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*Archaeological Institute of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences ri u. 49, H-1014 Budapest, Hungary **Aquincum Museum, Zhony u. 4, H-1031 Budapest, Hungary

In honorem Csand Blint


Signicant excavations were conducted in the cemetery on the Danube bank (Gas Factory) east of the Civil Town of Aquincum on the territory of Graphisoft Park between 2005 and 2007.1 During these excavations, the archaeologists of the Aquincum Museum unearthed nearly 1300 Roman graves.2 It became evident that the cemetery was continuously used at least from the time of the foundation of the municipium until the end of the 4th century (Fig. 1). The graves were dug into the sand dunes on the river bank, which were, however, leveled at the construction of the Gas Factory (end of the 19th century beginning of the 20th century). Thus only the graves dug in the lower lying areas were preserved in an intact condition. The burial customs of the 2nd3rd centuries include burials with scattered ashes, simple shaft burials, graves with plastered and burned edges and inhumation burials with the bodies laid in cofns or wrapped in cloth. At certain places, the sandy soil afforded the documentation of the graves of very young infants as well, the existence of which was elsewhere evidenced only by small grave shafts and characteristic nds.3 The features in which no human traces could be observed yet the measurements, the lling (e.g. cofn nails) and the grave furniture suggested it were regarded as infant burials. In 2006, a special small Samian ware bowl was found in a quadrangular east-west oriented 0.9 m 0.4 m large grave, presumably an infant burial (SE-2137/2138 grave no. 665), which was probably given to a child
1 The uncovered territory is strongly linked with the cemetery fragment that was unearthed on the territory of the Gas Factory rst of all by Paula Zsidi in the last decade (P. ZSIDI: Szondz jelleg kutats az aquincumi polgrvrostl dlkeletre [Test excavations southeast of the Aquincum Civil town]. Aquincumi fzetek 3. Budapest 1997, 5457; Eadem: Bp., III. ker., Gzgyr. Aquincumi Fzetek 4. Budapest 1998, 9192; Eadem: A rmai kori partpts nyomai a Duna polgrvrosi szakaszn [Research along the Danube Bank near the Aquincum Civil Town]. Aquincumi fzetek 5. Budapest 1999, 8494; Eadem: Kutatsok az aquincumi polgrvrostl keletre lv terleten [Research in the territory east of the Aquincum Civil Town]. Aquincumi fzetek 7. Budapest 2001, 7684), certain fragments of which had already been uncovered by Blint Kuzsinszky in the beginning of the 20th century. 2 Director of the excavation: G. Lassnyi, consultant archaeologist: P. Zsidi. G. LASSNYI: Rmai temet s gazdasgi pletek feltrsa

a Graphisoft Park terletn [Excavation of a Roman cemetery and out-buildings in the territory of the former Gas Factory (today known as Graphisoft Park]. Aquincumi fzetek 12. Budapest 2006, 3036; Idem: Elzetes jelents az Aquincumi polgrvros keleti (gzgyri) temetjnek feltrsrl [Preliminary report of the excavation in the eastern cemetery (Gas Factory) of the Aquincum Civil Town]. Aquincumi fzetek 13. Budapest 2007, 102116. 3 The preservation or complete decay of the poorly preserved thin bones showed signicant differences in the cemetery even within 10 metres. In certain cases, we could observe the remains of newborn babies measuring 4050 cm in length, while in other cases, the measurements of the cofn and the jewellery implied that the complete skeleton of an infant of a few years of age had decayed apart from the digits that were conserved by the metal salts precipitated from the bronze coin held in the hand.

DOI: 10.1556/AArch.59.2008.2.7

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Fig. 1. The site of the excavation: Graphisoft Park in Aquincum and the situation of the grave 665

to the journey to the other world. This feature intersected a north-south section of a Roman trench system (dated approximately from the 1st century AD) of an unknown function adjusted to the main cardinal directions (SE2135/2136), which was older than the cemetery. Numerous inhumation and cremation burials were dug into this lled-up trench in the 2nd3rd centuries AD.


The small sigillata cup found in grave no. 665 of the cemetery uncovered east of the one-time Roman town on the territory of the Graphisoft, the former Gas Factory of Aquincum in 2006 was one of the most signicant nds of the cemetery as well (Fig.2). The complete vessel cannot morphologically be originated either from Italian4 or Gaulish manufactures, while good analogues can be found among the Eastern Sigillata type B 2. Not a single product of the workshops producing these wares was known from Pannonia5, apart from an item from Emona6 but the administrative afliation of Emona was already unclear in this period.7

4 The shape slightly reminds of the Northern Italian type Consp. 46.1.2, especially because of the high-drawn base; however, there is no barbotine ornament on the rim and it does not have a foot-ring like the Italian items. See: CH. SIMONETT: Tessiner Grberfelder. Ausgrabungen des archologischen Arbeitsdienstes in Solduno, Locarno-Muralto, Minusio und Stabio 1936 und 1937. Monogr. Urund Frhgeschichte der Schweiz 3. Basel 1941, 174, Abb. 148,7 with a QSP stamp. 5 On the Intercisa item published by K. PCZY as a Hellenistic Sigillata ware, see Keramik in: M. R. AlfldyL. BarkcziJ. FitzK. PczyJ. SzilgyiE. B. Vg: Intercisa II. (Dunapentele). Geschichte der Stadt in der Rmerzeit. ArchHung 35. Budapest 1957, 34, 107, Nr. 216, Taf. 7.1. We demonstrated in an earlier paper that it was not a Sigillata ware but a so-called Megaran bowl with relief decoration.

However, the place of its production is unknown, see: D. GABLER: Ein Reliefbecher aus Pannonien- wer kennt hniches? RCRF 26 (2000) 245246. 6 PETRU 1972, 70, grave no. 778, pl. 50. 7 See: J. FITZ: Pannonia szletse (Birth of Pannonia). Budapest 1999, 51, n.39; M. AEL-KOS: Caesarian inscriptions in the Emona basin. In: Epigraa romana in area adriatica. PisaRoma 1998, 101112. M. AEL-KOS: Emona was in Italy not in Pannonia. In: M. ael-KosP. Scherrer (eds): The Autonomous Towns of Noricum and Pannonia. Situla 41. Ljubljana 2003, 1119. P. KOVCS regards Emona a part of Pannonia. In: Early Geographers The period of the Roman Conquest. Eds: B. FehrP. Kovcs. Fontes Pannoniae Antiquae. Budapest 2005, 222223.

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Fig. 2. Eastern sigillata B II Form Hayes 74/75 from the grave 665 in Aquincum. Scale = 1:1
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The truncated-cone-shaped small cup of straight, upwards widening walls and slightly arched everted rims can be grouped in Hayes Form 75.8 Horizontally grooved lines can be seen both in the middle of the wall and on the rim. The hollow base slightly rises in the centre. The small plates of Hayes Form 63 are similar but with everted rims. The plates of Hayes Form 63 are also typologically similar so that a few specialists classied them in the same morphological group.9 This type is relatively common in the Aegean: it can be found in nds of Ephesos, Pergamon, Priene, Miletos, Samos, Delos, Corinth,10 the Agora of Athens,11 Olbia12 and along the eastern coast of the Adriatic Sea, rst of all in the trade zone of Aquileia and Tergeste, and in the region of Salona. This Sigillata type is the dominant ware at the sites in Western Asia Minor, and it was only in Pergamon that local production could inuence the choice of goods. The diameter of the vessels of Hayes Form 75 ranges between 9.5 and 13 cm; the diameter of our item is somewhat larger than 13 cm, so it belongs among the larger variants. It differs from other representatives of Hayes Form 75 mainly in the form of the bottom, on which a small, rudimentary foot-ring can usually be found, while the base is at or slightly depressed in the centre. A bowl from the Agora in Athens13 and an item from Ephesos14 with a centrally slightly raised bottom are the most similar to our item. The base of the Aquincum vessel steeply rises, so it is typologically different from the other representatives of the form, while this shape of bottom is common at Form Hayes 63.15 The clay of the Eastern Sigillata B 2 products is porous and micaceous, the slip is matt and orange coloured and soap-like to the touch.16 It was supposed from the large quantities of these wares uncovered in Ephesos and Priene that they had been produced in the western part of Asia Minor and the chemical and mineralogical analyses supported this supposition. The clay that contains heavy minerals only occurs in the region of Tralles (to date Aydin, Turkey).17 The circumstance that Pliny mentioned Tralles among the famous pottery centres of the empire lends special importance to this settlement.18 The clay of the Aquincum item is orange red (Munsell 10 R 6/14), slightly granulous, the slip is yellowish orange, slightly spotted (Munsell 10 R 6/16).19 It is soap-like to the touch and the colours of the slip and the clay are similar. The clay could be softer and the slip of a poorer quality, so it could be apt to peel off. Thus the products that can be grouped among Sigillata wares B 2 are of diverse qualities. Matt and strongly worn items covered with black slip can also be found among the cups of Hayes 75.20 It can sometimes be observed that the colour of the hard baked, high quality items is slightly lighter than of the ones made of softer clay. Both the high and the inferior quality items absorb water.21 Ephesos used to be counted among the possible places of production of Eastern Sigillata B 2 since this ceramic type dominates in the port-town of Western Asia Minor.22 Another proposed place of production was Pamphilia.23
HAYES 1985, 68. J 2000, 33. 10 SLANE 2000, 307; Eadem: The Hellenistic and Roman pottery. The ne wares. In: Tel Anafa II.1. Ed.: S. C. Herbert. JRA Suppl 10. Ann Arbor 1997, 380. 11 HAYES 1985, 68. 12 T. KNIPOWITSCH: Untersuchungen zur Keramik rmischer Zeit aus den Griechenstdten an der Nordksten des Schwarzen Meeres. Die Keramik rmischer Zeit aus Olbia in der Sammlung der Eremitage. Materialien Rmischer Keramik IV. Frankfurt a. Main 1929, 16, Fig. 3,15. 13 ROBINSON 1959, 87, M 32, pl. 62. 14 MERI 2002, K 283, Taf. 26. 15 CIPRIANOSANDRINI 2003, 438, g.7,1. 16 HAYES 1985, 51. 17 G. SCHNEIDER: Chemical grouping of Roman Terra Sigillata nds from Turkey, Jordan and Syria. In: Archaeometry 94. The Proceedings of the 29th International Symposium of Archaeometry, Ankara 914 May 1994. Eds: DemireiA. M. zerG. D. Summers Ankara 1996, 189. 18 Plin NatHist XXXV.12, 46, 160 in Asia Pergamum, habent et Tralles ibi opera sua et in Italia Mutina, quoniam et sic gentes nobilitantur et haec quoque per maria, terras ultro citro portentur. 19 A. M. MUNSELL: Soil Color Charts. NewburghNew York 1992. 20 GASSNER 1997, 133.
8 9 URII

MITSOPOULOS-LEON 1991, 95. D. BEYLL: Terra sigillata aus der Marienkirche in Ephesos. Erste Zwischenbilanz. Ber.Mat. sterr. Arch.Inst. 5. Wien 1993, 8; MITSOPOULOS-LEON 1991, 107. Scientic methods have demonstrated, however, that the Eastern Sigillata B wares were produced in Tralles and not in Ephesos; see U. OUTSCHAR: Exportorientierte Keramikproduktion auch noch im sptantiken Ephesos? RCRF 2930 (1991) 317327; U. OUTSCHAR: Analyse und Dokumentation exemplarisch ausgewhlter keramische Fundkomplexe. In: C. Lang-Aulinger: Hanghaus I in Ephesos. Die Baubefund. Forschungen in Ephesos VIII:3. Wien 1996, 4748; Eadem: Beobachtungen und Aspekte zur ephesischen Keramik. In: Hellenistische und kaiserzeitliche Keramik des stlichen Mittelmeergebietes. Kolloquium Frankfurt 24.25. April 1995. Hrsg. von M. HerfordKochU. MandelU. Schd-ler. Frankfurt a. Main 1996, 3540; S. ZABEHLICKY-SCHEFFENEGGER: Subsidiary factories of Italian sigillata potters. The Ephesean evidence. In: H. Koester (ed.): Ephesos metropolis of Asia. An interdisciplinary approach to its archaeology, religion and culture. Harvard Theological Studies 41. Valley Forge (PA) 1995, 222; Eadem: Die Italiener in Ephesos. RCRF 34 (1995), Alba Regia 25 (1995) 257 S. Ladsttter could distinguish a specic, perhaps local group within Eastern Sigillata B products: LADSTTTER 2000, 98100. 23 J. GUNNEWEG: The origin of Eastern Terra sigillata A and Hayes Cypriot sigillata (on the basis of Neutron Activation Analysis). RCRF 2324 (1984) 114; Idem: Roman Pottery Trade in the Eastern Mediterranean. RCRF 2526 (1987) 119129.
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The vessels of Form Hayes 75 are dated from the last quarter of the 1st century AD and the rst quarter of the 2 century AD.24 This form can also be found in a nd complex from the area of Hanghaus 2 of Ephesos, which is dated from the Flavian period by a Southern Gaulish Samian ware.25 The load of the ship that sank at Cape Izmetite in Dalmatia contained a huge number of ceramics (3000 items), mostly Dressel 24 amphorae from the island of Kos, Eastern Sigillata B 2 wares from Asia Minor and cooking vessels. The shipwreck can be dated from the rst half of the 2nd century.26 These nds afforded the grouping of the vessels by services.27 Accordingly, Forms Hayes 62 and 74 belonged to the same service, while the similarities of the shapes and the stamped ornamental motives afforded the combination of Hayes Forms 62/63 and Hayes Forms 74/75.28 In Ephesos, at the same time, the use of Form Hayes 60 and Hayes 80 of the Eastern B 2 wares can be recorded even in the second half of the 2nd century and the rst half of the 3rd century.29 It was found together with Eastern Sigillata C in the lling D1 of one of the wells of Staatsmarkt; the material of the lling is dated after J. W. Hayes work.30 The coins of the cemetery of the Northern Dalmatian Bakar help in the dating of the B2 wares. The circulation of the coins found in the grave spanned over the period from Nero to Faustina the elder (AD. 54161). It was also approximately the time of the ourishing period of exportation from eastern Sigillata workshops.31 The mass export of the Sigillata wares from Asia Minor can be dated from the rst half of the 2nd century but their production continued in the second half of the century as well (as J. W. Hayes supposed it32). This ware can also be found in Ephesos and in the south-western part of Asia Minor in nd complexes dated from the rst half of the 3rd century.33 Its distribution can be followed until the end of the 2nd century in Corinth as well.34 Eastern Sigillata B2 appeared in the largest quantities in the north-eastern Adriatic region in the rst half of the 2nd century. Its expansion repressed the Tardopadana B variety of Samian wares in this region.35 Pottery of Form Hayes 75 were found in Concordia in the levels of the 2nd century, although no ner dating was possible within this period.36 The grave from Aquincum, in which the Eastern Sigillata was found, can also be dated from the turn of the 1st and 2nd centuries and the subsequent decades.


Eastern Sigillata B wares were distributed roughly in the Aegean, where this ceramic type can be found in every material of the period. B2 wares, which were of a more inferior quality than B 1 goods, were more generally used, which can be due to the fact, according to J. W. Hayes, that the later ceramic type lled in the gap that the decline of the Etrurian workshops and the disappearance of the high quality Arezzo sigillata created.37 B1 wares can only be found in the Aegean, apart from a few items that got the Alexandria, Sudan, Ethiopia, SouthernArabia or India,38 while Eastern Sigillata B 2 also won the former markets of Arezzo in the Flavian-Trajan period. Beside the eastern territories of Hellas and Crete, this pottery can be found in small numbers in the Pontus

HAYES 1985, 68; GASSNER 1997, 133. LADSTTTER 2000, 98. 26 JURISI 2000, 65. 27 ERJAL 2005, 283. 28 JURISI 2000, 33. 29 GASSNER 1997, 127. 30 MERI 2002, 48. 31 R. MAKJANI: Eastern sigillata in the Kvarner region. Prinosi odjela za arheologiju. Zagreb 1983, 5.


HAYES 1985, 51. GASSNER 1997, 127. 34 SLANE 2000, 307. 35 ERJAL 2005, 285. 36 CIPRIANOSANDRINI 2003, 439. 37 HAYES 1985, 52. 38 Ibidem.
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region,39 in Southern and Central Italy (Pompei40 and Ostia41), in Northern Etruria,42 Ravenna43 and sporadically in Northern Italy.44 The occurrence of Eastern Sigillata B 2 is more emphatic on the eastern coast of the Adriatic Sea, rst of all in the region of Salona. These types had appeared already earlier in Salona,45 while their number was signicant in the Izmetita shipwreck at the island of Hvar.46 This ceramic type had already been described in I. remosniks publication from the Mogorjelo villa47 east of the Adriatic port-town and from Viii-Capljina.48 Recently, a few items were recovered in Augusteum in Narona.49 A dozen eastern sigillata wares were found in the forum of Burnum during the excavations in 19731974, among others a conical cup of Hayes 75, which is similar to the Aquincum item.50 This ceramic type was found in larger numbers at the Roman period sites of the Quarnero bay (Osor, Bakar, Omialj, Krk), where, at the same time, not a single item represented (Fig. 3) the Gaulish-German Sigillata workshops. The youngest coin in the Bakar cemetery, which also dated this ware type, was a coin of Faustina the elder.51 Many Eastern Sigillata B2 wares were uncovered during the excavations conducted in Pola both in the cemeteries52 and in the town at the site next to Porta Rata.53 Form Hayes 75 can also be found at the latter site.54 V. Vidrih Perko and M. Pavleti found after the analysis of one third of the nds of the former excavations conducted on the territory of the so-called Kastrum on the island of large Brioni (A. Gnirs, M. Mirabella Roberti, S. Mlakar) that Eastern Sigillata B 2 dominated and Form Hayes 75 was also represented.55 Many Eastern Sigillata wares were uncovered in the Roman villas unearthed in the northern part of the Istrian Peninsula like, rst of all, in Loron investigated in a French-Croatian-Italian co-operation,56 or the villa of kolarice57 where 25 % of the Sigillata material dated from the turn of the 1st and 2nd centuries was composed of Eastern B 2 wares. The cup Hayes 75 can also be found here.58 A late Aegean plate of Hayes 60 was found during the excavation of the villa at Simonov zaliv.59 Eastern Sigillata wares of the same age were found in Stramare at Muggia near Tergeste, south of the town.60 A few items of the eastern imported wares could be identied in the old material of the museum from the Roman colony itself, and fragments Eastern Sigillata B 2 wares were uncovered during excava-

39 D. ZHURAVLEV: Terra sigillata and red slip pottery from the Late Scythian necropolises of South-western Crimea (1st3rd century AD). RCRF 36 (2000) 151; K. ELLEN: Eastern sigillata der sptskytischen Nekropole von Alma Kermen, SW-Krim (Ukraine). 25th Congress of RCRF, Durrs, 24 Sept.1. Oct. 2006, abstracts 15 the majority of the imported ceramics in the graves was Eastern Sigillata B2. 40 G. PUCCI: L instrumentum domesticum di Ercolano e Pompei nella prima et imperiale. Quaderni di cultura materiale 1. Roma 1977, 1920. 41 F. BERTI et alii: Ostia II. Le terme del Nuotatore. Scavo dell ambiente I. Studi miscellanei 16, Roma 1970, 66; A. CARANDINIC. PANELLA (a cura di): Ostia III. Le terme del Nuotatore. Scavo dell ambiente V e di un saggio nell area SO. Studi miscellanei 31. Roma 1973, 326; A. MARTIN: Ceramica ne a Roma e Ostia tra la seconda met del I e il II sec. RCRF 3132 (1992) 93; Idem: The sigillata orientale A, B, C. In: Gortina II. Pretorio. Il materiale degli scavi Colini 19701977. A cura di: A. di VitaA. Martin. Monogr. Scuola Arch. Atene e Missioni Italiani in Oriente 7. Padova 1997, 127131; Idem: Sigillata and red slip ware at Ostia. The supply to a consumption center. In: Territorio e produzioni ceramiche. Paesaggi, economia e societ in et romana. A cura di: S. MenchelliM. Pasquinucci. Pisa 2006, 381. 42 S. MENCHELLIM. PASQUINUCCI: Ceramiche orientali nell Etruria settentrionale costiera (II. sec. A.C. VI. sec. D.C.) RCRF 36 (2000) 374. 43 M. G. MAIOLI: Appendice I. Classe. La cultura materiale. In: V. G. Susini (a cura di): Storia di Ravenna I. Levo antico. Ravenna 1990, 422 44 CIPRIANOSANDRINI 2003, 445 Verona, Modena, Brescia.

45 V. VON GONZENBACH: Pottery from closed deposits. In: Ch. W. Clairmont: Excavations at Salona, Yugoslavia 19691972. Park Ridge, N.J. 1975, 200, g. 7477. 46 JURISI 2000, 65. 47 I. REMOSNIK: Funde von Sigillaten mediterraner Tpfereien in Bosnien und Herzegovina. AI 7 (1966) 44, Taf. 1,111. 48 Eadem: Der Fund von Terra sigillata chiara aus Viii. GZM Arheologija 1962, 121, Taf.4, 1012, Taf.5,3, 6. 49 M. TOPI: Stolno posude i glinene svetiljke iz Augusteum Narone (Tableware and clay lamps from Augusteum in Narona). Vjesnik za arheologiju, historiju Dalmatinski 95 (2003) 192, Tab. 20. 50 S. ZABEHLICKYM. KANDLER: Burnum I. Erster Bericht ber die Kleinfunde der Grabungen 1973 und 1974 auf dem Forum. Wien 1979, 28, Taf. 6,1516, Taf. 7,11, Taf. 8,19. 51 R. MAKJANI: Istona sigilata na Kvarneru (Eastern sigillata in the Kvarner region). Prinosi odjela za arheologiju. Zagreb 1983, 58. 52 R. MATIJAI: Campus Martius. Antika nekropola iz medu Premonturske i Medulinske ulice u Poli (Istraivanje 19851986 godine). Monograje i katalozi Arh. Muz. Istre 8. Pula 1991. 53 MAGGISTARAC 2000, 350, Fig. 3,12, 46, Fig. 4,18. 54 Ibidem 350, g. 4,8. 55 V. VIDRIH PERKOM. PAVLETI: Report on ceramics from Brijuni. RCRF 36 (2000) 263. 56 MAGGISTARAC 2000, 357; P. MAGGI: La ceramica ne da mensa. In: V. TassauxR. MatjaiV. Kovai: Loron (Croatie). Bordeaux 2001, 152153. 57 ERJAL 2005, 283. 58 Ibidem 284. 59 I. MIKL-CURK: Terra sigillata from the rst campaigns. OpRom 20 (1996) 252. 60 SCOTTI-MASELLI 1987, 215.

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tions in the garden of the museum in 1971.61 These nds were originated from a villa. Nearly 6070 % (!) of the Sigillata wares of the nds uncovered from the 1st and 2nd centuries in the Roman theatre at Tergeste in 1981 were eastern ceramics, while the rest were Italian and to a smaller number Gaulish62 wares. Sigillata from Asia Minor were uncovered at Duino north of the town,63 and Eastern Sigillata wares of types B and C were recorded during the excavation of a mithreum near Foci del Timavo.64 The ware was much less frequent in Aquileia than in Tergeste.65 The most important sites within the town are the forum and the area east of it and also the so-called large market south of the Natissa River.66 Ceramics from Asia Minor can be found in the hinterland of Aquileia as well on the nearby mainland territories like in Forum Iulii (Cividale)67 and Coseano68 or in the Joannis villa.69 Eastern Sigillata were also found farther from Aquileia in Friuli, like in Iulium Carnicum,70 San Daniele,71 Ter72 or Palazzolo dello Stella. Beside Tergeste, Eastern Sigillata A got as far as Magdalensberg73 although S. Schefffenegger-Zabehlicky regards them to be randomly transported items and not the proofs of a regular trade. Nevertheless, it should be noted that in Magdalensberg the quantity of eastern ware is higher than that of the Gaulish products.74 The number of Eastern Sigillata wares is also signicant on the northern and north-western coasts of the Adriatic Sea. Iulia Concordia75 should be mentioned, where more than 50 items were uncovered of only the B 2 wares, and about half of these were B 1 Sigillata wares. Relatively many forms are represented in the 2nd century material of Concordia.76 The same can be observed in the nearby Altino as well.77 The above reveal that although Eastern Sigillata appeared mainly in the Adriatic port-towns and in the coastal zone, a few items also got to father territories like Iulium Carnicum or Magdelensberg along the main trading routes. They appeared at a few sites in Noricum-Pannonia as well. Owing to the vivid circulation along the Amber Route, a vessel of Form Hayes 75, similar to the Aquincum item, can be recorded in Emona. It bears a stamp MAR/KOY on the bottom.78 The Sigillata ware from Western Asia Minor was found in grave no. 778 together with a rma lamp of Loeschkes form X bearing the stamp NERI. L. Nerius started his production in Northern Italy already in the second half of the 1st century, yet most of his lamps can be dated from the 2nd century. His ware with stamps are dated by the coins of Domitian, Faustina minor and Antoninus Pius in Nona,79 the coins of Hadrian and

Ibidem. Ibidem 217; F. SCOTTI MASELLI: Trieste, un scavo archeologico per la citt. Trieste 1989, 20 g. 36. 63 SCOTTI-MASELLI 1987, 215; Eadem: Problemi suscitati dei recenti scavi di Duino (Trieste). Atti del Civici Musei di Storia ed Arte di Trieste, Quaderno 13/1 (1983) 5262. 64 SCOTTI-MASELLI 1987, 215. 65 Eadem: La ceramica ad Aquileia. Il vasellame da mensa Antichit Altoadriatiche 24 (1984) 68; SCOTTI MASELLI 1988, 288, tav. 10,12. 66 P. VENTURA, in: Scavi ad Aquileia. Larea ad est del Foro. Rapporto degli scavi 1988. A cura di: M. Verzr-Bass. Studi e ricerche sulla Gallia Cisalpina 3. Roma 1991, 114117, 202210; Eadem in: Scavi ad est del Foro. Rapporto degli scavi 19891991. A cura di: M. Verzt-Bass. Studi e ricerche sulla Gallia Cisalpina 6. Roma 1994, 121125, 514516; L. MANDRUZZATOC. TIUSSIV. DEGRASSI: Appunti sull instrumentum d importazione greca ed orientale ad Aquileia. RCRF 36 (2000) 361, 363. 67 F. SCOTTI-MASELLI: Terra sigillata aretina e nord-italica del Museo di Cividale. AqN 48 (1977) 88, no.22; SCOTTI-MASELLI 1987, 218. 68 P. VENTURA 1987, 102104; CIPRIANOSANDRINI 2003, 446, fn.47. 69 J. STRAZZULA RUSCONI: Scavo di una villa rustica a Joannis (Udine). AqN 50 (1979) 42. 70 P. DONAT: Il materiale ceramica proveniente dei vecchi scavi. Prime considerazioni a proposito dei trafci commerciali lungo la valle del Bt. In: Iulium Carnicum. Centro alpino tra Italia e Norico
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dalla protostoria all et imperiale. Atti del Convegno Arta Terme, Cividale, 2930 settembre 1995. A cura di: G. BandinelliP. Fontana. Studi e ricerche sulla Gallia Cisalpina 13. Roma 2001, 385. 71 L. ZUCCOLO: Relazioni sullo scavo. AqN 54 (1983) 1516; CIPRIANOSANDRINI 2003, 416, fn.47. 72 P. MAGGI: Presenze romane nel territorio del Medio Friuli. 5. Teor. Tavagnacco. Udine 1998, 100101; CIPRIANOSANDRINI 2003, 416, note 47. 73 S. ZABEHLICKY SCHEFFENEGGERG. SCHNEIDER: Import stlicher Keramik auf dem Magdalensberg. Die Ausgrabungen auf dem Magdalensberg 1980 bis 1986. Magdalensberg Grabungsbericht 16. Klagenfurt 1998, 429451, Abb. 1, Abb. 17. 74 E. SCHINDLER KAUDELKA: Handel zwischen der Stadt auf dem Magdalensberg und Sdgallien? In: H. VettersG. Piccottini: Die Ausgrabungen auf dem Magdalensberg 1975 bis 1979. Magdalensberg Grabungsberichte 15. Klagenfurt 1986, 339344. 75 SCOTTI MASELLI 1988, 288. 76 CIPRIANO-SANDRINI 2003, 432. 77 G. SANDRINI: Le sigillate orientali di Altino. In: Produzioni, merci e commerci in Altino preromano e romano. Atti del Convegno, Venezia 12. dic. 2001. A cura di: G. Cresci MarroniM. Tirelli. Studi e ricerche sulla Gallia Cisalpina 15. Roma 2003, 229. 78 PETRU 1972, Taf. L; I. MIKL-CURK: Terra sigillata in sorodne vrste keramika iz Poetovija (Terra sigillata und hnliche Keramikgattungen aus Poetovio). Dissertationes 9. Ljubljana 1969, 57; SCOTTI-MASELLI 1984, 68. 79 E. BUCHI: Lucerne del Museo di Aquileia I. Lucerne romane con marchio di fabbrica. Aquileia 1975, 123124.
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Fig. 3. Distribution of Eastern sigillata B II in the Northern Adriatic Region in the Danubian Provinces (after MAGGI 2006)

Aelius Caesar in Klein-Warasdorf in Pannonia80 and the coins of Faustina minor and Julia Domna in Aquincum and Arrabona.81 In Dacia, it can also be found in nd complex dated by coins from the 3rd century, these, however, can be attributed to a later potter who borrowed the rma mark.82 A similar Eastern Sigillata cup was found together with Aegean kitchen wares and amphorae from Rhodes in Celeia on the Amber Route. These nds were uncovered in a house in the eastern end of the town during an excavation in 2005/2006.83 Stamped Eastern Sigillata could also get to Sirmium, maybe on the trading route along the Szva. There could be a suburban settlement standing in the place of the late Roman villa already in the 1st century. A fragment published as a terra sigillata chiara matches the chronological context of this settlement.84 It is also noteworthy that the Sigillata imitations identied in the

80 F. MILTNER: Die Lampen von Eisenstadt. JAI 24 (1929) Beibl. 14 81 D. IVNYI: Die pannonischen Lampen. Eine typologischchronologische bersicht. DissPann II:2. Budapest 1935, 17 18. 82 BUCHI 1975, 123124 83 K. JURE: Eastern import in Noricum. Case study: municipium Claudium Celeia. The 25th Congress of RCRF, Durrs, 24. Sept.1. Oct. 2006. Abstracts 15.

84 M. PAROVI-PEIKAN: Excavations of a late Roman villa at Sirmium. Sirmium 2 (1971) pl. XX.8 -a pl. XX.2 if it is not a Northern Italian ware. In the former case, the description of the raw material supports the eastern origin from Tralles large number of mica particles see p. 54.

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nd material of Burgenae at Sirmium show forms that can be traced back to Eastern Sigillata wares.85 The Eastern Sigillata wares that sporadically appear on the territory of NoricumPannonia are probably randomly transported items and they cannot be regarded as the evidences of a regular trade contact with the Aegean. One of the possible routes by which the Eastern Sigillata ware got to Aquincum leads from Aquileia to the capital of Pannonia inferior. This is supported by the occurrences of the ware in Emona and Celeia, although still a signicant distance separates the isolated town on the Danube from Celeia according to the distribution map. Nevertheless, no other route seems probable since Eastern Sigillata wares are relatively rarely found in Thrace either apart from the port-towns on the Black Sea,86 even though A, B and C wares equally got in the region.87 Here, a signicant red-slip ware replaced their import.88 Eastern Sigillata sporadically appear in Moesia inferior as well; this ceramic is mainly recorded from Novae.89 However, the distance of Aquincum from Novae is even larger than from sites on the Amber route not to mention that the natural settings of the Iron Gate stretch of the Danube would have impeded transportation on ships. Another noteworthy phenomenon is the occurrence of this ware in the Barbaricum. An Eastern Sigillata B ware appeared on the Vistula near Krakw: it could be taken there from a Black Sea port.90 The Eastern Sigillata B of Form Hayes 75 found in Aquincum is slightly different from the Tralles products in its qualitative traits; it is especially different from the ceramics of Asia Minor in its granularity. Various types are known from Sigillata B 2 wares as well, so scientic analyses are necessary to determine which type the Pannonian item matches. If the cup was not made in Tralles, it would be very difcult to identify the place of production. According to the high quality of the Aquincum Sigillata, it could certainly not be made in a local or even a Pannonian workshop. (It is enough to compare it with the products of the Pacatus workshop, which started its production only a few decades later.) The Sigillata wares made in Asia Minor we imitated in the Balkan as well; excellent imitations were made e.g. in the so-called Stobi workshop.91 These products, however, were distributed in only a small area; toward Scupi in the north, toward Thessalonika and Philippi in the south, and toward Philippopolis in the east.92 From Stobi, it could only have been transported to Pannonia on land, which would have signicantly increased the price of the wares, and no representative of these ceramics has been found at the possible intermediate stations.93 We would face similar difculties if we considered the workshops of the Pontic Sigillata, where similar forms also occur.94 These wares, however, were distributed nearly exclusively in the Black Sea region, apart from a few exceptions, which are port-towns (Athens, Corinth).95

85 O. BRUKNER: Rimska keramika u jugoslovenskom delu provincije Donje Panonije (Roman Ceramic Ware in the Yugoslav Part of the Province of Lower Pannonia). Dissertationes et monographiae 24. Beograd 1981, pl. 74, 72. 86 D. BOUNEGRU: Kleinasiatische und stliche keramische Importfunde aus Histria und Tomis (13. Jh.n.Chr.). Mnsterische Beitrge zur antiken Handelsgeschichte 12:2 (1993) 3352. 87 L. BOTOUCHAROVA: Du noveaux faits de Philippopolis lepoque romaine. Ann.Mus.Nat.Arch. Plovdiv 2 (1954/55 [1956]) 3540; G. KABAKIEVA: Einsse der stlichen Sigillaten auf die Keramikherstellung in der Provinz Thrakien (1.4. Jh. n. Chr.). RCRF 36 (2000) 313. 88 G. KABAKIEVA: Ostrmische Rotrniskeramik und ihre hellenistische Traditionen (nach Materialien aus Bulgarien). RCRF 2526 (1987) 487; Eadem: Einsse der stlichen Sigillaten auf die Keramikherstellung in der Provinz Thrakien (1.4. Jh. n.Chr.). RCRF 36 (2000) 314316. 89 K. DOMALSKI: Terra sigillata z komendatury w Nove [Terra sigillata from the headquarter of Novae]. Novensia 11 (1998) 127130. 90 Idem: Terra sigillata bowl from rich cremation burial from Giebutw near Cracow. MatArch 30 (1997) 103107; H. DOBRZASKA: Early Roman pottery from the Northern Pontic area and Asia Minor found in Poland. Hellenistic traditions and Roman design. RCRF 36 (2000) 339340.

91 J. WISEMAND. MANO-ZISSI: Excavations at Stobi 1972. AJA 77 (1973) 392; V. R. ANDERSON-STOJANOVI: Implications of Pottery at Stobi. Studies in the Antiquities of Stobi III. Skopje 1981, 48; Eadem: The Hellenistic and Roman Pottery. Results of the joint AmericanYugoslav archaeological investigations 19701980. Princeton, NJ 1992. 92 Eadem: Macedonian terra sigillata grise from Stobi: a new typology for the ware. Studien zur rmischen Keramik. Vortrge des 13. Int. Kongress der RCRF in Mnchen. Kallmnz/Opf 1984, 109; Eadem: Italy and Macedonia in the 2nd and 1st centuries BC. The ceramic evidence. RCRF 2526 (1987) 387, 394. 93 It has not been found in Singidunum D. BOJOVI: Rimska keramika Singidunuma. Zbirke i legati Muzeja Grada Beograda, Kat. VIII (Die rmische Keramik von Singidunum. Sammlungen und Legate). Beograd 1977; and its region L. BJELAJAC: Terra sigillata u Gornjoj Meziji (Terra sigillata in Upper Moesia Import and Viminacium-Margum workshops). Arh.Inst.Beograd 23. Beograd 1990; Ulpiana S. FIDANOWSKI: Roman Pottery of Ulpiana. Center for Archaeological Research 10. Beograd 1990. 94 D. ZHURAVLEV: Terra sigillata and red slip pottery from Late Scythian necropolises of South-Western Crimea (1st3rd centuries AD). RCRF 36 (2000) 159, g. 8,5. 95 HAYES 1985, 93.

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Fig. 4. Type of eastern Mediterranean amphores in Aquincum

Eastern Sigillata B 2 is a unique nd in Aquincum yet it was not an item brought here as somebodys personal asset nor was it an incidentally appearing item. Other products, rst of all wine, arrived in Pannonia from the Aegean as it can be proved from the amphorae made in Rhodes, Kos or Knidos.96 An amphora from Rhodes, made approximately at the same time as Eastern Sigillata B 2, was found in Aquincum as well.97 The occurrences of the Aegean amphorae can be found rst of all along the Amber Route and Sirmium could be another important buyers market. Thus their dispersion is due to the same trading routes along which Eastern Sigillata wares appeared even though only sporadically.

96 T. BEZECZKY: Aegean amphorae in Pannonia. FolArch 43 (1994) 115125; Idem: Knidische Amphoren in den nrdlichen Provinzen des rmischen Reiches. Carinthia 183 (1993) 237244.

97 M. KELEMEN: Roman amphorae in Pannonia II. ActaArchHung 40 (1988) 124.

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The revision of the materials of former and recent excavations in Pannonia has identied a growing number of amphora types produced in the Eastern Mediterranean provinces. Since T. Bezeczkys summaries of the topic published in 1994,98 most of the new data on eastern amphorae in Pannonia have been reported from sites along the ripa Pannonica. About 21 % of the Pannonian amphora material is composed of amphora types produced dominantly in the Aegean and in a smaller proportion in Palestine, Cyprus and the southern coast of Asia Minor. In Aquincum, one third of the registered amphora material came from Eastern Mediterranean workshops. Regarding the topographic distribution in the capital of the province, 13 % of the Eastern Mediterranean amphorae were unearthed in the civil town and 87 % in the legionary fortress and in the canabae. At the present state of research, the fragments of 12 types can be found in Aquincum (Fig. 4), which were imported in two major periods, which cannot sharply be separated.
Amphora types AQUINCUM / BUDAPEST Dressel 24/Kos Rhodian Pompeii 38 Camulodunum 189 2nd period Agora M126 Kapitn II Kapitn II similis Zeest 90/Dressel 24 Grace 13 Kelemen 20 Kingsholm 117 (?) LR 4 Civil town 1st period Legionary fortress and canabae

1st period In the 1st horizon (1st century middle of the 2nd century AD), most of the eastern types appeared in Carnuntum and Vindobona: at the virtual crossing of the Amber Route and the ripa Pannonica. More than average types could be identied in Aquincum. Along the limes, the rst amphora nds can be dated from the Claudian period, although their number is very low. Amphora trading in larger volumes started in case of Pannonia in the Domitian period. The Dressel 24/Kos type99 was basically one of the most common ones in the Roman Empire. The Hellenistic Koan amphora type can be regarded as its antecedent.100 Numerous variants and workshops of the type are known from Baetica to the Black Sea.101 In our province, this nd was characteristic of the second half of the 1st century.102 Amphora fragments of Dressels type 24 from the Aegean are known from regions close to Pannonia: from Istria and Italy.103 Finds of Dressels 24 type have also been discovered in Roman shipwrecks in the Adriatic
BEZECZKY 1994a, BEZECZKY 1994b. Aquincum: BTM 91.6.370., BTM 98.36.2245., BTM 98.36.2218., BTM 61.20.1383., BTM 48916. 100 EMPEREURPICON 1989, 224225.
98 99 101 BEZECZKY 2005, 36; production in the Black Sea region: YU. VNUKOV 2004, 407411; Hispanian variant: FREED 2000. 102 BEZECZKY 1994a, 122. 103 Loron: MARIONSTARAC 2001, 119; Urvinum Hortense: DONNINI 2006, 8788.

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Sea, which often contain items that were certainly produced in the Aegean.104 The analysis of the composition of the load dates these nds from the period between the 1st century and the second half of the 2nd century AD. The most frequent eastern type of this period is the Rhodian amphora.105 It can certainly be found in Pannonia from the middle of the 1st century AD until the rst third or the middle of the 2nd century AD.106 Its production started in the 1st century BC,107 and appeared in contexts dated as late as the rst half of the 3rd century AD.108 It is important to mention because of the Pannonian nds and the trading routes that this type can be found in the loads of great many Roman shipwrecks in the Adriatic Sea.109 It was produced on the island of Rhodes, on smaller islands around it and as well in Asia Minor.110 D. P. S. Peacock differentiated 5 fabrics on the territory that belonged to Rhodes, in a relatively small area (Rhodes, 7 smaller islands and the Loryma peninsula).111 Two of them can be linked with Rhodes itself. A special fabric was certainly prepared outside this territory, perhaps in Caria.112 They could primarily be made for wine transportation passum Rhodium as a few dipinti attest to it.113 It cannot be excluded, nevertheless, that in a few cases they were used for the wrapping of certain fruit products.114 The Pompeii 38 type115 is produced on the island of Knidos and the Datcha peninsula for wine transpor116 tation. It was produced during a very long period: from the 3rd century BC until the 3rd century AD. The shape was naturally modied during this long production period: it became smaller than the early Hellenistic items and its content also decreased.117 It was popular rst of all in the eastern part of the Roman Empire,118 although a few western provenances are also known.119 It can be found in the Black Sea region, Dacia, Pannonia,120 Britannia, Gaul,121 Italy,122 Cyrene and Palestine.123 We have to note that this type can be found in the loads of several Roman shipwrecks in the Adriatic Sea as well.124 In Pannonia, it was identied mostly in contexts dated from the 2nd century AD.125 The contexts of the recently registered Aquincum fragments support this dating. Along the limes, the majority of the amphorae prepared on the Datcha peninsula can be dated from the rst third of the 2nd century.126 The only fragment that cannot be t into the series was found in Carnuntum in a context dated from the end of the 2nd century 3rd century AD, and its fabric also seems to be different from the rest of the fragments.127 The amphorae of Camulodunum 189 type128 probably served for the transportation of fruit products (e.g. dates and gs).129 They must have been produced in several workshops, which were identied by recent investi-

104 JURII 2000, no.19; no.20; no.45; no.47; no.53; no.56; no.70; no.75; no.90. 105 Aquincum: BTM 54.5.30., BTM 55.8.43., BTM 55.8.85., 56.1.214., BTM 56.1.221., BTM 56.201.18., BTM 57.2.123., BTM 66.8.358., BTM 75.6.222., BTM 75.9.796., BTM 76.7.276., BTM 80.1.18., BTM 83.3.404., BTM 83.3.584., BTM 85.4.218., BTM 89.7.59., BTM 93.12.141., BTM 98.36.359., BTM 98.36.2038., BTM 98.36.2151., BTM 98.36.2167., BTM 98.36.2170., BTM 98.36.2432., BTM 98.36.2848., BTM 98.36.3292., BTM 2003.1.4886., BTM 2003.15.3282., BTM 19672., BTM 23876., BTM 49846. 106 BEZECZKY 2005, 41. 107 PEACOCKWILLIAMS 1986, 103. 108 VILVORDER et alii 2000, 478. 109 JURII 2000, no.1, no.38, no.45, no.54, no.56, no.67, no.79. 110 PEACOCK 1977, 266269; EMPEREURPICON 1989, 224225. 111 EMPEREURPICON 1989, 224225. 112 PEACOCK 1977, 266269. Analysis of fabric 6. 113 DYCZEK 2001, 135, BEZECZKY 2005, 41. 114 An amphora of this type in the load of ship Dramont D contained g remains: JONCHERAY 1974, 3133. 115 Aquincum: BTM 56.107.1., BTM 62.6.41., BTM 62.9.25., BTM 78.8.132., 9.17 Bokor Street, no.12. 116 EMPEREURPICON 1986, 116118, BEZECZKY 1994a, 117/15.

GRACE 1979, g 64. MAJCHEREK 2007, 14. 119 BEZECZKY 2005, 43. 120 BEZECZKY 1994a, 117. 121 LEBLANCDESBAT 1992, g.15.1. a nd from Saint-Romainen-Gal dated from the end of the 2nd century beginning of the 3rd century AD, which further broadens the chronological range. 122 PANELLA 1986, 621. 123 RILEY 1979, 128. 124 JURII 2000, no.45, no.56. Shipwreck from Grado: AURIEMMA 2000, 38. 125 BEZECZKY 2005, 4243. 126 Vindobona: BEZECZKY 2005, 43, three fragments were found in the canabae of Aquincum in contexts dated from the 2nd century AD. 127 BEZECZKY 1994a, 117. 128 Aquincum: BTM 56925., BTM 54.1.1560., BTM 63.2.138., BTM 75.6.221., BTM 78.5.963., BTM 80.5.25., BTM 98.36.3861., BTM 98.36.3287., BTM 2003.1.5321., BTM 2003.1.6168., BTM 2003.1.7677. 129 CARRERAS-MONFORTWILLIAMS 2002, 141, REYNOLDS 2005, 571.
117 118

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gations.130 They appeared as early as the very end of the 1st century BC in Germany.131 However, the type was not an exclusively early form: items were found in Knossos (Crete), in contexts dated from the 2nd century AD,132 in Moesia from the end of the 2nd century 3rd century,133 and in Gaul from the beginning and the middle of the 3rd century AD.134 They are known in large numbers especially in the western and northern provinces of the Roman Empire.135 They relatively rarely occur among the amphorae in Pannonia.136 In our province, they can be dated mostly from the end of the 1st century to the 2nd century AD.137 2nd period According to the actual results of research, Aquincum must be the site that is the richest in types in this period (2nd century beginning of the 4th century AD). Aquincum as the capital of the province naturally occupied an important economic and commercial position, and from certain aspects it shows more than we can observe at other sites of the province. Until the period preceding the Marcomannic wars, it shows the same picture as the materials of a few less signicant sites. The importation of amphorae actually started in the second quarter of the 2nd century AD when the urbanisation process had already stabilised in the settlement. By that time, the administration of the capital of the province had been standardised and the economy and the leading class followed a certain kind of a tradition. The situation was ripe, the market met more than the average needs; it could cope with demands for variety. The economic background, the regular pay in the army and the prot of the traders coincided at the limes in this period. In the 2nd horizon, the Kapitn II138 wine amphora represented the most characteristic type produced in the eastern workshops. This was the most frequent type in Pannonia regarding both its quantity and distribution.139 Its production probably started in workshops of Asia Minor in the second half or at the end of the 2nd century AD,140 and according to its shape, it could be best used for the transportation of wine.141 It could be found in the 4th century AD,142 and it was perhaps still produced at the beginning of the 5th century.143 It was very popular, especially on the eastern and southern territories of the Roman Empire and in the Black Sea region.144 It arrived in Pannonia mostly in the Severian period after the Marcomannic wars.145 A body fragment from Aquincum with a dipinto in red paint- COI can probably be grouped in this type. Neither painted inscriptions nor stamps have so far been found on this amphora type.146 Regrettably, no realistic completion can be suggested in lack of analogues and because of the shortness of the inscription.

130 The workshops are not known. Sudan (TOMLIN 1992), the Jordan valley (CARRERAS-MONFORTWILLIAMS 2002, 141) and Beyrouth can be suggestioned as the place of origin. This latter one has been proved by the analyses of the fabric: LEMATRE et alii 2005, 518. 131 LOESCHCKE 1942, T.85. 132 HAYES 1983, 158. 133 BJELAJAC 1996, 28. 134 VILVORDER et alii 2000, 480; LEMATRE et alii 2005, 518. 135 VIPARD 1995, 6873. 136 BEZECZKY 2005, 59; OANIC 2005, g.3.11, HRSHEGYI 2004, 113114. 137 BEZECZKY 2005, 60. 138 Aquincum: BTM 2000.9.239., BTM 2003.1.14326., BTM 2003.15.2697., BTM 2003.15.3311., BTM 2003.15.83., BTM 2003.8.258., BTM 2004.29.2., BTM 20914., BTM 33773., BTM 41501., BTM 53.5.122., BTM 53.5.130., BTM 54.1.745., BTM 54.12.93., BTM 54.14.2., BTM 54.14.270., BTM 55.7.511., BTM 55.7.623., BTM 56.186.23., BTM 56.201.19., BTM 62.10.162., BTM 62.10.183., BTM 62.10.205., BTM 62.10.205.b., BTM 62.10.42., BTM 62.13.175., BTM 62.13.295., BTM 62.13.299., BTM 62.13.301.,

BTM 62.13.304., BTM 62.13.311., BTM 62.13.52., BTM 62.13.523., BTM 62.13.659., BTM 62.13.784., BTM 62.13.900., BTM 62.13.990., BTM 62.14.364., BTM 62.14.484., BTM 63.2.428., BTM 63.2.431., BTM 63.2.48., BTM 63.2.491., BTM 65.3.35., BTM 66.8.475., BTM 66542.66543., BTM 67.2.100., BTM 67.2.123., BTM 67.2.126., BTM 69.1.1347., BTM 70.1.95., BTM 78.19.7., BTM 78.5.531., BTM 87.5.43.a.b., BTM, BTM 94.6.3376., BTM 95.7.12915., BTM 95.7.3965., BTM 98.36.1005., BTM 98.36.107., BTM 98.36.1334., BTM 98.36.1409., BTM 98.36.1582., BTM 98.36.1905., BTM 98.36.1927., BTM 98.36.1934., BTM 98.36.1974., BTM 98.36.3284., BTM 98.36.3331., BTM 98.36.3422., BTM 98.36.3622., BTM 98.36.507., BTM 98.36.558., BTM 98.36.771., BTM 98.36.826., BTM 98.36.841., BTM 99.13.2956., MNM 118.886.25. 139 BEZECZKY 2005,44, HRSHEGYI 2004, 116. 140 BEZECZKY 2005, 45. 141 PANELLA 1986, 599. 142 BEZECZKY 2005, 44. 143 ROBINSON 1959, 111. 144 MAJCHEREK 2007, 1618, Dacia: NEGRU et alii 2003. 145 BEZECZKY 2005, 44. 146 DYCZEK 2001, 143.
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The places of production of type Kapitn II similis are not yet known.147 Based on the morphological similarity with the Kapitn II type, it has been regarded to be contemporary with it,148 which means that it has been dated from the the end of the 2nd century to the 4th century AD. They can be variants of the same type prepared in different workshops. The rst typological description has been published recently.149 It was a more widely distributed form regarding its fabric.150 The contexts of the items recovered in Aquincum support the above dating,151 while the items found in the Amphorenlager in Olympia extend the chronological range until the end of the 4th century AD.152 We do not know where its workshops can be found. The analyses of the raw fabric so far suggested the valley of Meander.153 An increasing number of fragments has been grouped to the Zeest 90/Dressel 24 type.154 The form produced on the western coast of Asia Minor (in Erythrai?) is characteristically known from the northern territories of the province.155 Opai has distinguished two variants by the fabric of the amphora.156 Both variants can be found among the nds in Aquincum in identical contexts. According to the nds, its main distribution area included the middle and the lower reaches of the Danube, the eastern part of the Roman Empire,157 although a few items are also known from Italy.158 In Pannonia it appeared in the Hadrian period, the middle of the 2nd century AD,159 similarly to the neighbouring Dacia.160 It is noteworthy that this type has recently been identied in growing numbers in the settlements of the Sarmatian Barbaricum.161 The load of a shipwreck found in the Danube (Batin) in 1973 contained mostly amphorae of Zeest 90 type.162 There are many theories about the goods transported in it: Greek wine and oil (OLEVM) according to a dipinto found in Romula. On a more recent nd, the dipinto (A) indicated some kind of salted oyster prepared with garum.163 Here we have to mention a body fragment from Aquincum, on which a post cocturam grafto can be seen:164 COH I f C XVI C. Its suggested reading is: Cohors I Flavia Canathenorum XVI congii(?). This phenomenon is not really unique: a grafto that can be linked with the army was also found on an amphora fragment of the same type in Capaclia. The inscription mentions Auf(idius) Ph(e) b(u)s c(enturio) co(hortis).165 The analogue of the EHBOY stamp found among the Aquincum nds, which can be dated from between the middle of the 2nd century AD and the middle of the 3rd century AD,166 is known from Sucidava.167 Another amphora, which is more and more frequently described in Pannonia, belongs to the one-handled forms. Most of the nds that were earlier grouped here are identical to the Agora M 126 type.168 We do not know what was transported in them, but the small size suggests that they were used for wine storing. Due to their measurements and shapes, they could later be suitable for example for water hauling.169 This group of amphorae was produced from the 1st century BC until the 4th century AD. They were especially common in the Eastern Mediterranean

147 Aquincum: BTM 51744., BTM 55.21.443., BTM 56.197.3., BTM 61.20.370., BTM 62.13.445., BTM 62.13.490., BTM 98.36.3412., BTM 98.36.2333., KELEMEN 1990., g. 6.4. 148 MARTIN 2000, 430. 149 MARTIN 2000, 430. 150 Olympia: MARTIN 2000, 430; Athn: BTTGER 1992, 342344; Haifa: ZEMER 1978, 70. n.57. 151 KELEMEN 1990, 183. 152 MARTIN 2000, 430. 153 BEZECZKY 2005, 45. 154 Aquincum: BTM 2003.15.3252., BTM 2003.15.804., BTM 23147., BTM 54.1.28., BTM 54.14.1., BTM 54.18.137., BTM 55.13.146., BTM 55.21.186., BTM 55.21.308., BTM 55.21.425., BTM 57.1.368., BTM 66.8.349., BTM 67108., BTM 71.2.377., BTM 76.5.219., BTM 82.1.290., BTM 82.4.56., BTM 83.3.449., BTM 83.3.520., BTM 93.12.984., BTM 93.12.990., BTM 95.7.38323833., BTM 95.7.9990. 155 HRSHEGYI 2004, 116117. 156 OPAI 1980, 296. 157 DYCZEK 2001, 183184. 158 PANELLA 1986, 624625, AURIEMMAQUIRI 2004, 4950, BELOTTI 2004, 7479.

HRSHEGYI 2004, 116118. BENEA 2000, 437. 161 K. SSKUTIG. WILHELM: Pontus-vidki amphork az alfldi szarmata barbarikumban [Roman amphorae of Pontic origin from the Sarmatian barbaricum]. Lecture on the 1st conference of Young Archaeologists of the Roman Period, Gyr, 810 March, 2006. 162 Batin shipwreck: DYCZEK 2001, 303304. 163 DYCZEK 2001, 192. 164 HRSHEGYIVMOS 2007. 165 DYCZEK 2001, 335. 166 KELEMEN 1993, 47. 167 POPILIAN 1974, 140. 168 Aquincum: BTM 19390., BTM 2003.1.128., BTM 55.11.6., BTM 62.13.215., BTM 62.13.482., BTM 62.13.54., BTM 62.13.697., BTM 62.13.855., BTM 62.13.858., BTM 62.13.859., BTM 62.13.863., BTM 62.13.864., BTM 62.13.869., BTM 66.8.285., BTM 78.1.11., BTM 78.21.32., BTM 81.1.73., BTM 86.8.409., BTM 98.36.2099., BTM 98.36.61. 169 They were found in a number of wells in the Agora of Athens: LANG 1955, 277.
159 160

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and the Black Sea region,170 although they occurred in Italy as well.171 The nds from Pannonia can mostly be dated from the end of the 2nd century and the rst half of the 3rd century AD. They were especially frequently found in the area between the Governors Palace and the Hercules villa in Aquincum. The so called Kelemen 20 type is known only from Aquincum.172 Neither exact analogues, nor the goods transported in it are known. Their fabric is very similar to that of the amphora of the Kapitn II type, so we suppose that it was also prepared in the Eastern Mediterranean. A dipinto in red paint can be seen on the neck of an amphora: it reads LEC No other dipinto fragments found with this item have been discussed before, and, regrettably, they cannot be reconstructed. Perhaps a letter L, a letter E and perhaps a letter I (?) can separately be distinguished. There is another aspect of these fragments that has not yet been discussed: a grafto was posteriorly engraved over the last letter C of the LEC inscription: it was perhaps TIMANK or TIANK (?) in ligature, but its meaning has not yet been solved. A fragment that certainly belongs to an early LR4 type173 was identied during the revision of the older nds. A number of amphorae dated from the 2nd3rd centuries were also recovered in the same context. Here we have to deal with the fragments that can provisionally be afliated with the Kingsholm 117 type(?).174 This form was produced in Palestine.175 The context dates them from the end of the 2nd century and the beginning of the 3rd century AD. Generally they are described as wine storage vessels although they contained date remains in several shipwreck nds.176 According to the nds, they were present in commercial circulation from the 1st half of the 1st century AD until the middle of the 3rd century AD. They occur in relatively small quantities on the territory of the Roman Empire even at distant sites.177 A type that has not yet been identied in Pannonia also has to be mentioned: it is type Grace 13 (Pamphylia).178 According to the nd-material of the same context uncovered in Aquincum, it can be dated from the period between the end of the 2nd century and the beginning of the 3rd century AD. They were probably made for olive oil transportation , and the classical sources support the same.179 Up to now, it was known only from sites in the Eastern Mediterranean,180 and a fragment was registered in Dacia.181


The local imitations of the discussed form appeared in diverse qualities and in relatively large numbers in several parts of the Military Town of Aquincum. Three main production technologies can be observed: One of these methods prepared vessels from nely levigated clay hard baked to a red colour (10R 5/8 or 2,5YR 5/8). Their surfaces were coated with high quality loosely diluted clay and which were polished and turned until shiny surfaces were reached. Cups made with this technology were found in the early layer of a dwelling house in the Military Town182 and in a cremation burial of the western cemetery of the canabae (Bcsi Road) where plates of inverted and everted rims prepared with the same technology were also found in a service composition.183

MAJCHEREK 2007, 1516. PANELLA 1986, 622, VENTURADEGRASSI 2005, 9798. 172 KELEMEN 1990, g. 5.4. 173 BTM 82.2.7. 174 BTM 98.36.459., BTM 98.36.2951. 175 On the analysis of fabric samples: LEMATRE et alii 2005, 521. 176 La Tradelire: POLLINO 1986, 188., Dramont D: JONCHERAY 1973. 177 Lyon (beginning of the 1st century AD): DESBATPICON 1986, Fig. 2.10., idem. (rst half of the 3rd century AD): LEMATRE 2000, 470., Colchester and London: VILVORDER et alii 2000, 481, FITZPATRICK 2003, 20., Rome: RIZZO 2003, 1545. Neronian-period., 171. Flavian period., 183. Antonine period., Augst: MARTIN-KILCHER 1994, 436.
170 171

BTM 78.5.934./954./956./957. LAUBE 2003, 132. 180 RAUH et alii 2000, 169., MAJCHEREK 2007, 2425. 181 POPILIAN 1974, pl. 2.11. 182 PCZY 1955, 47, g. 18. 183 The material of the excavation has not been published. Short summary: A. FACSDY: Budapest, III. ker., Bcsi t 96/b. (Hrsz.: 14723/, 14721/2) In: Aquincum: A BTM Aquincumi Mzeumnak satsai s leletmentsei 2004-ben Excavations and Rescue Work at the Aquincum Museum in 2004. Ed. by P. Zsidi. Aquincumi fzetek 11. Budapest 2005, 213214. I owe my thanks to A. Facsdy for allowing me to study and publish this material.
178 179

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Fig. 5. The sites of local limitations of Eastern sigillata B Forms Hayes 75, 62 A, 63 and 59/60 from the Military Town of Aquincum

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Another important site is the lot next to the Kiscelli Street pottery workshop184 uncovered by L. Nagy, where a large amount of levelled pottery debris was unearthed.185 This form appeared in this material as well together with the above-mentioned thin-walled plates of inverted and everted rims. This latter site proves that this form was produced in this workshop of the Military Town. At the other production technology, the surfaces of the more porous, reddish yellow (generally 5YR 6/6 or 5YR 7/7) cups made of a softer material than the above ones, were coated with a yellowish red reddish yellow (5YR 5/8 5YR 6/8) slip (sometimes of a metallic appearance). In this latter case, the quality had a much wider range: from harder baked items with slightly thicker slips and surfaces that were soapy to the touch until the much softer ones with matt and strongly worn surfaces. The vessels of this group appeared in two graves of the western cemetery of the canabae,186 and also in the northern cemetery,187 and at several points of the Military Town (Fig. 6).188 At the third production technology, the vessel could be made in a Pannonian grey version as well, that is with a shiny dark grey slip. Such cups are also known from the Bcsi Street cemetery.189 From the above sites, the region of the Kiscelli pottery workshop is worth discussing. Very high quality fragments were recovered here in a larger number: not only the discussed cup form but also plates of inverted and everted rims. Their execution is conspicuously different from other products of the workshop, which might suggest that they were not local products since this ring quality cannot be reached at the so-called Kiscell clay, which was generally used in Aquincum.190 But as they were found in the pottery debris layer and a few were over-red and cracked fragments, they were certainly locally produced. So it seems possible that either a redder clay transported from a larger distance was used for this special quality instead of the local clay, or additives, e.g. a larger amount of iron oxide was mixed into the clay.191 Anyhow, in a certain period, it seems to have been important in this workshop of the Military Town that the above-mentioned forms appeared in this shape and quality. We think that the combined appearance of the form and the quality belongs among the problems of the legionary pottery. This conical cup shape, together with the above-mentioned plates of everted rims, is one of the most common vessel types in the above-mentioned circle of phenomena.192 This latter one can be found in a yellowish red reddish yellow quality of a softer fabric as well beside the above mentioned red fabric and polished surfaces. This quality was probably also produced in the Kiscelli Street workshop.193 Further items can be cited from other areas of the Military Town194 and its western cemetery.195

PCZY 1956, 78, note 40. The material is unpublished. Short summary: A. KIRCHHOF: Budapest III. ker., Kiscelli utca 75. In: Aquincum: A BTM Aquincumi Mzeumnak satsai s leletmentsei 2001-ben Excavations and Rescue Work at the Aquincum Museum in 2001. Ed. by P. Zsidi. Aquincumi fzetek 8. Budapest 2002, 144. I owe my thanks to A. Kirchhof for allowing me to study and publish this material. 186 TOPL 2003, 7980, Pl. 88=189, 21/6., Unpublished excavation. Short summary: P. VMOS: Budapest, III. ker., Bcsi t 66. (Hrsz.: 14379/1). In: Aquincum: A BTM Aquincumi Mzeumnak satsai s leletmentsei 2006-ban Excavations and Rescue Work at the Aquincum Museum in 2006. Ed. by P. Zsidi. Aquincumi fzetek 13. Budapest 2007, 262263. 187 P. Z SIDI : Grabmauerungen der Canabae von Aquincum. CommArchHung 1997, 138, Abb. 16, 7. 188 Lajos Street Nagyszombat Street: Unpublished Inv. no. 95.7.3078., Selmeci Street: HRSHEGYIVMOS 2007, g. 7, 22., Vihar Street: Unpublished Inv. no: 13884. 189 . BNIS: A Bcsi-ti korarmai temet agyagednyei (La cramique du cimetire de Bcsi t de lpoque romaine). AntHung 1. Budapest 1947, Plate I,2. (New publication of the same: TOPL 2003, 100, Pl. 215, 69/3)., TOPL 2003, 27, Pl. 29=137, 61/3.
184 185

190 The colour of the Kiscell clay red in an oxidising environment is generally light red (2,5YR 6/6, 10R 7/6), reddish yellow (5YR 6/6 7/6, 7,5YR 7/6 7/8) or light reddish brown (2,5YR 7/4). 191 Samples were taken from the discussed bowl of Hayes Form 75 suggesting an eastern origin and from a few locally produced fragments. The analyses and the evaluation have not yet been nished. The results will be published in a later paper. 192 ETTLINGER 1951, 109, Fig. 12., GREENE 1977, Fig. 8.2., GASSNERJILEKSAUER 1997, 215, Abb. 37/2., B. LIESEN: Legionsware aus Xanten. In: Rmische Keramik. Herstellung und Handel. Xantener Berichte 13. Xanten 2003, 117127. Abb. 3,3, Abb. 69. 193 PCZY 1956, Abb. 2,6, Abb. 3,10. 194 Selmeci Street: HRSHEGYIVMOS 2007, g. 7, 23., Laktanya Street 35: M. KABA: Tbori kenyrst kemence Aquincumbl [Bakers oven in Aquincum Military Town]. BudRg 17 (1956) g. 10, 5. 195 TOPL 2003, 10, Pl.7=123, 17/2 mistakenly identied as a Samian ware., T. HABLE: Msodik szzadi srok a katonavros nyugati temetjbl [Second century graves from the Western cemetery of the Military Town]. In: Aquincum: A BTM Aquincumi Mzeumnak satsai s leletmentsei 2003-ban Excavations and Rescue Work at the Aquincum Museum in 2003. Ed. by P. Zsidi. Aquincumi fzetek 10. Budapest 2004, 18, g. 3, a.18, g. 3, a.

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Fig. 6. Local imitations of Eastern sigillata B Forms Hayes 75, 62 A, 63 and 59/60 in the Military Town of Aquincum. 1: 10 Kiscelli Street., 2: 96/b Bcsi Road., 3: 75 Kiscelli Street., 4: 25 Kecske Street., 5: 66 Bcsi Road., 6: 1 Ladik Street., 7: Lajos StreetNagyszombat Street., 8: Selmeci Street., 9: Vihar Street., 10: 8082 Bcsi Road., 11: Bcsi RoadPernyi Street., 12: 35 Laktanya Street., 13: 70 Bcsi Road

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The indicators of the evolution of legionary pottery have not yet been fully claried in the archaeological literature. Instead of the exclusive acceptance or rejection of various theories movements of the troops,196 the employment of potter slaves from Asia Minor in the legion197 multi-aspectual and often very complex explanations have lately been composed, which stress the consideration of local circumstances. Accordingly, the ceramic style, which had developed in Germania Superior on an Italian inuence, was spread by troops deployed in Pannonia, Moesia, Dacia and Britannia at the end of the 1st century and the beginning of the 2nd century. These troops continued production in their new stations and exercised inuence on local pottery, which adopted and further developed these ceramics after a certain time.198 Although the above-mentioned debris layer did not contain Samian wares or coins that would have afforded a more exact dating, the chronological denitions regarding the operation of the Kiscelli Street pottery workshop199 and the fact that one of the vessels occurred in the earliest layer of the canabae200 prove that it was the by-product of the early phase of the workshop. In this case, these items that attest to a very high technical skill (often reaching the quality of a Samian ware) suggest that the potters who produced the forms in this quality were not local masters: they arrived together with the army (most probably at the arrival of legio II adiutrix in 89201). It often cannot evidently be decided if they came from Asia Minor or Italy. It is, however, noteworthy, that while Hayes Form 75 was the antecedent of the cups, the plates probably imitated Hayes Forms 62A and 63 of the Eastern Sigillata B 2 group (Fig. 5).202 Furthermore, it seems possible regarding these morphological antecedents that the plates of slightly or somewhat more strongly inverted rims prepared in a very high quality followed the tradition of Hayes Forms 59 and 60 of similar shapes, which can also be found in the form range of the group.203 The combined appearance of the quality and the shape suggest that in this case, the potters who initially worked in the canabae of Aquincum had really learned the trade on an eastern territory. So it can really be supposed in certain cases that potters from the East or potter slaves served in the workshops that supplied the legion with ceramics on the new territories.204 The question naturally rises: if well trained potters (capable of imitating Eastern Sigillata in the same shape and quality) really worked here, did the above-discussed cup of Hayes Form 75 really came from the East? Hopefully, this question will be answered by further investigations (including the analyses of the fabric).

ABBREVIATION BTM [BHM] = Budapesti Trtneti Mzeum [Budapest History Museum]

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