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Physics Laboratory Formal Report Group 6 2 G Medical Technology Members: 33. Pineda, Maria Kamil C. 34.

4. Puno, John Paulo R. 35. Quan, James Michael Dl. 36. Ramil, Josef Brian M. 37. Recabo, Kim Anthony L. 38. Sevilla, Alyssa L

July 16, 2013 Professor: Ms. Arra C. Quitaneg

Experiment No. 2 The Simple Pendulum I. Introduction A Simple Pendulum was defined as a set-up consists of a weight suspended on a string. When the weight is released from a small vertical angle, the pendulum will make a regular swing at a certain period or time of oscillation. In the experiment, the students prepared three kinds of set-up to show the effect of different variables to the period of oscillation. The first set-up aims to find out the effect of amplitude in the period. A metal bob with a constant mass and tied using a string in a constant length was used for the set-up. The pendulum was displaced at three varying angles which are 50, 100, and 150.The time it takes for the pendulum to complete 20 vibrations was recorded. In the second set-up, the students tried to find out the effect of mass of the bob on the period of oscillation. A metal bob with three varying mass was used in the set-up. The metal bobs were tied in a string with a constant length of 80.0cm and displaced vertically at an angle of 150. The time it takes for the pendulum to complete 20 vibrations were recorded. In the last set-up, the students tried to find out the effect of length of the pendulum on the period of oscillation. A metal bob with constant mass was tied in strings with three varying length. The pendulum was displaced vertically at a constant angle of 150. The time it takes for the pendulum to complete 20 vibrations were recorded.

II.

Question and Answers 1. Using MSEXCEL, Graph and display table 3. Length vs. Square of Times. What relationship exists between the length of a pendulum and the square of its period? Length (cm) Time for 20 complete vibrations (s) 36.77 32.10 26.72 18.21 Period (s) Square of the period (s2) 3.382 2.576 1.785 0.8290

80.0 60.0 40.0 20.0

1.839 1.605 1.336 0.9105

Length vs. Square of the Period


4 3.5 3 2.5 2 1.785 1.5 1 0.5 0 20 40 60 80 2.576 3.382

0.829

2. What are the factors affecting the period of a simple pendulum? According to the results of the experiment, there are three major factors that may affect the period of oscillation of a simple pendulum. The first factor is the amplitude of the period. In controlled condition, regardless of the air resistance, a pendulum displaced in a small angle vertically will complete a period faster than a pendulum displaced on larger angle. However, the differences between the times were too small or negligible. The second factor that may affect

the period is the mass of the metal bob attached to the end of the pendulum string. The heavier is the mass of the metal bob, the faster it completes a period of oscillation. However, like the first factor, the differences between the times were too small or negligible. The last factor that may affect the period of the pendulum is the length of the pendulum string. The shorter the length of the pendulum string is, the faster it completes a period of oscillation. According to the data collected, there were significant differences on the period of different pendulum strings. This implies that the length of the string has more effect to the period of the simple pendulum. 3. What you must do to the length of a simple pendulum so that its period is doubled? Considering the formula for period which is T= 2 , to double the period of the simple pendulum, the length must be four times larger than the original length. In simple terms, the equation must be 2T= 2 . 4. Determine the acceleration due to gravity in a location where a simple pendulum sis 150.0 cm long makes 100 vibrations in246s. Length (cm) Time for 100 complete vibrations (s) 246 s Period (s) Square of Acceleration Period (s2) due to gravity 6.05 s2 9.79 m/s2 Percentage error

150.0 cm

2.46 s

0.41%

Period = 100 vibrations/246 s = 2.46 s Square of Period = (2.46 s)2 = 6.05 s2 Acceleration due to gravity=(
( )

)(

)= 9.79 m/s2

III.

Conclusion Our data showed that there are three factors that may affect the period of oscillation of the simple pendulum. These factors are the amplitude or angle of displacement in the vertical position from the centre point or equilibrium position, the mass of the metal bob attached to the pendulum string, and the length of the pendulum string used in the set-up. Among all the factors, the length of the string has more visible effect to the period of oscillation of the simple pendulum.