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4.

1
ECE 410 DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING D. Munson
University of Illinois Chapter 4



Sampling

Consider

A/D
y
a
(t)
{x
n
} {y
n
}
x
a
(t) H
d
() D/A



For now, lets ignore H
d
(); i.e. we assume that y
n
= x
n
for all n. We want to know under what
conditions we can we get back y
a
(t) = x
a
(t) exactly, and how? To do this we will study the
effects of the A/D and D/A processes on the signals in the frequency domain.

1) A/D (Analog-to-Digital, or more precisely C/D: Continuous-to-Discrete) converter

A/D: x
a
(t)
T
Q()
x
n


In the analysis, we will neglect the quantizer. Consider


x
a
(t)
T
x
n
= x
a
(nT)


We will show:

X
d
() =
1
T
X
a
+ 2n

|
\
|
.
n=

()

extremely important

Proof:

We will use the fact that


1

n=

e
jn
2

t

=
a
(t n)
n=

(*)

This equality holds in a distributional sense, i.e.,

4.2
f
a
(t)

e
jn
2

t
n=

dt = f
a
(t)

a
(t n) dt
n=



for any continuous function f
a
(t).

Now, prove ():

X
d
() = x
n
e
jn
n=



= x
a
(nT)e
jn
n=



=
1
2
n=

X
a
() e
jnT
d e
jn



=
1
2
X
a
()

e
jn(T)
d
n=



=
1
T
X
a
(

)
a

+ 2n
T
|
\
|
.
n=

d

let t =

T
, =
2
T
in (*)

=
1
T
X
a
+ 2n
T
|
\
|
.
n=



Memorize this result! We will use it repeatedly throughout the course.


Now, what does () mean?

Example

Suppose x
a
(t) is bandlimited to rad/sec

4.3
B B

X
a
()
1


If T <

B
then terms in () dont overlap ~ "no aliasing" and get:

n = + 1 term
2
X
d
()
1/T
B 2

n = 0 term in ()
n = 1 term
i.e.,
1
T

T
X
a


Given X
a
(), you must be able to draw this picture!

How do we know the n = 0 term is confined to || T? Answer: The n = 0 term is
1
T
X
a

T
|
\
|
.
,
which first hits zero when its argument equals , i.e., when

T
= = T.

We assumed T <

B
T < , so that the n = 0 term is confined to || < as shown above. If
T > then the various terms overlap, which is called aliasing. The condition T < (no
aliasing) is equivalent to the Nyquist criterion:

T < T <

B



1
T
>
B




1
T
> 2
B
2
|
\
|
.


where 1/T is the sampling frequency in samples per second, and /2 is the bandwidth of x
a
(t) in
Hz.

Suppose in the above example we choose T =
5
3

B
|
\
|
.
, so that we have aliasing. In this case
T =
5
3
and X
d
() will be the sum of

4.4
2
2

1
/

n = 0 term n = 1 term
5
3

3
5
3
n = + 1 term

Thus, X
d
() is

2
2

X
d
()
1/T
5
3

3
5
3
4/5T


Obviously, X
d
() is no longer a periodic repetition of X
a
. This is because some of the high
frequencies in X
a
() have been moved down to low frequencies in X
d
(), i.e., high frequencies
are masquerading as low frequencies. Hence, the term aliasing.

If we choose T even larger than above, then additional terms (n = 2, etc.) in equation () will
overlap on the central interval || . In determining the shape of X
d
(), we can concern
ourselves only with || , since we know that X
d
() is periodic outside this central period.

Note: Can use equation () to prove sampling theorem. If x
a
(t) is bandlimited and you sample
above the Nyquist rate, then from the second plot on the last page:
X
d
() =
1
T
X
a

T
|
\
|
.
for ||


{x
n
} x
a
(t)

So, basically

x
a
(t) = F
1
DTFT{x
n
} | |

Working through the algebra gives the usual sinc reconstruction formula for x
a
(t) in terms of the
x
n
. You may see this as a homework problem!
4.5

Example

Illustrate that a higher sampling frequency shrinks the DTFT. Suppose

X
a
()
1
3000


If x
n
= x
a
(nT), sketch X
d
() for T =
1
4, 000
, T =
1
6, 000
, and T =
1
12, 000

.

X
d
()
4,000
T =
1
4,000
, T =
3
4
3
4




X
d
()
6,000
T =
1
6,000
, T =

2

2



X
d
()
12,000

4

T = , T =

4
1
12,000



So, as T decreases (sampling frequency increases), the DTFT shrinks and also grows in
amplitude.
2) D/A (Digital-to-Analog, or more precisely D/C: Discrete-to-Continuous) converter
4.6

Model as

y
a
(t) = y
n
g
a
(t nT)
n=

()

so that y
a
(t) is a weighted pulse train. Later, we will consider the case where g
a
(t) is a
rectangular pulse so that y
a
(t) is a staircase function:

1
T t
T 2T 3T 4T
t

g
a
(t)
y
a
(t)
y
0
y
1
y
2
y
3
y
4

This type of D/A is very common and is called a zero-order hold (ZOH). An ideal D/A,
however, would use
( )
( ) sinc
a
T
g t t

= so that () would implement the ideal sinc reconstruction


formula. As we shall see later, it is not possible to realize a D/A that exactly implements the sinc
reconstruction formula. However, the ideal D/A can be approximated as closely as desired
(except for a delay) by using a ZOH, followed by an appropriate analog low-pass filter. We will
study this later.

For now, assume that the D/A is modeled by () and that g
a
(t) can be arbitrary. This D/A model
will cover all situations that we will encounter.

Now, use () to find Y
a
() in terms of Y
d
():

Y
a
() = y
a
(t) e
jt
dt

y
n
g
a
(t nT) e
jt
dt
n=



= y
n
n=

g
a
(t nT)

e
jt
dt

= y
n
n=

G
a
() e
jnT


4.7
= G
a
() y
n
n=

e
jTn


Y
a
() = G
a
()Y
d
(T)

This is an important equation. You should either memorize it or remember how to quickly derive
it.

Using y
n
= x
n
and substituting for X
d
from () gives us the expression for Y
a
() in terms of X
a
:

=
|
.
|

\
|
+ =

2
) (
1
) (
n
a a a
T
n
X G
T
Y


( )



Suppose x
a
(t) is bandlimited to B rad/sec and we choose T <

B
. Then, supposing

B
X
a
()



gives

B
+
T n

2n
X
a
n = + 1 term
n = 0 term
n = 1 term
2
T

T
2
T


No aliasing, so that:

X
a
n=

+
2n
T
|
\
|
.
= X
a
(), ||

T


Now, assume an ideal D/A so that

4.8
g
a
(t) = sinc
t
T
| |
|
\ .
=
sin
, 0
1 , 0
t
T
t
t
T
t



Considering the Fourier transform of this pulse, we see that for an ideal D/A, G
a
() has the
shape of an ideal LPF:



G
a
() =
T

T
0 >

T






T




Now, lets picture the terms in the right hand side of
( )
:

n = + 1 term
G
a
()
2
T

T
B

T
B
2

2
T

n = 1 term
n = 0 term
i.e.,
1
T
X
a
()
X
a
+
2n
T



So:
G
a
() X
a
+
2n
T
|
\
|
.
n=

>

T
T
X T
a

0
) (



Therefore if x
a
(t) is bandlimited to
T

and with the ideal D/A we have Y


a
() = X
a
(), and thus
y
a
(t) = x
a
(t).