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Robust Control

Objective: Study on analysis and synthesis of feedback control systems with disturbances and model uncertainties Introduction Generalised description of feedback control systems Parameterisation of stabilising controllers Observers and observer-based controllers Norms of signals and systems and their computation LMI-aided design of robust control systems H2 optimal design Hinfinity optimal design Optimal design of certain kinds of uncertain dynamic systems
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1 Introduction
Schematic description of a feedback control system
Disturbance

Reference signal

Control error Controller Actuators Plant

Output

Sensors

State of the art of the (past) courses on control theory: Analysis and synthesis of feedback control systems on the assumption of a perfect model. Study on the influence of disturbances is restricted to some simple cases No parameter changes have been taken into account

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The way towards to a successful feedback control

Modelling and simulation

System analysis

System synthesis and controller design

Simulation and realisation

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References:
Essential knowledge of control theory

O. Fllinger, Regelungstechnik, 8. Auflage, Hthig-Verlag, 1994.


H. Unbehauen, Regelungstechnik II, 10. Auflage, Verlag-Vieweg, 2000. J. Lunze, Regelungstechnik II, 2. Auflage, Springer-Verlage, 1999. R. N. Clark, Control system dynamics, Cambridge University Press, 1996. T. Kailath, Linear systems, Prentice-Hall Inc., 1980. Robust control K. Zhou, Essentials of robust control, Prentice Hall, 1998 Selected papers
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2. Generalised description of feedback control systems


2.1 Basic structure
d(s)

Description of a (classical) feedback control loop

GD

w(s) -

e(s)

GR

u(s)

GS

y(s)

y ( s ) = GS ( s )u ( s ) + GD ( s )d ( s ) u ( s ) = GR ( s )( w( s ) y ( s ))

The core of controller design: Selection of GR ( s )

A special property: Control output = measurement

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Control error:

y ( s) = GS ( s )GR ( s )( w( s ) y ( s )) + GD ( s )d ( s ) e( s ) = w( s) y ( s) = ( I + GS ( s )GR ( s ) ) w( s ) ( I + GS ( s )GR ( s ) ) GD ( s )d ( s )


1 1

tracking behaviors

disturbance behavior

Minimisation of control error:

min e = min ( I + GS ( s )GR ( s ) ) w( s ) ( I + GS ( s )GR ( s ) ) GD ( s )d ( s )


1 1 GR GR

Since the disturbances are unknown and the reference signal is often event driven (change on-line, depending the process behavior), it is reasonable to re-formulate the above problem into
d GR , =1 w

min

d Wdis ( s ) ( I + GS ( s )GR ( s ) )1 Gd ( s ) Wtr ( s ) ( I + GS ( s )GR ( s ) )1 w

Wtr ( s ),Wdis ( s ) : weighting matrices


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Example: Speed control of a DC motor

ia
La dia 1 k + ia = ua E n Ra dt Ra Ra
2 dn = ma mb = kmia mb 60 dt

Ra

La

ua

Load

mb

Control objective: The speed follows the reference signal Measurements: Speed n and current ia Input: u := ua Disturbances d := mb

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Example: Speed control of a DC motor (cont)


System description
y ( s ) n( s ) y(s) = 1 = y2 ( s) ia ( s ) 60( La s + Ra ) 60km 2s 2 + 2R s + 60k k 2s 2 + 2R s + 60k k a E m a E m u (s) + d (s) = s kE s 2 + R s + 60k k /(2) 2s 2 + 2R s + 60k k a E m a E m = G yu ( s )u ( s ) + G yd ( s)d ( s )

Possible structure of the controller:

u ( s ) = Guy2 ( s ) y2 ( s ) + Gue ( s )e( s ), e( s ) = w( s ) y1 ( s )


Control objective: minimising the control error

w( s ) n( s ) = w( s ) y1 ( s ) = w( s ) G y1u ( s )u ( s ) G y1d ( s )d ( s )
Controller design:
Guy ( s ) bwz. Gue ( s )

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Example: Speed control of a DC motor (cont) Block diagram of the control loop
d (mb )
w e

y1 ( n)
u (ua )

DC motor

G ue ( s )

y2 (ia )

Guy 2 ( s )

u ( s ) = Guy 2 ( s ) y2 ( s ) + Gue ( s )e( s ), e( s ) = w( s ) y1 ( s )


A classic cascade structure

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Example: Speed control of a DC motor (cont)


Re-structure of the control loop aiming at controller design
w

y1

d
DC motor
u

y1 = e( s )
y2 = y2

Plant

Guy2 ( s ) = Guy2 ( s )
G u y1 ( s ) = G ue ( s )

Controller

Control output (objective) can be different from the system outputs (measurements) Also w is considered as disturbance

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Example: Speed control of a DC motor (cont):


Derivation of the new structure
y (s) y ( s ) = 1 = G yu ( s )u ( s ) + G yd ( s )d ( s ) y2 ( s )

= G yu ( s ) ( Guy2 ( s ) y2 ( s ) Gue ( s ) y1 ( s ) + Gue ( s ) w( s ) ) + G yd ( s )d ( s )

Introducing a new measurable vector


y1 ( s ) y1 ( s ) w( s) y (s) = y (s) 2 2

leads to
u ( s ) = Guy2 ( s ) y2 ( s ) Gue ( s ) y1 ( s )

y ( s ) = G yu ( s )u ( s ) + G yd ( s )d ( s ) = G yu ( s ) ( Guy2 ( s ) y2 ( s ) Gue ( s ) y1 ( s ) ) + G yd ( s )d ( s )

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and moreover
Gy1d ( s ) G y1u ( s ) y1 ( s ) y1 ( s ) I I y ( s ) = y ( s ) + O w( s ) = G ( s ) u ( s ) + O w( s ) + G ( s ) d ( s ) 2 2 y2 d y2 u := G yu ( s )u ( s ) + G yd ( s )d ( s ) + Gyw ( s ) w( s ) y1 ( s) u(s) = Guy1 ( s ) Guy2 ( s ) y ( s ) = Guy ( s ) y ( s ) 2 I Guy1 ( s ) = Gue ( s ), Gyw ( s ) = , G yu ( s ) = Gyu ( s ), Gyd ( s ) = G yd ( s ) O

Control error

z ( s ) = w( s ) y1 ( s ) = w( s ) G y1u ( s )u ( s ) G y1d ( s ) d ( s ) := Gzu ( s )u ( s ) + Gzw ( s ) w( s ) + Gzd ( s )d ( s ) Gzu ( s ) = G y1u ( s ), Gzw ( s ) = I , Gzd ( s ) = G y1d ( s )

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Example: Speed control of a DC motor (cont) General structure description


w d = d
u (control input)
z (objective function, control output)

Plant

G zu ( s ) G zd ( s) G ( s ) G ( s ) yd yu
y y = 1 y2

(measurements)

Controller
G uy ( s ) = Guy1 ( s ) Guy2 ( s )

Control error is defined as control output

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The generalised form of feedback control systems


Important variables and components: Input variables of the plant
control signal u, disturbance d und reference signal w

Output variables of the plant: vector y (measurement and control error)


control error z = w a part of measurements

Input variables of the controller: Vector of the measurements y Design objectives:


Minimisation of z

Design parameters: Guy ( s )

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The generalised form of feedback control systems (cont)


Description of the plant:

y ( s ) = G yu ( s )u ( s ) + G yd ( s )d ( s )
Description of the control output and objective

z ( s ) = Gzu ( s )u ( s ) + Gzd ( s )d ( s )
Minimisation of z, independent of d

y ( s ) G yu ( s ) G yd ( s ) u ( s ) z (s) = G (s) G (s) d ( s) zu zd


Description of the controller:

u ( s ) = Guy ( s ) y ( s ) := K ( s ) y ( s )

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Block diagram of the generalised form of the feedback control system

G yu ( s ) G yd ( s ) G ( s) G ( s) zd zu
u Plant (incl. actuators & sensors)

Guy ( s )
Controller

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Major differences between the classical feedback control concept and the generalised description: no difference is made between the reference signals and disturbances - no difference between the tracking behavior and disturbance behavior - a different handling can be achieved by a suitable selection of weighting matrices output variables (measurements) can be different from controlled variables (control objective) the control objective is expressed in terms of the control variables the input signals of the controller are the output variables of the process the controller design is formulated as: - stabilisation - robustness against disturbances

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2.2 Description of the generalised control systems in the state space Example: Speed control of a DC motor
State space description of the plant

60km 0 0 60  n 2 n  = Ax + Bu + Ed i = k i + 1 ua + 2 mb x  R a E a a L 0 a La La y1 1 0 n y = 0 1 i , y = x a 2
State feedback controller: u = K1 ( w y1 ) K 2 y2 = K1w K x, K = [ K1

K2 ]

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Example: Speed control of a DC motor (cont)


Structure of the control loop
 n = x a i
n x= ia

d (mb )

60 E = 2 0

1 0 C= 0 1

y1 ( n)
y2 (ia )

K1

u (ua )

0 B= 1 L a

0 A= kE La

60km 2 R a La

Plant
K2

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Example: Speed control of a DC motor (cont)


Re-structure of the control loop
w

d
u

 = A x + Bu + Ed x y = Cx = x
Plant

y1

y1 = e( s )

y2 = y2

K2 K1
controller

Here, matrix C is an identity matrix

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Control objective:

z = w n = w y1 min
Generalised description:
y x w y = 1 = 1 y2 x2 u = K1w Ky = K y

1  = Ax + Bu + Ed , y = x + Fw w, Fw = x 0 z = w x1 u = K y

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Example: Speed control of a DC motor (cont)


Generalised description in the state space form
w d = d
U (input) Plant
z (control output:control error)

 = Ax + Bu + E d d x z cz Fz y = C x + F d y y
Controller
y y = 1 (Measurable y2 signals)

Cy = I

K = [ K1

K2 ]

60 1 0 0 2 , = cz = [ 1 0] , Fz = [1 0] , C y = I , Fy = E d 0 0 0 0
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Generalised description of feedback control systems in the state space form The compact form

D F y C  = Ax + Bu + Ed , = y x + y u + y d x z Cz Dz Fz u ( s ) = K ( s ) x( s )
Advantages of introducing the generalised description form The new defined output variables are plant outputs and control error Formulation of the control objective in an unified form unified description of the classic and state-space control structures Development of general design methods

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2.3 Some typical control problems Standard control problem: given generalised form of the control system, find the controller K(s) s.t. the whole system is stable and the transfer function (matrix) from the disturbance to the control output, i.e.

z = Gzd + Gzu K ( I G yu K ) G yd d
1

is minimised. Standard state feedback problem: given the generalised form of state feedback controller, find controller u(t)=-Kx(t) s.t. the whole system is stable and the transfer function (matrix) from the disturbance to the control output, i.e.

x( s ) = ( sI A + BK ) Ed ( s ), z ( s ) = ( Cz Dz K ) x( s ) + Fz d ( s )
1 1 z ( s ) = ( Cz Dz K )( sI A + BK ) E + Fz d ( s )

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Classical feedback control problem

d(s)
Gd

w(s) -

e(s)

Gc

u(s)

Gp

y(s)

w( s) z ( s ) = w( s) y ( s) = w( s ) G p ( s )u ( s ) Gd ( s )d ( s ) = G p ( s)u ( s ) + [ I Gd ( s ) ] d ( s ) w( s ) w( s ) y ( s) = G p ( s )u ( s ) + [ I Gd ( s ) ] d ( s ) u ( s ) = Gc ( s )( w( s ) y ( s))

z = I G p Gc ( I + G p Gc )
1

) w (I G G (I + G G ) )G d
1 p c p c d 1

= ( I + G p Gc ) w ( I + G p Gc ) Gd d
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Model-matching problem: T1(s) d T3(s) Find a stable Q(s) s.t. y Q(s) u T2(s) z

z = (T1 T2QT3 ) d
is minimised. It can be re-formulated into the standard control problem:

Gzd ( s ) = T1 ( s ), Gzu ( s ) = T2 ( s ), G yd ( s ) = T3 ( s ), G yu ( s ) = 0, K ( s ) = Q ( s )

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Tracking problem: d r u v

W(s)

C1(s)

P(s)

Find the both controllers s.t.

C2(s)
2

is minimised.

( r v

+ u

2 1/ 2

It can be re-formulated into the standard control problem:


r v r W P W 0 z= , y = , K = [C1 C2 ] , Gzd = , Gzu = , G yd = , G yu = u v 0 I 0 P

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