Sie sind auf Seite 1von 106

500 Drainage

Abstract
This section contains information on drainage for typical Company facilities. It includes: Specific suggestions for facility layout A material selection spreadsheet Calculation methods and design examples for hydraulic analysis General guidelines for strength analysis A discussion of septic system layout and design Identification of model specification for construction

This section, however, does not cover drainage on offshore structures and is not intended to be a comprehensive text on drainage, hydraulics, or waste treatment.

Contents
510 511 512 513 514 520 521 522 523 524 525 530 531 532 533 Introduction Important Drainage Concepts Surface and Underground Drainage Regulations and Guidelines Sources of Liquids Surface Drainage General Design Considerations Tankfield Drainage Process Area Drainage Drainage of Other Areas Ditches and Culverts Underground Drainage Layout and Design Considerations Segregated Drainage Systems Soil and Component Support Issues

Page
500-3

500-5

500-12

ChevronTexaco Energy Technology Co.

500-1

April 2004

500 Drainage

Civil and Structural Manual

534 535 536 537 538 539 540 541 542 543 544 545 546 550 551 552 553 554 555 560 561 562 570 571 572 573 574 575 576 577 578 580

Hydraulic Analysis and Design Drainage System Design Examples Strength Analysis and Design Component Design Considerations Septic Tanks and Leach Fields Material Considerations Drain System Repair and Retrofit Inspection/Detection for Existing Drains Joint/Localized Area Repairs Internal Sealing Systems External Repairs Complete Internal Relining Complete Replacement Containment and Leak Detection Introduction/Summary Double Pipe Systems Trough Containment Leakage Detection Systems Enhanced Detection Only Evaluation of Drainage Systems General Evaluation Recommended Procedure for New Drain Selection Miscellaneous Data Abbreviations, Acronyms, and Symbols Rainfall Data Model Specification Standard Drawings and Engineering Forms Standards and Codes Sources of Information Vendors and Contractors Flat Slab Protection Recommendations Library References 500-102 500-79 500-78 500-64 500-51

April 2004

500-2

ChevronTexaco Energy Technology Co.

Civil and Structural Manual

500 Drainage

510 Introduction
While drainage is an important factor in most civil design work, it takes on added importance for many Company projects. Safety and environmental issues involved in the handling, processing and storing of hydrocarbons and other chemicals require well-thought-out drainage systems. This section of the manual discusses basic drainage concepts, offers recommendations for different applications, and serves as a useful reference tool in organizing drainage design tasks. For design considerations for drainage systems related to fire protection, see the Fire Protection Manual, Section 1400. Please note that this section references a variety of documents which may not be locally available. If you need assistance in obtaining any of these references, contact the corporate library at CTN 242-4755.

511 Important Drainage Concepts


Drainage is an important part of both fire and environmental protection. Keep these concepts in mind during the layout and design phase of a project. A good drainage design will: Route flammable fluids away from ignition sources and into enclosed drains. It also isolates flammable vapors in drainage piping from ignition sources. Route burning liquids away from equipment that might rupture and add fuel to the flames. It also minimizes exposure of adjacent property. Get rid of rain water quickly and prevent flooding from outside sources. Reduce air emissions from evaporation of volatile fluids by capturing them in enclosed drains. Keep wastes out of soil, groundwater, and surface water. Segregate clean and contaminated water to minimize the amount of water that must be treated. Need little maintenance.

In todays regulatory and economic climate, leak-free drainage systems are almost always essential. An investment in a leak-free drainage system today minimizes cleanup costs tomorrow.

512 Surface and Underground Drainage


Surface drainage should route contaminated water and wastes into an underground drainage system. The underground system will take those liquids to a treatment facility (if necessary). Where there is no potential for contamination, liquids can drain into open basins or sumps for later release or treatment.

ChevronTexaco Energy Technology Co.

500-3

April 2004

500 Drainage

Civil and Structural Manual

In areas where large spills of hazardous material are possible, use surface drainage to route spills and firewater to open basins.

513 Regulations and Guidelines


You must follow all applicable government regulations including environmental regulations concerning drainage. One of your early priorities is to identify applicable regulations, required permits, and government agencies with jurisdiction over your work. Most facilities have a person who handles permitting. Depending on your location and scope of work, getting permits might be quite easy or very laborious. The extent of environmental protection required is closely tied to existing and anticipated government regulations, degree of environmental risk, and potential future liability. Where no regulations, ChevronTexaco guidelines, or industry guidelines exist, a risk analysis should be used to determine the proper level of protection. For septic systems, we recommend the standards established in the Uniform Plumbing Code (UPC), Reference [29].

514 Sources of Liquids


Some of the liquids your drainage system might collect are sanitary sewage, storm runoff, firewater, and process liquids. Sanitary Sewage is always handled in a segregated system. Storm Runoff often makes up a very high percentage of the flow rate a system must be designed for. It can be clean or oily depending on the area to be drained. Section 534 gives information on calculation of runoff flow rates. Firewater is a significant drainage design consideration for facilities that process or store highly flammable materials since firewater flow rates are quite large. Section 534 gives some rules-of-thumb for firewater flow rates. Process liquids are by-products of processing, transporting or storing hydrocarbons or other chemicals. They enter the drainage system as drips from pumps, drips washed off terminal aprons, pig launcher drainage, tank water draws, valve leaks, ship ballast, equipment wash water, distillation column water draws, cooling tower and boiler blowdown, and liquid from a host of other sources. Confirm with the process designers that they have minimized the volume of these liquids. Source control, minimizing flow rates, and recycling techniques help cut treatment, disposal, and drainage system costs. These liquids are: Acids Caustics Foul water containing malodorous or toxic gases such as hydrogen sulfide, ammonia, mercaptans Hydrocarbons

April 2004

500-4

ChevronTexaco Energy Technology Co.

Civil and Structural Manual

500 Drainage

Water containing dissolved or suspended solids Water contaminated with hydrocarbon liquid or gas

520 Surface Drainage


This section reviews general drainage philosophy and provides specific recommendations for layout and design of surface drainage for a variety of facilities.

521 General Design Considerations


Lay Out Your Facilities With Drainage Concepts In Mind. The Important Drainage Concepts given in Section 511 must be considered by the people who lay out the facility. Take Advantage of Local Topography. Your drainage system should take advantage of the local topography to keep site preparation and excavation costs down. In undeveloped areas, get local topographic maps from the USGS or hire a contractor to do some surveying for you. In developed areas, check with public works agencies or local Company engineers. Use Recommended Slopes in Walking or Working Areas. Paved areas should have slopes that range from 3/16 to 1/4 inch/foot (1.5-2%) Unpaved areas should slope about 1/8 inch/foot (1%) Absolute minimum and maximum slopes are 1/8 and 1/2 inch/foot (1-4%)

If the slope is less than 1%, deviations during construction or settlement will cause ponding. Steeply sloped, unpaved surfaces may erode quickly. Large differences in slopeand slopes more than 4%throughout an area make walking or rolling equipment difficult, so you should maintain uniformity throughout high traffic areas.

522 Tankfield Drainage


Surface drainage of tankfields must get surface fluids away from tanks, equipment, and pipes; and then contain the fluids. This section focuses on drainage of tankfields at the ends of pipelines, at bulk loading and unloading facilities, etc. Some of the concepts also apply to drainage around vessels or tanks in process areas. See also References [1], [6], [8], and [9]. References [6] and [9] are especially important.

Drainage Near Tanks


Use Recommended Slope. Keep surface fluids away from tanks, control houses, pipeways, etc. by using a slope of not less than 1% for at least 50 feet away from the facilities. This is usually a legal requirement for slopes around tanks (see Reference [6].)

ChevronTexaco Energy Technology Co.

500-5

April 2004

500 Drainage

Civil and Structural Manual

Contain Normal Drips. Normal drips from mixers and valves create a slipping hazard and potential soil, groundwater, or surface water contamination. These drips should be contained near the tanks, but once contained, they present a fire hazard. Use low curbs (about 2 inches high) to contain the drips; the curbed areas must be cleaned frequently or drained to an underground system. Locate Large Containment Areas Properly. Do not locate tank water draw basins or other large-capacity containment areas under mixers, valves, or manways. References [1], [6], and [9] give basin size and minimum spacing requirements. References [1] and [8] give special considerations for LPG tankage areas. Guide Potential Spills. Consider using slopes, berms, or low walls between tanks to help guide spills directly to drainage channels and prevent the spill from covering a larger area (see Reference [6].) You might need ramps or stairs for pedestrian access. Locate Your Primary Drainage Path Logically. The path should begin on the opposite side of the tank from where pipelines enter it. Size Your Drainage Channels. Size them in tank-field areas to handle the largest of these flows: Stormwater (See Section 534.) Firewater (See Reference [1].) The largest stream of liquid that could be discharged from one tank through a broken pipe under maximum normal pump pressure or gravity.

Drainage to Handle Large Spills


Drain any spills to a remote basin that can contain the contents of the largest tank in the field. If topography or other considerations make that unfeasible, you should provide (in order of decreasing preference): 1. 2. A remote basin to contain as much of a spill as possible, and dikes or walls to contain the remainder in the tankfield, or Dikes or walls around the tankfield.

April 2004

500-6

ChevronTexaco Energy Technology Co.

Civil and Structural Manual

500 Drainage

See Figure 500-1 for an example of tankfield drainage.


Fig. 500-1 Example of Tankfield Drainage

Special Precautions for Fixed Roof Crude Oil Storage Tanks


In case of fire, fixed roof crude oil storage tanks will boil over after burning for a while; the flow rate and volume of expelled oil and froth will probably exceed your drainage systems capacity. Boilovers are very rare, but if one might cause significant damage or loss of life you should carefully consider adding protection or additional drainage capacity.

Drainage to Remote Impounding Basins


Guide the Drainage. Use surface drainage or drain pipes to guide accidental spills, runoff, and firewater to remote impounding basins. Paved or unlined ditches can carry most surface fluids to impound areas or sumps. Guide oil to keep it out of unlined ditches. Use shallow ditches and relatively flat slopes for economy, ease of access and maintenance, and erosion control. Route drainage away from pipeways or manifolds. Where drainage channels go through pipes or culverts, make provisions to re-direct overflow in case the pipe gets plugged. You can do this by providing a low section in an encircling roadway or diversion dike. If the low section is directly over the culvert, make sure that there is enough cover to protect the culvert from wheel loads on the road. See Section 360 for more information on wheel loads.

ChevronTexaco Energy Technology Co.

500-7

April 2004

500 Drainage

Civil and Structural Manual

Minimize the Surface Area of Draining Liquids. The amount of evaporation and flame area is proportional to surface area. You can reduce the surface area of small spills by putting weirs along the drainage path. Provide a Way to Drain Impounding Basins. Provide a manually operated gate valve (normally closed) operable from outside the impoundment area and accessible during a fire. When the valve is open it should never be left unattended; a sign to that effect should be near the valve handle. At the very least, you should provide a single low point within the basin to allow easier removal of accumulated liquid.

Drainage in Diked Areas


If remote impounding cannot be used, use dikes to prevent liquid from spreading. Dikes might be required by code in some areas. If possible, lay out diked areas so that spills will flow to a low point within the dikes, yet remote from tankage. This will protect the tanks and allow easier removal. Route drainage out from under lines and manifolds. References [6] and [9] give information about dike capacity, surface drainage, and subdivision requirements. Walls made from cast-in-place concrete or masonry are alternatives to earthen dikes.

523 Process Area Drainage


Surface drainage in process areas must route surface liquids away from equipment and into underground drainage systems. Here are some suggestions that will help you implement the Important Drainage Concepts of Section 511 in process areas. Federal regulations (Reference [9]) require that spills be contained on the owners property. Eliminate the chance of liquid spreading to the property of others, even if the underground system is overloaded or partially plugged with debris. This is especially important if the facility handles or stores hazardous or toxic chemicals, or if the facility is near a river, lake, etc. Where practical, divide the area to be drained into approximately 50 foot to 75 foot square areas to prevent the spread of spilled flammable liquid. Locate catch basins or drains for each area as far as possible from equipment and overhead pipeways. A minimum distance of 10 feet is desirable. Provide a short drainage path by locating the basins and drains near the center of the drainage areas. Around pumps and other areas where leaks are anticipated, use at least 1/4 inch/foot (2%) slope. Place a high point ridge between a very important pump and its spare to minimize the chance of a fire at one spreading to the other. Separate the pumps so that there is enough room for the high point.

April 2004

500-8

ChevronTexaco Energy Technology Co.

Civil and Structural Manual

500 Drainage

Provide a high point ridge between pumps handling flammable liquids and adjacent equipment so that a spill from the pumps will not flow toward the equipment. When practical, route high points through buildings, large equipment, and along centerlines of roads and pipeways. Under manifolds, use an impermeable surface treatment such as gunite or concrete (see Section 700) to eliminate soil and groundwater contamination. Containment is normally accomplished by setting the grade of a road, access way, or berm around a facility above the high point of grade within the facility.

New Installations
For open surface drainage areas, concrete slabs are normally used to receive and contain drain liquids for routing into underground drainage systems. These slabs will absorb moisture and may be subject to attack by corrosive chemicals in the drainage liquids. Concrete slabs that are likely to be exposed to such chemicals must be surface-coated for protection. For effective protection: The concrete must be properly specified and constructed to receive the coating system. The coating must be properly selected for the intended usage.

At present, Materials and Equipment Engineering recommends fiberglass-reinforced epoxies for most usages. For detailed recommendations, contact CRTCs Materials and Equipment Engineering. Expansion joints, control joints (a saw cut or scribed line intentionally placed in the concrete), or other working (moving) or potentially movable joints in a concrete slab must receive special treatment before and during application of any surface coating system. The methods presently recommended by Materials and Equipment Engineering are described in Section 578. Diversion of the drainage liquid flow into the underground drain system requires catch basins, drain funnels, etc. These appurtenances are usually made of the same material as the underground drain (for example, HDPE). If they are made of concrete like the slab, they should be surface-protected as noted above. The National Association of Corrosion Engineers (NACE) has studied the subject of coatings for concrete surfaces and is preparing recommended practices for this purpose. A draft of Paper No. T-6H-39, Proposed NACE Standard Recommended Practice Coatings for Concrete Surfaces in Non-Immersion and Atmospheric Services is available from: NACE Publications Order Department P.O. Box 218340 Houston, TX 77208 Telephone: (713) 492-0535

ChevronTexaco Energy Technology Co.

500-9

April 2004

500 Drainage

Civil and Structural Manual

Repair of Existing Slabs


Existing concrete slabs may be exposed to corrosive drainage liquids. To prevent or halt surface deterioration (including cracks), it may be desirable to protect the surface by application of coatings as described in New Installations above and in Section 578. Foreign material on the surface (chemicals, oils, etc.) must be properly removed before application. Any cracks must be suitably sealed as indicated in Section 578.

524 Drainage of Other Areas


Truck Loading Terminals
Use the guidelines below for planning a drainage system for loading terminals where flammable liquids are transferred. Assure that there will be no pits, depressions, catch basins, or drains below the trucks. Slope the loading area away from the rack. Design any gutter that will parallel a loading rack to be on the far side of the truck away from the rack. Place gutters midway between multiple racks. If there are important structures nearby, slope the area around the terminal or have barriers that will prevent a spill from causing damage.

Buildings
Use the guidelines below for planning a drainage system around buildings that are in or near facilities that handle flammable or toxic materials. Consider eliminating floor drains in buildings if they are connected to a process drainage system and if the floor drain will be infrequently used. The seals in these drains might go dry and permit the entry of flammable or toxic vapors into an area of ignition or restricted ventilation. Uncontaminated surface drainage should enter storm sewers rather than process sewers. Use slopes that route spills away from buildings. This also reduces problems for buildings with basements. Roads to buildings should be higher than surrounding ground so that a spill does not block access. Process or oily water drains should not be located near living quarters. The intent is to prevent the escape of process vapors to unclassified areas and to reduce overloading of oily water sumps and treatment facilities.

April 2004

500-10

ChevronTexaco Energy Technology Co.

Civil and Structural Manual

500 Drainage

525 Ditches and Culverts


As areas are developed and roads constructed, there is generally a requirement to design and install ditches and culverts. For stormwater runoff calculations, refer to Section 534. Hydraulic calculations for ditches can be made using a variation of the Mannings equation given in Section 534. 1.49 AR Q = --------n where: Q = flow rate (cfs) A = cross sectional area of flow (ft2) area of flow ( ft 2 ) R = hydraulic radius (ft) = -----------------------------------------------wetted perimeter ( ft )
(Eq. 500-2)
0.666

0.5

(Eq. 500-1)

S = channel slope (ft/ft) n = roughness coefficient (dimensionless) For the purpose of Equation 500-1, use the following roughness coefficients: Concrete-lined channels Canals and ditches: Earth, straight and uniform Earth with some vegetation 0.014 0.020 0.030

For design of shallow drainage ditches, the following guidelines provide information on grades: Absolute minimum grade Minimum grade for good drainage Preferred grade Maximum slope for silty soils to prevent erosion Maximum slope for most other soils to prevent erosion 0.25% 0.50% 1% 1% 2%

Culvert Design
The hydraulic design of culverts is somewhat more complicated than normal drainage lines because entrance and exit conditions can have a significant effect on the flow capacity. There are many references on this subject and most civil engineering handbooks have good explanations and easy-to-follow design examples. The materials generally used for culverts are galvanized or aluminized corrugated

ChevronTexaco Energy Technology Co.

500-11

April 2004

500 Drainage

Civil and Structural Manual

steel pipe or arches, reinforced concrete pipe, or reinforced concrete rigid frame boxes. Manufacturers catalogs usually provide useful information on cover requirements for culvert pipe. For corrugated steel pipe, a minimum of 12 inches of cover is sufficient for a HS-20 truck loading. For culverts with a free discharge outlet (not flooded), the following culvert slopes will provide a flow velocity of approximately 4 fps. This velocity is considered sufficient to carry sediment with the culvert flow. Slopes are based on corrugated steel pipe with a Manning value for n = 0.021. Culvert Size 14" 18" 24" Slope (Ft/Foot) 0.015 0.009 0.007

530 Underground Drainage


The underground drainage section describes components of underground drainage systems and gives some guidelines and suggestions for planning, layout, and design. This section also covers a few aspects of hydraulics and strength of materials. Since many textbooks and handbooks cover these subjects extensively, it gives only concise information that should help you get started. Unless you have a background in civil and hydraulic engineering, you might need help from a civil engineer to complete a specification or a strength or hydraulic problem. See also References [2], [3], [4], [5], [7], and [10]. Reference [5] is particularly useful.

531 Layout and Design Considerations


Guidelines for Any Underground Drainage System
Here are some suggestions, reminders, and alternatives that will help you design a drainage system. They are based on Company experience. Check and recheck for interferences. If there are non-civil underground items (underground conduit banks, for example) near your system, you must make sure there is interdisciplinary communication and checking. Interferences can include existing objects and items being designed or constructed at the same time as your drainage system. Avoid locating lines in areas that will make access for repair or maintenance difficult (such as in areas with heavy traffic, under concrete slabs, or under conduit banks). Avoid locating lines under or adjacent to foundations, since a break in the line might wash out the foundation.

April 2004

500-12

ChevronTexaco Energy Technology Co.

Civil and Structural Manual

500 Drainage

When selecting components, it is usually better to oversize than undersize, since changes tend to increase rather than decrease requirements. Consider providing pipe stubs in manholes or branches in pipe if expansion is anticipated. Minimize changes in direction and length of tie-ins to drain hubs and catch basins. Consider grouping parallel lines close enough so only one trench needs to be excavated. Keep excavation and backfill costs down by using shallow slopes for all lines and making up differences in elevation between connecting lines with manholes (drop manholes) or fittings. Compare the cost of field cutting RCP pipe to length vs. the fabrication costs and design manhours for nonstandard lengths. Avoid mitered field cuts in RCP pipe: they can be very expensive. Remember that nominal RCP pipe sizes are internal diameters. Check that your system always flows down-slope and that there are no pockets or low points. Minimize the number of oily water drains by using them only for sources that flow during regular operations. Dont install drains just for shutdown maintenance work unless alternatives are impractical. Provide oily water drains in front of each process pump (except those handling very heavy oils) and at all other locations where equipment or piping normally are drained. In a segregated system, these drains are raised above the paving level or finished grade to insure that surface liquids such as storm runoff and firewater dont enter the system. Make sure that the fittings you specify exist. Use scale drawings and actual dimensions of equipment and fittings in congested areas. To help maintenance crews: In congested areas, consider using an identification scheme for drainage components. In uncongested areas, consider using surface markers for underground lines to prevent accidental damage from excavation.

Provide cleanouts for maintenance at the beginnings of long, straight runs. Precast concrete boxes for use in sewer systems should be fabricated with pipe connections installed or with openings that have exposed rebar in areas where field installed pipe connections are to be grouted in.

ChevronTexaco Energy Technology Co.

500-13

April 2004

500 Drainage

Civil and Structural Manual

Guidelines for Sealed Systems


The following guidelines assume you will need sealed components throughout your system. You might not need them if the liquid in the system is not volatile or flammable at atmospheric pressure and temperature, and if gas-releasing reactions will not occur in the system. (Be sure to consider future uses of the system.) See Reference [21] for Federal regulations on this topic. All oily water drains and area catch basins should be individually sealed. Manholes should be vented to prevent accumulation of explosive vapors. For important information on manhole vents, see Section 537. In oily water systems, branches and laterals should enter main lines and be sealed in manholes. In clean water or storm water systems, branches and laterals: May intersect without seals unless drain hubs are used in lieu of sealed catch basins (such as in areas where catch basins are susceptible to frost damage.) May enter main lines without gas seals if sealed catch basins are used.

If sealed catch basins or manholes are used at upstream junctions, main lines may intersect without seals. Main lines leaving a facility or operating unit should be sealed at the first connection with another line or manhole. Catch basin seals dry out (lose their seals) easily if liquid is not added regularly through storms or maintenance. Manhole seals dry out less easily. In arid areas or where catch basin seals are infrequently maintained, consider using manholes to seal all branch, lateral, and main line intersections with other main lines. Main lines entering and exiting separators should be liquid sealed.

532 Segregated Drainage Systems


A segregated drainage system keeps certain wastes and reactive chemicals separate from others. Waste compatibility depends on the effect the combination might have on health, safety, treatment, drainage materials, and expected maintenance. Since it is usually impractical to provide a separate drainage system for every type of waste, your designs should combine compatible waste streams whenever possible. Work with the process designers, operating representatives, and environmental division to set the segregation philosophy.

Examples of Segregated Systems


A clean storm system for areas away from tanks and process facilities and not subject to hydrocarbon or other chemical spills.

April 2004

500-14

ChevronTexaco Energy Technology Co.

Civil and Structural Manual

500 Drainage

A contaminated storm system to carry rain water, firewater, and washdown water. The water might contain other liquids from drips or spills. An oily water system to carry hydrocarbons (or water that will frequently contain hydrocarbons) from sources such as process drains, laboratory sinks, tank water draws, pump base drains, and manifolds. A blowdown system for disposal of boiler or cooling water blowdown. A sanitary sewage system for disposal of sanitary wastes. Chemical systems to carry all chemical drips and drains plus washdown water, process water, and storm water collected in curbed chemical areas.

General Notes on Segregated Systems


High Rainfall Areas. Segregated systems can reduce the load on treatment systems. For example, process waste treatment facilities operate more efficiently if large, relatively uncontaminated storm water flows are not combined with the process liquids. For underground drainage removal of surface runoff: If annual rainfall and intensity are high, use segregated storm drainage systems. If annual rainfall and intensity are low, consider combining storm runoff with other waste liquids. If rainfall is infrequent but intense, combine storm and other waste liquids. A surge pond or other storage may be required to even out flows to treatment facilities.

Raw Sewage. Segregate raw sewage from all wastes except clean runoff due to its potential health hazard and its adverse effect on oil separation. Even septic tank effluent contains suspended solids capable of forming emulsions that reduce oil separating efficiency. Boiler Blowdown and Caustics. Segregate them from wastes containing carbonates, such as cooling tower blowdown, to prevent plugging the lines with precipitate. Spent Caustics and Acid Wastes. Since they might release hydrogen sulfide, segregate them from other wastes. Neutralized and degassed products from these wastes can be added to the oily water system. Chemical Liquids. Use curbs, high points in area paving, or troughs to keep chemical liquids (such as acids or caustics) separate from process liquids. Some facilities prefer to drain these areas to the stormwater drainage system through a valve (normally closed) to allow easy disposal of uncontaminated water. Portable pumps can be used to remove chemical spills in these areas. Chemical wastes are typically collected in covered and purged sumps. The waste is periodically pumped to chemical tankage or disposal facilities. Drawing GF-S99943

ChevronTexaco Energy Technology Co.

500-15

April 2004

500 Drainage

Civil and Structural Manual

shows example details for acid service. Consult materials engineers for advice on material selection for chemical drainage systems.

533 Soil and Component Support Issues


This section describes the geotechnical information you and the installation contractor need to know to design and install a drainage system. It also discusses the component support issues that reflect soil conditions. If results of past investigations are not available or if you are in an undeveloped area, you will need to hire a soils consultant to get this information. Section 200 of this manual tells how to prepare a request for geotechnical work and tells what specific properties you should request. Include a copy of the geotechnical report in the installation contract bid package. Soil Type, Composition, Strength, Weight. These soil properties affect the design of your buried pipe and the amount of load transmitted from the surface to buried pipe. Information on soil properties will help you determine whether: The pipe can lie directly on the native soil at the trench bottom The trench spoils are suitable for backfill Conditioned (dried or mixed with other soil) trench spoils will be suitable for backfill.

The installation contractor will also need information on soil properties to choose trenching equipment, design bracing for trench walls, etc. Location of Rock Outcrops. Avoid routing lines through rock. Trenching in rock is expensive; if blasting is prohibited, it can be extremely expensive. Water Table Location and Seasonal and Other Variations. Since moisture accelerates electrochemical corrosion, you should pay special attention to the corrosion protection of metallic underground lines in or near the water table. If the water table is close to or above the bottom of the underground lines, water will enter the installation trenches. Since the trench cannot be prepared properly when the bottom is covered with water, the water must be removed. The installation contractors will have to plan for the removal and you will have to plan for the disposal of the water. Types and Extent of Contaminants in Soil and Groundwater. The installation contractor needs this information so he can protect his workers. It is needed to plan for disposal of water and soil from trenches. Check this especially at existing facilities. Allowable Slope for Excavation/Shoring Requirements. You and the installation contractor need this information since it affects the methods used for trenching. For example, if a shallow slope is required due to unstable soil conditions, the contractor might want to use sheet piles to brace the trench walls instead of excavating a large

April 2004

500-16

ChevronTexaco Energy Technology Co.

Civil and Structural Manual

500 Drainage

volume of soil. See Reference [24] for Company excavation shoring and bracing requirements. Anticipated Overall and Differential Settlement. In areas where there might be significant settlement due to fill, structures, or drawdown of the water table (from groundwater cleanup wells, for example) you should anticipate changes in surface drainage patterns and flow in non-pile-supported piping. Pile Capacity. This information will help you select the proper pile size and length for your pile-supported components. Frost Line. In cold climates, bury lines and components that will contain standing liquid at or below the frost line to prevent damage.

Component Support
Pile Support. How you support your drainage system will depend mostly on the soil conditions in your area. Generally, if the structures and surfaces you are draining are piled, and large area soil settlement is expected, then your system should also probably be pile-supported or supported by connections to pilesupported structures (see Detail 20 on CIV-EF-611). You can connect soil-supported pipe to drains in pile-supported concrete foundation or slabs with slip joints, but soil settlement may radically change the slopes of your pipes, break components, or cause leaks. If liquid rises higher than the slip joint, the joint will probably leak. Details 17 and 18 on CIV-EF-611 show an example of a slip joint. Bedded Support. If the soil is relatively stable and well consolidated, you will probably use some sort of bedded support, laying the pieces of your system in trenches on top of compacted backfill or on the native soil. See Reference [5] for information on bedding design. Flexible Connection. If differential settlement between drainage components is predicted, you will need to design a compatible support system or flexible connection so that: The components and pipe do not break or leak. Adequate slopes and flow are maintained.

Careful selection of joint materials or joint locations help to reduce settlement stresses. Exaggerated slopes may be necessary to prevent future slope reversal.

Intermittently Supported Pipe


Pipe supported intermittently (such as from hangers beneath pile-supported slabs or on piles) must support its own weight and the weight of its contents as well as the other loads described in Section 536. If significant soil settlement is predicted and your underground system is pilesupported, your system must resist the stresses induced by the settling soil (downdrag).

ChevronTexaco Energy Technology Co.

500-17

April 2004

500 Drainage

Civil and Structural Manual

Calculate bending and shear stresses in the pipe from standard equations for beams (see Reference [7] or other civil engineering handbooks). Check circumferential stresses at the pipe supports since the supports will tend to crush the pipe into an oval shape. You can get approximate results by using the formulas for circular rings in Reference [19] and by assuming some length of pipe (about one diameter plus the support length) is effective in resisting the loads. See Reference [10] for additional information about pile-supported and suspended pipe.

534 Hydraulic Analysis and Design


This section covers some of the basics of hydraulic design: Recommended maximum and minimum velocities Flow rate selection Nomographs and charts for flow calculations

See References [2], [3], [4], [5], [7], and [25] for more information. References [5] and [7] might be particularly helpful. For complex drainage systems, hire a consultant to do hydraulic analysis and design.

General Hydraulic Design Considerations


When selecting components, it is usually better to oversize than undersize, since future changes tend to increase requirements. When determining design flow rates, combine flow from different sources only if there is a reasonable chance that they will occur at the same time. For example, in a storm water system, design for the larger of rainfall and firewater. In an oily water system, design for the largest of the following: Normal oily water flow plus storm (if combined system) Vessel wash plus flow from not-shut-down processes Normal oily water flow plus tank draw

Choosing Depth of Flow. Choose the pipe size so the pipe flows full at 100 to 200% of the design flow rate: If you are confident that the design flow rate is accurate and that it will not increase in the future, tend toward 100%. To allow for future flow rate increases, use a number closer to 200%.

Sanitary sewers should flow one-half full to three-quarters full to allow for ventilation and to avoid sulfide generation. See Reference [5] for more guidance on depth of flow selection.

April 2004

500-18

ChevronTexaco Energy Technology Co.

Civil and Structural Manual

500 Drainage

Recommended Minimum Line Size. Small lines will get plugged easily and might be hard to clean. We recommend these minimum sizes: Branch and main lines: 6 inches Laterals: 4 inches

Recommended Velocities
Minimum Velocity. Select pipe diameters and slopes to achieve no less than minimum fluid velocities. This will keep suspended solids from dropping out and clogging your system. Try to reach these minimum velocities at average (not maximum) flow rates. Little or no suspended solids expected: General case (except sanitary sewers): Sanitary sewers (need to also check local codes): 1.0 fps. 2.0 fps. 2.5 fps.

Moderate amounts of sand or other particles of high specific gravity carried (e.g., run-off from unpaved areas): 3.0 fps. If heavy loads of sediment or sticky particles will 4 to 5 fps. be carried (e.g., blowdown from a clarifier):

Maximum Velocity. To avoid scouring pipes, we recommend a maximum velocity of 8 to 10 fps. Velocity for Cement Sanitary Sewers. Slime on sewer walls produces sulfuric acid which causes spalling of cement products. If the sewage velocity is high enough, the slime will be swept away and the problem will be eliminated. Sulfate-resistant cements are available. For more information on this topic, see Reference [5].

Choosing Your Flow Rate


Process Liquid. Work with the process or operations engineers to develop process flow rates. Firewater. You should work with your local safety or fire protection engineer to develop the details, but in general: Laterals and branches should be designed to carry 0.2 gpm per ft2 of contributing surface area. This is the firewater flow rate required to absorb the heat of combustion of a hydrocarbon spill fire. Mains should be designed to carry 3000 to 5000 gpm of firewater. This flow rate depends on the size of your facility, its layout, the materials handled, the extent of possible fires, the capacity of the water supply, and the number of people available to fight a fire. For facilities with fixed high capacity monitors or fixed water spray systems, design flow rates will be higher.

ChevronTexaco Energy Technology Co.

500-19

April 2004

500 Drainage

Civil and Structural Manual

Storm Water Runoff. The Rational Formula is a commonly used method for estimating stormwater runoff. It gives an estimate of maximum flow rates throughout your drainage system based on certain characteristics of the system and expected rainfall. Its most accurate for paved and other impervious areas less than 200 to 300 acres. The Rational Formula is based on the idea that runoff from rain that is uniform over time and area will peak at the instant when all parts of the area contribute to the flow at the design point. The peak runoff rate is assumed to occur when the rain duration equals or exceeds the time of concentration. If your drainage area is large or pervious or if temporary flooding might cause significant damage, get help from an experienced hydrologist.

Rational Formula
The Rational Formula estimates peak runoff flow rate at any location in the system: Q = CIA
(Eq. 500-3)

where: Q = peak runoff flow rate at some point within your system (cfs) C = runoff coefficient (dimensionless) I = average rainfall intensity (inch/hour) lasting for time t (time of concentration) A = tributary drainage area (acres) The units on the left side of the equation (cfs) are not the same as the units on the right side (acre inch/hour) but no correction is needed since one cfs equals one acre inch/hour within 1 percent. (1 acre = 43,560 square feet) Runoff Coefficient (C). Select the runoff coefficient based on the types of usage or surfaces in the drainage area (see Figure 500-2). If the surfaces within the drainage area arent similar, use an area-weighted coefficient. Time of Concentration (t). To find the stormwater flow rate at a specific point in your system, you must calculate the time of concentration at that point. The time of concentration is the longest time required for runoff to reach that point from anywhere in the drainage area. It is the largest sum of overland flow time and conduit flow time. Calculating Conduit Flow Time. Find conduit flow time by using velocities from Figure 500-3 which is a nomograph for fluid flow calculations. The nomograph is based on Mannings equation for water flow in pipes and the equation Q = V A where: Q = flow rate (cfs) V = velocity (fps) A = pipe flow area = (/4) (D/12)2 (ft.2)

April 2004

500-20

ChevronTexaco Energy Technology Co.

Civil and Structural Manual

500 Drainage

If your situation is off the end of the nomograph scale, use these equations directly.

Mannings equation:
V = (1.49/n) * (D/48)0.666 * S0.5
(Eq. 500-4)

where: V = velocity (fps) n = roughness coefficient (dimensionless) D = inside diameter (in.) S = pipe slope (ft./ft.) Mannings equation is applicable only if the pipe slope is less than 0.10 and is relatively constant throughout the pipe length. In addition, the water surface must be at atmospheric pressure; that is, no head or pressure is allowed (in practice, a few feet of head wont matter.) See References [2], [5], a general civil engineering handbook, or texts on fluid mechanics for information on more complex situations.
Fig. 500-2
By Usage Industrial Light Heavy Railroad yards Roofs 0.50-0.80 0.60-0.90 0.20-0.35 0.75-0.95

Runoff Coefficients
By Surface Type Streets Asphaltic Concrete Brick 0.70-0.95 0.80-0.95 0.70-0.85

Business Downtown Neighborhood 0.70-0.95 0.50-0.70

Lawns (sandy soil) Flat(<2%) Average (2-7%) Steep (>7%) 0.05-0.10 0.10-0.15 0.15-0.20

Residential Single-family Multi-unit, detached Multi-unit, attached Suburban Apartment 0.30-0.50 0.40-0.60 0.60-0.75 0.25-0.40 0.50-0.70

Lawns (heavy soil) Flat (<2%) Average (2-7%) Steep (>7%) 0.13-0.17 0.18-0.22 0.25-0.35

Calculating Overland Flow Time. Overland flow time varies with surface slope, type of surface material, length of flow, and rainfall intensity. The two empirical formulas below give overland flow time for impervious areas with undefined channels. Use one formula or the other, according to the length of your overland flow. Reference [20] gives additional formulas for a number of slope and gutter configurations.

ChevronTexaco Energy Technology Co.

500-21

April 2004

500 Drainage

Civil and Structural Manual

Fig. 500-3

Nomograph for Pipe, Slope, and Flow Calculation

If your drainage or rainfall characteristics are outside the range of applicability calculated for each formula, consult a hydrologist. Overland Flow Time Formula #1 (Izzards formula). (For length of overland flow less than 100 feet.) to = [41 * ((0.0007*I)+k) * (L/S)1/3] /(C I)2/3
(Eq. 500-5)

where: to = overland flow time (minutes) I = average rainfall intensity (in/hr) k = surface coefficient (given in Figure 500-4) L = length of overland flow (ft) S = slope of surface (ft/ft) C = runoff coefficient (given in Figure 500-2) Range of applicability: I*L < 500 and S < 0.04. Since the formula gives the overland flow time as a function of intensity, you must iteratively find the combination of intensity and time of concentration that satisfies

April 2004

500-22

ChevronTexaco Energy Technology Co.

Civil and Structural Manual

500 Drainage

this formula and the intensity/duration/ frequency relationship. Iteration to 2 significant digits is sufficient. (From References [2] and [3].)
Fig. 500-4 Surface
Smooth asphalt Concrete pavement Tar and gravel pavement Grass

Surface Coefficients Surface Coefficient k


0.007 0.012 0.017 0.060

Overland Flow Time Formula #2 (For length of overland flow greater than 100 feet.) The terms used in the formula are defined above. to = [1.8*(1.1-C)*L1/2] / (S*100)1/3
(Eq. 500-6)

Range of applicability: L > 100' and S < 0.025. See References [16] and [25] for additional explanation. Average Rainfall Intensity (I). Select average rainfall intensities from a graph or table of intensity/duration/frequency for your geographical region. The tables described in Section 572 (Figure 500-32) cover some Company operating areas. The U.S. Weather Bureau or local Department of Public Works should have information for other areas. Company practice is to design for 10-year rainfall frequency (the greatest rainfall expected to occur, on the average, once in 10 years). Only use a 25-year return period for very sensitive areas or if required by an outside agency. A selection of a higher return period should only be done in conjunction with a study that looks at the total annual cost. Find average rainfall intensities by using durations equal to calculated times of concentration. But only use the single longest time of concentration for several areas that may be combined when selecting I. If a calculated time of concentration is less than the smallest duration given, use the intensity corresponding to the smallest duration.

Notes on the Rational Formula


The paragraphs below point out some problems with the Rational Formula. Reference [4] gives a thorough examination of these problems and others. The Rational Formula is used regardless of these problems because it is relatively simple to use and it usually gives satisfactory results. The peak runoff rate actually depends on whether there has been a storm recently, the uniformity of rainfall over time and area, storage in the system, and a host of other factors that cannot be accounted for except by arbitrary variation of the coefficient C.

ChevronTexaco Energy Technology Co.

500-23

April 2004

500 Drainage

Civil and Structural Manual

The selection of overland flow time for pervious surfaces is quite arbitrary. The implicit assumption that frequency of rainfall equals frequency of runoff is probably only valid for small, completely impervious areas.

Roughness Coefficients
Use the roughness coefficients in Figure 500-5 with the nomograph in Figure 500-3.
Fig. 500-5 Material
Asbestos-cement Cast iron New Tuberculated Cement-lined Concrete Plastics Steel Vitrified Clay 0.014 0.025 0.013 0.013 0.012 0.013 0.013

Roughness Coefficients Roughness Coefficient


0.013

If your material isnt listed here, check with the supplier or manufacturer; they usually publish roughness coefficients. The roughness coefficient increases with time; be sure to get their estimate of the coefficient for used pipe.

Partial-depth Flow Table for Pipe Selection


Use Figure 500-6 to find the depth of flow, velocity, flow rate or flow area in a partly full pipe. Enter with any of these ratiosy/D, Q/Qf, V/Vf, or A/Afto find the other ratios. This table is especially useful for finding the velocity in a pipe flowing at less than the flow-full flow rate and for designing a pipe to flow at a certain depth. y = Depth of fluid in partially full pipe D = Inside diameter of pipe A = Area of fluid (partly full pipe) Af = Area of fluid (completely full pipe) Q = Flow rate (partly...) Qf = Flow rate (completely...) V = Velocity (partly...) Vf = Velocity (completely...)

April 2004

500-24

ChevronTexaco Energy Technology Co.

Civil and Structural Manual

500 Drainage

Fig. 500-6 y/D


0 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.35 0.40 0.45 0.50 0.60 0.70 0.80 0.90 0.95 1.00

Partial-depth Flow for Pipe Selection A/Af


0 0.019 0.052 0.094 0.143 0.196 0.252 0.312 0.374 0.437 0.500 0.627 0.748 0.858 0.950 0.982 1.000

Q/Qf
0 0.005 0.021 0.049 0.088 0.137 0.195 0.262 0.336 0.416 0.500 0.671 0.837 0.977 1.062 1.073 1.000

V/Vf
0 0.25 0.40 0.52 0.62 0.70 0.77 0.84 0.92 0.95 1.00 1.07 1.12 1.14 1.12 1.09 1.00

535 Drainage System Design Examples


The following examples demonstrate the use of the figures and equations of this section. See Reference [5] for a more complete example of drainage system design. Example 1 is based entirely on storm water runoff. As discussed in Section 534, fire water runoff controls the design in many cases and should always be considered.

Example 1
Problem Statement: (See Figures 500-7, 500-8, and 500-9): Area 1, the manhole, and Pipes 1 and 2 already exist. Area 2 and Pipe 3 are to be added. The location is

ChevronTexaco Energy Technology Co.

500-25

April 2004

500 Drainage

Civil and Structural Manual

Orange, Texas. The rainfall return period is 10 years. What diameter should Pipe 3 be? Is Pipe 2 large enough?
Fig. 500-7 Drainage System Design

Data: See Figures 500-8 and 500-9 for data on surface areas and drainpipes.
Fig. 500-8 Properties of Areas 1 and 2 Area (acre)
1 0.5

Area No.
1 2

Slope (ft/ft)
0.01 0.01

Average Length (ft)


120 90

Surface Coeff.
C=0.2 k=0.009 C=0.8

Location: Orange, Texas Rainfall Return Period: 10 yrs.

Fig. 500-9

Properties of the Pipes Inside Diam. (in.)


12 12 ?

Pipe No.
1 2 3

Slope (ft/ft)
0.005 0.005 0.010

Roughness Coeff.
0.013 0.013 0.012

Length (ft.)
200 400 60

April 2004

500-26

ChevronTexaco Energy Technology Co.

Civil and Structural Manual

500 Drainage

Peak Flow at Upstream End of Pipe 1:


to = [1.8*(1.1 C)*L1/2] / (S*100)1/3 (Eq. 500-6) = [1.8(1.1 0.2)(120) = 18 min.
1/2]

/ (0.01

100)1/3

Interpolating the rainfall chart for Orange, Texas, I = 5.65 + (6.29 5.65)(2/5) = 5.9 in./hr Q = CIA = 0.2(5.9)(1) = 1.2 cfs Using Figure 500-3, check size of Pipe 1 for 12 inch ID, 0.005 slope, and 0.013 roughness: Qf = 2.6 cfs Therefore, Pipe 1 size is OK. Q/Qf = 0.46 From Fig. 500-6, depth of flow/diameter = 0.48

Peak Flow at Upstream End of Pipe 3:


to = [41((0.0007I)+k)(L/S)1/3] /(C I)2/3 (Eq. 500-5) Assume a time of concentration = 5 min From rainfall chart, I = 8.4 in./hr to Q = 41((0.00078.4)+0.009)(90/0.01)1/3]/(0.8 8.4)2/3 = 3.6 min Assuming 5 min is OK = CIA = 0.8(8.4)(0.5) = 3.4 cfs

Sizing Pipe:
Try 8 inch ID, from Fig. 500-3, Qf = 1.3 (No Good) Try 12 inch ID, from Fig. 500-3, Qf = 3.9 (OK) Q/Qf = 0.87 From Fig. 500-6, depth of flow/diameter = 0.73

Peak Flow at Upstream End of Pipe 2:


Use maximum time of concentration. In this case, it would be the to of Area 1 plus the to of Pipe 1. to (Pipe 1) = length/velocity From Figure 500-3, Vf = 3.2 fps From Figure 500-6, V/Vf = 0.97, V = 3.1 fps

ChevronTexaco Energy Technology Co.

500-27

April 2004

500 Drainage

Civil and Structural Manual

to = 200/3.1 = 64.5 sec, say 1 min to Total = 18 + 1 = 19 min From rainfall chart (see end of section), I = 5.8 in./hr Q = = CIA 5.8(0.2 1 + 0.8 0.5) = 3.5 cfs (No Good)

From Figure 500-3, Qf = 2.6 cfs

Summary
Pipe 3 should have a 12 inch ID. Pipe 2 does not have sufficient capacity to handle the entire flow.

Example 2
Problem statement: For a flow rate of 4.0 cfs, find combinations of pipe diameter and slope that give a depth of flow equal to three quarters of the diameter. Find the fluid velocity for each combination. Pipe material is asbestos-cement. Results are given in Figure 500-10.
Fig. 500-10 Fluid Velocity vs. Pipe Diameter, Slope Inside Diameter D (in.)
12 14 16 18

Slope (ft/ft)
0.015 0.0067 0.0033 0.0018

Velocity Full Vf (fps)


5.6 4.1 3.2 2.5

Velocity V (y/D=0.75) (fps)


6.3 4.6 3.6 2.8

Solution: From Figure 500-5, the roughness coefficient for asbestos-cement pipe is 0.013. From Figure 500-6, if y/D = 0.75, then Q/Qf = 0.91 and V/Vc = 1.13. So, to use the nomograph (Figure 500-3) for pipes flowing full, we need Qf = Q/0.91 = 4.0/0.91 = 4.4 cfs. V = 1.13 Vf using Vf from Fig. 500-3. Enter the nomograph with flow rate = 4.4 cfs and roughness coefficient = 0.013. One result (D = 18 inches and Slope =0.0018) is plotted on the nomograph.

April 2004

500-28

ChevronTexaco Energy Technology Co.

Civil and Structural Manual

500 Drainage

536 Strength Analysis and Design


This section reviews possible loads on pipe and the strength and cover a pipe needs to bear those loads. See Section 580 for a few of the textbooks and handbooks that discuss these topics. See References [2], [5], [7], [10], [13], [14], and [17]. Reference [5] is particularly useful. Pipe manufacturers usually publish charts or graphs that allow easy selection of their products given soil and truck loads.

Loads
Drainage pipes might have to support any combination of these loads: Soil loads Superimposed loads Thrust due to water dynamics Temperature changes Internal pressure

Additional considerations for design of intermittently supported pipe, such as pilesupported pipe, are described in Section 533. Soil Loads. Buried pipe must support the weight of the soil above it. The weight increases with the depth of burial and depends on backfill properties, trench or tunnel characteristics, pipe flexibility, etc. Reference [5] will help you calculate this load. If geotechnical engineers predict significant differential settlement in your area, your system must also resist the forced deformation without leaking or breaking. Short pipe sections with flexible joints can accommodate differential settlement without breaking, but leaking or ponding might be a problem. Superimposed Loads. Trucks, cranes, and trains are common superimposed loads on drainage pipes. Only part of a load applied to the ground over a buried pipe is transferred to the pipe; the amount transferred decreases as the depth of burial increases. Paving also reduces the loads considerably. Ways to calculate loads on buried pipe from surface loads are covered in References [2], [5], [7], [13], and [17]. Section 300 gives wheel loads for trucks and cranes. Trucks are usually specified according to AASHTO designations; for example, HS20 for a tractor truck with a semi-trailer. For design, the weight is increased by an impact factor, since moving vehicles cause higher loads on pipe than stationary ones. Train loads are usually specified according to AREA designations: a typical rail designation is Cooper E-80. Train loads and impact factors are described in References [7] and [14].

ChevronTexaco Energy Technology Co.

500-29

April 2004

500 Drainage

Civil and Structural Manual

The design loadings will depend on the traffic anticipated at the site. Talk with the facility operators or engineers to see what loads are normally used. Local regulations may dictate design loads. Thrust Due to Water Dynamics. Fluids produce radial forces on pipe bends. The change in fluid velocity at size changes (reducers, for example) produces an axial force on the pipe. Supports (commonly called thrust blocks) help the pipe resist these forces and keep joints from separating. References [2], [7], and many civil engineering handbooks describe how to calculate the forces. Temperature Changes. A large difference between installation and operating temperatures can cause movement in an unrestrained line or high stresses in a restrained line. See Reference [18] for help on calculating stresses in and movement of unburied pipe due to temperature differences. Computer programs are available to do these calculations. The effect of temperature differences on buried pipe is more difficult to analyze since the restraint provided by the soil must be considered. If you use crude models of the soil restraint, you can use the computer program described in Reference [18]; some geotechnical and structural consultants have programs with sophisticated, easy-to-use soil models. Internal Pressure. Most drainage lines are driven by gravity, not pumps, and have little or no internal pressure. Internal pressure causes circumferential stress in pipe. Depending on the degree of longitudinal restraint, internal pressure can also cause tensile longitudinal stresses from 0 to 50% of the circumferential stress. If your lines are pressurized, you should check the circumferential and longitudinal stress. You may need supports (thrust blocks) to keep joints from separating.

Required Cover or Strength of Pipe


Selecting a pipe or estimating how strong it needs to be is complicated. The stress in the pipe depends on installation workmanship and other factors that are difficult to determine or describe precisely: soil conditions, bedding and trench characteristics, pipe flexibility, paving flexibility, etc. Fortunately, drainage pipe manufacturers usually publish charts or graphs that show what strength is needed to support certain loads for various depths of cover, soils, trench designs, etc. Soil and AASHTO wheel loads are the most common loads included in these references. Concrete pipe manufacturers have computer programs and charts that select reinforcing details, concrete strength, and wall thickness. If you are purchasing or installing a line, call some vendors and find out exactly what they need to know to design your pipe. See also References [2], [5], [10], [13], and [17].

April 2004

500-30

ChevronTexaco Energy Technology Co.

Civil and Structural Manual

500 Drainage

537 Component Design Considerations


This section describes some drainage components and tells how they are commonly used. The standard drawings and forms are located in the Standard Drawings and Forms section at the end of this manual.

Engineering Form 611


Engineering Form 611 (CIV-EF-611) shows how you can put the components together to make some standard drainage system building blocks. It is intended to give you some good starting arrangements; feel free to make changes or develop other details to suit your needs. CIV-EF-611 shows bell-and-spigot or plain end-and-hub connections, but similar details can be easily envisioned for materials that require butt or other types of joints. Check the actual dimensions of the fittings to be sure the pieces will fit in the space available and will have adequate cover. Note that the dimensions of cast iron bell-and-spigot fittings are different from the dimensions of cast iron butt fittings.

Catch Basins and Drains


Catch basins and drains both serve the same purpose: to let liquid wastes enter the underground drainage system quickly and safely. Catch basins (Figure 500-11) contain a chamber where liquid is briefly retained to aid in settling solids. The chamber is easily accessible for removing the accumulated material. Catch basins are normally built with the inlet opening flush with or slightly below grade.
Fig. 500-11 Typical Catch Basin

ChevronTexaco Energy Technology Co.

500-31

April 2004

500 Drainage

Civil and Structural Manual

Runoff from unpaved areas will contain suspended sediment that can clog small catch basins, so be sure to use adequately sized basins. Experience is the best guide for size selection. A drain or drain hub is a simple inlet that has no retention capacity. If it protrudes above grade, it is called a raised drain hub. If it is below grade, it is called a recessed drain hub. Raised hubs can receive waste from vessels or pumps while preventing surface fluids from entering. Details 3 and 4 on CIV-EF-611 show recessed and raised drain hubs.

Sealed Drain Hubs and Catch Basins


Catch basins and drains can also provide a seal, (sometimes called a gas seal or liquid seal) that prevents flammable or toxic gases in the downstream piping from escaping to the atmosphere. Seals also keep heavier-than-air flammable or toxic vapors from flowing into the system, and they prevent fire from traversing the drainage system. Since sealed drains will accumulate solids and are not easy to clean, do not use them if the liquid will contain solids that might settle out. Instead, use sealed catch basins with sufficient clearance between the bottom of seal and the bottom of basin. Detail 8 on CIV-EF-611 shows a sealed drain. Drawing GD-S-99992 shows a fabricated steel, sealed catch basin. Adapters are available to connect the steel catch basin to non-steel drain lines. Cast iron, sealed catch basins were commercially available in the past, but are not now.

Manholes
Manholes provide access for inspection and cleaning (hydroblast or roto-rooter) of drain lines, and they act as junction boxes for drains where fittings are not available or are more expensive. Manholes are also a good place to tie in future drain lines. If the standing water in sealed manholes is a groundwater pollution concern, then a double wall manhole with leak monitoring between the walls might be required. If the water table is high, ensure that the manhole weight exceeds the buoyant force or anchor the manhole by extending its base beyond its walls. If your manholes are in traffic areas, design them for wheel loads. See CIV-EF-411 for typical manhole details.

Manhole Covers
Manholes in systems carrying volatile flammable or toxic liquid should have vaportight covers to prevent the release of gases near ignition sources and people. See Reference [21] for federal regulations governing emissions from manhole covers. If samples will be taken from manholes frequently, consider using covers with sample windows. The sample window shown in Figure 500-12 is not vapor tight.

April 2004

500-32

ChevronTexaco Energy Technology Co.

Civil and Structural Manual

500 Drainage

Fig. 500-12 Manhole Cover Sample Window

Manhole Vents
You should provide vents to relieve pressure and prevent oxygen depletion in manholes with vapor-tight covers. Vents should end a safe distance (usually a minimum of 25 feet horizontally and downwind if possible) from furnaces or permanent sources of ignition. Vents should not terminate near walkways, platforms, or air intakes. Vents within a 10-foot radius of walkways and equipment should end 18 inches above the highest pipe or piece of equipment and 12 feet or more above walkways. Vents in VOC or benzene service must be at least 3 feet in length and less than 4 inches in diameter. In addition, vents in benzene service must be controlled. See Reference [21] for federal regulations on this topic.

Ways to Change Direction, Slope, and Size


At direction, slope, and size changes, you can use either manholes or fittings. Manholes can be cheaper than large diameter fittings. Find out if local cleaning contractors equipment can negotiate fittings. If the pipe joint system is flexible enough to allow misalignment without leaking, you can make small changes in slope and direction (a few degrees) by using purposely misaligned joints. Joint manufacturers usually publish limits of flexibility. In areas where groundwater protection is very important, you probably should not use this technique except as required for small field adjustments.

Access for Cleaning, Inspection, and Repair


Manholes provide better access than cleanouts for inspection and repair, but cleanouts are just as good for cleaning. Cleanouts are usually cheaper than manholes unless the cleanouts are built from large diameter fittings. Talk with local cleaning

ChevronTexaco Energy Technology Co.

500-33

April 2004

500 Drainage

Civil and Structural Manual

contractors and Company maintenance and operations people to learn their preferences and to get advice on cleanout locations and manhole spacing. Cleanouts in process sewers that carry waxy fluids, asphalts, or other heavy stock should be spaced closer than cleanouts in lines with light stock or water service. A constant trickle of hot water through lines carrying heavy stock can prevent plugging. See Detail 2 on CIV-EF-611 for typical cleanout.

Main, Branch, and Lateral Lines


Laterals collect fluids from catch basins and drains. Branch lines gather liquids from laterals and transfer the fluids to the main lines (or headers). In a small system, laterals might connect directly to the main line.

538 Septic Tanks and Leach Fields


Septic tanks with leach fields are used for disposal of waste water in locations not served by municipal sewer systems. Septic tanks allow the solid waste to settle out of the effluent for later removal by vacuum truck. Leach fields dispose of the liquid waste by allowing it to percolate into soil. See Figure 500-13. This section is based on Reference [29].
Fig. 500-13 Typical Septic System

April 2004

500-34

ChevronTexaco Energy Technology Co.

Civil and Structural Manual

500 Drainage

Regulations
Local governments usually regulate the design and layout of septic systems. For example, the location of their components relative to water wells, streams, trees, buildings, etc. is usually regulated since the tank discharge is odorous and contains pathogens. Agencies also commonly regulate the volume and number of compartments of septic tanks, as well as tank and leach field materials and construction. Be sure to find out which codes apply to your area.

Septic Tanks
A two-compartment, cast-in-place septic tank is shown in Figure 500-14. The walls, roof, and floor must be designed to resist soil loads. Prefabricated septic tanks are available and are more economical to use. Total liquid capacity should be at least 750 gallons. Use Figure 500-15 to find the total fixture units served and the required minimum septic tank capacity.
Fig. 500-14 Typical Septic Tank

ChevronTexaco Energy Technology Co.

500-35

April 2004

500 Drainage

Civil and Structural Manual

Fig. 500-15 Minimum Septic Tank Capacity Fixture Units Fixture


Drinking fountain Single stall shower Single lavatory sink Urinal Toilet Continuous flow of 1 gpm

Fixture Units
1 2 1 2 6 2

Minimum Septic Tank Capacity Total Fixture Units Served


15 20 25 33 45 55 60

Minimum Required Total Capacity (gal)


750 1000 1200 1500 2000 2250 2500

Leach Fields
Leach fields must provide sufficient soil area for the waste liquid to percolate into the ground. The area needed is strongly dependent on the permeability of the soil. If percolation test data are not available, use Figure 500-16 (from Reference [29]). The soil area is the trench bottom area plus excess sidewall area (see Figure 500-17).

April 2004

500-36

ChevronTexaco Energy Technology Co.

Civil and Structural Manual

500 Drainage

Design the system so that additional areaat least equivalent to the original area can be added if the original area cant absorb all the wastewater.
Fig. 500-16 Soil Area Needed for Leach Fields Leach Field Soil Area Type of Soil
Coarse sand or gravel Fine sand Sandy loam or sandy clay Clay with considerable sand or gravel Clay with small amount of sand or gravel

Required Area Per 100 gal. of Tank Capacity (ft2)


20 25 40 90 120

Fig. 500-17 Excess Sidewall Area

539 Material Considerations


When selecting materials for your drainage system, see Figure 500-20 and consider: Material composition and characteristics: Resistance to corrosion (internal and external) Reaction to temperature extremes (hot or cold fluids) Strength

ChevronTexaco Energy Technology Co.

500-37

April 2004

500 Drainage

Civil and Structural Manual

Durability Weight Hydraulic properties Availability of material Availability of labor with the necessary installation skills Leakage from joints Installed cost Local code requirements (especially for sanitary sewers)

Types of Drainage Materials


Catch basin materials include cast iron, steel, and concrete. Manholes can be made from cast-in-place or pre-cast concrete or Spirolite. Pipe materials include: Acrylonitrite-butadiene-styrene (ABS) Asbestos-cement (AC) (seeing decreasing use due to asbestos content) Carbon or stainless steel (CS or SS) Cast iron/ductile iron (CI) Chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (CPVC) Concrete cylinder pipe (CCP) Fiberglass reinforced plastic (FRP) High-density polyethylene (HDPE) Polybutylene (PB) Polypropylene (PP) Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) Reinforced concrete pipe (RCP) Spirolite (a Chevron HDPE product) Vitrified clay (VC) (Not Recommended: it is very fragile and the joints leak)

For information on non-metallic piping and cement-lined steel pipe, see References [5] and [11]. For information on metallic piping, see References [5] and [12]. Most of the materials listed above are discussed in detail in the following paragraphs. Their relative leakage potentials are tabulated in Figures 500-18 and 500-19. Also refer to Figure 500-20 Materials for Sewer and Drain Systems.
Fig. 500-18 Relative Leakage Potential of Drain Pipe Materials (1 of 2) Relative Leakage Potential Drain Pipe Material
Asbestos Cement Carbon Steel (interior bare) Carbon Steel (interior coated)(3) Cast Iron Ductile Iron

1 to 5(1)
5 1(2) 12 2 2

April 2004

500-38

ChevronTexaco Energy Technology Co.

Civil and Structural Manual

500 Drainage

Fig. 500-18 Relative Leakage Potential of Drain Pipe Materials (2 of 2) Relative Leakage Potential Drain Pipe Material
Fiberglass Reinforced Plastic (FRP) High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) HDPE Spirolite (a Chevron product) Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) Reinforced Concrete Vitrified Clay

1 to 5(1)
2 1 1 2 2 Not recommended

(1) Lowest (1) to Highest (5) (2) This evaluation assumes an exterior coating on the steel. The use of steel pipe without an exterior coating is not recommended under any circumstances because of corrosion caused by earth contact. (3) Proper selection and application of an interior coating may prevent corrosion from drain contents. Field welding of joints destroys interior coatings. For effective corrosion resistance, some type of mechanical joints should be used for pipe with an interior coating.

Fig. 500-19 Relative Leakage Potential of Drain Pipe Joints (1 of 2) Relative Leakage Potential Drain Pipe Joints
Asbestos Cement Bell and Spigot Threaded Carbon Steel Flanged Other Mechanical Joints Welded Cast Iron, Ductile Iron Bell and Spigot Flanged Other Mechanical Joints Fiberglass Reinforced Plastic (FRP) Bell Socket and Adhesive Mechanical (various types) Threaded High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) Bell and Spigot w/rubber gasket Heat Fusion Welding Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) Bell and Spigot Flange and Gasket Solvent Welds 4 3 2 3-4 1 2 3 5 2 2 2 3 4 1 3 5

1 to 5(1)

ChevronTexaco Energy Technology Co.

500-39

April 2004

500 Drainage

Civil and Structural Manual

Fig. 500-19 Relative Leakage Potential of Drain Pipe Joints (2 of 2) Relative Leakage Potential Drain Pipe Joints
Reinforced Concrete Bell and Spigot Bell and Spigot w/welded steel seal Spirolite (a ChevronTexco product) Bell and Spigot w/rubber gasket Bell and Spigot w/welding Vitrified Clay
Note

1 to 5(1)

2 1

2 1 Not recommended

Evaluations on this page are independent of Material Evaluations. They are intended only to indicate the security of various joining materials or methods relative to each other for each pipe material. (1) Lowest (1) to Highest (5)

April 2004

500-40

ChevronTexaco Energy Technology Co.

Fig. 500-20 Materials for Sewer and Drain Systems (Low Pressure) (1 of 4)
Chemical/Temp. Resistance(2) Poor against salty water, acids, soil corrosion. (Coatings often required.) No temperature limit for CS, CI limited by joints (150F for oakum; higher for push-on gaskets). Physical/ Mechanical Properties Typical Strength Installation (psi x 103) Considerations Relative Potential Leakage(3) Relative Cost (Installed) CI about the same cost as plastic pipe. Consider external corrosion when determining design life. Codes/ Specifications CS: ANSI/ASME B31.3 and B31.8, Co. EG-2505. CI: ASA-A40.1, ASTM A74 (215) ChevronTexaco Standard Drawing EF-611. DI: ANSI/AWWA C151/A21.51.

ChevronTexaco Energy Technology Co. 500-41 April 2004

Civil and Structural Manual

Material(1) Carbon Steel/Cast Iron/Ductile Iron

Availability CS: All sizes. May be welded (including ERW) or seamless. CI: Typically 2-15 in. diameter, 5-ft & 10-ft lengths. Ductile iron: 4-54 in. diameter, 18-ft lengths.

Density 7.8 25-35 g/cm3. Lin. Expn. 6.5-6.0 x 10-6 in./in. F. High strength. CS resists mechanical damage; CI more brittle but resists mechanical damage well. Ductile iron is almost as resistant as CS, resists thermal shock better than CI. Density 1.05 7-8 g/cm3 (ABS), 1.35 g/cm3 (PVC), 1.5 g/cm3 (CPVC). Lin. Expn. 30-60 x 10-6 in./in. F. Good resistance to mechanical damage but more rigid, brittle than HDPE after UV exposure.

Buried CS usually CS: 1 coated; CI (much CI & DI: 2 thicker) not coated. CS weld joints reliable; CI hub and spigot joints usually reliable (if no soil movement).

Thermoplastics: ABS, PVC, CPVC

1-1/4 in. - 12-in. readily available. Typical joint lengths of 20 ft.

Excellent for dilute acids, caustics, water. Limited resistance to concentrated acids, acid gases, chlorine gases, some hydrocarbons (aromatics). Temperature limit 140F (PVC) to 180F (ABS) to 210F (CPVC), higher for short excursions.

Joints solvent cemented (preferred) or use elastomeric gaskets, can be a leak source. Consider thrust blocks at changes in direction. Review UV resistance for aboveground installations.

Sizes less than 6 in., plastic pipe is the most economic alternative. For sizes 6-12 in., plastic, CI, HDPE, FRP, and VC are roughly the same.

ASTM D2661 (ABS drain, waste, vent pipe, and fittings). ASTM D2680 (ABS sewer pipe). ASTMS D2665 (PVC Drain Waste Vent pipe & fittings). ASTM D3034 (PVC Sewer pipe & fittings). ASTM D2846 (CPVC hot water distribution systems) For buried piping, see ASTM D2321 or D2774 guidelines.

500 Drainage

Fig. 500-20 Materials for Sewer and Drain Systems (Low Pressure) (2 of 4)
Chemical/Temp. Resistance(2) See thermoplastics. Temperature limit 180F possibly higher for short excursions. Physical/ Mechanical Properties Typical Strength Installation (psi x 103) Considerations Relative Potential Leakage(3) Relative Cost (Installed) About the same as Plastics. Above 18 in., more expensive than Spirolite. Codes/ Specifications See manufacturer's literature. Also, PPI and ChevronTexaco Piping Manuals. ASTM D2104; D2239; D2447; D2683; D3035; F714. API 15LE.

April 2004 500-42 ChevronTexaco Energy Technology Co.

500 Drainage

Material(1) HDPE (High Density Polyethylene Smooth)

Availability Readily available: Continuous coiled lengths 1/2-2 in. Straight lengths (20 and 40 ft.) 2-16 in. Available through 48 in. on special order. Some trade names: PLEXCO a Chevron product, Phillips Driscopipe, DuPont Canada Sclairpipe, Poly Pipe Industries Poly Pipe. 18 in. - 120 in. readily available. Standard length is 20 ft. Chevron product.

Density 0.95 3 g/cm3. Lin. Expn. 1.2 10-4 in./in. F. Not as strong as thermoplastics but very tough and resists mechanical damage.

1 Joined by heat fusion of butt ends. With UV screen (carbon black), good resistance for above-ground applications. See thermoplastics for other comments.

Spirolite (Rib-Reinforced HDPE, smooth wall on inside)

See Plastics.

See above. Thin wall, reinforced design produces a light weight product.

Joined by proprietary gasket system. Can be fusion welded for axial restraint.

2 (1 if welded)

See manufacUsually the most economic system turer's literature, above 18 in. Ease ASTM F894. of handling and installation lowers installed cost. Thin wall and great flexibility requires more care in trench preparation than concrete pipe (the system relies on transferring stresses to soil).

Civil and Structural Manual

Fig. 500-20 Materials for Sewer and Drain Systems (Low Pressure) (3 of 4)
Chemical/Temp. Resistance(2) Resistance varies with resin selection; best with vinyl ester resins. Excellent resistance to moderate acids, caustics, waters, and hydrocarbons. Limited resistance to concentrated acids. Temperature limit 220F; higher for short excursions. Excellent water and hydrocarbon resistance. Not resistant to acids, caustics, or H2S. Susceptible to thermal shock. ANSI B31.3 recommends 200F limit. Physical/ Mechanical Properties Typical Strength Installation (psi x 103) Considerations Relative Potential Leakage(3) Relative Cost (Installed) About the same as thermoplastics in sizes to about 12 in. In larger sizes, FRP is generally more expensive than HDPE and Spirolite. Codes/ Specifications API spec 5LR, ANSI/ASME B31.3 ASTM D3262, D3517, D3754, AWWA C950.

ChevronTexaco Energy Technology Co. 500-43 April 2004

Civil and Structural Manual

Material(1) Fiberglass Pipe

Availability 1 in. - 16 in. readily available. Larger sizes available. Typical joint length 20 ft.

Density 1.6 - 2.0 20-50 g/cm3. Lin. Expn. 10-18 x 10-6 in./in. F. Stronger than plastic pipe but more susceptible to mechanical damage.

2 Variety of joining methods; adhesive bonding of bell and spigot the most common. Requires some training and care to make reliable joints. Careful trench preparation and handling required. See thermoplastics above for additional comments. Usually bell joints with rubber gaskets. Heavy equipment needed for handling. Consider thrust blocks at changes of direction, protective casing under roadways. Restrained joints are available. 2 (1 if CCP is welded) RCP is not completely impervious, and very small cracks caused by loads may increase leakage. Use lined RCP or CCP for lower risk of leakage.

RCP (Reinforced Concrete Pipe) and CCP (Concrete Cylinder Pipe)

24-108 in. readily available. Joint lengths typically short (3-16 ft.), but can be customordered to 20 ft.

Density 2.3-2.5 g/cm3 Lin. Expn. 0.5 10-5 in./in.F. Brittle material.

Low material cost but can have high installation costs. Trench prep less critical than with FRP or Spirolite, but beware of soil settlement.

ASTM C14, C76, C361; AWWA C301, C302.

500 Drainage

Fig. 500-20 Materials for Sewer and Drain Systems (Low Pressure) (4 of 4)
Chemical/Temp. Resistance(2) Excellent water, hydro-carbon, and acid resistance. Limited caustic resistance. Temperature limit 150F (with oakum joints; higher with synthetic gaskets). Susceptible to thermal shock. Physical/ Mechanical Properties Typical Strength Installation (psi x 103) Considerations Usually bell and spigot joints finished with mortar. Synthetic gaskets are available. Adaptors are available to connect VC to other materials. Even more brittle and susceptible to handling damage than RCP (see RCP above for precautions). Relative Potential Leakage(3) Relative Cost (Installed) Codes/ Specifications See Clay Pipe Engineering Manual, National Clay Pipe Institute.

April 2004 500-44 ChevronTexaco Energy Technology Co.

500 Drainage

Material(1) VC (Vitrified Clay) Note: No longer recommended for any service due to high risk of leakage.

Availability 4-24 in. readily available. Available to 42 in. Joint lengths 3-1/3 - 5 ft.

Very brittle material; extra strength is available.

Sizes to about 15 5 in., about the same cost as thermoplastic pipe. Large sizes more expensive than HDPE or RCP.

(1) Other possible materials: - Asbestos-cement (more expensive than RCP, increasingly difficult to obtain). - Teflon and other plastic-lined pipe (can have excellent chemical resistance and mechanical properties but at high cost). - Polypropylene and polybutylene plastic pipe (similar to thermoplastic pipes in table, not as common). (2) Chemical resistance varies among plastics. If more than trace amounts of acids, caustics, or hydrocarbons are expected, consult Materials Division. (3) Almost all leakage problems occur at joints, so this is really a measure of relative joint integrity. Vitrified clay pipe is so brittle that it can have problems anywhere. 1 is lowest potential leakage; 5 is highest.

Civil and Structural Manual

Civil and Structural Manual

500 Drainage

Asbestos-Cement
Commonly known as Transite, asbestos-cement pipe is produced primarily by Johns Manville. In years past, it was considered to be a reasonable alternative to cast iron or ductile iron for water mains. Recently, it has lost market share to newer developments such as HDPE and fiberglass. Although somewhat out of favor now because recent restrictions on the use of asbestos, this component does not affect its use for drain lines. It is readily available and cheap. Sections are joined by belled couplings with rubber ring gaskets. All types of fittings are precast, some of cast iron. If the pipe is used for pressure applications, end restraint must be provided. It can be cut easily by a number of methods including the use of a hammer and chisel, but power-driven abrasive discs should not be used because such cutters produce airborne asbestos dust. Because of allowable deflection at the joints (up to 13.6 inches in a 13 ft length), the line can be laid in what amounts to a curve. Transites one major disadvantage is that it is quite brittle; great care must be used in handling and installing it. Trench bottom preparation and proper backfill are extremely important. Vendor: Johns Manville

Carbon Steel
If absolute assurance against leakage is needed, carbon steel pipe with welded joints is probably the safest product to use. However, it is subject to corrosion problems under certain conditions: If the pipe is in contact with most soils, the exterior surfaces must be coated and cathodic protection must be used. If the pipe is to handle corrosive fluids, the interior may also require coating.

These factors tend to make carbon steel pipe less desirable for drains than some other materials unless the pressure-retaining or temperature properties of steel are needed. Under certain conditions, it may be preferable to join the pipe sections with mechanical connectors (such as flanges or Victaulic or Dresser couplings). Mechanical connectors should be used if: The interior is coated (welding will usually destroy any such coating). Frequent inspection of the interior surfaces is required. Replacement without welding will be necessary.

Vendors: Carbon steel pipe is so commonly available that a listing will not be given here.

ChevronTexaco Energy Technology Co.

500-45

April 2004

500 Drainage

Civil and Structural Manual

Cast Iron/Ductile Iron


These two materials are very similar. Historically, they have been more widely used for pressure water applications than for drains. Their costs are approximately equal. For drains, ductile irons greater strength and ductility results in: Less fragility (easier to handle during installation). Greater resistance to thermal or mechanical shock while in use.

For both materials, joints are usually bell and spigot type with a packing material or gasket. The type of packing material or gasket must be carefully selected for the application. These joints lack end restraint but this is not usually a problem for gravity drains which are buried and stabilized with thrust blocks. If end restraint is necessary, flanged or other special mechanical joints can be used on ductile iron pipe. Fittings such as ells, tees, wyes, etc., are precast. Most bell and spigot joints allow some joint deflection which enables the line to be laid in a slight curve. Depending on the joint type and sealing material, typical deflections might be 3 to 4 degrees (approximately 12 to 20 inches deflection) for a 20 ft length. If rubber gaskets are used, deflections can be larger. Advantages of iron pipe include: Extensive experience from a long history of use. Greater strength than some of the newer thin-wall materials.

Disadvantages of iron pipe include: Purchase cost can be more than some newer materials. Heavy weight can make shipment and installation costly.

Vendors: American Ductile Iron Pipe Company U. S. Pipe Company

Fiberglass Reinforced Plastic (FRP)


This material, also known simply as fiberglass pipe is nearly on par with HDPE as a preferred material for drain systems. It is made with thermosetting composite materials or epoxy resins which contain fiberglass for reinforcing. A number of different resin/ reinforcement combinations can be formulated to provide the corrosion resistance and strength required. The finished pipe has a relatively high strength/weight ratio, similar to or possibly higher than HDPE. This pipe can be used for direct burial or for slip lining or jacking into a drain to be repaired. In Europe, FRP has been used for more than 30 years.

April 2004

500-46

ChevronTexaco Energy Technology Co.

Civil and Structural Manual

500 Drainage

FRP is produced by centrifugal casting or by filament winding. Either method can produce various wall thicknesses to satisfy the strength requirement. Filament winding: Is more commonly used for the larger diameters. Can produce an externally-ribbed wall for greater structural strength.

FRP can be fabricated of composite materials for special temperature or corrosion resistance needs. The interior of the finished pipe is very smooth with good flow characteristics. The most common method of joining pipe ends is by bell and spigot with a special adhesive. Joint fit is very important and must be done properly to get a good connection. Joints can also be made with several mechanical joint types such as flanged, threaded, bell and spigot with O-rings, grooved joint couplings, etc. Some joining methods (such as the bell and spigot) require end restraint. FRP can be cut readily in the field and the ends joined with a sleeve-type coupling. FRP fittings of all types can be fabricated. These can be made to match ductile iron OD dimensions for use with ductile iron pipe. Fiberglass pipe can be supplied in pressure ratings up to 300 psi and for use in temperatures up to 225F. As with HDPE pipe, the coefficient of thermal expansion is greater than for steel so this must be considered in the design. Vendors: Fibercast Company, Hobas USA Inc. Smith Fiberglass (A. O. Smith Co.)

High Density Polyethylene (HDPE)


High density polyethylene has become the material of choice for almost all drain applications. It has been used in sanitary sewers for 25 years. Characteristics of HDPE include: Cost competitive. Easy to handle and install. HDPEs specific gravity is less than 1.0; it will float even if filled with water. Trenches must be drained before placing the pipe. Generally good corrosion resistance (see paragraph below). High thermal coefficient of expansion (roughly twice that of steel). The smaller sizes can be bent to shape somewhat to conform to unusual ditch grades or alignments. The larger sizes lack structural strength unless special forms or shapes are used (refer to Spirolite data). Can be used to fabricate fittings such as manholes or catch basins to produce a material-integrated system.

ChevronTexaco Energy Technology Co.

500-47

April 2004

500 Drainage

Civil and Structural Manual

Can be used as a corrosion protection barrier for the external surfaces of steel pipe and for some internal linings.

HDPE is generally thought to be resistant to virtually any substance in a drain. However, high concentrations of some hydrocarbons (especially at high temperatures) can cause problems. The hydrocarbon is absorbed into the HDPE which swells, softens, and becomes weaker. This change is not permanent; when the hydrocarbon is removed, the strength returns (refer to vendor data; e.g., ADS). Certain acids, chlorine gas, and other chemicals can cause permanent damage. If a drain is likely to contain these substances, consult technical data from the vendors or Materials and Equipment Engineering before using HDPE. Maximum allowable operating pressures range from 225 psi in the smaller sizes to 50 psi in the larger. The usual allowable temperature ranges are: Pressure applications: - 50F to + 140F. Non-pressure applications: - 50F to + 180F.

HDPEs temperature range is better than PVC which has less impact resistance at low temperature. Water can freeze in the HDPE pipe without causing permanent damage. High temperature reduces the strength and stiffness and improves ductility; low temperature has the opposite effects. Joining lengths of HDPE pipe and installation of fittings in the smaller, solid wall pipe sizes is usually done by heat fusion welding. End thrust restraint is not needed in this case. In the larger sizes with special configurations (refer to Spirolite data), bell and spigot-type joints with special rubber gaskets are used. HDPE pipe is produced by many companies in many sizes.

Spirolite (a Chevron product)


Spirolite is a unique configuration of thin wall polyethylene pipe with special hollow reinforcing rings around the circumference. This design allows large diameters to be fabricated with improved mechanical strength/weight ratio. Characteristics include: Light weight. For 36-inch pipe: Spirolite weighs 30 lb/ft. Ductile iron weighs 170 lb/ft. Reinforced concrete weighs 565 lb/ft.

Trench dewatering is necessary and backfilling must be done before water is allowed back into the trench. The smooth interior gives good flow characteristics. It is also available with a smooth exterior (retaining the hollow rings for added strength); this design is preferred if the pipe sections are to be jacked or pulled into an existing drain as a renovation liner. Its flexibility requires care in installation and assembly.

April 2004

500-48

ChevronTexaco Energy Technology Co.

Civil and Structural Manual

500 Drainage

Manholes, sumps and other fittings such as ells, wyes, tees, etc., can be fabricated from Spirolite.

Normally, connections are made with a special rubber gasket in a press-in male/female joint. This joint is claimed to be resistant to both exfiltration and infiltration leaks. After assembly, joints can be made extra secure by applying a thermal weld bead on the inside or outside or both. For a cross section view of Spirolite, refer to Figure 500-21.
Fig. 500-21 Cross Section View of Spirolite Joint

ADS (Advanced Drainage Systems, Inc.)


This company also produces a special polyethylene drain pipe that is corrugated for strength. In many respects it is similar to Spirolite, but to date the manufacturer cannot guarantee watertight joints so it cannot be recommended. However, one interesting drain fitting could be useful in special situations. This is a panel-shaped section of perforated polyethylene that is used for interceptor drains where only a narrow trench is allowed for installation. Sections 4 inches wide and 12 or 18 inches high are available. Vendors of HDPE: Solid wall: Dow Chemical, PLEXCO Special Shapes: Spirolite, ADS Inc.

Reinforced Concrete Pipe (RCP)


Reinforced concrete pipe has been the traditional material used for drain lines, especially in the larger sizes. It has a good history of usage over many years with extensive contractor installation experience. The fabrication technology is mature and well standardized. It is strong, has good vacuum collapse resistance, and is corrosion resistant in most systems. Although not as smooth internally as HDPE or fiberglass pipe, it still can be supplied smooth enough to give a H & W factor of C = 140 in the new condition. At least one vendor can supply concrete pipe with an internal plastic lining for special corrosion resistance.

ChevronTexaco Energy Technology Co.

500-49

April 2004

500 Drainage

Civil and Structural Manual

Large diameter sections must be relatively short to reduce the weight for handling. One vendor offers diameters of 12 to 96 inches in 8-foot lengths. Joints between sections are mechanical, usually a bell and spigot configuration with a rubber or composition sealing ring compressed between the concrete faces or sometimes between steel joint rings cast into the concrete. The annular space inside and outside of the seal ring is then filled with grout. These joints are not normally end thrust restrained but in some cases steel joint rings can be seal welded. Disadvantages: Its weight requires use of heavy construction equipment. Trench bottom bedding must be precisely placed. Backfilling requires special care. All tees, wyes, ells, etc. as well as even minor changes in direction require precast fittings.

Vendor: Ameron

Thermoplastics (ABS, CPVC, PVC)


Thermoplastics (herein abbreviated for convenience as PVC) have a reasonably good history of usage, although they are now being overtaken somewhat by polyethylene (standard or special configurations) and by fiberglass. Characteristics of PVC include: Easy to cut and fit. Good resistance to some substances. More rigid and brittle than polyethylene (PE). If stored or installed above ground, ultraviolet light from the sun will reduce its impact strength. Low temperature reduces its flexibility and impact resistance. Its high coefficient of expansion requires provision for flexibility.

Joints can be made using solvent welds, flanges with gaskets, or bell and spigot. For the latter type joint, end restraints or thrust blocks must be provided. Precast fittings of all types are available. To some extent, the pipe can be bent to fit trench curvature. Vendors: Johns Manville Ryan Herco

April 2004

500-50

ChevronTexaco Energy Technology Co.

Civil and Structural Manual

500 Drainage

Vitrified Clay
Vitrified clay pipe has been used for centuries but it is no longer recommended. It is very fragile and the joints tend to leak. Its major advantage is its resistance to acids and most other corrosive substances.

540 Drain System Repair and Retrofit


This section deals with testing, inspection, repair, and retrofit of existing drains that are leaking or are suspected to be leaking. Many contractors and vendors offer more than one of the services listed. For example, it is common for a company that specializes in drain repair, relining, sealing of joints, etc., to also offer televised internal inspection service. This is natural because inspection is necessary to determine the need for repair, selection of the repair method, and monitoring the repair procedure. The subsequent sections include recommendations for repair of existing drains by internal lining, sealing of joint leaks, or complete replacement. Retrofit refers to the process by which additions are made to an existing drain to upgrade it to a condition similar or almost equal to a newly-installed drain. In this document, retrofit primarily means the installation of leak detection devices in an attempt to achieve a reasonable degree of security against leaks. However, it is virtually impossible to upgrade an existing underground system to rival a new drain installation because of the difficulty of placing the cables or detector probes where they need to be to do their job. In addition to the information presented in Section 540, refer to the Sewer Repair Consumer Guide Prepared for PERF 94-12, attached to this manual as Appendix G. It contains a catalog of recommended sewer repair methods, vendor contacts, and a sewer repair decision tree.

541 Inspection/Detection for Existing Drains


The integrity of an existing drain line can be checked by one or more of several methods. Generally, these can be categorized as: Pressure testing Visual inspection Leakage detectors

Pressure Testing
Pressure testing of a drain line can give some indication of its condition. This test can be done by blocking off a section between manholes, filling the manholes and drain with water, and observing the water level for changes: If the water level drops, water is leaking out (if the ground water level is lower than the test water level). If the water level rises, water is leaking in (if the ground water level is higher than the test water level).

ChevronTexaco Energy Technology Co.

500-51

April 2004

500 Drainage

Civil and Structural Manual

A change in the water level indicates leakage, but it could be difficult to determine the location(s), type(s), and best way(s) to stop it. Testing with air pressure is also an option, but this method has the same limitations as the water test described above. If a pressure test indicates leakage, the leak location(s) must be found by one of the following methods: Visual inspection by worker entry or television camera. Use of a tracer gas (refer to Leakage Detectors paragraphs below).

Visual Inspection
Visual inspection can be done in several ways. Initially, some indication of drain condition can be obtained by visual examination of the manhole(s) and the adjacent portions of the drain lines. If a drain line is large enough and can be taken out of service, a worker can enter the drain and observe the interior surfaces and joints of the drain. Deterioration effects could include the following: Older drains (especially of concrete or vitrified clay) collapsing in places due to lack of support or changes in exterior loads. Separations at joints. Corrosion.

If the adjacent ground water table is high, infiltration might be observed through cracks, broken sections, or bad joints.

Inspection by Television Camera


Smaller drains not accessible for worker entry (up to 20 inches) can be inspected visually by a remote-controlled closed-circuit TV camera. Television inspection is not as reliable as direct visual but can be helpful. Some of the deterioration effects listed above can be observed. Comprehensive inspection by television usually requires cleaning the drain first. Several companies offer television inspection of drain lines. The cameras are remotely controlled from outside the drain and above ground (from a console mounted on a truck or trailer). The camera either has self-contained mobility or is pulled through the drain by means of a tow line. Some systems are capable of rotation of the viewing head so that viewing at an angle to or even perpendicular to the drain axis is possible. This capability can give a more detailed view of the drain wall or laterals entering the drain. Almost all systems available are offered in conjunction with a leak repair system of some sort. This allows the repair to be made on the spot, using the camera for positioning control and for visual inspection after repair.

April 2004

500-52

ChevronTexaco Energy Technology Co.

Civil and Structural Manual

500 Drainage

Use of a television camera has major advantages in that the inspection(s) can be preserved on video tape: For detailed examination before a repair decision. As a historical record of conditions before and after repair.

Although vendor literature contains striking photos of major infiltration leaks, some leaks may not be obvious under all conditions: If the adjacent ground water level is below the drain elevation, an infiltration leak will not be visible. The only visual indication of a potential exfiltration or infiltration leak may be cracks in the drain wall, parted joints, roots or other blockage, etc.

Contractors offering TV inspection services include: Cherne Industries, Inc. Cues, Incorporated Heath Consultants Brand Precision Olympus (video image by fiber optics) PLS International Rodding-Cleaning Services, Inc. Subtronic Corporation West Coast Locators

Leakage Detectors
Descriptions of leak detection systems for new drain installations are covered at length in Section 554. Many of the systems listed there can be used to check an existing drain for leaks by drilling holes in the ground near the drain for placement of probe detectors. Several companies offer methods which claim to detect and locate leak points in existing underground tanks or piping including drain lines. The equipment or chemicals used may be proprietary. Some methods depend on detection of materials normally in the drain (such as hydrocarbons). Other methods inject a specific substance or chemical into the drain for detection when it leaks.

The detection methods used may include some combination of: Flame ionization Gas chromatography Ground penetrating radar Photoionization detectors Soil vapor sampling systems Tracer gas injection and detection

ChevronTexaco Energy Technology Co.

500-53

April 2004

500 Drainage

Civil and Structural Manual

Vendors and contractors for leak detection systems and their general method of operation are listed below (also see Section 554): Environmental Instruments Co. uses gas chromatography and flame ionization for detection. Geophysical Survey Systems Inc. uses subsurface interface radar for gas leak detection. Heath Consultants Incorporated uses: Hydrogen flame ionization to test for trace leaks of methane and ethane. Helium as a tracer gas (drain must be taken out of service for test).

Detection is by gas chromatography or gas/air differential density. Tracer Research Corporation uses proprietary tracer gas injection for leak detection. West Coast Locators, Inc. uses helium as a tracer gas and hydrocarbon gas detectors.

542 Joint/Localized Area Repairs


Visual inspection of an existing drain (by television or by personnel entering the line) may indicate that the drain is basically in good condition but that many joints or other isolated points are leaking. In this case, you should consider several methods available for sealing or repairing only the joints or localized areas. The various methods are summarized below. All of the repair systems can be classified in several ways: By whether the repair is applied to the external or internal surfaces of the drain line joint or local area. If the repair is internal, whether it is applied by workers actually entering the drain (20 inches or larger) or by devices remotely controlled from the manholes or from above ground. By the method of joint repair or sealing: Mechanical Foam grout or equivalent

For remotely controlled internal repairs, the operating system usually includes: Confirming and locating the leak. Cleaning of the affected surfaces. The actual sealing mechanism or procedure. Testing of the joint by pressure or vacuum before and after the joint repair.

If the line is large enough for worker entry, all of the above functions can be performed manually.

April 2004

500-54

ChevronTexaco Energy Technology Co.

Civil and Structural Manual

500 Drainage

543 Internal Sealing Systems


If the drain line is buried, repair of drain line joints by internal access is preferable to external access. Access to the outside of the joint requires some excavation and disruption of ground level traffic. If the drain line has conveniently located manholes, these can be used as the primary access points. If the system does not have manholes, special access points must be excavated. At the end of the work, these access points can be converted into system manholes or the drain line can be reconnected across the excavation.

Vendor claims vary for the lengths of drain line that can be worked on between access openings. For remote controlled systems, this distance is limited by: The available lengths of equipment control lines, cables, etc. Certain features of the drain line such as direction changes, diameter changes, etc.

For worker-accessible drain lines, the limitations are primarily safety (the maximum distance from an access opening that it is safe for a person to work). Generally, smaller diameter drains should have more closely spaced access points. Drains up to approximately 30 inches in diameter: Require the worker to travel in the line on a dolly or carriage. Hinder assistance and rescue. Limit the flow of fresh air.

The location of leaking joints must be ascertained by some means. If ground water is leaking into the drain, the leak can probably be easily located by worker entry or TV camera. If the drain is leaking into the ground, the leak may be difficult to locate by an internal inspection. If the leakage is severe, complete sealing of all joints or of every joint within a specified section should be considered.

Sealing systems offered by various vendors (listed alphabetically by trade name) are discussed below. AMEX-10 Vendor or Contractor Offering: Method of Inspection: Method of Testing: Method of Repair: Accessibility: Size of Drain Limitations: Claimed Distance Between Openings:
(1) Presumed to be the same as Weko-Seal.

Miller Pipeline Corp. Visual Not indicated Mechanical Worker entry Not indicated(1) Not indicated1

ChevronTexaco Energy Technology Co.

500-55

April 2004

500 Drainage

Civil and Structural Manual

This sealing system is very similar to Weko-Seal with somewhat more sealing surfaces. Seals are available in three widths of 10.2 inches, 14.4, and 25.6 inches. Seal material for: Gas and sewage is nitride-butadiene-rubber. Potable water is EDPM-rubber.

Figure 500-22 shows a cross-section of an AMEX-10 seal.


Fig. 500-22 Cross Section of an AMEX-10 Seal

The manufacturer claims that these seals have been used to repair many types of lines including ductile iron, cast iron, steel, reinforced concrete, PVC and other synthetics, and concrete-lined steel. Cues Reveal and Seal Vendor or Contractor Offering: Method of Inspection: Method of Testing: Method of Repair: Accessibility: Size of Drain Limitations: Claimed Distance Between Openings: Cues, Inc. Television camera Air or water pressure Grout None (remote control only) Not indicated Not indicated

April 2004

500-56

ChevronTexaco Energy Technology Co.

Civil and Structural Manual

500 Drainage

This system for non-accessible drain repair is completely controlled from the outside. The manufacturer claims it to be an integrated system for: Inspection (by TV camera) for location of leaks. Placement of the special sealing packer (located by TV). Pressure testing of the joint (by air or water). Injecting the chemical grout using the same hoses as for testing. Testing again after the grouting. Inspection again by TV after the packer is removed.

The manufacturer claims that bad joints in laterals coming into the drain can also be sealed. Details about how the system works are sketchy but apparently it is similar to the Cherne Industries system described below. In-Weg Vendor or Contractor Offering: Method of Inspection: Method of Testing: Method of Repair: Accessibility: Size of Drain Limitations: Claimed Distance Between Openings: PLCS, Inc. (for installation) Visual Air/Water pressure Grout Worker entry 18" to 72" (or larger) Not stated (see below)

This seal is essentially identical to the Weko-Seal (see above). The In-Weg Seal was developed in Europe and first used in 1964. PLCS, Inc. obtained a license to distribute it in the USA. For distance between openings, no claim is made but it would be comparable to the Weko-Seal. The access distances depend more on the safety of workers than on the design of the sealing system. On one job in Britain (a 24 inch drain line 6.2 km long), sections of line 400 to 1500 meters long were repaired. Weko-Seal Vendor or Contractor Offering: Method of Inspection: Method of Testing: Method of Repair: Accessibility: Size of Drain Limitations: Claimed Distance Between Openings: Miller Pipeline Corporation Visual Air pressure Mechanical Worker entry 14"(?) to 144" and larger 5000 ft (this may be extreme)

This system uses a specially designed synthetic rubber (E.P.D.M.) seal with stainless steel retaining bands. Good surface cleaning and preparation of the internal pipe surfaces is necessary to get a well-sealed joint. After this is done, the seal is manu-

ChevronTexaco Energy Technology Co.

500-57

April 2004

500 Drainage

Civil and Structural Manual

ally placed in position across the joint to be sealed. Then stainless steel retaining bands are fitted into place and expanded outward against the rubber seal. The completed seal can be air tested. The finished joint repair has a very low profile which optimizes flow characteristics. Apparently, actual or potential leaks other than joints could also be sealed (e.g., a localized corroded area, deep pits, etc.) but the vendors literature does not address this capability. The standard Weko Seal can span gaps of up to 4 inches An available extra wide seal can span 9 inches. For wider gaps, special sleeves can be used. Weko seals have been installed on steel, cast iron, ductile iron, and reinforced concrete pipe (lined and unlined).

This seal was originally developed in Germany and was first used in Frankfurt in 1964. (See In-Weg Seal description above). (Trade Name Not Given) Vendor or Contractor Offering: Method of Inspection: Method of Testing: Method of Repair: Accessibility: Size of Drain limitations: Claimed Distance Between Openings: Cherne Industries Incorporated Visual Air/water pressure (see below) Grout Worker entry 30" to 120" standard (custom sizes are available) None stated

This system uses a special testing/sealing ring placed manually across the joint. Two balloon elements on either side of the joint opening are expanded by air pressure against the inner surfaces of the pipe to form a seal on both sides. Then water is pumped into the cavity: If the pressure rises and holds, the joint is considered good. If the pressure drops, it can be assumed that the water is leaking through the joint and into the ground outside the joint.

If the joint needs sealing, grout is pumped into the same space to displace the water and seal the joint. After the grout hardens, the joint can again be tested as before. The type of grout used is not stated. Grout can also be used to seal leaking joints in manholes by injection with a probe to the back side of the manhole rings.

April 2004

500-58

ChevronTexaco Energy Technology Co.

Civil and Structural Manual

500 Drainage

This system appears to be of Swiss origin. (Trade Name Not Given) Vendor or Contractor Offering: Method of Inspection: Method of Testing: Method of Repair: Accessibility: Size of Drain Limitations: Claimed Distance Between Openings: Cherne Industries, Inc. TV camera Not indicated Grout (see below) None (remote control only) Not indicated (would be for small lines) Not given

This system is similar to Cues Reveal and Seal but more details are given. It uses a remotely controlled TV camera to inspect and control the cleaning and repair work. Two seal mediums are used: Urethane Vari Seal (various grouts)

A special packer allows the joint to be tested before any work is done. The system was developed in Switzerland. (Trade Name Not Given) Vendor or Contractor Offering: Method of Inspection: Method of Testing: Method of Repair: Accessibility: Size of Drain Limitations: Claimed Distance Between Openings: Rodding/Cleaning Services Inc. (Agent for Carylon Company) Internal TV camera Not specified Grout Worker entry or remote TV Not specified; one case history was for sizes up to 42" Not specified

This general services contractor does maintenance work on existing sewer and drain lines. They offer: A remote-controlled TV inspection service. Cleaning of the drains by various means. Repair of leaks by several grouting methods.

The equipment used is not clearly specified and probably includes devices reviewed elsewhere in this document.

544 External Repairs


As previously noted, external repair of a joint in a buried drain line requires that the joint be excavated. Determination of which joints are leaking may be difficult.

ChevronTexaco Energy Technology Co.

500-59

April 2004

500 Drainage

Civil and Structural Manual

If ground water is infiltrating the drain, the locations of the leaks may not be obvious. If the drain is leaking from the inside to the surrounding ground, there may be some obvious indication such as drainage liquids coming to the surface.

For a line that gives some indication of 50% or more of joints leaking, standard practice has been to excavate and seal all joints. Once the joint is uncovered (depending on the type of joint), sealing will usually consist of: Some type of repair or replacement of the original seal, or Complete encapsulation of the joint.

The drain line may be leaking somewhere other than the joints (for example, at a corroded/pitted area or the pipe section may be cracked). For these cases, uncovering of the joints only will not suffice and the only alternative may be to uncover the entire line. Such a procedure could approach or surpass the cost of complete line replacement. One advantage of external repair of joints (compared to internal methods) is that usually the drain can remain in service during the repair.

Materials and Methods Available


Miller Pipeline Corporation offers two joint sealing methods for use on bell and spigot joints, on flanged or other mechanical-type joints, or on compression couplings: Encapseal uses a flexible, disposable fabric mold which encircles the leaking joint. A two-part polyurethane mixture sealing medium is injected into the mold. For operating pressures up to 60 psi, various materials can be used for the mold. Millerseal is primarily intended for sealing leaking bell joints on cast iron mains. It uses a polymeric sealing material with heat sensitive properties that is mechanically squeezed into the leaking joint.

Either seal system can be used with the slot and vacuum excavation technique which minimizes digging.

545 Complete Internal Relining


Several systems on the market install a new internal lining in a drain that is leaking or is suspected to be leaking. Vendors or contractors involved in this work offer various combinations of materials, equipment and services. These include: Testing or inspection devices or services to confirm and locate leaks in drains. Measuring the volume or rate of the leaks. Cleaning the drain (if necessary). Installing the lining and stopping the leaks. Testing and inspection to ascertain that the job is done well.

April 2004

500-60

ChevronTexaco Energy Technology Co.

Civil and Structural Manual

500 Drainage

Most inspections use a closed circuit television camera. If the line to be inspected is steel, magnetic flux current devices can be used to measure wall thickness, detect corrosion pits, etc. Cleaning is done by the use of scraping pigs pulled by a cable or pushed by compressed air through the line. Subsequent paragraphs describe various internal relining methods and identify vendors/contractors offering these services.

Sliplining/Swagelining
Sliplining is a somewhat generic term for the process by which an internal liner (usually of HDPE) is pulled or pushed into an existing installed drain. The inserted liner is slightly smaller in diameter than the existing drain, the OD/ID differences being sufficient to minimize installation friction between the two. In most cases, the improved flow characteristics of the HDPE compared to the deteriorated original drain usually compensates for the reduced cross section. Insertec is a sliplining process offered by Miller Pipeline Corp. for live insertion (without taking the line out of service). It is intended primarily for relining gas mains and appears to be of little use for drains. The slip-liner is pushed into the main through a special fitting which holds pressure on the main. The information available is limited. Phillips Driscopipe 9100 (offered by Miller Pipeline Corp) has been used for relining of steel pipes from 2 to 30 inches in diameter. On one job, the pull lengths ranged from 100 ft to 3700 ft. Production averaged 1800 ft/day with a crew of 12. The HDPE pipe sections are delivered to the site and fusion-butt welded together on the job to form a continuous string for pulling into the drain to be relined. After insertion, the liner is pressurized and expanded against the inner wall of the steel pipe. The liner is held in this position until it viscoelastically stress relieves itself and accepts the expanded diameter as its permanent diameter. In some cases, hot water or steam can be used to assist this process. Swagelining (offered by Dowell Schlumberger for drains of 3 to 24 inches in diameter) is very similar to Driscopipe. The HDPE is heated and pulled through a swaging die to reduce its diameter as it enters the steel pipe. As the in-place HDPE liner cools, it expands to its original diameter to fit tightly against the steel. Service laterals would have been located earlier by TV camera. After the Swagelining process, openings at the laterals are cut out by a remote-controlled high pressure water jet cutter. Vendors/Contractors: Dowell Schlumberger (Trade name: Swagelining) Miller Pipeline Corp. (Trade names: Driscopipe 9100 and Insertec) Plexco, Inc. (for sliplining material) Rodding-Cleaning Services, Inc. (division of Carylon Corp.)

ChevronTexaco Energy Technology Co.

500-61

April 2004

500 Drainage

Civil and Structural Manual

Insituform
This is a rather unique process for lining the inside of a deteriorated drain line. The lining material is a polyester fiber felt tube impregnated with a thermosetting resin. The liner is installed in the drain section by inverting (turning it inside out) with hydrostatic water pressure. This pressure also forces the tube outward to mold itself to the interior surfaces of the drain line. The resin is then cured by circulating and heating the water. The resulting lining: Is molded tightly against the inner wall of the drain. Has a smooth interior surface with virtually no reduction in drain line ID but improved flow characteristics.

The lining is installed manhole-to-manhole so access to the drain through permanent or temporary manholes is necessary. This system has been used on lines from 4 to 96 inches in diameter and in sections up to 2000 ft long. Even non-circular conduits (e.g., egg-shaped) can be lined in this way. The tube can negotiate direction changes in the drain up to 90 degrees. To some extent, the lining will correct minor irregularities in the interior wall of the existing drain because the hydrostatic pressure tends to force it outward slightly. The manufacturer also claims that the lining will strengthen the drain. After the lining is cured, lateral outlets are cut either manually (if the drain is large enough to be accessible) or with special remote controlled cutting equipment. The system was developed in the United Kingdom in 1971 and brought to the USA in 1977. More than 8 million feet of pipe have been relined in this way. Figure 500-23 shows how the Insituform internal lining is installed.

Spirolite (a Chevron product)


This semi-rigid form of HDPE can be used to reline bad drains by jacking it into the old drain horizontally, section by section. The procedure requires an open pit long enough for the sections and the jacking equipment. Gaskets are used between the sections. After each drain run between manholes is jacked into place, the annular space between the two pipes can be grouted. The vendor claims that either Core Wall (smooth inside and outside) or Profile Wall (smooth inside and corrugations outside) can be used. However, Core Wall would apparently be easier to install and grout. A clearance of 5% of the Spirolite OD is necessary for grouting. Spirolite can also be used for relining circular section manholes.

XPANDIT
This is a method specifically designed to replace vitrified clay pipes (up to 20 inch diameter) that are badly broken but not completely collapsed. Although intended for clay drains, it presumably could also be used for plain concrete pipe (not reinforced), and probably even asbestos-cement (Transite) pipe.

April 2004

500-62

ChevronTexaco Energy Technology Co.

Civil and Structural Manual

500 Drainage

Fig. 500-23 How Insituform Internal Lining is Installed

STAGE 1
The resin saturated material is installed in the existing pipe through a manhole or other access point via an inversion standpipe and inversion elbow. The Insitutube is cuffed back and banded to the inversion elbow, creating a a closed system that allows the water inversion process to take place.

STAGE 2
Water from nearby hydrants, or other convenient source, is used to fill the inversion standpipe. The force of the column of water turns the wet-out Insitutube inside-out and into the pipe being reconstructed. As the Insitutube travels through the pipe, water is continually added to maintain a constant pressure. The water pressure keeps the Insitutube pressed tightly against the walls of the old pipe.

STAGE 3
After the Insitutube reaches the termination point, the water in the line is circulated through a heat exchanger where it is heated and returned to the Insitutube. The hot water cures the thermosetting resin, causing it to harden into a structurally sound, jointless pipe-within-a-pipe an Insitupipe.

STAGE 4
Once the Insitupipe has hardened and cooled, the water pressure is released and the ends are trimmed. Service connections are reinstated internally with a remote control cutting device or by man-entry techniques. The Insituform operation is then completed, and the newly installed pipe is ready for immediate use. All this is accomplished without excavation.

A specially designed head walks its way into the conduit of the existing clay pipe. As the head advances: It expands to break the clay pipe and forces it out into the surrounding soil. It pulls the special design HDPE replacement pipe into place.

The replacement pipe can be the same size as the original clay line or even the next larger size.

ChevronTexaco Energy Technology Co.

500-63

April 2004

500 Drainage

Civil and Structural Manual

Vendor/Contractor: Miller Pipeline Corp. Figure 500-24 shows the XPANDIT head in operation.
Fig. 500-24 The XPANDIT Head in Operation

546 Complete Replacement


One option for correcting a bad drain line is complete replacement. Generally, this would be done only: In the event of a major collapse or failure of the drain. If substantially greater flow capacity is also necessary.

The required excavation, disruption of surface traffic, etc. are major disadvantages. Replacement is effectively a new installation; relevant information is given elsewhere in this manual (for Material Considerations, refer to Section 539).

550 Containment and Leak Detection


551 Introduction/Summary
Some new drain installations require enhanced or absolute containment and/or detection of leakage. Present state-of-the-art techniques include three broad and general approaches: Double pipe systems. This concept uses concentric (pipe-within-a-pipe) designs so that: The inner pipe is the actual liquid drain. The outer pipe will contain any leakage from the inner pipe.

Troughs or trenches. This containment system consists of some type of trough so that any leakage from the drain will be contained. Enhanced detection. If less than absolute containment is allowable, a high level of detection capability can be used.

April 2004

500-64

ChevronTexaco Energy Technology Co.

Civil and Structural Manual

500 Drainage

Appendix F (Secondary Containment for New Construction and Existing Facilities) reviews the regulations, requirements, and recommendations for secondary containment in both new and existing facilities. It provides guidance on secondary containment for equipment that processes, conveys, and stores solids and liquids. The general principles relating to secondary containment are reviewed, followed by guidelines for specific cases. References are provided to direct the reader to the appropriate environmental regulations. This appendix also provides example designs typically used for both new construction and existing facilities. The reader should review the Introduction, Legal Requirements, and Environmental Factors sections of this appendix before proceeding to a specific section. Each of the sections contain information on applicable regulations, recommendations for secondary containment in absence of regulations, and a discussion on designs for both new and existing facilities.

552 Double Pipe Systems


Double wall pipe systems use the inner pipe as the actual drain (carrier) and the outer pipe as the containment. Construction can be of almost any of the listed pipe materials. Different materials usually have different thermal coefficients of expansion. Therefore, it is more common to use the same material for both pipes. For twomaterial systems, the most common combination is steel for the carrier and fiberglass for the containment. Expansion can be handled by flexibility or by restraint. For carrier/containment pipes differing by only one standard pipe size, it is difficult to adjust lengths for a proper fit and still allow for the required expansion. The annular space between the two pipes will need supports and guides. A different approach (especially in the proprietary systems) is to restrain the movement, creating tension or compression in the components. This is acceptable if the stress levels are within allowable limits. Hydrostatic testing of the inner/outer pipes can be complicated. The better systems allow for complete assembly and testing of the inner pipe before the outer pipe is installed over it. These double pipe system designs assume provision for leakage detection (from the inner drain pipe to the outer containment pipe) either continuously or intermittently (refer to Section 554). For comprehensive containment protection, double walls would also be required at manholes, catch basins, etc.

Carbon Steel Double Pipes


Carbon steel double containment drain systems are in use. The design is similar to that used for jacketed lines carrying liquid sulphur which contain steam in the annular space. Fabrication and assembly is very difficult and costly. Carbon steel would be preferable to some of the other materials only if its higher temperature characteristics or pressure-retaining capabilities are necessary.

ChevronTexaco Energy Technology Co.

500-65

April 2004

500 Drainage

Civil and Structural Manual

Proprietary Systems
Several partially pre-assembled double pipe systems are on the market as proprietary designs. Most of these systems use fiberglass pipe. Available technology seems to be limited to a maximum size of about 12 inches/16 inches (inner/outer) pipe. Since each of the proprietary systems available are somewhat different in design, they will be reviewed here by name.

AmeronFiberglass Pipe Division


This vendor offers something very similar to the Fibercast system, also in fiberglass but in sizes only up to 4 inches/6 inches. Its target market appears to be fuel systems of small terminals and service stations rather than drain systems. The sealing system of the outer pipe seems to be simpler and easier to install than Fibercast but it may not be as secure in containment.

Containment Technologies Corporation


This company offers secondary containment piping fittings referred to as a clamshell, snap-on design. The tees, ells, etc., are formed in two halves which are hinged and wrapped around the carrier pipe fitting to be enclosed and then secured mechanically by connector rods and band clamps. Sealing of the two halves of the clamshells and to the straight sections of containment pipe is by gaskets imbedded in the two halves. The clamshells are HDPE. For the straight runs of containment pipe, regular plastic pipe is used. Figure 500-25 shows several fittings. The largest size of containment fittings available is 6 inches for enclosing 4 inch carrier pipe. As with Ameron, it is geared more to containment of fuel piping systems. Although the containment system is tested to 5 psi after installation, the vendor does not claim it to be a pressure-containing system. It is expected that any leaks from the carrier pipe into the containment system would flow by gravity and at atmospheric pressure to a low point for detection. The carrier pipe can be any material (steel, fiberglass, etc.). It is installed in the usual way and can be pressure tested before the containment system is closed up around it. This system appears to be easier and quicker to install than some of the others but it may be less secure. The manufacturer claims that it is reusable (if changes or repairs are needed on the carrier pipe system, the fittings can be disassembled and reassembled). Note that there is no specific provision for differential expansion and contraction of the inner and outer pipe systems; some care would be needed in assembly to give it the required flexibility. This vendor also offers plastic HDPE sumps for use with the containment system to collect and detect any leakage retained in the containment piping. Detection devices can also be used in the pipe.

April 2004

500-66

ChevronTexaco Energy Technology Co.

Civil and Structural Manual

500 Drainage

Fig. 500-25 Five Containment Pipe Fittings

Fibercast Dualcast
This system is fabricated entirely of fiberglass. Various materials in the fiberglass family can be used. All components offered for the double containment systems are specially fabricated for that purpose including pipe lengths, couplings, ells, tees, wyes, and drain traps. The sizes available are: Carrier pipe: 1 inch to 12 inches Containment pipe: 3 inches to 16 inches

All connections are by close-fit sockets and joint adhesive. Fabrication and assembly appears to be quite complicated. Some field cut and fit work may be possible but most pieces are prefabricated (including pipes cut to length) before the field assembly work is done. Pressure and temperature ratings normally conform to fiberglass piping limits. The containment pipe is rated up to 150 psi. As with all double pipe systems, careful consideration must be given to differential thermal expansion of the carrier and containment pipe. Generally, this system restrains such movement in the components but minor movement of the inner pipe within the outer pipe can be allowed.

ChevronTexaco Energy Technology Co.

500-67

April 2004

500 Drainage

Civil and Structural Manual

The system allows the use of leak detection devices (either cable or single point) in the annular space between pipes but Fibercast does not provide this equipment. Hydrostatic testing of this system is very difficult. The vendors procedure must be fully understood and carefully followed. Even so, it is likely that some joints will not be observable during testing and leaks could be missed. The Fibercast system should be considered for: Installations demanding the most absolutely tight system. Handling of special liquids (such as laboratory drainage).

Ryan Herco Products Corporation


This vendor offers several types of double containment piping systems. Polyethylene double containment fittings in sizes up to 4 inches are available. Expansion/contraction allowances are less critical with PE because it is less rigid and will flex to some extent. Clear PVC is available in sizes up to 6 inches. Clear PVC allows leaks from the inner pipe to be visible, thereby possibly eliminating the need for detection devices if the drain is above ground. Split pipe and fittings allow testing of the carrier pipe before the outer pipe is installed. This can also be used for retrofitting existing systems. Bolt-on fittings in sizes up to 16 inches are also available for retrofit applications.

Smith Fiberglass (Representative: Ryan Herco)


This system also uses fiberglass. The joints can be threaded as well as bonded. Outer containment fittings: For pipe sizes 10 to 16 inches are split longitudinally. After testing of the inner pipe, they are joined with resin and fiberglass. For pipe sizes 2 to 8 inches are bolted on. These are easier to install but probably not as secure against leaks.

The manufacturers catalog shows a maximum size of 16 inches. It seems possible that sizes larger than 16 inches could be used.

Total Containment, Inc.


This vendors system is similar to the others. A separate containment system is installed over the carrier pipe which can be steel, fiberglass or other material. However, the fittings (ells, tees, etc.) are one-piece units so they must be in place before the carrier pipe is joined. Another difference is that they provide telescoping (flexible corrugated polyethylene) pipe sections for the straight runs of the containment system. These must also be in place before the inner pipe is welded. All connections of the outer pipe system are made mechanically by stainless steel clamps and seals. After assembly, the containment can be pressure tested using air or water.

April 2004

500-68

ChevronTexaco Energy Technology Co.

Civil and Structural Manual

500 Drainage

No indication is given of sizes available but it seems to be a maximum of 3 to 4 inches. Figure 500-26 shows the relative leakage potential of double pipe containment systems.
Fig. 500-26 Relative Leakage Potential of Double Pipe Containment Systems Relative Leakage Potential Double Pipe Containment Systems
Ameron Carbon Steel double pipes Containment Technology Corporation with clamshell fittings Fiberglass Dual-Cast Ryan Herco Products Corporation Smith Fiberglass with resin bonding Fiberglass Dual-Cast threaded Total Containment Incorporated
Note

1 to 5(1)
2-3 1(2) 3 1 2

2 3 4 3

For this evaluation to be valid, double pipe systems must be properly installed in accordance with the manufacturers recommendations. This evaluation refers generally to the security of the outer containment pipe. For relative security of pipe materials in general, refer to the Drain Pipe Materials tabulation (Figure 500-18). (1) Lowest (1) to Highest (5) (2) Assumes external coating on outer containment pipe.

553 Trough Containment


A trough can be installed under one or more drain lines to catch and contain any leakage from the drains. Such a trough: Will operate at atmospheric pressure. Will most likely have some type of cover. May be backfilled with some material such as sand or pea gravel to avoid creation of a hazardous air-hydrocarbon vapor mixture.

As with double pipe systems, consistent secondary containment would require specially equipped manholes, catch basins, etc. After assembly, a trough can be tested by filling it with water. Present EPA regulations require double pipe containment systems to be tested for leaks regularly after usage. At present, such testing is not required for trough containment systems.

ChevronTexaco Energy Technology Co.

500-69

April 2004

500 Drainage

Civil and Structural Manual

A major advantage of the use of troughs versus double pipes for secondary containment is that all lines within the trough can be completely assembled and tested before backfilling. Leak detection devices or test location points are installed at low points in the trough. A leak from any of the lines in the trough will be detected. For easier location of leaks, detection devices can be installed at many places in the system. Generally, a trough system would cost less than a double pipe system only if two or more drain lines can be contained in the same trough. Therefore, the relative costs of troughs versus double containment pipes should be investigated for each installation. Several proprietary secondary containment systems use troughs. Most of these troughs are made of fiberglass. Such systems are being promoted for containment of regular hydrocarbon lines (not necessarily drain lines) at service stations, bulk plants, etc. The fiberglass troughs have a snug-fitting cover nominally to keep out rain and surface drainage. The interior of the trough (around the pipe or pipes contained) is filled with a granular material such as pea gravel. Pipe expansion/contraction movements caused by temperature changes are absorbed by the gravel. Although fiberglass troughs are designed mainly for underground installation, they can be used for above-ground drains (even in a pipe rack). Pipe rack installations would probably not be backfilled with pea gravel because of the added weight. Another method of trough containment is the use of reinforced flexible synthetic trench liner such as a thermoplastic elastomer sheeting, polyurethane rubber, or polyethylene. This material would line the excavated ditch and be suitably backfilled after the drain line is installed. The installation procedure requires special attention: The bare trench must not contain sharp rocks or other material that could damage the liner. Joints between sheeting sections must be carefully sealed to prevent leaks.

Detection devices can be installed at low points as with the fiberglass troughs. Other materials (such as concrete) can be used for the trough. The use of a concrete trough solely for secondary containment of one drain line may not be cost effective. However, an open trench storm drain system could be used as secondary containment for hydrocarbon drain pipes placed in it. The concrete trough would not have a cover and would not be backfilled with granular material. If enhanced containment capability of the secondary (storm drain) system is required, it can be lined with fiberglass resin as is done on flat slabs (refer to Section 523).

Fiber-Trench Inc.
This vendor uses rectangular U-shaped modular fiberglass units which can contain one or more pipelines. Standard sizes up to 30 inches wide are available; larger

April 2004

500-70

ChevronTexaco Energy Technology Co.

Civil and Structural Manual

500 Drainage

troughs can be made on special order. Tee-shapes, ells, crosses, and other forms are also available. Special sections (for installation at low points in the system) have sumps for leak detection monitors. Joints between sections are retained mechanically by aluminum pop rivets and sealed with resin glues and fiberglass. This vendor also offers sumps and underground tank top containment units for use with the containment troughs. Figure 500-27 shows: Several typical cross sections of Fiber-Trench troughs with piping installed. A monitoring well for leak checking. A cross section of a riveted and sealed joint.

MCP Containment Systems


This company offers flexible trench liner materials in reinforced polyurethane rubbers, polyethylene, and other materials. Edge-to-edge joining of the material is accomplished by a glued zipper-type connection.

Western Fiberglass Inc.


This vendor offers a containment system of fiberglass troughs very similar to FiberTrench except that the sections are half-elliptical in shape instead of rectangular. The manufacturer claims that this shape is better because any leakage will collect at the bottom center of the trough for more precise detection. The system has a water/vapor tight fiberglass lid. The largest standard size trench cross section is 32 inches wide by 18 inches deep. Straight sections are 20' long. Ells, tees, sumps, drip boxes, tank pits, etc. are also available. Figure 500-28 shows Western Fiberglass trough sections including a typical leak monitoring well. Figure 500-29 shows relative leakage potential of trough-type containment materials.

554 Leakage Detection Systems


The design of any new drain installation should consider the addition of a detection system. For a double pipe containment system, the leakage detectors would be installed in the annular space between the two pipes. For a trough containment system, the leakage detectors would be placed at one or more low points in the system.

For either system, the leak detectors could be continuous cables or probes. For enhanced detection only (no containment), refer to Section 555. Many types of leakage detectors are on the market. Some of these devices depend on detection of leakage of the material normally carried in the line:

ChevronTexaco Energy Technology Co.

500-71

April 2004

500 Drainage

Civil and Structural Manual

Fig. 500-27 Fiber-Trench Trough Sections

If the drain material is volatile (such as a gas) and would normally rise to the surface, the detector must be placed: Somewhere in the ground near the drain, or Between the drain and the surface, or At the surface.

April 2004

500-72

ChevronTexaco Energy Technology Co.

Civil and Structural Manual

500 Drainage

Fig. 500-28 Western Fiberglass Trough Sections

Fig. 500-29 Relative Leakage Potential of Trough-type Containment Materials Relative Leakage Potential Trough-Type Containment
Concrete Trench: Bare concrete Lined with fiberglass Fiberglass: Fiber-Trench Inc. Western Fiberglass, Inc. Flexible Membrane: MCP Containment Systems
(1) Lowest (1) to Highest (5)

1 to 5(1)
4 1

1-2 1-2

If the drain material is a liquid, it would normally go down so the detectors must be located somewhere below the drain.

ChevronTexaco Energy Technology Co.

500-73

April 2004

500 Drainage

Civil and Structural Manual

Some systems depend on a trace gas such as helium being injected into the drain; leaks are detected by a specific sensor. Some vendors offer a complete double containment package with a detection system. Leakage detectors have various principles of operation. These include: Closure of electrical circuit contacts (usually by liquid in the drain material). Such closure could occur by: The drain liquid short-circuiting the contacts. The drain liquid dissolving a material separating the spring-loaded contacts. Liquid-induced swelling of some material forcing the contacts together.

Detection of hydrocarbons (liquid or vapor) by various means. Detection of level of a liquid which has drained into a catchment volume. Sensing the presence of a foreign fluid (gas or liquid) based on changes in the electrical characteristics of the sensor (cable or probe) from a base (no-leak) standard.

Each vendors system must be evaluated to determine its suitability for use in a proposed new drain. In some systems, a component degrades to cause the alarm. If this happens, replacement of some parts would be necessary for continued use of the system (See TCI Leak Detection System). The physical installation must allow for easy replacement. Sonic detectors are useful for locating leaks in high pressure piping. For drain piping, sonic detectors would probably be ineffective because of the relatively low exit velocity of the leaking material.

Bacharach Inc.
This vendor offers only detectors for continuous monitoring for gas leaks.

LASP (Teledyne Control Applications)


This system uses a special sensor tubing approximately 1/2 inch in diameter. This tubing is installed in the trench near the line or drain to be monitored. Sensing depends on diffusion of hydrocarbon vapors through the wall of the tubing into the interior. The inlet end of the tube is fitted with an air dryer unit. The exhaust end of the tube is fitted with a vacuum pump and a gas detector.

As dry air is pulled through the tube, the gas detector unit continuously compares the passing sample to previous base level samples. If hydrocarbon is leaking into the tube, the detector triggers an alarm. The sensor tube wall is impervious to water so only hydrocarbon leaks will be detected.

April 2004

500-74

ChevronTexaco Energy Technology Co.

Civil and Structural Manual

500 Drainage

The system can monitor line lengths of 5 to 10 miles. However, time-to-alarm is dependent on travel distance in the tube so shorter lengths may be advisable. The manufacturer offers two versions of the system: Continuous monitoring provides rapid leak detection and alarm. Intermittent monitoring can be used to pinpoint the location of a leak.

Owens-Corning Fiberglas Corporation


This vendor offers a very simple flexible dipstick for detecting presence of water in a containment. The dipstick is coated with a water-finding paste.

Ronan Engineering Company


This vendor offers: A level detector (float switch) system for installation in low points of a double pipe system or a containment trough. Hydrocarbon vapor detectors (solid state diffusion-type). Several detector systems for loss of pressure (for example, in a pressurized annulus of a double wall pipe or tank).

TCI Leak Detection System (Total Containment, Inc.)


This leak detection system is similar to Leak-X but is offered in conjunction with TCIs double pipe secondary containment system. The manufacturer claims that the system can detect: Leaks in underground monitoring wells, double wall tanks, double wall piping, and similar applications. The presence of liquid hydrocarbons, a variety of hazardous chemicals, and water.

Audible and visible alarms are given. For detection of hydrocarbons, two electrical conductors are sheathed with insulation jackets that will dissolve in hydrocarbons. This dissolution causes the conductor wires to make contact, signaling the alarms. Disadvantage of this system: hydrocarbon dissolution permanently damages the sensor cable which must be replaced. For water detection, the sensor cable can be equipped with an optional watersensitive probe.

TraceTek (Raychem Corporation)


This system is used primarily for monitoring leaks in double pipe or trench-type double containment systems. Its use with direct-burial drains would appear to be limited.

ChevronTexaco Energy Technology Co.

500-75

April 2004

500 Drainage

Civil and Structural Manual

A detector cable is installed in the outer pipe of a double pipe system or on the bottom of a containment trench. Depending on the type of liquid likely to leak, one or more of three types of cables can be used for detection of: Water leaks Aqueous liquids (acids, bases, and water) Fuels and solvents (hydrocarbons)

Each type of cable operates on the principle of electrical circuit completion causing an alarm. The hydrocarbon detector cable uses a swellable conductive polymer to mechanically close the circuit. All cables contain extra wires for continuity checks and testing. The manufacturer claims that in addition to determining that a leak exists, the location of such leak along the length of a cable can be determined by the instrumentation provided.

Universal Sensors and Devices


This vendor offers liquid and vapor sensing probes for underground tanks and double containment piping. The sensors available include: A thermal element capable of detecting the presence of any liquid. A metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) that recognizes the presence of most combustible and organic gases.

W. L. Gore and Associates, Inc.


This vendor offers leak detection cables for installation in the drain system to be monitored. The system can detect leaks of water-based or hydrocarbon liquids. Absorption of hydrocarbons by the cable insulation alters the cables capacitance, characteristic impedance, and propagation speed. The change in capacitance indicates a leak. Figure 500-30 shows detection effectiveness of permanent leak detection systems; Figure 500-31 shows detection effectiveness of temporary leak detection systems.

555 Enhanced Detection Only


In some cases, it may be preferable to install a drain with enhanced detection but no secondary containment. If leakage occurs, it is not contained but is detected at an early stage so that corrective measures can be taken. The degree of protection achieved falls between drains with no leak detection and those with both detection and extra containment. For enhanced detection: Detectors are installed along the underside of the drain line, at manholes, etc. Generally, continuous-cable-type detectors are more effective than spot-type detectors.

April 2004

500-76

ChevronTexaco Energy Technology Co.

Civil and Structural Manual

500 Drainage

With no secondary containment, leakage and ground contamination can occur anywhere. For comprehensive coverage and prompt warning of leaks, more detection points must be installed than for a double containment system.

Fig. 500-30 Detection Effectiveness of Permanent (Installed) Leak Detection Systems Permanent (Installed) Leak Detection Systems (1)
Bacharach Inc. LASP (Teledyne Control) Owens-Corning Ronan Engineering Company Total Containment, Inc. TraceTek Universal Sensors W. L. Gore and Associates, Inc.
(3)

Detection Effectiveness 1 to 5 (2)


For gas leaks only 2-3 5 4 3-4 1-2 3-4 3-4

(1) These systems are designed for installation in a new drain system or for retrofitting to an existing drain system for continuous or intermittent monitoring of leaks. (2) Lowest (1) to Highest (5) (3) The Total Containment system includes insulation which degrades to indicate a leak. After a leak indication, the degraded parts must be replaced.

Fig. 500-31 Detection Effectiveness of Temporary (Non-installed) Leak Detection Systems Temporary (Non-Installed) Leak Detection Systems (1)
Environmental Instruments Co. Geophysical Survey Systems Inc. Heath Consultants Inc. Tracer Research Corp. West Coast Locators, Inc.

Detection Effectiveness 1 to 5 (2)


2-3 4 2-3 1 3-4

(1) These systems are meant to detect drain leaks by methods or equipment not permanently installed (by detection of fluids normally in the drain or by means of a tracer gas injected specially for the purpose). (2) Lowest (1) to Highest (5)

ChevronTexaco Energy Technology Co.

500-77

April 2004

500 Drainage

Civil and Structural Manual

560 Evaluation of Drainage Systems


561 General Evaluation
This section: Evaluates drainage and detection systems, materials, etc. Categorizes them to indicate several degrees of protection.

Generally: The most secure system will probably be the most expensive. The less secure systems will probably cost less.

For a new drainage system, the first design consideration must be what level of assurance is required that the system will not leak. To facilitate this, a hierarchy system has been established as follows: Degree 1: (System absolutely must not leak to the environment.) A bulletproof design. Must be almost 100% good for all possible services (can handle virtually all types of drainage liquids it could receive). Includes continuously operating leak detection devices with alarms. Cost of installation and maintenance is virtually no object.

Degree 3: (Integrity somewhat less than Degree 1 but has many of the same features.) Detection devices installed or installable on site when needed but not necessarily monitored continuously.

Degree 5: (Least expensive option.) Installation will satisfy most requirements at moderate cost. If leak testing is required, it must be done by means not permanently installed.

Degrees 2 and 4 are intermediate categories which have some of the features of the categories on either side. The hierarchy system described above is used to express current opinion about the integrity of several elements of a drain system. Note that the evaluations herein do not compare costs of alternative materials or systems. A final decision on which to use must be based on a risk analysis and cost comparison as well as the evaluations listed here.

April 2004

500-78

ChevronTexaco Energy Technology Co.

Civil and Structural Manual

500 Drainage

562 Recommended Procedure for New Drain Selection


1. Select degree of integrity required, considering: 2. Drainage material handled. Location of drain. Environmental consequences of a leak, etc.

Select suitable materials: Eliminate non-candidates. Observe limiting factors (e.g., sizes available). Compare costs.

3.

For drain material selected, select suitable joint type. Consider: Degree of integrity required. Cost.

4. 5.

If secondary containment is required, select method of containment. If leak detection is required, select system.

A final selection of all components of the drain system may require more than one iteration of the above steps.

570 Miscellaneous Data


571 Abbreviations, Acronyms, and Symbols
Symbols Acronyms of Organizations and Codes
AASHTO API AREA AWWA NFPA UBC UPC USGS American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials American Petroleum Institute American Railway Engineering Association American Water Works Association National Fire Protection Association Uniform Building Code Uniform Plumbing Code United States Geological Survey

ChevronTexaco Energy Technology Co.

500-79

April 2004

500 Drainage

Civil and Structural Manual

572 Rainfall Data


This Section gives tables of rainfall intensity versus duration and frequency for the locations listed below. The data in Figure 500-32 were derived from the information in References [26], [27], and [28]. California. Bakersfield/Cymric/McKittrick/Kern River/Taft, El Segundo, Gaviota, Richmond Colorado. Rangely Hawaii. Barbers Point/Honolulu Louisiana. Venice/Leeville/Oak Point/Morgan City/Cameron (combined with Orange/Port Arthur, Texas) Mississippi. Pascagoula New Jersey. Perth Amboy Ohio. Marietta Oregon. Willbridge Pennsylvania. Philadelphia Texas. Cedar Bayou/Houston/Mont Belvieu, El Paso, Orange/Port Arthur Utah. Salt Lake City Washington. Kennewick Wyoming. Evanston, Rock Springs

573 Model Specification


CIV-MS-4747 Construction of Underground Drainage Systems is located in the Specification section of this manual.

574 Standard Drawings and Engineering Forms


You can use the following standard drawings and engineering forms as part of your bid package or just to help generate ideas. These are located in the Standard Drawings and Forms section. CIV-EF-411 CIV-EF-611 GD-S99992 GF-S99943 Manholes For Drainage System Drainage Details Standard Fabricated Steel Catch Basin Design/Construction Details for Sumps, Pump Foundations and Drainage Surfaces in Sulfuric Acid and Sodium Hydroxide Service

April 2004

500-80

ChevronTexaco Energy Technology Co.

Civil and Structural Manual

500 Drainage

Fig. 500-32 Rainfall Tables (1 of 9) BAKERSFIELD/CYMRIC/MCKITTRICK/ KERN RIVER/TAFT, CALIFORNIA Rainfall Intensity (in./hr.) Duration (min).
5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0 7.5 8.0 8.5 9.0 9.5 10.0 11.0 12.0 13.0 14.0 15.0 20.0 25.0 30.0 40.0 50.0 60.0

EL SEGUNDO, CALIFORNIA Rainfall Intensity (in./hr.) 25-yr.


1.56 1.51 1.46 1.42 1.38 1.35 1.32 1.29 1.26 1.24 1.21 1.17 1.13 1.09 1.06 1.02 0.89 0.79 0.71 0.59 0.51 0.45

Return Period 5-yr.


1.06 1.03 1.00 0.97 0.94 0.92 0.90 0.88 0.86 0.84 0.83 0.80 0.77 0.74 0.72 0.70 0.61 0.54 0.48 0.40 0.35 0.31

10-yr.
1.29 1.25 1.21 1.18 1.15 1.12 1.09 1.07 1.05 1.02 1.00 0.97 0.93 0.90 0.87 0.85 0.74 0.65 0.59 0.49 0.42 0.37

Duration (min.)
5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0 7.5 8.0 8.5 9.0 9.5 10.0 11.0 12.0 13.0 14.0 15.0 20.0 25.0 30.0 40.0 50.0 60.0

Return Period 5-yr.


2.37 2.29 2.22 2.16 2.10 2.05 2.00 1.96 1.92 1.88 1.84 1.77 1.71 1.66 1.60 1.56 1.35 1.20 1.08 0.90 0.77 0.68

10-yr.
2.92 2.83 2.74 2.66 2.59 2.53 2.47 2.41 2.36 2.31 2.27 2.19 2.11 2.04 1.98 1.92 1.67 1.48 1.33 1.10 0.95 0.84

25-yr.
3.57 3.45 3.34 3.25 3.16 3.08 3.01 2.95 2.88 2.82 2.77 2.67 2.57 2.49 2.41 2.34 2.04 1.81 1.62 1.35 1.16 1.03

ChevronTexaco Energy Technology Co.

500-81

April 2004

500 Drainage

Civil and Structural Manual

Fig. 500-32 Rainfall Tables (2 of 9) GAVIOTA, CALIFORNIA Rainfall Intensity (in./hr.) Duration (min.)
5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0 7.5 8.0 8.5 9.0 9.5 10.0 11.0 12.0 13.0 14.0 15.0 20.0 25.0 30.0 40.0 50.0 60.0

RICHMOND, CALIFORNIA Rainfall Intensity (in./hr.) 25-yr.


4.16 4.02 3.89 3.78 3.68 3.59 3.51 3.43 3.36 3.29 3.23 3.11 3.00 2.90 2.81 2.72 2.37 2.10 1.89 1.57 1.35 1.19

Return Period 5-yr.


2.91 2.81 2.72 2.65 2.58 2.51 2.45 2.40 2.35 2.30 2.26 2.17 2.10 2.03 1.96 1.90 1.66 1.47 1.32 1.10 0.94 0.84

10-yr.
3.49 3.37 3.27 3.17 3.09 3.01 2.94 2.88 2.82 2.76 2.71 2.61 2.52 2.43 2.36 2.29 1.99 1.76 1.58 1.32 1.13 1.00

Duration (min.)
5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0 7.5 8.0 8.5 9.0 9.5 10.0 11.0 12.0 13.0 14.0 15.0 20.0 25.0 30.0 40.0 50.0 60.0

Return Period 5-yr.


1.94 1.88 1.82 1.77 1.72 1.68 1.64 1.61 1.57 1.54 1.51 1.45 1.40 1.36 1.31 1.27 1.11 0.98 0.88 0.73 0.63 0.56

10-yr.
2.30 2.22 2.15 2.09 2.04 1.99 1.94 1.90 1.86 1.82 1.78 1.72 1.66 1.60 1.55 1.51 1.31 1.16 1.04 0.87 0.74 0.66

25-yr.
2.70 2.61 2.53 2.46 2.39 2.33 2.28 2.23 2.18 2.14 2.09 2.02 1.95 1.88 1.82 1.77 1.54 1.36 1.23 1.02 0.87 0.78

April 2004

500-82

ChevronTexaco Energy Technology Co.

Civil and Structural Manual

500 Drainage

Fig. 500-32 Rainfall Tables (3 of 9) RANGELY, COLORADO Rainfall Intensity (in./hr.) Duration (min.)
5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0 7.5 8.0 8.5 9.0 9.5 10.0 11.0 12.0 13.0 14.0 15.0 20.0 25.0 30.0 40.0 50.0 60.0

BARBERS POINT, HAWAII Rainfall Intensity (in./hr.) 25-yr.


3.10 3.00 2.91 2.82 2.75 2.68 2.62 2.56 2.51 2.45 2.41 2.32 2.24 2.16 2.10 2.03 1.77 1.57 1.41 1.17 1.01 0.89

Return Period 5-yr.


2.40 2.32 2.25 2.19 2.13 2.08 2.03 1.98 1.94 1.90 1.86 1.79 1.73 1.67 1.62 1.57 1.37 1.21 1.09 0.91 0.78 0.69

10-yr.
2.74 2.64 2.56 2.49 2.42 2.36 2.31 2.26 2.21 2.17 2.12 2.04 1.97 1.91 1.85 1.79 1.56 1.38 1.24 1.03 0.89 0.79

Duration (min.)
5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0 7.5 8.0 8.5 9.0 9.5 10.0 11.0 12.0 13.0 14.0 15.0 20.0 25.0 30.0 40.0 50.0 60.0

Return Period 2-yr.


3.49 3.37 3.28 3.20 3.12 3.06 3.00 2.94 2.89 2.83 2.79 2.69 2.61 2.52 2.45 2.37 2.04 1.78 1.57 1.29 1.14 1.10

10-yr.
5.65 5.46 5.31 5.18 5.06 4.95 4.85 4.76 4.67 4.59 4.51 4.36 4.22 4.09 3.96 3.84 3.31 2.88 2.54 2.08 1.85 1.78

50-yr.
6.97 6.75 6.56 6.39 6.25 6.11 5.99 5.88 5.77 5.67 5.57 5.39 5.21 5.05 4.89 4.74 4.09 3.56 3.14 2.57 2.28 2.20

ChevronTexaco Energy Technology Co.

500-83

April 2004

500 Drainage

Civil and Structural Manual

Fig. 500-32 Rainfall Tables (4 of 9) PASCAGOULA, MISSISSIPPI Rainfall Intensity (in./hr.) Duration (min.)
5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0 7.5 8.0 8.5 9.0 9.5 10.0 11.0 12.0 13.0 14.0 15.0 20.0 25.0 30.0 40.0 50.0 60.0

PERTH AMBOY, NEW JERSEY Rainfall Intensity (in./hr.) 25-yr.


9.33 9.28 9.19 9.06 8.91 8.75 8.59 8.43 8.27 8.12 7.97 7.70 7.45 7.23 7.03 6.85 6.19 5.77 5.47 4.97 4.43 3.80

Return Period 5-yr.


7.39 7.32 7.23 7.11 6.99 6.86 6.73 6.61 6.48 6.36 6.25 6.03 5.84 5.66 5.50 5.35 4.78 4.40 4.11 3.66 3.24 2.80

10-yr.
8.24 8.19 8.09 7.97 7.83 7.69 7.55 7.41 7.27 7.14 7.01 6.77 6.55 6.35 6.17 6.01 5.40 5.00 4.71 4.23 3.76 3.24

Duration (min.)
5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0 7.5 8.0 8.5 9.0 9.5 10.0 11.0 12.0 13.0 14.0 15.0 20.0 25.0 30.0 40.0 50.0 60.0

Return Period 5-yr.


5.79 5.64 5.49 5.36 5.23 5.10 4.99 4.87 4.77 4.67 4.57 4.40 4.24 4.09 3.95 3.83 3.32 2.95 2.66 2.25 1.95 1.72

10-yr.
6.64 6.48 6.33 6.19 6.05 5.92 5.79 5.67 5.55 5.44 5.33 5.13 4.95 4.79 4.63 4.49 3.91 3.48 3.15 2.66 2.31 2.04

25-yr.
7.72 7.56 7.40 7.25 7.09 6.95 6.81 6.67 6.54 6.42 6.30 6.07 5.86 5.67 5.49 5.33 4.65 4.15 3.76 3.19 2.77 2.45

April 2004

500-84

ChevronTexaco Energy Technology Co.

Civil and Structural Manual

500 Drainage

Fig. 500-32 Rainfall Tables (5 of 9) MARIETTA, OHIO Rainfall Intensity (in./hr.) Duration (min.)
5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0 7.5 8.0 8.5 9.0 9.5 10.0 11.0 12.0 13.0 14.0 15.0 20.0 25.0 30.0 40.0 50.0 60.0

WILLBRIDGE, OREGON Rainfall Intensity (in./hr.) 25-yr.


7.52 7.34 7.17 7.02 6.87 6.73 6.60 6.47 6.34 6.23 6.11 5.90 5.70 5.51 5.33 5.17 4.46 3.92 3.49 2.88 2.48 2.22

Return Period 5-yr.


5.71 5.55 5.39 5.26 5.13 5.01 4.90 4.79 4.69 4.59 4.50 4.33 4.17 4.03 3.89 3.76 3.23 2.82 2.51 2.05 1.76 1.58

10-yr.
6.51 6.34 6.18 6.03 5.90 5.77 5.64 5.53 5.42 5.31 5.21 5.02 4.84 4.68 4.53 4.38 3.77 3.31 2.94 2.41 2.07 1.86

Duration (min.)
5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0 7.5 8.0 8.5 9.0 9.5 10.0 11.0 12.0 13.0 14.0 15.0 20.0 25.0 30.0 40.0 50.0 60.0

Return Period 5-yr.


1.11 1.07 1.04 1.01 0.98 0.96 0.94 0.92 0.90 0.88 0.86 0.83 0.80 0.77 0.75 0.73 0.63 0.56 0.50 0.42 0.36 0.32

10-yr.
1.21 1.17 1.14 1.10 1.08 1.05 1.02 1.00 0.98 0.96 0.94 0.91 0.88 0.85 0.82 0.80 0.69 0.61 0.55 0.46 0.39 0.35

25-yr.
1.32 1.27 1.23 1.20 1.17 1.14 1.11 1.09 1.06 1.04 1.02 0.98 0.95 0.92 0.89 0.86 0.75 0.67 0.60 0.50 0.43 0.38

ChevronTexaco Energy Technology Co.

500-85

April 2004

500 Drainage

Civil and Structural Manual

Fig. 500-32 Rainfall Tables (6 of 9) ORANGE/PORT ARTHUR, TEXAS AND ST. JAMES/VENICE/LEEVILLE/OAK POINT/MORGANCITY/CAMERON, LOUISIANA Rainfall Intensity (in./hr.) 25-yr.
7.89 7.75 7.61 7.47 7.33 7.19 7.06 6.93 6.81 6.69 6.58 6.35 6.15 5.95 5.77 5.60 4.89 4.34 3.91 3.27 2.84 2.53

PHILADELPHIA, PENNSYLVANIA Rainfall Intensity (in./hr.) Duration (min.)


5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0 7.5 8.0 8.5 9.0 9.5 10.0 11.0 12.0 13.0 14.0 15.0 20.0 25.0 30.0 40.0 50.0 60.0

Return Period 5-yr.


5.96 5.81 5.66 5.53 5.40 5.28 5.17 5.06 4.96 4.86 4.76 4.59 4.42 4.27 4.13 4.00 3.46 3.06 2.74 2.29 1.98 1.76

10-yr.
6.81 6.66 6.52 6.38 6.25 6.12 6.00 5.89 5.77 5.66 5.56 5.36 5.18 5.01 4.85 4.71 4.09 3.62 3.26 2.72 2.36 2.10

Duration (min.)
5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0 7.5 8.0 8.5 9.0 9.5 10.0 11.0 12.0 13.0 14.0 15.0 20.0 25.0 30.0 40.0 50.0 60.0

Return Period 5-yr.


7.49 7.45 7.38 7.29 7.18 7.07 6.96 6.84 6.73 6.61 6.51 6.30 6.11 5.93 5.77 5.62 5.02 4.60 4.28 3.77 3.34 2.90

10-yr.
8.38 8.35 8.28 8.17 8.06 7.93 7.80 7.67 7.53 7.41 7.28 7.05 6.83 6.63 6.45 6.29 5.65 5.22 4.90 4.38 3.89 3.36

25-yr.
9.51 9.49 9.41 9.30 9.17 9.02 8.87 8.71 8.56 8.41 8.27 8.00 7.75 7.53 7.33 7.14 6.46 6.01 5.69 5.14 4.59 3.94

April 2004

500-86

ChevronTexaco Energy Technology Co.

Civil and Structural Manual

500 Drainage

Fig. 500-32 Rainfall Tables (7 of 9) EL PASO, TEXAS Rainfall Intensity (in./hr.) Duration (min.)
5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0 7.5 8.0 8.5 9.0 9.5 10.0 11.0 12.0 13.0 14.0 15.0 20.0 25.0 30.0 40.0 50.0 60.0

HOUSTON/BAYTOWN/CEDAR BAYOU/MONT BELVIEU, TEXAS Rainfall Intensity (in./hr.) 25-yr.


5.29 5.29 5.27 5.24 5.21 5.17 5.13 5.08 5.03 4.97 4.92 4.81 4.69 4.57 4.45 4.33 3.78 3.31 2.92 2.35 2.02 1.85

Return Period 5-yr.


3.71 3.67 3.62 3.58 3.53 3.48 3.43 3.38 3.33 3.28 3.23 3.14 3.05 2.96 2.87 2.79 2.44 2.16 1.93 1.60 1.38 1.24

10-yr.
4.41 4.38 4.35 4.31 4.27 4.22 4.18 4.13 4.08 4.03 3.98 3.87 3.77 3.67 3.57 3.47 3.03 2.66 2.37 1.93 1.66 1.51

Duration (min.)
5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0 7.5 8.0 8.5 9.0 9.5 10.0 11.0 12.0 13.0 14.0 15.0 20.0 25.0 30.0 40.0 50.0 60.0

Return Period 5-yr.


7.36 7.28 7.18 7.06 6.94 6.81 6.68 6.55 6.43 6.31 6.20 5.98 5.78 5.61 5.44 5.30 4.73 4.35 4.06 3.61 3.20 2.77

10-yr.
8.19 8.13 8.04 7.92 7.78 7.64 7.50 7.36 7.22 7.09 6.96 6.72 6.50 6.31 6.13 5.97 5.37 4.97 4.68 4.21 3.74 3.22

25-yr.
9.25 9.21 9.12 9.00 8.85 8.70 8.54 8.38 8.23 8.08 7.93 7.66 7.42 7.20 7.00 6.82 6.17 5.76 5.46 4.96 4.43 3.80

ChevronTexaco Energy Technology Co.

500-87

April 2004

500 Drainage

Civil and Structural Manual

Fig. 500-32 Rainfall Tables (8 of 9) SALT LAKE CITY, UTAH Rainfall Intensity (in./hr.) Duration (min.)
5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0 7.5 8.0 8.5 9.0 9.5 10.0 11.0 12.0 13.0 14.0 15.0 20.0 25.0 30.0 40.0 50.0 60.0

KENNEWICK, WASHINGTON Rainfall Intensity (in./hr.) 25-yr.


3.09 2.99 2.90 2.82 2.74 2.67 2.61 2.55 2.50 2.45 2.40 2.31 2.23 2.16 2.09 2.03 1.77 1.56 1.41 1.17 1.00 0.89

Return Period 5-yr.


2.22 2.15 2.08 2.02 1.97 1.92 1.87 1.83 1.79 1.76 1.72 1.66 1.60 1.55 1.50 1.45 1.27 1.12 1.01 0.84 0.72 0.64

10-yr.
2.63 2.54 2.46 2.39 2.33 2.27 2.22 2.17 2.12 2.08 2.04 1.96 1.90 1.83 1.78 1.72 1.50 1.33 1.19 0.99 0.85 0.76

Duration (min.)
5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0 7.5 8.0 8.5 9.0 9.5 10.0 11.0 12.0 13.0 14.0 15.0 20.0 25.0 30.0 40.0 50.0 60.0

Return Period 5-yr.


1.36 1.31 1.27 1.23 1.20 1.17 1.14 1.12 1.10 1.07 1.05 1.01 0.98 0.95 0.92 0.89 0.77 0.69 0.62 0.51 0.44 0.39

10-yr.
1.72 1.66 1.61 1.56 1.52 1.49 1.45 1.42 1.39 1.36 1.33 1.28 1.24 1.20 1.16 1.13 0.98 0.87 0.78 0.65 0.56 0.49

25-yr.
2.15 2.08 2.01 1.96 1.91 1.86 1.82 1.77 1.74 1.70 1.67 1.61 1.55 1.50 1.45 1.41 1.23 1.09 0.98 0.81 0.70 0.62

April 2004

500-88

ChevronTexaco Energy Technology Co.

Civil and Structural Manual

500 Drainage

Fig. 500-32 Rainfall Tables (9 of 9) CARTER CREEK GAS PLANT, WYOMING Rainfall Intensity (in./hr.) Duration (min.)
5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0 7.5 8.0 8.5 9.0 9.5 10.0 11.0 12.0 13.0 14.0 15.0 20.0 25.0 30.0 40.0 50.0 60.0

ROCK SPRINGS, WYOMING Rainfall Intensity (in./hr.) Duration (min.)


5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0 7.5 8.0 8.5 9.0 9.5 10.0 11.0 12.0 13.0 14.0 15.0 20.0 25.0 30.0 40.0 50.0 60.0

Return Period 5-yr.


1.56 1.51 1.46 1.42 1.38 1.35 1.31 1.29 1.26 1.23 1.21 1.16 1.12 1.09 1.05 1.02 0.89 0.79 0.71 0.59 0.50 0.45

Return Period 5-yr.


1.37 1.32 1.28 1.24 1.21 1.18 1.15 1.13 1.10 1.08 1.06 1.02 0.98 0.95 0.92 0.89 0.78 0.69 0.62 0.51 0.44 0.39

10-yr.
1.85 1.78 1.73 1.68 1.64 1.60 1.56 1.52 1.49 1.46 1.43 1.38 1.33 1.29 1.25 1.21 1.05 0.93 0.84 0.70 0.60 0.53

25-yr.
2.17 2.10 2.04 1.98 1.93 1.88 1.84 1.79 1.76 1.72 1.69 1.63 1.57 1.52 1.47 1.42 1.24 1.10 0.99 0.82 0.71 0.62

10-yr.
1.67 1.61 1.56 1.52 1.48 1.44 1.41 1.38 1.35 1.32 1.29 1.25 1.20 1.16 1.13 1.09 0.95 0.84 0.76 0.63 0.54 0.48

25-yr.
2.02 1.95 1.89 1.84 1.79 1.74 1.70 1.67 1.63 1.60 1.57 1.51 1.46 1.41 1.36 1.32 1.15 1.02 0.92 0.76 0.65 0.58

575 Standards and Codes


In addition to the Standards and Codes listed below, note also items listed in Section 580, Library References in the Civil and Structural Manual Vol. I. Reference should also be made to specification CIV-MS-4747 Construction of Underground Drainage Systems (in Vol. II).

Codes and Restrictions


ANSI/ASME B31.3 Chemical Plant and Petroleum Refinery Piping. HDPE, PVC, ABS, PP shall not be used in flammable service above ground and shall be safeguarded in other service.

ChevronTexaco Energy Technology Co.

500-89

April 2004

500 Drainage

Civil and Structural Manual

FRP shall be safeguarded when used in toxic or flammable fluid service. Metal-to-nonmetal should be flat faced with full faced gaskets preferred. Does not allow lap joint flanges for severe cyclic service. ANSI/ASME B31.4 Liquid Transportation Systems for Hydrocarbons, Liquid Petroleum Gas, Anhydrous Ammonia, and Alcohols. Nonmetallics are not allowed for liquid transportation systems for Hydrocarbons, LPG, Anhydrous NH3, or Alcohol.

Material Standards
ASTM D 1248 Polyethylene Plastics Molding and Extrusion Materials ASTM D 3350 Polyethylene Plastics Pipe and Fittings Material ASTM D 2581 Polybutylene Plastics Molding and Extrusion Materials

Piping Standards
ASTM D 2104 PE Plastic Pipe, Schedule 40 ASTM D 2239 PE Plastic Pipe, SDR-PR ASTM D 2447 PE Plastic Pipe, Sch. 40 & 80 based on O.D. ASTM D 2683 Socket Type Fittings for O.D. controlled PE Pipe ASTM D 2609 Plastic Insert Fittings ASTM D 2513 Thermoplastic Gas Pressure Pipe, Tubing and Fittings ASTM D 2737 PE Plastic Tubing ASTM D 3035 PE Plastic Pipe (SDR-PR), O.D. Controlled ASTM D 3261 Butt Heat Fusion PE Fittings for PE Plastic Pipe and Fittings ASTM D 3281 PE Fittings, Butt Type ASTM F 405 Corrugated Tubing & Fittings ASTM F 714 PE Plastic Pipe (SDR-PR) based on O.D. ASTM F 894 PE Large Diameter Profile Wall Sewer and Drain Pipe APE Spec 15LE PE Line Pipe AWWA C 901 PE Pressure Pipe, Tubing and Fittings, 1/2 through 3 for Water CSA B137.1-M PE Pipe, Tubing, and Fittings for Cold Water Pressure Services CGSB 41-GP-25M Pipe, PE for the Transport of Fluids ASTM D 2662 PB Plastic Pipe (SDR-PR) ASTM D 2666 PB Plastic Tubing ASTM D 3000 PB Plastic Pipe (SDR-PR) based on O.D.

April 2004

500-90

ChevronTexaco Energy Technology Co.

Civil and Structural Manual

500 Drainage

ASTM D 3309 PB Hot/Cold Water Systems ASTM F 809 Large Diameter PB AWWA C 902 PB Pressure Pipe, Tubing and Fittings, 1/2 through 3 for Water AWWA C 900 PVC Pressure Pipe for Water ASTM D 2241 PVC Plastic Pipe SDR-PR ASTM D 2466 PVC Fittings, Sch. 40 ASTM D 2672 PVC Pipe, Belled End ASTM D 2564 Solvents for PVC ASTM D 3138 Solvent Cements for ABS-PVC Transitions ASTM D 2665 PVC DWV Pipe and Fittings ASTM D 2949 3" PVC Thin Wall DWV Pipe ASTM D 3311 DWV Fitting Patterns ASTM D 2729 PVC Drain Pipe & Fittings ASTM D 3033 PVC Sewer Pipe & Fittings, PSP ASTM D 3034 PVC Sewer Pipe & Fittings, PSM ASTM D 1785 PVC Plastic Pipe, Sch. 40-80 ASTM D 2740 PVC Plastic Tubing ASTM D 2846 CPVC Hot/Cold Water Systems ASTM F 441 CPVC Pipe, Sch. 40-80 ASTM F 442 CPVC Pipe, SDR-PR ASTM F 493 Solvent Cements for CPVC Piping ASTM F 438 CPVC Fittings, Sch. 40 ASTM D 2282 ABS Pipe, SDR-PR ASTM D 468 ABS Fittings, Sch. 40 ASTM D 2661 ABS DWV Pipe and Fittings ASTM D 2235 Solvent Cements for ABS Piping ASTM F 628 ABS Foam Core DWV ASTM D 2751 ABS Sewer Pipe & Fittings

Installation Standards
ASTM D 2321 Underground Installation of Flexible Thermoplastic Sewer Pipe ASTM D 2774 Underground Installation of Thermoplastic Pressure Piping

ChevronTexaco Energy Technology Co.

500-91

April 2004

500 Drainage

Civil and Structural Manual

ASTM F 585 Insertion of Flexible PE Pipe into Existing Sewers ASTM F 690 Underground Installation of Thermoplastic Pressure Piping Irrigation Systems ASAE S 376 Design, Installation and Performance of Underground Thermoplastic Irrigation Pipe lines (1980)

576 Sources of Information


American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) 1916 Race Street Philadelphia, PA 19103 American Water Works Association (AWWA) 6666 West Quincy Avenue Denver, CO 80235 American Petroleum Institute (API) 300 Corrigan Tower Building Dallas, TX 75201 American Society of Agricultural Engineers (ASAE) 2950 Niles Road St. Joseph, MI 49085 Canadian Standards Association (CSA) 178 Rexdale Boulevard Rexdale, Ontario, Canada M9W 1R3 Department of Transportation (DOT) Office of Pipeline Safety Regulations 400 7th Street, S.W. Washington, D.C. 20590 Canadian General Standards Board (CGSB) 88 Metcalfe Street Ottawa, Canada K1A OS5 National Sanitation Foundation (NSF) 3745 Plymouth Road P.O. Box 1468 Ann Arbor, MI 48106 American National Standards Institute, Inc. (ANSI) 1430 Broadway New York, NY 10018 The American Society of Mechanical Engineers 345 East 47th Street New York, NY 10017

April 2004

500-92

ChevronTexaco Energy Technology Co.

Civil and Structural Manual

500 Drainage

Publications: ASME 22 Law Drive, Box 2300 Fairfield, NJ 07007-2300 Ref: Several publications on drainage fittings and systems in the A112 and the B16 series of standards. Plastics Pipe Institute Wayne Interchange Plaza II 155 Route 46 West Wayne, NJ 07470 (201) 812-9076 Ref: Engineering Basics of Plastic Piping. This is a good general explanation of the different kinds of plastic pipe. Ref: Polyolefin Piping. Covers design and construction of polyolefin (e.g., polyethylene) piping. Ref: Plastic Piping and Joining Material. Relates to plastic pipe (PVC, PE, etc.) in water supply service. The Society of the Plastics Industry, Inc. Literature Sales Department 1275 K Street, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20005 (202) 371-5200 (800) 541-0736 Ref: National Specification for Fiberglass Pipe. Ref: Specification Guideline for Fiberglass Pipe Systems for Oil and Gas Service. U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation Washington, D.C. 20555 Ref: NUREG-0800 Standard Review Plan. 9.3.3. Equipment and Floor Drainage System. This document indicates the minimum requirements of the Commission with respect to containment of floor drainage in nuclear facilities.

577 Vendors and Contractors


Note Vendors and contractors on the following lists have been grouped based on product or service offered. Pipe materials Double containment piping Trough containment

ChevronTexaco Energy Technology Co.

500-93

April 2004

500 Drainage

Civil and Structural Manual

Leak detection Drain inspection and leak repair

It should be recognized that some firms offer more than one product or service and may be on more than one list.

Fig. 500-33 Pipe Materials Vendors (1 of 2) Company


Ameron Concrete Pipe Group 10100 West Linne Road Tracy, CA 95376 Tel: 209-836-5050 FAX: 209-832-2115 American Cast Iron Pipe 2020 Hurley Way, Suite 490 Sacramento, CA 95825-3244 Tel: 916-924-8404 FAX: 916-924-3801 U.S. Pipe and Foundry Co. Box 10406 Birmingham, AL 35202 Tel: 205-254-7000 Spirolite Corporation (a Chevron product) 4094 Blue Ridge Industrial Parkway Norcross, GA 30071 Tel: 404-497-2309 Advanced Drainage Systems Inc. (ADS) 3300 Riverside Drive Columbus, OH 43221 Tel: 614-457-3051 DOW Chemical U.S.A. P. O. Box 927 Bay City, MI 48706 Tel: 800-233-7577 FAX: 517-638-0522 PLEXCO Inc. 1050 Busse Highway Suite 200 Bensenville, IL 60106 Tel: 708-350-3700 Fibercast Company P. O. Box 968 Sand Springs, OK 74063 Tel: 918-245-6651 Concrete Drain Pipe

Services Offered

Cast Iron and Ductile Iron Pipe

Cast Iron and Ductile Iron Pipe

Special shape, polyethylene drain pipe Also used for slip lining

Special shape, polyethylene drain pipe

Solid-wall HDPE pipe

Solid-wall HDPE pipe

Fiberglass reinforced plastic pipe

April 2004

500-94

ChevronTexaco Energy Technology Co.

Civil and Structural Manual

500 Drainage

Fig. 500-33 Pipe Materials Vendors (2 of 2) Company


Smith Fiberglass Products Inc. (subsidiary of A. O. Smith Corp.) 2700 West 65th Street Little Rock, AR 72209 Tel: 501-568-4010 FAX: 501-568-4465 HOBAS U.S.A. Inc. 1413 Richey Rd. Houston, TX 77073 Tel: 713-821-2200 800-856-7473 FAX: 713-821-7715 Johns-Manville Pipe J-M Manufacturing Co. Inc. 1051 Sperry Road Stockton, CA 95206

Services Offered
Fiberglass reinforced plastic pipe

Centrifugally cast fiberglass pipe

Asbestos cement pipe PVC pipe

Fig. 500-34 Double Containment Piping (1 of 2) Company


Fibercast Company P. O. Box 968 Sand Springs, OK 74063 Tel: 918-245-6651 or 800-331-4406 FAX: 918-241-1143 or: 800-365-7473 Ameron, Fiberglass Pipe Division P. O. Box 801148 Houston, TX 77280 Tel: 713-690-7777 FAX: 713-690-2842 Smith Fiberglass Products Inc. 2700 West 65th Street Little Rock, AR 72209 Tel: 501-568-4010 FAX: 501-568-4465 Containment Technologies Corp. 7901 Xerxes Avenue South Minneapolis, MN 55431 Tel: 612-881-0072 FAX: 612-884-4911 Total Containment Inc. 306 Commerce Drive Exton, PA 19341 Tel: 215-524-9274

Services Offered
Dualcast double containment piping in fiberglass

Fiberglass double containment piping

Fiberglass double containment piping

Secondary containment pipe and fittings (outer shell only) in HDPE

Secondary containment pipe and fittings (outer shell only) (See also: Leak Detection)

ChevronTexaco Energy Technology Co.

500-95

April 2004

500 Drainage

Civil and Structural Manual

Fig. 500-34 Double Containment Piping (2 of 2) Company


Ryan Herco Products Corp. P. O. Box 588 Burbank, CA 91503 or 9820 Kitty Lane Oakland, CA 94603 Tel: 510-633-1141 FAX: 510-562-4905

Services Offered
Double containment piping in polyethylene

Fig. 500-35 Trough Containment Company


Fiber-Trench Inc. 45581 Industrial Place, #1 Fremont, CA 94538 Tel: 510-490-2333 FAX: 510-490-3306 Western Fiberglass, Inc. 1555 Copperhill Parkway Santa Rosa, CA 95403 Tel: 707-523-2050 FAX: 707-523-2046 MPC Containment System 4834 South Oakley Chicago, IL 60609 Tel: 312-927-4120 or 800-621-0146 FAX: 312-650-6028

Services Offered
Fiberglass trenches for secondary containment systems

Fiberglass trenches for secondary containment systems

Polyurethane rubber sheeting and other material for trench liners

Fig. 500-36 Drain Inspection, Relining and Leak Repair (1 of 3) Company


Miller Pipeline Corp. Products and Services Division P. O. Box 34141 Indianapolis, IN 46234 Tel: 317-293-0278 or 800-428-3742 PLCS Inc. 27 Roland Avenue Mt. Laurel, NJ 08054 Tel: 609-722-1333 FAX: 609-273-9723

Services Offered
Internal and External Seals Pipeline Cleaning XPANDIT TV Inspection HDPE Slip lining Contractor for installing WECO or In-weg internal seals in drains

April 2004

500-96

ChevronTexaco Energy Technology Co.

Civil and Structural Manual

500 Drainage

Fig. 500-36 Drain Inspection, Relining and Leak Repair (2 of 3) Company


Insituform of North America Inc. 1770 Kirby Parkway 3rd Floor, Suite 300 Memphis, TN 38138 Tel: 901-363-2105 FAX: 901-365-3906 Cues, Inc. 3501 Vineland Road Orlando, FL 32811 Tel: 407-849-0190 or 800-327-7791 Brand Precision (previously Hydro Services) 610 Industrial Way, Suite B Benecia, CA 94510 Tel: 707-745-0501 FAX: 707-745-0510 Cherne Industries Inc. 5700 Lincoln Edina, MN 55436 Tel: 612-933-5501 FAX: 612-938-6601 PLS International P. O. Box 35168 Cleveland, OH 44135 Tel: 216-252-7770 FAX: 216-252-7792 Sub Tronic Corp. 4070 Nelson Ave., Ste. E Concord, CA 94520 Tel: 510-686-3747 FAX: 510-686-5281 Rodding Cleaning Services Inc. 2585 Nicholson Street San Leandro, CA 94577-4276 Tel: 510-357-8875 Olympus Industrial 4 Nevada Drive Lake Success, NY 11042 Tel: 516-488-5888 FAX: 516-488-3973 Dowell Schlumberger Inc. Industrial Service Division 145 Industrial Blvd. Sugarland, TX 77478 Tel: 713-275-8400 FAX: 713-995-0913

Services Offered
In-place internal relining of drain lines TV inspection

TV internal inspection Drain cleaning Internal joint repair Grout sealing Slip lining Sewer manhole sealing (same services as Cues, above)

TV Inspection Internal Joint Sealing, by grout and mechanical

TV Camera internal inspection of drain lines

TV Camera internal inspection of drain lines

TV Camera Inspections Sewer cleaning Slip lining Grouting from internal for leaks Internal Inspection by fiber optics

Swage-Lining, i.e., internal relining with Polyethylene

ChevronTexaco Energy Technology Co.

500-97

April 2004

500 Drainage

Civil and Structural Manual

Fig. 500-36 Drain Inspection, Relining and Leak Repair (3 of 3) Company


PLEXCO Inc. 1050 Bussy Hwy Bensenville, IL 60106 Tel: 708-350-3810

Services Offered
Slip lining with Polyethylene

Fig. 500-37 Leak Detection by Various Methods (1 of 2) Company


Heath Consultants Incorporated 9030 W. Monroe Rd. Houston, TX 77061 Tel: 713-947-9292 FAX: 713-947-0422 Teledyne Control Applications LASP Products Division 3401 Shiloh Road P. O. Box 469007 Garland, TX 75046-9007 Tel: 214-271-2561 FAX: 214-271-0223 Raychem Corporation Chemelex Division 300 Constitution Drive Menlo Park, CA 94025-1164 Tel: 415-361-4602 FAX: 415-361-3904 Total Containment Inc. 306 Commerce Drive Exton, PA 19341 Tel: 215-524-9274 Ronan Engineering Company P. O. Box 1275 21200 Oxnard Street Woodland Hills, CA 91367 Tel: 818-883-5211 FAX: 818-992-6435 W. L. Gore and Associates Inc. 4747 Beautiful Lane Phoenix, AZ 85044 Tel: 602-431-0077 Universal Sensors and Devices Inc. 9205 Alabama Ave., Unit C Chatsworth, CA 91311 Tel: 818-998-7121

Services Offered
Leak detection and location by various methods TV camera internal inspection

Pipeline leak detection by in-place sensor tubing For hydrocarbon leaks

Leak detection by various means in double pipe or trench containment systems

Leak detection in double-wall pipes, tanks, troughs, etc. (See also Double Containment Piping)

Leak detection by several means

Leak detection by special sensor cables

Leak detection of various types for underground tanks and double containment piping

April 2004

500-98

ChevronTexaco Energy Technology Co.

Civil and Structural Manual

500 Drainage

Fig. 500-37 Leak Detection by Various Methods (2 of 2) Company


Bacharach Inc. 625 Alpha Drive Pittsburgh, PA 15238-2878 Tel: 412-963-2000 FAX: 412-963-2091 Owens/Corning Fiberglas Corp. Fiberglas Tower Toledo, OH 43659 Tel: 419-248-8000 Environmental Instruments 5650 Imhoff Dr., Suite A Concord, CA 94520 Tel: 510-686-4474 or 800-648-9355 West Coast Locators P. O. Box 1810-T San Jose, CA 95109-1810 Tel: 408-294-9368 FAX: 408-971-3581 Tracer Research Corporation 3855 North Business Center Drive Tucson, AZ 85705 Tel: 602-888-9400 Geophysical Survey Systems Inc. 13 Klein Drive P. O. Box 97 North Salem, NH 03073-0097 Tel: 603-893-1109 or 800-524-3011 FAX: 603-889-3984

Services Offered
Gas detectors for gas leaks

Water-finding dipstick

Various leak detection systems

Leak detection by various means. TV camera inspection

Leak detection by injection and detection of tracer gas

Leak detection by various means

578 Flat Slab Protection Recommendations


Crack Sealing Methods for Chemically Resistant Thick Film Concrete Coatings
There are basically four types of cracks encountered in concrete floors and walls: Control Joints, placed to form weak planes and to help control the location of cracking. Expansion or Isolation Joints, placed to allow for expansion or movement of different parts of a structure. Construction Joints, where work was interrupted. True Cracks, formed through shrinkage or movement of the structure.

ChevronTexaco Energy Technology Co.

500-99

April 2004

500 Drainage

Civil and Structural Manual

All types of joints and cracks can initiate cracks that will propagate through a coating and destroy the integrity of the coating.

Cracks, Construction Joints and Non-Working Joints


Tight cracks, construction joints, control joints, and open cracks which are nonworking (not moving) can all be dealt with in a similar manner. If the cracks or joints are moving significantly, they must be treated in a similar manner to expansion joints. The main idea is to isolate and reinforce the brittle coating from the high stresses associated with a crack. If the coating system is un-reinforced, then 12- to 24-inches of reinforcing is needed across the joint. The reinforcing helps to spread the stresses over a larger area. Methods A, B, and C in Figure 500-38 show three ways of covering non-working cracks. Method A is for a chopped strand or continuous glass mat reinforced coating. The crack is isolated from the coating simply by placing a strip of bond breaker tape (duct tape is sometimes used) over the crack. This spreads the load of any slight movements over a two- or three-inch wide strip instead of concentrating the stress at the crack. Method B is a variation of Method A for unreinforced coatings. A strip of bond breaker is used to isolate a reinforced section of coating from the crack. Method C is probably the best system. A 12- to 24- inch (18 inches is recommended by one manufacturer) strip of reinforced flexible coating is applied over the crack. The flexible coating has little or no chemical resistance, so the resistant coating is applied over it. Method D (Figure 500-38) shows open cracks and control joints (where a saw cut has been made or a scribed line placed in the concrete) and can use one of the three systems described above once the open joint is filled with an elastomeric joint sealer.

Expansion and Working Joints


Any joint that moves is difficult to seal with total confidence. The three systems shown here all involve compromises, may not always work, but allow the joint to have some flexibility. The system should be chosen based on the amount of movement and type of service. New designs proposed by the contractor or coatings manufacturer should be considered for these types of joints. Method E (Figure 500-39) involves sealing the expansion joint with a chemically resistant flexible material (flexible epoxy). The coating system is applied to the entire surface except in the joints. Then the joints are filled with backup material followed by sealant. The flexible joint sealer must be chosen based on its environment (chemical and/or solvents). Method F (Figure 500-39) creates an expansion loop in the lining. The lining is reinforced to give it flexural strength. This system is most suitable for joints with small movements where there is a need for high integrity. Method G (Figure 500-39) is a variation of Method A where the coating is applied into the joint. A foam backer rod (50% larger than the crack) is used as the backup

April 2004

500-100

ChevronTexaco Energy Technology Co.

Civil and Structural Manual

500 Drainage

material for a chemically resistant elastomeric joint compound. (Bond breaker tape is not normally required because the joint sealant usually does not adhere to the backer rod.)
Fig. 500-38 Cracks, Construction Joints, and Nonworking Joints Fig. 500-39 Expansion and Working Joints

580 Library References


Most of the books and articles listed here are available in the Corporation Library or through their inter-library services. 1. Fire Protection Manual Summary: This is ChevronTexaco Corporations general reference manual on fire prevention and loss reduction. It covers fire protection through design, construction, operation, and maintenance. It also discusses fire control and extinguishment.

ChevronTexaco Energy Technology Co.

500-101

April 2004

500 Drainage

Civil and Structural Manual

2.

Linsley, Ray K. and Franzini, Joe B. Water Resources Engineering, 3rd ed., McGraw-Hill, 1979. Summary: This is a general textbook with information on materials, hydraulics, strength, construction, etc.

3.

Izzard, C. F. Hydraulics of Runoff from Developed Surfaces, Proc. Highway Res. Board, 26 (1946), 129-150. Summary: This technical paper describes research results on rainfall overland flow.

4.

McPherson, M. B. Some Notes on the Rational Method of Storm Drain Design, ASCE Urban Water Resources Research Program Technical Memorandum, 6 (1969). Summary: This paper is a comprehensive review of the Rational Method (history and background, problems, correct usage, alternatives.)

5.

Design and Construction of Sanitary and Storm Sewers (WPCF Manual of Practice No. 9 and ASCE Manual on Engineering Practice No. 37). American Society of Civil Engineers and Water Pollution Control Federation, 1982. Summary: This is excellent reference on many drainage topics.

6.

Flammable and Combustible Liquids Code, 30, Quincy, MA: National Fire Protection Association, 1984. Summary: This Code outlines requirements for handling of flammable liquids, including drainage of many kinds of facilities that handle such liquids. It is often included in local regulations.

7.

Merritt, Fred S., ed. Standard Handbook for Civil Engineers, 3rd ed. McGrawHill, 1983. Summary: This all-inclusive handbook includes information on general drainage, culvert design, sanitary sewers, construction, etc. It also covers standard train wheel loads.

8.

Design and Construction of LP-Gas Installations at Marine and Pipeline Terminals, Natural Gas Processing Plants, Refineries, and Tank Farms API Standard 2510, 5th ed. New York: American Petroleum Institute, 1985. Summary: Gives requirements for the design and construction of facilities handling liquefied petroleum gas.

9.

29 Code of Federal Regulations Chapter XVII Part 1910. Summary: This contains regulations governing the design of facilities that handle hazardous materials such as flammable and combustible liquids (Section 106) and LPG (Section 110.)

April 2004

500-102

ChevronTexaco Energy Technology Co.

Civil and Structural Manual

500 Drainage

10. Concrete Pressure Pipe Manual No. M9. American Water Works Association, 1979. Summary: This is part of a series of good references published by the AWWA. It covers the basics of RCP and CCP materials, manufacturing methods, joints, details, design, installation, etc. 11. Piping Manual, Section 1100, Non-metallic Piping. Summary: This section provides information on joints, material properties, handling, etc. of plastic and cement pipe. 12. Design Practice L-134-8, Pipe for Water Service. Summary: This archived design guide provides information on material properties, coatings, linings, joints, and hydraulic characteristics of cast iron, asbestoscement, concrete, and steel pipe. 13. Standard Specifications for Highway Bridges, 13th ed. Washington D.C.: American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, 1986. Summary: This book contains specifications for the design and construction of highway bridges and appurtenances. Topics related to drainage include standard truck designations and wheel loads, and culvert design and construction methods. 14. Manual for Railway Engineering. Chicago: American Railway Engineering Association, 1981. Summary: This covers virtually every aspect of railway engineering design. The section on culvert design beneath railways might be helpful. 15. Standard Specifications. North Highlands, CA: State of California Department of Transportation, 1984. Summary: These specifications cover the materials and construction of highways and highway appurtenances. They include drainage and sewer facilities. 16. Viessman, Warren et. al. Introduction to Hydrology. 2nd ed. Harper and Row, 1977. Summary: This is a basic textbook on hydrology. It includes a review of the Rational Formula and discusses other methods of estimating peak runoff flow rates. 17. Winterkorn, Hans F. and Fang, H. eds. Foundation Engineering Handbook. Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1975. Summary: The section on buried structures in this geotechnical engineering book tells how to design buried pipe loaded by soil and vehicles.

ChevronTexaco Energy Technology Co.

500-103

April 2004

500 Drainage

Civil and Structural Manual

18. Design Practice L-134-17, Computer Program PIPEFLEX 2 Stress Analysis of Piping Systems. Summary: This Company design guide tells how to use the computer program to find stresses in pipe from internal pressure, temperature, displacements, and external loads. 19. Roark, Ray J. and Young, Warren C. Formulas for Stress and Strain, 5th ed. McGraw-Hill, 1975. Summary: A standard reference for mechanical engineers, this book gives extensive tables of formulas for the calculation of stresses in pipes under various loadings. 20. Akan, A. Osman Kinematic-Wave Method for Peak Runoff Estimates, American Society of Civil Engineers, Journal of Transportation Engineering, Vol. 111, No. 4, July, 1985. Summary: A technical paper that gives several very practical formulas for overland flow time (for use with the Rational Formula.) The paper gives formulas for plain, flat slopes; flat slopes intercepted by gutters; converging slopes; and others. 21. 40 Code of Federal Regulations Part 60 and 61. Standards of Performance for New Stationary Sources Subpart QQQ, Volatile Organic Compounds Emissions from Petroleum Refinery Wastewater Systems (40 CFR 60.692-2), requires all process drains to have water seals and all junction boxes to be covered. Junction boxes may have a vent pipe, but it must be at least three feet long, and less than four inches in diameter. The National Emission Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants Subpart FF, National Emission Standard for Benzene Waste Operations (40 CFR 61.346) applies to facilities at which the total annual benzene quantity from facility waste is more than 10 megagrams per year or aqueous waste streams are treated to a total of 6 megagrams per year of benzene. Process drains subject to this standard must have water seals, and manholes must have covers that allow emissions less than 500 ppm above background levels. Junction boxes must be covered and may have a vent pipe, but it must be at least three feet long, less than four inches in diameter, and emissions from the vent pipe must be controlled. 22. Coatings Manual. 23. Corrosion Prevention Manual. 24. Safety In Designs Manual. (SID) 25. Airport Drainage Advisory Circular No. 150/5320-5B. United States Department of Transportation Federal Aviation Administration, July 1970. Summary: This circular provides guidance for the design and maintenance of airport drainage systems. It includes nomographs for flow in open channels and

April 2004

500-104

ChevronTexaco Energy Technology Co.

Civil and Structural Manual

500 Drainage

an equation for calculating overland flow time for use with the Rational Formula. 26. NOAA Technical Memorandum NWS Hydro-35, 5 to 60 Minute Precipitation Frequency for the Eastern and Central United States, 1977. Summary: Gives intensity-duration-frequency information for use with the Rational Formula. Gives rainfall-frequency values for durations of 5, 15, and 60 minutes at return periods of 2 and 100 years for 37 states from North Dakota to Texas and eastward. Equations are given to derive 10- and 30-minute values for return periods between 2 and 100 years. 27. NOAA Atlas 2, Precipitation-Frequency Atlas of the Western United States, Volumes I - XI, 1973. Summary: Gives intensity-duration-frequency information for use with the Rational Formula. Covers states not included in Reference [28] (except Alaska and Hawaii.) 28. Rainfall Frequency Study for Oahu, Report R-73, State of Hawaii, Department of Land and Natural Resources, Division of Water and Land Development, 1984. Summary: Gives intensity-duration-frequency information for use with the Rational Formula. 29. Uniform Plumbing Code. International Conference of Plumbing and Mechanical Officials, 1985. Summary: Gives provisions for the design and installation of plumbing systems. Typically adopted by local regulatory agencies on the West Coast of the United States. Cited here for septic system provisions in Appendix I.

ChevronTexaco Energy Technology Co.

500-105

April 2004

500 Drainage

Civil and Structural Manual

April 2004

500-106

ChevronTexaco Energy Technology Co.