+
h
h
1 0
1
(1) 257
where,
h
and
h
represent infinitesimal longitudinal and shear strain components parallel 258
to Y
1
and X
1
axes of a two dimensional horizontal reference frame. To derive the two 259
strain components at different points in Andaman and its adjoining areas we apply the 260
following equations (Jaeger, 1964), 261
( )
2
B A+ =( )
2 2
2
h h
+ + .(2) 262
( )
2 2 2
h h
B A + = .(3) 263
where, A and B represent major and minor axes of the total strain ellipse. Simplifying 264
equations (2) and (3) we get, 265
( ) ( ) { } + = + = + 1 4 1
2 2
B A B A
h
, and,...(4) 266
where, is dilation. 267
Now, replacing
h
in eq.(3) by we get 268
( )
2 2 2
h
B A + = . (5a) 269
Replacing by (AB1)and rearranging we get, 270
( ) ( ) { }
2 2
1 = AB B A
h
.(5) 271
In case of a subduction zone, however, it would be more appropriate to express 272
the total infinitesimal strain in terms of simple inclined transpression model (Jones et al., 273
2004). This is achieved by considering a three dimensional Cartesian reference frame, 274
whose XY plane is coplanar with the deformation zone dipping at an angle . Let the X 275
axis in this inclined reference frame coincide with the X
1
axis of the horizontal reference 276
system. 277
According to the simple inclined transpression model, any general deformation in 278
the inclined 3D reference frame can be factorized into pure shears parallel to Y and Z 279
axes (
y
and
z
respectively) and simple shears parallel to X and Z axes (
x
and
z
280
respectively). The model assumes that there is no stretch parallel to X. Expressing the 281
components of pure and simple shear in terms of
h
and
h
we get, 282
( )
h z y
+ = =
1
1
, .. (6) 283
Sin
h
xy
= , and (7) 284
Cot
Cot
h
yz
= , (8) 285
where is the angle measured on the horizontal plane between the shear zone boundary 286
and the shortening direction. 287
We also know (Jones et.al, 2004) that, 288
.
1
h
h
yz
Cot
+
= .(8a) 289
Equating the r.h.s of eq.(8) and (8a) and rearranging, we get, 290
h
h
h
Cot
+
=
1
. . (9) 291
Since in our case,
h
is already known from eq.(5) we rearrange eq.(9) as, 292
( )
h
h h
Cot
+
=
1
, .. (9a) 293
which can be used to obtain the shortening direction at different points over Andaman 294
Islands. 295
From lithospheric configuration of the Benioff zone in the plate subduction 296
regime of AndamanSumatra region it has been found that the subducting Indian plate 297
below Andaman dips between 50
o
to 56
o
(Mukhopadhyay et al., 2009). Taking 52.6 as 298
the average angle of dip and replacing it for , all the four components of strain can be 299
easily evaluated. 300
According to Jones et al.(2004), total strain due to simple inclined transpression is given 301
as, 302
D
1
=



\

1
0
0 0
0 1
y y zy
y
y xy
. (10) 303
Since in our case all strain components in D
1
would represent infinitesimal strain, 304
subtracting a unit matrix from D
1
we get, 305
d
1
=



\

1 0
0 1 0
0 0
1
y zy y
y
xy y
,..(11) 306
where d
1
represents the components of displacement rate or particle velocity in X,Y and 307
Z directions of our reference frame. 308
We next derive from eq.(11) the three dimensional kinematic vorticity number or 309
W
k
(Trusdel, 1953) as, 310
W
k
=
( ) ( )
2 2 2
2
2
2 2
1
1
1 2
xy zy y
y
y
xy zy y
+ +
(
(
\

+
+
. .(12) 311
Replacing the different terms in eq.(12) by their corresponding expressions given in (eq.6 312
to eq.9a) we get W
k
at different points over Andaman Islands and its adjoining areas. 313
314
Spatial variation in
y
,
z
,
xy
and
zy
in and around Andaman Islands are shown 315
graphically in Figure6. It is observed that all the four components gradually increase 316
towards north and south from South Andaman. 317
W
k
calculated at different points over the Andaman Islands varies from 1 near 318
south Andaman to 0.5 near north Andaman and to 0.6 near Little Andaman (Figure7). 319
The pattern of variation in W
k
implies that south Andaman is subjected to simple shear 320
alone. As pure shear component gradually increases towards both south and north of 321
South Andaman, the W
k
value is modified accordingly. 322
The calculated values of for all the grid points in Andaman region is 323
graphically represented in Figure8. It shows that is zero around South Andaman and 324
gradually attains higher values towards North and Little Andaman. Since from GPS data 325
South Andaman is known to be moving WSW (Figure4), we can fix the origin of our 326
coordinate system on the trench axis at such a position where on orienting the Xaxis 327
parallel to WSW displacement vector it closely coincides with the trench axis as well 328
(Figure8). Apparently, such a position is only available near the easterly bend of the 329
subduction zone, north of North Andaman. It implies that this part of the subduction zone 330
around Andaman, is under active transpression at present. 331
The higher angle of convergence in and around Little Andaman is probably related 332
to the presence of a spreading centre in Andaman Sea (Raju et al., 2004), which is 333
forcing the plate to move northwards. This point, however, needs further evaluation 334
because our conclusion is based on observation at a single point only. 335
336
337
5 Discussion 338
The ITRF2005 velocity field obtained from GPS surveys show trench perpendicular 339
azimuth of velocity vector at Little Andaman, which gradually rotates in a clockwise 340
sense and at North Andaman it becomes almost parallel to the trench axis. This indicates 341
nonrigidity of Burma plate (McCaffrey et al., 2000). Similar alongarc change in GPS 342
velocity azimuths at Sumatra subduction zone was observed before the 2004 earthquake 343
(Prawirodirdjo et al., 1997) and at Andaman islands after the earthquake (Paul et al., 344
2007). 345
The azimuthal variations of velocity vectors represent nonuniform deformation 346
pattern in Andaman Islands. Oblique convergence of Indian plate with South East Asia, 347
decomposes the motion into arcparallel and arcnormal components (Fitch, 1972) 348
resulting in a combination of simple shear (wrench) component and a simultaneous 349
coaxial shortening component leading to transpressional deformation (Fossen and Tikoff, 350
1998). 351
Geometry of the plate margin and degree of obliquity of velocity vectors have major 352
effects on the resultant deformation (Beck, 1991; McCaffrey, 1992). The present analysis 353
shows Indian plate (HYDE GPS station) is moving towards N 35
0
E at a rate of 54 354
mm/yr. Angle of convergence of this velocity varies from 49
0
near Little Andaman to 28
0
355
around North Andaman. Available seismotectonic sections of Andaman region (Ghosh 356
and Mishra, 2008; Mukhopadhyay et al., 2009; Roy, 1992) show the subducting plate is 357
moderately dipping towards east. The oblique convergence between the easterly dipping 358
Indian plate and the Andaman Islands, resolves the horizontal components along strike 359
and dip of the trench. The resultant combination of oblique simple shear and pure shear 360
components is modeled according to the simple inclined transpression model (Jones et 361
al., 2004). 362
In the inclined transpression model the three dimensional kinematic vorticity number 363
varies between 0.5 to 1 implying variability of simple shear and pure shear components. 364
The increment in pure shear towards north is possibly due to, 365
i) east ward bend of the subduction interface; and 366
ii) the already ruptured portion of the trench offers little resistance to slip. 367
Gradual rise in pure shear towards Little Andaman is probably due to the spreading ridge 368
at Andaman sea (Raju et al., 2004). 369
The convergence between Greater India and Asia was approximately normal at Late 370
Paleocene. Afterwards, clockwise rotation of Greater India plate initiated oblique 371
convergence in Sunda arc, which has gradually increased till present (Curray, 2005). The 372
present study also indicates clockwise variation in velocity vectors in Andaman region. 373
Oblique convergence, clockwise rotation and increased convexity of the trench near 374
North Andaman enhance the transpressional activities more towards north. 375
The 2004 mega earthquake has already ruptured ~1500 km (Banerjee et al., 376
2007)between Sumatra and North Andaman (Ghosh and Mishra, 2008). The portion that 377
ruptured during the earthquake does not allow much accumulation of strain. However, 378
beyond the rupture zone the strain continues to accumulate. The process is likely to 379
continue till failure takes place through a major earthquake. 380
In view of the facts mentioned above it may be concluded that north of North 381
Andaman is a potential zone for high magnitude earthquakes. 382
Figure 7 shows the focal plane solution of earthquakes that have occurred in the 383
region (www.globalcmt.org) after 26
th
December, 2004 and before August, 2009. The 384
distribution of earthquake pattern clearly shows concentration of fault activity around 385
North Andaman and Little Andaman. 386
387
6 Acknowledgements 388
The authors express their deep sense of gratitude to Late Sri A. K. Ghosh Roy, 389
Director, Earthquake Geology Division, GSI, ER, who was the key man for formulating 390
the project and establishment of GPS stations at Andaman Islands. They are also indebted 391
to the Deputy Director General, Geological Survey of India, Eastern Region for 392
permitting to publish the work. Authors thankfully acknowledge Dr Bob King, Principal 393
Scientist, MIT for assistance in GAMIT/GLOBK analysis. Andaman administration, 394
Andaman Public Works Department (APWD) and local residents are thankfully 395
acknowledged for extending their support during GPS data collection. 396
397
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Figure captions 565
566
Figure: 1 Velocity of global reference stations at ITRF2005 reference frame derived
from the present analysis.
Figure: 2 ITRF2005 velocity of Andaman sites. Base map shows Andaman geology
compiled after Ghosh Roy et al.,(Ghosh Roy et al., 2007)
Figure: 3 Velocity relative to Eurasia reference frame. Inset for stations at Andaman .
Figure: 4 Velocity relative to India reference frame.
Figure:5 Strain components from GPS velocity vectors. Blue lines for
max
and red
lines for
min
. Bold lines for trench and active faults and dotted lines for
inactive faults.
Figure: 6 Modeled infinitesimal strain components for inclined transpression at
Andaman. (a) Longitudinal strain along ydirection, (b) Longitudinal strain
along zdirection, (c) shear strain in xyplane, (d) shear strain in yzplane
Figure: 7 Variation of 3D infinitesimal kinematical vorticity number with focal plane
solution of earthquakes occurred between 2004 megaearthquake and
August, 2009.
Figure: 8 Variation of angle in the horizontal plane between the subduction zone
boundary and the direction of overall shortening with defined coordinate
system. Arrow shows India fixed velocity azimuth of BDNB station at South
Andaman.
Table captions 567
568
Table1 Details of GPS campaign stations used in analysis
Table2 Station coordinates, observed velocities, residuals and uncertainties
569