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Radiographic Onstream Inspection ROSI = Radiographic Onstream Inspection

A radiographic technique often used in refineries, offshore platforms and various piping systems

Applications for ROSI


Detection of:
Erosion Corrosion Deposits Foreign Objects

Calculation of corrosion rates with periodic ROSI inspections

Applications for ROSI


Typical ROSI inspection areas

ROSI basic principles

Radiography uses the properties of electromagnetic radiation Radiography uses penetrating radiation that is directed towards the component to be inspected. The component stops some of the radiation. The amount that is stopped or absorbed is affected by material density and thickness differences. These differences in absorption can be recorded on film, or electronically.

ROSI basic principles ROSI inspection setup


Radiation source

SFD: Source to Film Distance Minimum 3 times pipe diameter


SFD

DD DD incl. isolering incl insulation

Detector/film

ROSI basic principles

Penetrated thickness

Measured thickness

ROSI basic principles


Commonly used radiation sources

Ir 192 < 75 mm

Co 60 < 175 mm

Above values are penetrated thickness in the pipe chord, insulation excluded

ROSI basic principles


Films
High speed films E.g. Kodak Cx, Agfa D7 eller D8 are used. Filmsize depends on the specific job. Often one or more 30 x 40 cm films per exposure

ROSI basic principles


Screens
Increases sharpness Reduces scattered radiation Screen thickness 0,1 0,2mm lead when using Ir192. Screen thickness 0,5 2,0mm lead when using Co60
For special applications 0,25 0,7mm steel screens can further improve sharpness.

ROSI basic principles


On-stream Exposuretimes
Diameter Thickness Source 4" 8-11 mm Co60/20Ci 6" 11 mm Co60/20Ci 8" 11 mm Co60/20Ci 10" 18 mm Co60/20Ci 12" 22 mm Co60/20Ci 16" 9,5 mm Co60/20Ci 4" 4" 6" 8" 8" 10" 12" 20" 9 mm 12 mm 12 mm 9 mm 8 mm 8,5 mm 7 mm 20 mm Ir192/24Ci Ir192/24Ci Ir192/24Ci Ir192/13.8Ci Ir192/16.8Ci Ir192/13.8Ci Ir192/13.8Ci 7.5 MeV Media Grey Water Grey Water Grey Water Grey Water Grey Water Grey Water Water Water Water Water Diesel Water Water Water Insulation 100 mm 100 mm 100 mm 100 mm 100 mm 100 mm none none none none 80 mm none none none Time (CR) 1,25 min 2,5 min 4 min 14 min 30 min 4 min 2,5 min 3,5 min 4,2 min 4,3 min 3 min 6,6 min 9,1 min 2,5 min Time (film) 13 min 26 min 37 min 104 min 230 min 48 min 15 min 22 min 25 min 24 min 20 min not possible not possible not possible

ROSI basic principles


Inspection of 2 valve

Film

Source

ROSI basic principles


Inspection of 8 pipe bend

Film

Source

ROSI basic principles

R = Reduction factor

True thickness

Depicted thickness

ROSI Advantages

Technique is not limited by material type or density. Can inspect assembled components in operation No surface preparation required. Sensitive to changes in thickness, corrosion, voids and material density changes. Detects both surface and subsurface defects. Provides a permanent record of the inspection. Parts with relatively high temperature can be inspected

ROSI Disadvantages

Many safety precautions for the use of high intensity radiation.

Many hours of technician training prior to use.


Access to both sides of sample required. Orientation of equipment and flaw can be critical. Sensitive to vibrations in the part being examined. Expensive initial equipment cost.

Radiation Safety

Danish authorities allow these maximum doserates: At barrier: 0.06 mSv/h At operator: 0.02 mSv/h At controlled area: 0.0075 mSv/h Radiation warning barrier

Radiation Safety
Film badge small piece of photographic film in holder worn by worker. When processed will indicate received dose by film density.

Pocket dosimeters - are used to provide the wearer with an immediate reading of his or her exposure to x-rays and gamma rays. As the name implies, they are commonly worn in the pocket. Geiger Counter - Indicates dose rate by measuring ionisation of gas in sealed tube. Typically used when making barrier.

Radiation Safety

There are three means of protection to help reduce exposure to radiation:

ROSI testing examples


Measurement of remaining wallthickness

ROSI testing examples


Detection of pipe defects

ROSI testing examples


Detection of deposits in pipe bend

ROSI testing examples


Detection of foreign objects in pipe

ROSI testing examples


External corrosion

ROSI testing examples


External corrosion behind bracket

ROSI Digital Radiography

Film Radiografi

CR Radiografi

ROSI Digital Radiography

Raw data

Processed data

Contrast and Brightness

ROSI Digital Radiography


Advantages
Reduced exposure times

Disadvantages
Expensive equipment Image plates sensitive to dust and scratches Storage and backup hardware Sensitive to scattered radiation filtering

less radiation/higher productivity High dynamic range Reusable/no film costs No need for darkrooms and chemicals/no special vehicles Possibility for image processing semi- or full automatic procedures/reproducibility and higher accuracy Easy storage, retrieval and distribution Easy sharing of information

ROSI Digital Radiography


6 Valve

4 Valve

ROSI Digital Radiography

6 months old pipe bend 6 with a nominal thickness of 10.9 mm Exposed with a 20 Ci Co60 Filled with grey water 200 degrees, no insulation Typical exposure time 2.5 min with CR and 17 min with Agfa D7 film

Radiographic Onstream Inspection

Questions