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# ELECTRICITY AND MAGNETISM

The potential at a point is defined as the work done in moving unit positive charge from infinity to that point. Smoothing- capacitor connected across SQ. It discharges through load when pd in load reduces thus maintains the pd across load. Differences between the forces experienced in an electric and that in magnetic field: Force due to magnetic field is proportional to speed while that due to electric field is independent of speed. Force due to electric field is along the direction of the field while in the case of magnetic field it is normal to the direction of the field. Gravitational Potential is the work done is moving a unit mass from infinity to the point. Gravitational Potential at infinity is zero. Forces are always attractive so work is got out when moving to the point so values of gravitational potential near to an isolated mass are all negative. How electric field causes an atom in the air to become conducting? Field causes forces on the electron and nucleus in opposite direction resulting in the atom being lost from the atom. (J03) A serious error was evident in a significant number of scripts. Candidates stated, quite correctly, that E = -_V/_x but then went on to state that, based on this equation, the field due to a spherical charge is given by E = V/r. (J03) *Remember to use V= kQ/r and NOT V = E x r! 1 Tesla is that magnetic field which produces a force of 1.0N per metre on a wire carrying a current of 1.0A normal to the field. Magnetic Flux Density (numerically equal to) force per unit length on straight conductor carrying unit current normal to the field = BA * = magnetic flux (Wb) ; B = magnetic flux density (T) ; A = cross-sectional area (m2)]

flux through coil = BA sin .. B1 flux linkage = BAN sin (N05) Magnetic Flux is the number of magnetic field lines which is Phi. Magnetic Flux Linkage is the product of the magnetic flux and the number of turns of the coil. which is N x Phi.

Difference between the patters of the gravitational field lines of a small and a large sphere: there is no difference or that there would be a greater density of lines at the surface of the smaller sphere.[NOT more lines] (Nov 2003)

Series, power 1/P = 1/P1 + 1/P2; Parallel, power P=P1 + P2 Electric field = region/area where a charge experiences a force Gravitational field = (region of space) where a mass experiences a force Electric Field Strength at a point = negative of the potential gradient at that point r.m.s value of ac : the value of steady / constant voltage that produces same power (in a resistor) as the alternating voltage

Faradays law of electromagnetic induction: e.m.f. induced is proportional / equal to rate of change of (magnetic) flux (linkage)

Capacitance = Q/V with symbols explained. How capacitor stores energy? on a capacitor, there is charge separation/there are + and - charges M1 either to separate charges, work must be done or energy released when charges come together

Similarity between electric and gravitational potential either ratio of work done to mass/charge or work done moving unit mass/charge from infinity or both have zero potential at infinity B1 [1] Why gravitational potential always negative while electric potential may be positive or negative? gravitational forces are (always attractive) B1 electric forces can be attractive or repulsive B1 for gravitational, work got out as masses come together /mass moves from infinity B1 for electric, work done on charges if same sign, work got out if opposite sign as charges come together