
services, and personnel.

19
f'*' < a !>"•' *

Assistant Secretary/
r^for Intelligence
and Research

T
Deputy; Assistant^ :;vx;Principally .J :;-;, Deputy Assistant;^
^'-'".Secretary for ;>. Deputy Assistant: Secretary for Intelligence
:v Secretary Policy
- - -
and
• --
Coordination
- . . .-: - - - -

Office of Analysis -:';." Office -of f


Office of Analysis '.£ Office of the
•::.-.' for Russia ::;/ / Intelligence.
for Africa'- ',:- Executive Director
- . "and Eurasia Resources /

.Office of Analysis -.:.: Office of •::••


V ' Office of "•;!-•> ; V~ Current w
.for East Asia : .' Intelligence- -
Economic Analysis Intelligence Staff '-
and the Pacific Coordination .

Office of Analysis
: Office: of / Office of Office of the
• for Strategic, v
Analysis -intelligence .Geographer and
Proliferation, and
for Europe .Operations /.Global Issues
v Military Issues

Office of Analysis Office of Analysis


Office of for Terrorism,
for Inter-American
Publications Narcotics, and. .
; -•/ Affairs
. Crime

Office of Analysis Office of


External
: for Near East Administrative
Research Staff
and South Asia Liaison

Office of Terrorism, Narcotics and Crime, and the National Warning Staff (NWS)
Office of the Geographer and Global Issues.
The National Warning Staff is an interagency body
INR is not a collection component of the Intelli- serving under the National Intelligence Officer for
gence Community, but diplomatic reporting from Warning. The NWS assists the NIO for Warning,
the Department of State's overseas posts is impor- and the DCI Warning Committee, which he chairs,
tant to the production of finished intelligence on in various functions, including identifying warning
many subjects. Foreign Service reporting \s not issues, and advising the 1C on warning methodol-
considered to be intelligence production, but it is ogy, training, and research.
a low cost, low risk type of collection and repre-
sents a large proportion of all HUMINT.

20
Department of the Treasury

The Department of the Treasury provides Embassy


economic reporting through State Department
channels to members of the 1C and to other US
Government agencies concerned with interna-
tional economic policy.

Department of Energy

The Office of Intelligence produces and dissemi-


nates intelligence for policymakers throughout the
government and the 1C. The Office provides timely
and relevant analyses and national intelligence
production on a variety of subjects.

21
Section IV

Major Products

The finished products likely to be of most interest Current Intelligence Publications


to a consumer of intelligence can be categorized
as current, estimative, warning, and research. In Hundreds of reports derived from SIGINT, imagery,
each of these categories, the term "national" in the and human sources are sent to consumers and
title indicates that: other producers each day. These reports often pro-
vide policymakers and their intelligence staffs with
• The publication is intended for the use of US the first indications of significant new develop-
Government officials at the highest levels. ments. They are generally derived from a single
source and, in the interests of timeliness, are not
• The contents of the publication have been coordinated outside the issuing agency before
reviewed and coordinated within the 1C (time release. These items provide the basic input to the
permitting, in the case of current intelligence), more fully analyzed items described below.
and significant dissenting views have been
noted. Dailies
President's Daily Brief (PDB). Prepared six days a
Some publications, papers, and reports are week, the PDB compiles intelligence items of the
intended for use at the national level but have not highest significance necessary for the President to
been circulated for coordination outside the issu- perform the national security duties of his office. It
ing department or agency, and dissenting views is distributed to the President, the Vice President,
are not necessarily presented. and a select group of executive branch officials
designated by the President. (CIA)
At times consumers require tailored support—spe-
cific ad hoc memorandums, single-source event Vice President's Supplement (VPS). Prepared six
reports, maps, charts, photographs, or models. days a week, the VPS compiles intelligence on
Experience is the best guide for finding this kind of topics of particular interest to the Vice President.
quick-reaction support. The NIOs serve as a liai- This publication is seen by all PDB recipients,
son for consumers who need substantive intelli- including the President. (CIA)
gence information for background purposes—such
as meeting foreign officials, preparing for overseas Economic Executives' Intelligence Brief (EE1B).
visits, and getting a "reading" of an ongoing situa- Prepared five days a week, the EE1B is designed to
tion. The NIO's job, among others, is to ensure that serve the intelligence needs of senior economic
national-level consumers get the best service the policy officials. It takes a multidisciplinary look "at
1C can provide. For SIGINT products, consumers the issues on economic officials' agendas, includ-
are encouraged to contact the NSA liaison officer ing foreign trade practices, illicit finance, and
accredited to their organization to arrange neces- international energy developments. (CIA)
sary clearances, establish procedures for obtaining
pertinent SIGINT reporting, and discuss the Senior Executive Intelligence Brief (SEIB). The
DCI-mandated limitations on the use of this SEIB is a compilation of key current intelligence
information.

23
items published six days a week by CIA's Director- Articles include brief terrorism notes, regional ter-
ate of Intelligence, in consultation with DIA, INR, rorism developments and in-depth special analy-
and NSA. (CIA) ses. It also includes a monthly terrorism review by
Combatant Commands. This product is dissemi-
The Secretary's Morning Intelligence Summary. nated Monday through Friday in a hardcopy ver-
An analytical publication prepared for the Secre- sion in the Washington, DC, area and an
tary of State and other Department principals by electronic message version for military commands
INR. Published seven days a week, the Summary around the world. (DIA)
consists of approximately ten short reports and
three longer analyses keyed to the Secretary's for- The SIGINT Digest. Apprises readers of the most
eign policy responsibilities. Distribution is limited significant developments of the day that were
but it is disseminated within the Department to all derived from SIGINT. The Digest is distributed on
_with the proper clearances as well as to the White weekdays in hardcopy to Washington-area cus-
House and senior officials in other international tomers and electronically to customers in the field.
affairs agencies and the Intelligence Community. A (NSA)
version of the Summary is sent to ambassadors.
(INR) World Imagery Report. A video-format compila-
tion of brief current intelligence items delivered to
Military Intelligence Digest (MID). A Defense a worldwide audience by the National Imagery
Intelligence Community product in magazine for- and Mapping Agency. NIMA also produces longer
mat that is published Monday through Friday. It video products on specific topics. (NIMA)
provides current intelligence to national policy-
makers on military and related topics including
regional security, nuclear security and prolifera- Weeklies/Periodicals/Ad Hoc Publications
tion, and strategy and resources. The MID is a
community coordinated product with alternative Defense Intelligence Assessment (Short Form). A
views presented as appropriate. Hardcopy distri- fast-turnaround DIA/Do.D product of one to eight
bution is limited to the Washington area, but pages that addresses a single policy-relevant event,
selected contents are disseminated electronically situation, or development. It is targeted at execu-
to military commanders worldwide. (DIA) tive-level consumers, with distribution to other
appropriate customers.
NMJIC Executive Highlights (EH). Published Mon-
day through Friday with inputs from DIA, NSA, Defense Intelligence Assessment (Long Form).
and NIMA, EH presents articles on crisis or near Responds to broad consumer interest by present-
crisis situations. It is designed to keep the Secretary ing comprehensive analysis on a policy-relevant
of Defense, Chairman, Joint Chiefs of Staff, and event, situation, issue, or development in 5 to 25
other top decisionmakers informed of develop- pages. This DIA/DoD product is thematic, with
ments that might require immediate action by the evaluative and judgmental exposition. This docu-
United States. Distribution is made in hardcopy in ment is targeted at planning and policy staffs at
the Washington area and softcopy and electronic various levels.
message to military commanders elsewhere. (DIA)
Defense Intelligence Report (DIR). Can be one-
Defense Intelligence Terrorism Summary (DIT- time or recurring (often encyclopedic) studies on
SUM). A compilation of information and analyses military forces and force capabilities, infrastruc-
on terrorism threats and developments that could ture, facilities, systems and equipment, or associ-
affect DoD personnel, facilities, and interests. ated topics for military planning and operations.

24
The DIR product includes foldout wall charts The Illicit Finance Review is published monthly by
intended as reference aids as well as the more typ- CIA's Office of Transnational Issues. It covers such
ical book length publication. The documents are issues as drug money laundering and financing of
intended for a wide range of customers. terrorism.

Defense Intelligence Management Document Perspectives on Instability is a quarterly publica-


(DIMD). Focus on information regarding systems, tion that combines quantitative methodology with
procedures, or methodologies that support pro- area expertise to assess the political stability of -
duction of intelligence; they normally do not selected countries. (CIA)
include substantive intelligence.
Proliferation Digest is published monthly by CIA's
Defense Intelligence Special Publication (DISP). Directorate of Intelligence; all offices contribute
Include one-time and recurring products that articles on themes related to the proliferation of
require unique formats to fill specific customer weapons of mass destruction and potential-deliv-
needs. In addition, products that consist of a com- ery vehicles.
pilation of articles fit into this product.
The Arms Trade Report is published bimonthly by
CIA Regional Reviews. Periodic assessments (rang- CIA's Office of Transnational Issues in the Director-
ing from daily to monthly) of foreign political, eco- ate of Intelligence.
nomic, military, and societal issues relevant to US
interests. These publications, produced by the DCs Selected Intelligence Products is a weekly publi-
regional analytic offices, deal with regional and cation for policymakers listing intelligence papers,
national events in Africa, Europe, the Middle East, videos, and special products produced in CIA's .
and the Slavic and Eurasian states of the former Directorate of Intelligence.
Soviet Union.
Serial publications and briefings. Offices in CIA's
Defense research and S&Tproduction indexes Directorate of Intelligence also produce an array of
are available through DIA's Central Reference their own serial publications and situation reports
Division. . .• - and provide oral briefings to address more special-
ized topics on key countries, or to provide support
The Economic Intelligence Weekly is an end-of- on important policy issues.
the-week compilation of current intelligence items
from the Economic Executives' Intelligence Brief. The State Department's Bureau of Intelligence and
Research produces a number of analytical papers
The Terrorism Review. A monthly publication of and periodic reports on regional and functional
the CIA's Counterterrorist Center. The publication issues, most of which are disseminated electroni-
addresses current trends in international terrorism cally via Intelink.
activity and methods. It also includes a chronology
of international terrorist incidents.
Research Intelligence Publications From CIA
The Narcotics Monitor is published weekly by the
DCI Crime and Narcotics Center. It assesses nar- CIA also produces a substantial volume of
cotics-related developments worldwide. medium- and long-term intelligence research on
key foreign countries and transnational issues.
The Organized Crime Report is published
monthly by the DCI Crime and Narcotics Center; it
covers worldwide organized crime..

25
The Dl may use classified monographs, serial pub- intended for a wide range of consumers including
lications, or oral briefings to present its research. the President, members of the Cabinet, National
The Dl produces three categories of classified Security Council, and other senior policymakers.
intelligence monographs for use by senior policy-
makers and other officials. Other estimative publications produced by the
NIC include:
The Special Intelligence Report (SIR) provides
high-level policymakers with a very brief, highly • Intelligence Community Assessments (ICAs)
focused analysis of an extremely important topic examine broad issues of national importance.
or event. They may be as long and broad in scope as NIEs.

The Intelligence Memorandum (IM) serves the • Intelligence Community Briefs (ICBs) are short
policy community's needs for brief but somewhat papers meant to provide consumers with the
more detailed analysis of important issues relevant views of the 1C on subjects of immediate policy
to policymakers' responsibilities. importance.

The Intelligence Report (IR) offers written intelli- • Sense of the Community Memoranda (SOCMs)
gence support to all levels of the policy commu- are tightly focused papers. They are designed to
nity including basic research and information, provide consumers with policy-relevant analysis
responses to specific questions, situation reports, needed under a short deadline.
and briefing books.
The three products listed above are coordinated
There are a variety of specialized research intelli- with the 1C but do not require NF1B approval.
gence publications similar to the IR format, includ-
ing the Policy Support Memorandum, produced DIA produces estimative products on defense
by the Office of Transnational Issues and the issues. These products, which are published pri-
Counterrorist Center Commentary, which pro- marily under the DoD Futures Intelligence Pro-
vides warning of a growing or immediate terrorist gram, are coordinated with DoD intelligence
threat, using evidence and detailed analysis. agencies. In addition to these interagency publica-
tions, many of the departmental publications pro-
duced by CIA's Directorate of Intelligence, the
Estimative Intelligence Products State Department's Bureau of Intelligence and
Research, and intelligence components of the mil-
National Intelligence Estimates (NIEs) provide the itary services also contain estimative intelligence.
most authoritative judgments of the 1C on subjects
of highest concern to US policymakers. Unlike • Department of State analytical and estimative
current intelligence products, which describe the papers are prepared for the Secretary of State and
present, NIEs examine future scenarios and their his principal policymakers by the Bureau of
implications for US policy. Based on input from Intelligence and Research. The main vehicles
the 1C, NIEs are produced by the NIC and formally are memoranda circulated within the
approved by the heads of the intelligence agencies Department.
acting in concert as the National Foreign Intelli-
gence Board (NF1B), which is chaired by the DCI.
NIEs are distilled into a separate President's Sum-
mary, which is distributed to the highest levels of
the foreign policymaking community. The NIE is

26
Warning Intelligence special warning reports designed to provide
alerts about potential threats to the Department
Warning intelligence products identify and focus of Defense, the Joint Chiefs of Staff, and US com-
on developments that could have sudden and del- mands around the world. The primary vehicle for
eterious effects on US security or policy. Because disseminating these alerts are the daily briefings
warning is a process of communicating threat developed by the Directorate of Intelligence/12
judgments to decisionmakers, the message is often and posted to Intelink, the Intelligence Commu-
repeated as the evidence of an adverse outcome nity's secure Intranet, and other web-based vehi-
accumulates. A Warning Committee, composed of cles. DIA and the commands, as members of the
representatives of CIA's Deputy Director for Intelli- DoD I&W system, also publish two ad hoc prod-
gence, the Assistant Secretary of State for Intelli- ucts: the Warning Report is an assessment of a
gence and Research, the Deputy Directors of the specific warning issue; the Watch Condition
Defense Intelligence Agency, the National Imagery Change is a notification of a change in the threat
- and Mapping Agency, and the National Security level presented by a specific warning problem.
Agency, and chaired by the National Intelligence
Officer for Warning, meets weekly to discuss a 1 Warning Report. Published by DIA and the com-
range of warning issues and to coordinate warning mands, this vehicle communicates warning intel-
products. The 1C can warn through its regular pub- ligence that is worthy of the immediate, specific
lications, but also has the following products spe- attention of senior US officials within the
cifically devoted to warning; Washington area and in the commands' area of
operation.
• The Warning Committee Watchlist. This
biweekly report tracks and assigns probabilities • Watch Condition (WATCHCON) Change
to potential threats to US security or policy inter- Report. Published by DIA and the commands,
ests that may develop within a six-month time- this vehicle provides a "shorthand" reflection of
frame; it also occasionally issues "special the level of concern the issuer believes is
warning notices." reflected by a given set of developments.

• The Watchlist Supplement. Produced on alter-


nate weeks, the supplement explores longer-term Research Aids
warning issues and provides a monthly status
report on designated countries. Standard research aids produced annually by CIA's
Office of Support Services are The WorldFactbook
• Warning Memorandum. Initiated either by the and the Handbook of International Economic Sta-
NIO for Warning or through that office by any tistics (HIES). Classified and unclassified editions
element of the 1C, this special warning notice of the Factbook contain basic information on more
focuses on a potential development of particu- than 250 countries and other entities. The HIES -
larly high significance to US interests. The Warn- contains data on selected economic topics and
ing Memorandum is forwarded to the DCI and commodities. An unclassified reference aid, Chiefs
simultaneously to NFIB principals for their tele- of State and Cabinet Members of Foreign Govern-
phonic concurrence; the process must be com- ments, is produced monthly by the Office of Sup-
pleted within several hours. The DCI then port Services. Information on all three unclassified
decides whether to disseminate the Warning publications may be obtained by calling (703)
Memorandum to policy officials or take other 482-5203 and is available on the CIA's web site at
appropriate action. www.cia.gov.

• Products of the Defense Indications and Warn-


ing (I&W) System. DIA issues periodic and

27
Dependent Agency

^epafrrient
^biitate-^

Director
of Central
Intelligence (DGI'j liiii
;/ DDC1/ {National :
Community |lnteHigence
lylanage- I Council
ment ifiitei
,;.::.
'
i
A1:
ExMffr
National • ^
ai:i^|||pii;
H|^|/i||ir\

28
Section V

Managing the Intelligence


Community

The National Security Act of 1947 designates the — Protection of intelligence sources and meth-
Director of Central Intelligence as the primary ods, activities of common concern, and such
adviser on national foreign intelligence to the Pres- other matters as are referred to it by the DCI.
ident and the National Security Council. The DCI
is tasked with directing and conducting all The Board's deliberations and decisions are
national foreign intelligence and counterintelli- recorded in coordinated minutes. Any principal
gence activities. may propose agenda items. In practice, the bulk of
the Board's business has been to review and
The Act also directs the DCI, as head of the 1C, to approve NIEs.
carry out intelligence activities necessary for the
conduct of foreign relations and the protection of • The Intelligence Senior Steering Group (ISSG) is
US national security. These activities include the jointly chaired by the Deputy Director of Central
production and dissemination of finished intelli- Intelligence for Community Management (DDCI/
gence. The IC's effectiveness in carrying out these CM), the Assistant Secretary of Defense for Com-
activities largely depends on continuous and effec- mand, Control, Communications, and Intelli-
tive communication between personnel of the gence (ASDC3I) and the Joint Chiefs of Staff/
intelligence and policymaking elements of the Force Structure, Resources, and Assessment
government. To discharge these duties, the DCI Directorate (JCS/J8). It is comprised of senior rep-
serves both as head of the Central Intelligence resentatives from the Intelligence Community-
Agency and of the 1C. The CIA supports the DCI users, managers and oversight organizations. The
through current and long-term intelligence, while ISSG provides oversight of major intelligence
the NIC is the DCI's principal arm for Community systems requirements, development, acquisition,
assessments. architecture and related intelligence issues. The
ISSC provides the DCI and Deputy Secretary of
Various Executive Orders authorize the DCI to Defense insight into the development of multi-
establish advisory groups. Currently, they include: million dollar intelligence systems in order to
make more efficient budgetary decisions.
• The National Foreign Intelligence Board (NFIB),
whose Vice Chairman is the Deputy Director of • The 1C Principals Committee (ICPQ and 1C
Central Intelligence (DDCI) and whose members Deputies Committee (ICDQ are important tools
are the heads or representatives of all the agen- for managing the Community. These committees
cies that make up the 1C. The NFIB is the oldest consider and develop policies, plans, and pro-
of the DCI's Intelligence Community advisory cesses for DCI decisions on key issues of con- ,
bodies, having existed in one form or another cern to the Intelligence Community. The ICPC is
since the founding of the CIA. The NFIB is chaired by the DCI or DDCI and includes Direc-
responsible for: tors of the major 1C agencies. The ICDC is
chaired by the Deputy Director of Central Intelli-
— Production, review, and coordination of gence for Community Management (DDCI/CM)
national foreign intelligence. and includes Deputy Directors of the major 1C

— Arrangements with foreign governments on


intelligence matters.

29
Selected Intelligence Community Staffs, Committees, Boards, and
Working Groups
ACIS Arms Control Intelligence Staff (p. 37)
ARDC Advanced Research and Development Committee (33)
ATP Advanced Technology Panel (33)
CDIB Community Diversity Issues Board
CSRC Clan SIGINT Requirements Committee
CNII/CIOCII Committee on Narcotics Intelligence Issues/International
Organized Crime Intelligence Issues
CMC Community Nonproliferation Committee
DPAG DCI Policy Advisory Group
NIO/Warning DCI Committee on Warning (4,27)
FDDC Foreign Denial and Deception Committee
HTPF Hard Targets Principals Forum
ICCIOEC Intelligence Community Chief Information Officer Executive
Council (33)
ICDC Intelligence Community Deputies Committee (29)
ICPC Intelligence Community Principals Committee (29)
IICT Interagency Intelligence Committee on Terrorism (29)
ISSG Intelligence Senior Steering Group (29)
JAEIC Joint Atomic Energy Intelligence Committee
MASINT Committee Measurement and Signature Intelligence Committee
NACIPB National Counterintelligence Policy Board (34)
NACOB National Counterintelligence Operations Board
NFIB National Foreign Intelligence Board
NHRTC National HUMINT Requirements Tasking Committee
NICB National Intelligence Collection Board (31)
NIPB National Intelligence Production Board (33)
OSSC Open Source Steering Committee
OPSCOM Operations Committee
RSCOM Remote Sensing Committee
SPB Security Policy Board (34)
SIGINT Committee National SIGINT Committee (2)
SNCB Special Navy Collection Board
STIC Scientific and Technical Intelligence Committee
WSSIC Weapons and Space Systems Intelligence Committee

30
agencies. It resolves important policies, plans, The Executive Director for Intelligence Commu-
and processes not requiring the attention of the nity Affairs (EXDIR/ICA) reports to the DDCI/CM
ICPCortheDCI. and is responsible for directing the Community
Management Staff.
The DDCI for Community Management (DDCI/
CM) is a statutory position established by Title VIII The Community Management Staff (CMS), estab-
of the Authorization Act for FY 1997 to develop, lished on 1 June 1992 to replace the 1C Staff/is
coordinate, and implement DCI policies and exer- responsible for developing, coordinating, and exe-
cise the DCI's responsibilities in planning, pro- cuting DCI policy in resource management, infor-
gram, and budget development;-requirements mation technology, policy, requirements and
management and evaluation; strategic planning; program evaluations. To carry out these functions
collection management; analysis and production; CMS has four offices and two groups.
and acquisition oversight. The DDCI/CM is
assisted by the Assistant DCI for Administration • The Resource Management Office (RMO) is
(ADCI/A) who is also nominated by the President responsible for NFIP budget development, evalu-
and confirmed by the Senate. The ADCl/A acts as ation, justification, and monitoring. The NFIP
the DDCi/CM's deputy. The ADCI for Collection provides funds for the bulk of national-level
(ADCI/Q, and the ADCI for Analysis and Produc- intelligence, counterintelligence and reconnais-
tion (ADCI/AP) assist the DDCI/CM in fulfilling sance activities.
the responsibilities of the DCI as head of the Intel-
ligence Community. • The Program Assessment and Evaluation Office
(PA&EO) is responsible for creating a process
• The ADCI/C, appointed by the DCI, is responsi- that allows the DCI to shape the NFIP. The group
ble for working with National Foreign Intelli- serves as the focal point for the DCI's "mission-
gence Program (NFIP) managers to ensure the based budget" initiative, which evaluates intelli-
effectiveness of national intelligence collection. gence programs on their support to US national
The ADCI/C chairs the National Intelligence Col- security missions.
lection Board (NICE), which consists of senior
collection managers from NFIP agencies, and • The Requirements, Plans, and Policy Office
serves as the Intelligence Community's overarch- (RPPO) supports the DCI's development and pro-
ing mechanism for developing and implement- mulgation of policy to guide Intelligence Com-
ing cross-discipline, cross-agency coordination munity activities. This office evaluates the
of intelligence collection. The Board provides Community's performance in responding to cur-
the ADCI/C an integrated forum for collection rent national foreign intelligence requirements;
decisions—on current and standing require- develops organizational and procedural archi-
ments—that are timely and meet the needs of the tectures for DCI initiatives; addresses information
DCI. In addition, the Intelligence Collection operations/warfare, security policy matters, IC-
Committee Chairs report to the DDCI/CM related aerospace policy and IC-related human
through the ADCI/C. resource issues. In addition, this office is respon-
sible for coordinating 1C foreign language issues;
• The ADCI/AP, also appointed by the DCI, is reviewing the compartmentation practices
responsible for overseeing the analysis and pro- within the 1C including the Sensitive Compart-
duction of intelligence by elements of the Intelli- mented Information Control Intelligence Quality
gence Community, establishing standards and Council (ICQC) in its efforts to extend the appli-
priorities relating to such analysis and produc- cation of quality management in the Intelligence
tion, and monitoring the allocation of resources Community.
for the analysis and production of intelligence.

31
fcfififWfl-i

of Intelligence Community
Central Intelligence Principals Committee
iDeputy Director of
Central !ntelligerice;<DDGI);
"•

: intelligence Senior ;DDCI/GIVI Intelligence Community


Steering Committee- ; ADCI/A ; Deputies Committee .,

i
Senior Acquisition EXDIR/lntelligence V ADCI/Analysis:/
ADCI/Collection
'•:,-. Executive Community Affairs and Procluetion3

National Intelligence • National Intelligence


:: Collection Board; ; Production Board:

Congressional v /Advanced V
Actions Group Technology Group

Program. Assessment Requirements Plans : ; Resource


and Evaluation Office :; and Policy Office Management Office

- Studies/Assessments - Information Operations - CBJB's


- Program (IPOM) Review - Cl and Security - CongressionalCDA's/QFR's
- Program Evaluation - Workforce Issues - Program Integration
- Joint Guidance Special Assistant for Diversity - Testimony
- Cost Ana lysis Group - Intelligence Capabilities - 1C Budget Information
'- IPRG Secretariat Policy Systems
- Hard Targets ~ Budget/Execution Reviews
..Requirements and Plans - Reprogramming Approvals
- Policy Support

' The ADCI/Analysis and Production is also Chairman, National Intelligence Council. In that capacity he reports directly to the DCI.

32
The Advanced Technology Croup (ATG) is respon- intelligence needs the Community should focus
sible for oversight and coordination of advanced on and ensure the timeliness and relevance of
research and development within the 1C and for Community products.
encouraging investment in high risk/high payoff
technologies. It also supports the DCI's Advanced • They provide authoritative guidance to Commu-
Research and Development Committee (AR&DC) nity collectors based on intelligence gaps identi-
and the Advanced Technology Panel (ATP). fied during the production of NIEs and other
estimative publications.
The Intelligence Community Chief Information
Officer (IC/CIO) and staff establish Community- • They promote rigorous analysis, effective presen-
wide information services (IS) policy, goals, and tation, cross-disciplinary cooperation, and the
objectives; lead the development of the IS strategic development of innovative analytical methods
plan, architecture, and investment strategy; and within the production community.
foster a shared commitment to improved interop-
erability consistent with Intelligence Community • They develop linkages between community pro-
needs. Specific responsibilities include chairing duction elements and sources of relevant exper-
the Intelligence Community CIO Executive Coun- tise outside the Federal Government and
cil (ICCIOEC) and providing leadership and guid- establish mechanisms through which such exper-
ance for developing policies and technical tise can be incorporated into Community estima-
standards necessary to facilitate secure connectiv- tive products.
ity and collaboration among intelligence produc-
ers and users. The Associate Director of Central Intelligence for
Military Support (ADCI/MS) serves as the princi-
The Administrative Group provides support to the pal adviser to the DCI on military issues. Subject
offices of the DDCI/CM, the ADC1/C, the ADCI/AP, to the guidance and direction of the DCI, the
the Community Management Staff, and the ADCI/MS formulates, recommends, coordinates,
National Counter!ntelligence Center (NACIC) in and when necessary, directs the implementation of
the areas of personnel, budget and finance, secu- 1C policies on support for military forces plans,-
rity, logistics, automated information systems, exercises, and operations. The ADCI/MS reviews
records management, and graphics. The Adminis- the allocation of 1C resources to ensure adequate
trative Group also serves as the Programming and support to the military across the spectrum of
Budget Office for the Community Management R&D, acquisition, plans,, training and operations.
Account (CMA). The majority of Administrative The ADCI/MS coordinates, integrates and decon-
Group employees are on rotational assignments flicts CIA activities in support of military plans,
from the Central Intelligence Agency's Directorate exercises, and operations and performs other
of Administration. duties as assigned by the DCI.

The Chairman of the NIC is a member of the Intel- ADCI/MS oversees the Office of Military Affairs
ligence Community Executive Committee and also (OMA) to ensure, via DCI representatives assigned
chairs the National Intelligence Production Board to Unified Commands, the Joint Staff and OSD,
(NIPB), composed of senior Community produc- CIA participation in CINC deliberate planning,
tion managers, including the chairmen of the DCI exercises and operations. Additionally, ADCI/MS
production committees. The NIC Chairman, Vice ensures, via OMA, that military and CIA educa-
Chairman, and the NIOs help the DCI manage the tion/outreach programs are available to support
1C in several ways: the warfighter, as well as deployment of CIA com-
ponents of National Intelligence Support Teams
• They represent the DCI and the Community in (NIST).
interagency groups responsible for developing
US foreign policies. Their role is to identify

33
Security and Counterintelligence Policy Boards National Counterintelligence Center1

In 1994, two Presidential Decision Directives Along with the NACIPB, a National Counterintelli-
brought significant organization to important fac- gence Center (NACIC) was established to coordi-
ets of the Intelligence Community. One, PDD-29, nate national level Counterintelligence activities.
established a new security policy structure, that Among its responsibilities are the following:
includes a national Security Policy Board (SPB).
The second, PDD-24, established a revised • Provide for and improve the availability, user-
national Counterintelligence structure, to include a friendliness and usefulness of Intelink-CI, the Cl
National Counterintelligence Policy Board component of the IC's secure intranet.
(NACIPB). Both structures coordinate with each
other, through regular interface and cross repre- • Enhance the contributions and analysis of infor-
sentation on each structure's boards and working mation found in Cl community data bases,
groups.
• Assist US industry through the dissemination of
The SPB is the principal mechanism for proposing threat awareness information, products and ser-
to the National Security Council legislative initia- vices.
tives and executive orders pertaining to US secu-
rity policies. It considers, coordinates and • Ensure implementation of interagency Counterin-
recommends for implementation policy directives telligence training and awareness programs.
for US security policies, procedures, and practices.
• Develop all-source assessments of the foreign
The NACIPB reports to the President through the intelligence threat to US national and economic
Assistant to the President for National Security security.
Affairs and the National Security Council. The
Chairman of the NACIPB is designated by the DCI • Oversee or conduct damage assessments result-
in consultation with the Assistant to the President ing from espionage cases.
for National Security Affairs and the position
rotates roughly every two years among the Central • Promote the development of a long-term strate-
Intelligence Agency, Federal Bureau of Investiga- gic view for the Cl community.
tion and the Department of Defense. The NACIPB
considers, develops, and recommends for imple- The NACIC, which became operational on
mentation, policy and planning directives for US 1 August 1994 and is located at CIA Headquarters,
Counterintelligence (Cl); coordinates development is an autonomous Cl Community entity that
of interagency agreements; and resolves conflicts reports to the NACIPB and the National Security
that may arise between Departments and agencies Council. The NACIC works in close coordination
over Counterintelligence matters. The NACIPB with the DCI's staff and the CIA Counterintelli-
receives support from and oversees the activities of gence Center (CIA/CIC). In addition, the Director
the National Counterintelligence Center (NACIC) of the NACIC is the Issue Coordinator for Counter-
and other Cl Boards and Working Groups. intelligence in the DCI's needs process. The Issue
Coordinator is responsible for conducting a pro-
grammatic review of national Counterintelligence,
articulating goals, and identifying strategies to sat-
isfy Counterintelligence customer requirements.
1 See DCI Center listings on page 13 and 14 for the
Crime and Narcotics Center, Nonproliferation Center,
Counterterrorist Center, and the Environmental Center.

34
• The NACIC staff is drawn from counterintelli-
gence and security professionals from FBI, CIA,
DoD, DOE, State and NSA. Staff members serve
on a rotational basis, with most serving a two-
year tour. The position of Director rotates among
the FBI, CIA, and DoD every two years.

The Arms Control Intelligence Staff (ACIS) coordi-


nates the work of the 1C on arms control issues.
ACIS supports arms control policy development
especially in the area of treaty monitoring, sup-
ports the treaty ratification process by providing
Congress intelligence assessments related to arms
control, and manages the monitoring of treaties
once they enter into force. ACIS, directly subordi-
nated to the DCI, is staffed by officers from
throughout CIA and the 1C.

35
Section VI

National Security Classification System

The US Government has a uniform system for clas- By law and regulations, much intelligence infor-
sifying, declassifying, and safeguarding national mation automatically becomes declassified after a
security information. This system recognizes that specific period of time. Exemptions are
the interests of the United States and its citizens provided for certain types of sensitive information
require that certain information concerning the that is essential to national security or that requires
national defense and foreign relations be protected continued protection because it would place a
against unauthorized disclosure. Information may person, collection system, or method in immediate
not be classified unless its disclosure could reason- jeopardy. The current system provides that the
ably be expected to cause damage to the national originating department or other appropriate
security. National security information is classified authority may impose special requirements with
as: respect to access, distribution, and protection of
classified information, including those that relate
• Top Secret—refers to national security informa- to communications intelligence and intelligence
tion that requires the highest degree of protec- sources and methods. These "compartments" are
tion. The test of assigning a Top-Secret identified by special codewords and control
classification is whether its unauthorized disclo- markings.
sure could reasonably be expected to cause
exceptionally grave damage to the national secu-
rity.

• Secret—refers to national security information


that requires a substantial degree of protection.
The test for assigning a Secret classification is
whether its unauthorized disclosure could rea-
sonably be expected to cause serious damage to
the national security.

• Confidential—refers to national security infor-


mation that requires protection. The test for
assigning a Confidential classification is whether
its unauthorized disclosure could reasonably be
expected to cause damage to the national
security.

37
Section VII

Major Consumers of Intelligence

White House Department of Commerce


Department of State Department of Energy
Department of the Treasury Drug Enforcement Administration
United States Marshals Service Congress
Office of Management and Budget United States Information Agency
Department of Justice Department of Agriculture
Federal Aviation Administration Federal Bureau of Investigation
Federal Reserve Department of Labor
Federal Emergency Management Agency Voice of America
United States Trade Representative Department of Transportation
National Aeronautics and Space Administration Federal Communications Commission
Agency for International Development Nuclear Regulatory Commission
Department of Defense

39
Section VIM

Glossary

Analysis research, development, and procurement of tech-


A process in the production of intelligence in nical systems and devices.
which intelligence information is subjected to sys-
tematic examination in order to identify significant Clandestine Operation
facts and derive conclusions. (Also see Intelligence A secret intelligence collection activity or covert
Cycle.) political, economic, propaganda, or paramilitary
action conducted to ensure the secrecy of the
Assessment operation.
Appraisal of the worth of an intelligence activity,
source, information, or product in terms of its con- Classification
tribution to a specific goal, or the credibility, reli- The determination that official information
ability, pertinency, accuracy, and usefulness of requires—in the interest "of national security—a
information in terms of an intelligence need. specific degree of protection against unauthorized
disclosure, coupled with a designation signifying
Basic Intelligence that such a determination has been made; the des-
Factual, fundamental, and relatively permanent ignation is normally termed a security classifica-
information about all aspects of a nation—physi- tion and includes Confidential, Secret, and Top
cal, social, economic, political, biographical, and Secret. (Also see Declassification.)
cultural—which is used as a base for intelligence
products in support of planning, policymaking, Classified Information
and military operations. (Also see Current Intelli- Official information that has been determined to
gence, Information, and Intelligence.) require—in the interests of national security—pro-
tection against unauthorized disclosure and that
Briefing has been so designated.
Presentation, usually oral, of information. The
preparation of an individual for a specific opera- Collection
tion by describing the situation to be encountered, The exploitation of sources by collection agencies,
the methods to be employed, and the objective. and the delivery of the information obtained to the
appropriate processing unit for use in the produc-
Bureau of Intelligence and Research (INR) tion of intelligence. Also, obtaining information or
The intelligence analysis and production compo- intelligence information in any manner, including
nent of the Department of State. direct observations, liaison with official agencies,,
or solicitation from official, unofficial, or public
Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) sources, or quantitative data from the test or opera-
An Intelligence Community agency established tion of foreign systems. (Also see Intelligence
under the National Security Council for the pur- Cycle.)
pose of coordinating the intelligence activities of
several US departments and agencies in the inter- Collection Needs
est of national security. The CIA collects, pro- An established intelligence need considered in the
duces, and disseminates foreign intelligence and allocation of intelligence resources to fulfill the
counterintelligence; conducts counterintelligence essential elements of information and other intelli-
activities abroad; collects, produces,, and dissemi- gence needs.
nates intelligence on foreign aspects of narcotics
production and trafficking; conducts special activi-
ties approved by the President; and conducts

41
Command, Control, Communications, and a proposal or an activity for which they share some
Intelligence (C3I) responsibility and that may result in contributions,
An integrated system of doctrine, procedures, concurrences, or dissents. In intelligence produc-
organizational structure, personnel, equipment, tion, the process by which producers gain the
facilities, communications, and supporting intelli- views of other producers on the adequacy of a
gence activities that provides authorities at all lev- specific draft assessment, estimate, or report; it is
els with timely and adequate data to plan, direct, intended to increase a product's factual accuracy,
and control their activities. clarify its judgments, and resolve or sharpen state-
ments of disagreement on major contentious
Communications Intelligence (COMINT) issues.
Information derived from the intercept of foreign
communications by other than the intended recip- Counterintelligence
ients; it does not include the monitoring of foreign Information gathered and activities conducted to
public media or the intercept of communications protect against espionage, other intelligence activ-
obtained during the course of counterintelligence ities, sabotage, or assassinations conducted for, or
investigations within the United States. COMINT on behalf of, foreign powers, organizations, per-
includes the fields of traffic analysis, cryptanalysis, sons, or terrorist activities.
and direction finding, and is a part of Signals Intel-
ligence (SICINT). Counterterrorism
Offensive measures taken to prevent, deter, and
Confidential respond to a terrorist act, or the documented threat
Security classification applied to information of such an act.
which, if disclosed in an unauthorized manner,
could reasonably be expected to cause damage to Covert Action
national security. An operation designed to influence governments,
events, organizations, or persons in support of for-
Consumer eign policy in a manner that is not necessarily
• An authorized person who uses intelligence or attributable to the sponsoring power; it may
intelligence information directly in the decision- include political, economic, propaganda, or para-
making process or to produce other intelligence. military activities.

Community Open-Source Program Office Critical Intelligence


(COSPO) Information of such urgent importance to the secu-
The COSPO develops, coordinates, and oversees rity of the United States that it is directly transmit-
implementation of the Community Open-Source ted at the highest priority to the President and
Program. The objectives of COSPO are to: oversee other national decisionmaking officials before
a process for coordinating responsive actions to passing through regular evaluative channels. In the
satisfy user needs for open-source information in military it is intelligence that requires the immedi-
the 1C; provide advocacy and defense of depart- ate attention of the commander. It includes, but is
mental development and operational efforts; not limited to: (a) strong indications of the immi-
ensure funds for critical open-source activities; nent outbreak of hostilities of any type (warning of
and oversee a process for identifying and prioritiz- attack); (b) aggression of any nature against a
ing open-source substantive requirements. friendly country; (c) indications or use of nuclear/
biological chemical weapons (targets); and (d) sig-
Coordination nificant events within potential enemy countries
The process of seeking concurrence from one or that may lead to modifications of nuclear strike
more groups, organizations, or agencies regarding plans.

42
Current Intelligence Director of Central Intelligence Directive (DCID)
Intelligence of all types and forms of immediate A directive issued by the DCI that outlines general
interest to the users of intelligence; it may be dis- policies and procedures to be followed by intelli-
seminated without complete evaluation, interpre- gence agencies and organizations that are under
tation, analysis, or integration. his direction or overview.

Damage Assessment Dissemination


In intelligence usage, an evaluation of the impact The timely distribution of intelligence products (in
of a compromise in terms of loss of intelligence oral, written, or graphic form) to departmental and
information, sources, or methods, which may agency intelligence consumers in a suitable form.
describe and/or recommend measures to minimize (Also see Intelligence Cycle.)
damage and prevent future compromises. In mili-
tary usage, an appraisal of the effects of an attack Economic Intelligence
on one or more elements of a nation's strength Intelligence regarding foreign economic resources,
(military, economic, and political) to determine activities, and policies including the production,
residual capability for further military action in distribution, and consumption of goods and ser-
support of planning for recovery and reconstitu- vices, labor, finance, taxation, commerce, trade,
tion. and other aspects of the international economic
system.
Declassification
Removal of official information from the protective Electronic Intelligence (ELINT)
status afforded by security classification; it requires Technical and intelligence information derived
a determination that disclosure no longer would from foreign electromagnetic noncommunica-
be detrimental to national security. (Also see Clas- tions transmissions by other than the intended
sification.) recipients.

Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA) Energy Intelligence


An agency in the DoD responsible for satisfying Intelligence relating to the technical, economic,
the foreign military and military-related intelli- and political capabilities and programs of foreign
gence requirements of the Secretary of Defense, countries to engage in development, utilization,
the Joint Chiefs of Staff, the combatant Commands, and commerce of basic and advanced energy
other Defense components, and, as appropriate, technologies. This includes the location and extent
non-Defense agencies. It is a provider of military of foreign energy resources and their allocation;
intelligence for national foreign intelligence and foreign government energy policies, plans, and
counterintelligence products and is responsible for programs; new and improved foreign energy sup-
coordinating the intelligence activities of the mili- ply, demand, production, distribution, and utiliza-
tary services and managing the Defense Attache tion.
System.
Estimative Intelligence
Director of Central Intelligence (DCI) A category of intelligence analysis in which judg-
Primary adviser to the President and National ments are made despite incomplete information.
Security Council on national foreign intelligence, There are two basic types: What is going on? (in
appointed by the President with the consent of the the present where facts are missing) and, What will
Senate; head of the 1C and responsible for the happen? (in the future where facts do not yet exist).
development and execution of the National For- Because of the attendant uncertainties, estimative
eign Intelligence Program; Director of the Central intelligence usually involves presenting a range of
Intelligence Agency. alternative interpretations of available incomplete
data, or a range of potential developments (with

43
relative likelihoods indicated), based on alterna- 1978 (FISA), which authorizes electronic surveil-
tive ways in which multiple variables may interact. lance and unconsented physical searches occur
Estimates also identify key intelligence gaps. inside the United States for the purpose of collect-
ing "foreign intelligence." The Court is comprised
Evaluation of seven U.S. District court judges who are
Appraisal of the worth of an intelligence activity, appointed to the FISA Court by the Chief Justice of
information, or product in terms of its contribution the Supreme Court and who serve for seven years.
to a specific goal. An appraisal of the credibility, The Court of Review consists of three U.S. District
reliability, pertinence, accuracy, or usefulness of or Appeals court judges.
information in terms of an intelligence need. Infor-
mation is appraised at several stages within the Human Intelligence (HUMINT)
intelligence cycle. Also, a process in the produc- Intelligence information acquired by human
tion step of the intelligence cycle. (Also see Assess- sources through covert and overt collection tech-
ment, Intelligence Cycle.) niques.

Exploitation Imagery Intelligence (IMINT)


The process of obtaining intelligence information The products of imagery and imagery interpreta-
from any source and taking advantage of it for tion processed for intelligence use.
intelligence purposes. In S1G1NT, the production of
information from messages that are encrypted in Intelligence Assessment
systems whose basic elements are known. Exploi- A category of intelligence production that encom-
tation includes decryption, translation, and the passes most analytical studies dealing with sub-
solution of specific controls such as indicators and jects of policy significance; it is thorough in its
specific keys. (Also see Source.) treatment of subject matter—as distinct from
building-block papers, research projects, and ref-
Finding erence aids—but, unlike estimative intelligence,
A determination made by the President stating that need not-attempt to project the future.
a particular intelligence operation is important to
the national security of the United States in com- Intelligence Community (1C)
pliance with the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, as The aggregate of the executive branch organiza-
amended by the 1971 Hughes-Ryan Amendment. tions and agencies involved in intelligence activi-
ties: the Central Intelligence Agency; the National
Finished Intelligence Security Agency; the Defense Intelligence Agency;
The product resulting from the collection, process- the National Imagery and Mapping Agency; the
ing, integration, analysis, evaluation, and interpre- NRO; the Bureau of Intelligence and Research of
tation of available information concerning foreign the Department of State; intelligence elements of
countries or areas, or national security issues. The the military services, DoD, the Federal Bureau of
end product of the production step of the intelli- Investigation, the Department of the Treasury, and
gence cycle; the intelligence product. the Department of Energy; and staff elements of
the Office of the Director of Central Intelligence.
Foreign Intelligence Information
Information of potential intelligence value con- Intelligence Cycle
cerning the capabilities, intentions, and activities The process by which information is acquired and
of any foreign power, organization, or associated converted into intelligence and made available to
personnel. customers.

Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court


The Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court imple-
ments the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act of

44
Intelligence Estimate Issue Coordinators
The product of estimative intelligence. (Also see An employee of an intelligence organization that
Estimate.) In military usage, an estimate of the situ- is responsible for conducting a pragmatic review
ation is an appraisal of available intelligence relat- of national counterintelligence, articulating goals,
ing to a specific situation or condition with a view and identifying strategies to satisfy counterintelli-
to determining the course of action open to the gence" customer requirements.
enemy or potential enemy and the probable order
of their adoption. Measurement and Signature Intelligence
(MASINT)
Intelligence Information Report (IIR) Technically derived intelligence data other than
Information collected by Department of Defense imagery and S1GINT. The data result in intelligence
collectors, including military attaches, is transmit- that locates, identifies, or describes distinctive
ted as IIRs. These report are used by analysts, usu- characteristics of targets. It employs a broad group
ally together with other sources, to produce of disciplines including nuclear; optical, radiofre-
finished intelligence. quency, acoustics, seismic, and materials sciences.
The Central MASINT Office, a component of DIA's
Intelligence Needs National Military Intelligence Collection Center
Any subject—general or specific—on which there (NMICC), is the focus for all national and DoD
is a need for the collection of intelligence or the MASINT matters.
production of intelligence.
National Foreign intelligence Board (NFIB)
Intelligence Officer The senior Intelligence Community advisory body
A professional employee of an intelligence organi- to the DCI on the substantive aspects of national
zation engaged in intelligence activities. intelligence. This Board advises the DCI on pro-
duction, review, and coordination of national for-
Intelligence Oversight Board eign intelligence; interagency exchanges of foreign
The President's Intelligence Oversight Board (IOB) intelligence information; arrangements with for-
•was established by President Gerald Ford in 1976 eign governments on intelligence matters; the pro-
as a White House entity with oversight responsibil- tection of intelligence sources and methods;
ity for the legality and propriety of intelligence activities of common concern; and such other
activities. The Board, which reports to the Presi- matters as are referred to it by the DCI. It is com-
dent, is charged primarily with preparing reports posed of the DCI (Chairman) and other appropri-
"of intelligence activities that the IOB believes ate officers of the Central Intelligence Agency,
may be unlawful or contrary to Executive order or Department of State, Department of Defense, the
Presidential directive." The Board may refer such Defense Intelligence Agency, and the National
reports to the Attorney General. This standard Security Agency. Representatives of other agen-
assists the President in ensuring that highly sensi- cies, including the Department of the Treasury, the.
tive intelligence activities comply with law and Department of Energy, the National Reconnais-
Presidential directive. In 1993, the IOB was made sance Office, the National Imagery and Mapping
a standing committee of the PFIAB. Agency, and the Federal Bureau of Investigation
participate as necessary.
Intelligence Producer
A phrase usually used to refer to an organization
or agency that participates in the production step
of the intelligence cycle.

45
National Foreign Intelligence Program (NFIP) the United States. NIEs are produced at the
Executive Order 12333 defines the NFIP as the national level by the NIC and are issued by the
programs of the CIA, the Consolidated Cryptologic DCI with the approval of NFIB. NIEs are designed
Program, General Defense Intelligence Program, to identify trends of significance to national secu-
specialized DoD reconnaissance activities, and" rity and, when relevant, differences of views
the activities of staff elements of the DCI, as well among the principal intelligence officers of the US
as the other programs of agencies within the Intel- Government. Presidential Summaries of NIEs are
ligence Community designated jointly by the DCI prepared for the President, Vice President, and
and the head of the department or by the President other key executive officers.
as national foreign intelligence or counterintelli-
gence activities. The NFIP provides funds for the National Intelligence Officers (NIOs)
bulk of national-level intelligence, counterintelli- Senior substantive specialists of the Intelligence
gence, and reconnaissance activities of the CIA, Community with assigned areas of functional or
the Defense Department, and all civilian federal- geographic responsibility. NIOs manage estimative
agencies and departments, as well as those of the and interagency intelligence production on behalf
Intelligence Community management structure. of the DCI; they normally are the principal point of
contact with intelligence consumers below the
National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) Cabinet level and are primary sources of national-
A Department of Defense combat support agency level substantive guidance to 1C planners, collec-
and the newest member of the Intelligence Com- tors, and resource managers.
munity (established 1 October 1996). NIMA serves
as the focal point for imagery collection, process- National Military Joint Intelligence Center
ing, and dissemination. The Director, NIMA, is the (NMJIC)
functional manager for the imagery and geospatial An indications and warning center that operates
community and serves as an adviser to the DCI on 24 hours a day and is responsible for providing
imagery policy and resource matters. time-sensitive intelligence to the National Military
Command Center, the Secretary of Defense, the
National Intelligence Council (NIC) joint Chiefs of Staff, the Commands, and the Mili-
The NIC is a staff of senior intelligence officers tary Services.
mingled with experts from outside the Intelligence
Community under the leadership of the Chairman/ National Reconnaissance Office (NRO)
NIC and the Assistant Deputy Director of Central The NRO is a Department of Defense agency that
Intelligence for Analysis and Production. The 12 researches, develops, acquires, and operates the
NIOs produce National Intelligence Estimates and nation's spaceborne intelligence assets. The Direc-
other interagency estimative publications, promote tor of the NRO is the Assistant Secretary of the Air
improvements in Community production and col- Force for Space.
lection and advise the DCI on the intelligence
needs of policymakers. National Security
The territorial integrity, sovereignty, and interna-
National Intelligence Daily (NID) tional freedom of action of the United States. Intel-
A classified digest of current intelligence pub- ligence activities relating to national security
lished six times a week for use by senior govern- encompass all the military, economic, political,
ment officials outside of the Washington area. scientific, technological, and other aspects of for-
eign developments that pose actual or potential
National Intelligence Estimate (NIE) threats to US national interests.
These reports are the DCI's most authoritative writ-
ten judgments concerning national security issues.
They deal with capabilities, vulnerabilities, and
probable courses of action of foreign nations and
key developments relevant to the vital interests of

46
National Security Agency (NSA) President's Foreign Intelligence Advisory Board
NSA is responsible for the centralized coordina- The President's Foreign Intelligence Advisory
tion, direction, and performance of highly special- Board is maintained within the Executive Office of
ized technical functions in support of US the President. Its sixteen members serve at the
Government activities to protect US communica- pleasure of the President and are appointed from
tions and produce foreign intelligence informa- among trustworthy and distinguished citizens out-
tion. The resources of NSA are organized for the side of government on the basis of achievement,
accomplishment of two national missions: the experience, and integrity. They serve without com-
information systems security or INFOSEC mission pensation. The Board continually reviews the per-
provides leadership, products, and services to pro- formance of all government agencies engaged in
tect classified and unclassified national security the collection, evaluation, or production of intelli-
systems against exploitation through interception, gence or in the execution of intelligence policy. It
unauthorized access, or related technical intelli- also assesses the adequacy of management, per-
gence threats; and the foreign signals intelligence sonnel, and organization in intelligence agencies
or SIGINT mission allows for an effective, unified and advises the President concerning the objec-
organization and control of all the foreign signals tives, conduct, and coordination of the activities of
collection and processing activities of the United these agencies. The Advisory Board is specifically
States. charged to make appropriate recommendations for
actions to improve and enhance the performance
Need of the intelligence efforts of the United States.
A general or specific request for intelligence infor-
mation made by a member of the Intelligence Production
Community. The preparation of reports based on analysis of
information to meet the needs of intelligence users
Needs Category (consumers) within and outside the Intelligence
A category of substantive foreign intelligence Community.
information that is of interest to the US Govern-
ment. The DCI approves priorities for requirements Raw Intelligence
categories that are reference points for intelligence A colloquial term meaning collected intelligence
cycle actions. information that has not yet been converted into
finished intelligence.
Open Source
Information that is publicly available (for example, Scientific and Technical (S&T) Intelligence
any member of the public could lawfully obtain Intelligence concerning foreign developments in
information by request or observation), as well as basic and applied scientific and technical research
other unclassified information that has limited and development including engineering and pro-
public distribution or access. Open-source infor- duction techniques, new technology, and weapon,
mation also includes any information that may be systems and their capabilities and characteristics;
used in an unclassified context without compro- it also includes intelligence that requires scientific
mising national security or intelligence sources or or technical expertise on the part of the analyst in
methods. If the information is not publicly avail- areas such as medicine, physical, health studies,
able, certain legal requirements relating to collec- and behavioral analyses.
tion, retention, and dissemination may apply.

47
Secret
Security classification applied to information
which, if disclosed in an unauthorized manner,
could reasonably be expected to cause serious
damage to national security.

Signals Intelligence (SIGINT)


Intelligence information derived from signals inter-
cept comprising—either individually or in combi-
nation—all communications intelligence,
electronic intelligence, and foreign instrumenta-
tion signals intelligence, however transmitted.

Technology Transfer Intelligence


The collection, processing, analysis, production,
and dissemination activities of the Intelligence
Community designed to support US Government
departments and agencies with policy and
enforcement responsibilities related to the area of
technology transfer.

Top Secret
Security classification applied to information that,
if disclosed in an unauthorized manner, could rea-
sonably be expected to cause exceptionally grave
damage to national security.

48
Abbreviations *

AAT Office of Advanced Analytic Tools, CIA

ACIS Arms Control Intelligence Staff

ADCI/A Assistant Director of Central Intelligence for Administration

ADC1/AP Assistant Director of Central Intelligence for Analysis and Production

ADCI/C Assistant Director oftlentral Intelligence for Collection

ADCI/MS Associate Director of Central Intelligence for Military Support

AF/XOI Director of Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance, US Air Force

AIA Air Intelligence Agency, US Air Force

AR&DC Advanced Research and Development Committee, 1C

ASD/C3I Assistant Secretary of Defense (Command, Control, Communications, and


Intelligence)

ATG Advanced Technology Group, CMS

ATP Advanced Technology Panel, CMS

C4I Command, Control, Communications, Computers and Intelligence,


US Marine Corps

CIC Counterintelligence Center, CIA

CMA Community Management Account

CMO Central MASINT Organization, DIA

CMS Community Management Staff, DDCI/CM

CMC DC1 Crime and Narcotics Center

CNO Chief of Naval Operations

CSI Center for the Study of Intelligence, CIA

CTC DC! Counterterrorist Center

DA Directorate of Administration, CIA

*See also list of DCI advisory groups on page 30

49
DCSINT Deputy Chief of Staff for Intelligence, US Army

DDCI/CM Deputy Director of Central Intelligence for Community Management

DCI Director of Central Intelligence

DDA Deputy Director for Administration, CIA

DDCI Deputy Director of Central Intelligence

DDI Deputy Director for Intelligence, CIA

DDO Deputy Director of Operations, CIA

DDS&T Deputy Director for Science and Technology, CIA

DEA Drug Enforcement Administration

DEC DCI Environmental Center

DHS Defense HUMINT Service

Dl Directorate of Intelligence, CIA

DIA Defense Intelligence Assessment

DIR Defense Intelligence Report

DIMD Defense Intelligence Management Document

DISP Defense Intelligence Special Publication

D1TSUM Defense Intelligence Terrorism Summary

DIWS Defense Indications and Warning System

DNI Director of Naval Intelligence

DNRO Director, National Reconnaissance Office

DO Directorate of Operations, CIA

DoD Department of Defense

DOE Department of Energy

DS&T Directorate for Science and Technology, CIA

EEIB Economic Executives' Intelligence Brief

EH NMJIC Executive Highlights

50
FAA Federal Aviation Administration

FBI Federal Bureau of Investigation

FBIS Foreign Broadcast Information Service

HIES Handbook of International Economic Statistics

HUMINT Human Intelligence

1C Intelligence Community

ICA Intelligence Community Assessment'

ICB Intelligence Community Brief

IC/CIO Intelligence Community Chief Information Officer

ICDC Intelligence Community Deputies Committee

ICPC Intelligence Community Principals Committee

ICQC Specially Compartmented Information Control Intelligence Quality


Council, CMS

IM Intelligence Memorandum, CIA

IMINT Imagery Intelligence


INR Department of State, Bureau of Intelligence and Research

IOB Intelligence Oversight Board

IPO Investment Program Office, CIA

IR Intelligence Report, CIA

ISR Intelligence Surveillance and Reconnaissance

ISSG Intelligence Senior Steering Committee, 1C

ITF Intelligence Task Force

I&W Indications and Warning

JIVA Joint Intelligence Virtual Architecture

JWICS Joint Worldwide Intelligence Communications System

MASINT Measurement and Signature Intelligence

51
MCIA Marine Corps Intelligence Activity

MIB Military Intelligence Board

MID Military Intelligence Digest

NACIPB National Counterintelligence Policy Board

NAIC National Air Intelligence Center, US Air Force

NACIC National Counterintelligence Center

NFIB National Foreign Intelligence Board

NFIP National Foreign Intelligence Program —

NHCD National HUMINT Collection Directive

NIC National Intelligence Council


NIE National Intelligence Estimate

NIMA National Imagery and Mapping Agency

NIO National Intelligence Officer

NIST National Intelligence Support Team

NMJIC National Military Joint Intelligence Center, DIA

NPC DCI Nonproliferation Center

NRO National Reconnaissance Office

NSA National Security Agency

NSC National Security Council

NWS National Warning Staff, NIC

OMA Office of Military Affairs, CIA

ONI Office of Naval Intelligence

OPS Office of Policy Support, CIA

OSS Office of Support Services, CIA

OTI Office of Transnational Issues, CIA

PA&EO Program Assessment and Evaluation Office, CMS

52
V

PASS President's Analytical Support Staff, CIA

PDB President's Daily Brief

PFIAB President's Foreign Intelligence Advisory Board

RMO Resource Management Office, CMS

RPPO Requirements, Plans, and Policy Office, CMS

SAE Senior Acquisition Executive, DDCI/CM

SEIB Senior Executive Intelligence Brief, CIA

S1GINT — Signals Intelligence


SOCM Sense of the Community Memorandum, NIC

SPB Security Policy Board

USAINSCOM US Army Intelligence and Security Command

VPS Vice President's Supplement, CIA

WATCHCON Watch Condition

53