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Estevas essay Development talks of the recent genealogy of the term highlighting how President Trumans speech in 1949

altered the meaning of the term and a majority of the inhabitants were deemed under-developed. According to him the concept of development is a minefield in which its simply impossible to walk any longer because it has an immense constellation of meanings from which it is impossible to disentangle oneself and also because all the hope that had been generated about the possibilities of development have been belied again and again especially in the so called developing parts of the worlds. But the word and the concept continue to be in used and even in the developed parts there is talk of re-developing . Jose Maria Sbert traces the lets say development and gradual decline of the idea of progress. She says that this idea was linked to our faith in the last few centuries in science and technology and that the universal enforcement of the nation-state was carried out under the banner of progress. Similarly, Ashish Nandys essay State talks of the renewed interest in the nature of the state in the 1950s and 1960s and the optimism according to which all these newly formed third world states will go through the prescribed stages of growth of economy as well as that of the state to attain the beatitude of development for which they were expected to cultivate cultural traits which would be more favourable for the attainment of these desired goals. According to him this easy progressivist view of the state seems to have been abandoned due to the failure of these third world nationstates to develop in the prescribed manner. He also talks of the resilience of culture and that modernisation can no longer erase larger cultural entities without arousing stiff resistance as had often happened in the case of smaller tribal and other minorities during the colonial era. All the three essays talk of the different aspects of the optimism related to the idea of progress or development which in turn was fed by the optimism relating to nationalism and go on to highlight that even after the end of colonial era the faith in modernism premised on Western notions of progress or development or the nation state continues to entice people in the poorer parts of the world much to their own harm as all these hopes and expectations have come to naught. Nandy has linked the idea of the development of the state with nationalism and national-security as Sbert also demonstrates how the idea of progress fed into that of nationalism. Nandy interestingly points out the contradiction inherent in the optimism related to the idea of the native nation-state as if an indigenisation of the nation state will have been the cure to all the evils associated with the state which after all is a legacy of colonialism in these parts of the world. Finally all these essay talk in their differing ways about hope of a new future- for Nandy based on Gandhian ideals, for Esteva one in which the commons will no longer be destroyed on the basis of a hegemonic idea of development a truth which will arise only if we despair now after understanding properly what were the myths of progress.