You are on page 1of 20









M.5. Kos

LjubIJana, Iugoslavia

Since 148 B.C.ore of the first provinces of Republican the key proviace in coaqueriag the Balkans.After the annexatioa of Achaia iq. 146 iacludted the entire southern part of tbe Balkaa peninsula.In the nidcl.le of the two spheres of interest (Uest datl East) aacl by the way of sea relatively closellr coanectetl. with playeit aa important role cluring the civil wars.AS with Cisalpina fo:r western Illyricumrit was the base and startiag point for early Augustan uilitary achievernents in the ceatral and. eastern part of the Balkansrand because of the constant danger that threatened from Thrace it retainih'legioaary garrison to the end of the Augustaa periodl.Aftep the first carnpaigns of Octaviaa in Illyricun (r5-r1 B.C.) when Roman power gradually penetrated. to the central and. northera parts of the Balkaasrit began to lose its strategical inportaace.As a fronticr provia'ce (although senatoria\ancl since 27 B.C.witbout Achaia whicb then attaiaed independ.ence)rhoweverrlt still protectecl. for several years the Romaa f,erritory agaiast its northern and. eastexn enernieg.Oaly whee the bounclaries of the empire definitely reacbed. the Danuberapil Moesia was bstablished. as an independent province wbose iipperial legate assumed the commancl of tbe previously Maced.onian legionsrMacedonia became a hinterlancl anil thus ceasecL to be a nilitary province.
RonerMaced.onia became

was coastantly threateaed, by Ba1kan


Evet since its existence as a froe$ier Greek regioa it tribes fron two siAesc

f:lon the nortb (anong whon the nost d.angerous were the Darclanians and. Scorclieci)ras well as fron the east (Uy aifferent Shracian peoples) and also fron tribes that livecl further awayrthe Daciaae aud Baqtarnaera6i-'lffrequeirtrIy in combinecl attacksl. llhe invading power of these peoplqs was nainly crushed. by tbe last quarter of the firat century B.C.A few of the incursion roadsrnostly the valLey of Axius ancl Strynonrurere doubtless uncler Ronaa nilitary cootrolrespecially places of excelleat strategical position ]ike Stobi aatl Philippi.
Relations oith the Thracians becane strained. C.Antonius Eybrid.a whro fought in Dard.ania anil Tbracia and. was d.efeated by the Bastarnaeland. especially L.Calpu:rnius Piso Caegoniaus (57=55 B.C.) when the Dentheletae,Beqsi anct other

tribes invatled

aacl plunderecl Maced.onia.Ibls

is significant


the Dentbeletae are kaown to have been since early Republican tines allies of Bone (oae aspect of Roman strateg:y h,acl always





Cicero (ia Pisones 74.84) wbo spent some tine in exile (58-r? B.C. ) thererreporterevea Thessalonike was menaced,2.

hostile tribes).0n this occasionras

In the nidcl.le of the Laet ceatur5r B.C.a new expansive power cane to othe fore:Burebieta batl united aII tbe Daco-Getic

tribesrsubJugatec[ others (several [hracian t:ribes and former

Scor-d.i.sci)rjoined. to his state the Greek cities of, the Black Sea as wellralnost annihilatect sone of tbe neigbbourihg peoples (goi anal llaurisci)rand. thus threafenetl Italy itself in the long run].At tbis time (49 B.c. ) the civil war between Caesar anct Ponii,ey broke outrd.uring which BurebiEta supportecl the latter wif,h auxiliary contingentsras did. scveral other eastern dynas{is (of the thracians the Sapai and Astal),Pompey even received' Burebistats representative Acornion in Heraclela L,yncesti"+roop far fron the heacl.guarters at Bemboearwhere h,is 9 legions were stationedrone of'wbich consisted. entirely of yeterans who had been settlecl i-n Crete anil MacecloniarwhiLe othbrs were fi.on the east5.Oo th" other pide Caesar land.ecl rith / legions (and later Antony with 4 nore) at Palaeste aear


the eastern beginning of the via Egaatiarwhich played. an inportant rore througbout these and. later miLitary uovements as a via militaris6.such a coDcoatration of rnllitary foree in l,Iacedonia (from which the whold -'u"6untry i:{rffered. sorely) would have prevented. any possibre confliet with the Dacian state.
lwo Bieces of epigraphic evid.ence are preserved. from Greece very probably d.ate fron this period..a funerary inscription was found. at Kalivagi (south-west of BTIlis) conrxeaorating P.Ileienniusra sorclier of the 6tb tegiou:-y.Eerennius P.f. / Iegionis Vf hic situs estT.It is the first epigraphic nonument of a }egionary in southern l11yria- he perhaps fought near Dymbacbiun in Caesar's 6tb legionrnentionect by suetoniu" inscription fron Athens mentions one N.Granonius, centurion from tue fAth legion of Cornelius Spinter (p.Cornelius lentulus SpintherrggE ST B.C. Cilicia in ,6-5V B. C.)rand. from the leqio secund.a of PonpeylwUo was probably connectetl. with the events arouncl the time of Dymhachiun anil Pharsalus.[his second. legion rilas afterward.s anong the six stationed in Macectonia at the time of Caesarts murd""Io.In 45 B.C.Caesar planned. a eampaign against the Dacians and. the Parthians to secure both fronti-er"Ilriot even before his own d.eath Burebista waE killed in internal clynastic struggles anil his ki,ngdon iLisintegratetl. at first into 4rlater 5rseparate regiand. liaceclonia rrrhicb


Six s.c.'Macecloniant legions were stationed in }laceilonia i.n Caesarts last y""""I'rtwo of which at least were under Acilius Caninus in Graecia (later the province of Achaia)rsince his preilecessor Ser.Sulpicius Rufus (t+6-+5 BrC.) having been probably also ad.ninj.stratively ind.epenitent fron l,1aced.onial4. Four of these legioas : nanely tbe zndr4th (o Zr+orwhere calIet[ Iulaced.onicarprobably after tbe proviuce where stationetl), 75th (consisted of Ponpeiansrd.efeated after Pharsalus)rand. Martia - were ortlered. by Antoay to cone to ltaly.Their connander was M.Aenilius and. not the ploconsul Q.HortensiuslSrwho aumend.ered. hinself ancl his province to Brutus.fwo otier legions of the six nentioned. subsequently feII in Brutusts hand.sl9

Ee was supported by the


that had. previously the Bessi17.


and. both fhracian tribes vrith Pompeyrbut he fought agaiast

the novements of the triunviral arny were linited. almost entirely to the Via'fid:i:a'flaz22 ldgions came Antony and Octavian.Amphipolis was used as their base to secure the food. supplylS.Cagsius brought llrBrutus B legions;half of his rvere either raised. fron l,iaced.onian provincial-s or conscripted. from amoag Romans resid.ent in Greeceror Ponpeian veterans who had remainecl j.a the country after Pharsalu"l9.fhuir entire army surrend.ered. after the d.efeatras well as the garrisons in fortifications which extend.ed. as far as the coastrand, those members from auong the nobj-Iity who took refuge on Thasus2o.Both lead.ers of the SapairRhascuporis and. his brother Rhascus, eventually came over to the triumvi-raI sid.e2I.

After the victory Antony remained in the eastern tralf of the empire.ilimself having gone to Asia Einor he left his lega.te L.llarcius Censorinus in the Balkan peninsula which bad. Iikewise falIen .to his lot22.Sone legioas were obviously left in the provinceras Censorinus later (in )9 B.C.) celebrated a triumph ex i,iacedonia2}.th" Pact of Rrund.isium brought a signif icant change: the clividing line passetl through Scod.ra in Da1natiarso that l,laced.onia remained 1n Antonyts partrwhi-Ie IlIyricumrimportant for the frontiers of Italyrfell to octavia,i,s share24 uot wi-thout Apollonia and Dyrrhachiun which fron this tine on belongecl to Macectooi"25.Although after ag!eement with Sextus Ponpeius shortly after Brunclisiumrho should. have got the Peloponneserthis was never realized ancl it always renraiaed. in AntonXts sphe:re of influenc"291fig.l).In ,g B,C'Aatr who spent this winter in Atbens, sent part of the l{aced.oniaa arny against the Dardanians ancl part of it agaiust the Parthini (a1J.egedly to punish then for'having supported Brutus)runder C.Asinius Polliorwho extenilect his campaign as far as'IIIyricunrd.oubtless in cooperation with Octavianrthen fighting against Delnatae?T.Tin" of the arny was orderecl to stay in Epirus.This was Antony's only activity in the province.



,,i X

at the time of the pirthian campaign (7o s.c. I,taceclonia retainecl at least a smarr legi-onary garrisonras ) otherwlse An_ tony would not have been ab-re to offer to participate in octa_ vis'nts war in rlIyri-cun Ln 75 B.c.His proposar wasrhowever, refused - octavian vrould. not share grgry with .a rivar whose faae was furead.y fad.ing28. on the other hand antony twarteil octaviants plans to attael,,tnu Daci.gas (a legacy fron caesar, rike the campaign against the parthians)ras their te*itory lay within the l{aced.onian sphere of infruence.This night werr have been the core of their mutual discord29.Fo" thi-s period obscure reports of octaviarlrs ,egotiations with the Dacian king cotisorone of Burebistars successorsrare attested.]o.Another onerDico,esrsupported. Antoay - perhaps after having met with Octavian's refusarras Dio saysror only as a resurt of Antonyts kingsrtoorsupported. opposing ' ---'-sidesil.
when it came to the decision at Actiumrregions were take.n froru i'laced.onia to take part in the battle.ft seeias that no inmediate danger threatened its bord.ers at that tineT2.Ehe whole Ambracian golfrKorkyra and the ronian island.s were engaged. in the war.Antony spent his last wiater ia patrae.Fron among his inclivid.uar legions the forrowiug were in sone way connecteil with i'iaced.oniarcloubtless at some tine statlor:.ed. in

the province.rhe 4thrlater scythicarperhaps got its suraame after crassus's campai-gns.rts veterans are rater attested. in colonia Diensisi5. Gallicarlater l{aced.oaicarthus surnamed. perhaps because it was stationed. in iriags66nla uad_er Aatony; 6tb Pl.c"d.onicarwhose surnaiile possibly originated. af,ter phirippi (attestetL only once ia D 8g62) which Ritterling thought id.entical with 6. Fematal anil 9. I,laeed.oaicarperhaps the sa. me as 9. Hispana.After Actiun octavian ::etained aL1 of thea in his army in which tne 4th Maced.onica had Sread.y baenl1. A sold.ier of the 28thregion (which no ronger existed after Actium) is attested. at philippi - probably one of the veterans whom octavian settled there io ,o B.c.rt+.Before that the city r'ras coronised. by Antony soon after 42 B.c.rn cassand.reiartoo, the colony was first established. uncler Brutus a-nd. it is likery

inat otncn' Macetloaiau coloniesrtoorwere previbusly foundett by either Brutua or Antony'5 iatt of tben hait a rnil-itary character.
troco4sutat6 ot "'lq.Iricinius Crassus. Shortly after. Actiun M.Licinius Craseus r+ appointed. procoasul of MacedonirV6.L graird.eon 6f the triunvinraa ally of Sextus Ponpeius and. Aatony, he had.'onIY rcc.eatly corile'.qwr to the victorious whioh he was rewarritcdL ri.tb.l the consulship in'lo B.C. (wifthorit 'having been praetor)rheld.together with Octavian.He was the last to govern both |iaoectoaiaiand. Achaia an(I commancled + - 5 legions, "tb6 prov !n.e77 .It wourct be interesting to tu"o statioqid. in know wberq t[ey trdrr Sarrisoned.rfor which there is hardly aDy eviclencc.PJ.acee uscb {s, miLitary bases in the }ast years of the republic such aslBerrhoea (Ponpeyts 9 legions), Dyrrhachiun, Elirus (?xercitus Antony) rfortificatioas along Via EgtatiarAfphipolisrPhilippirpetrhaps retainecl their function in the periodrlnnetliately following the close of the civil wars.Bbe leliops.,then stationetL ia Maced.oriiarwete by Ritterlingts ealculatioas nost likeIy 4. Scythicarl. Macedoaica (both attested..lCtct' in Moesia)r/.Macedoniea (later GlauclLa garrisonea',a?ter A.f.'9,ln l1)-yricun) ;antl perhaps 9.I'Iacedoaica (tUus attested on a.t Carly inscriptiou'fron Athens oaly)rlater


Crassus"urClertoot the war against the Bastaraae and later other peoples with tle autbority of a forner republican'proconsulrprobably,Bftb blE own inperiun antl d.oubtless with Octavi-

ants acknowled.$er"od9.It was only laterrwhen the canpaiga assuned lefg6f propoftLons and. acbieved mote success than hacl been e4>ected.;that Ostavian by virtue of his supenior positiont asserted. his, ri$Lte.l[h,e best antl only e>chaustive source is Dio who d.escribcs-the -e eats in ih:ronological orcter (5I.21-27)ztbe
Bastarna,eruho hge *iMuect.

part of Moesiarthe Eribflli and. the tle territory of RonetE allies tbe DeaDarrlanlansralso i,rrvqdcd thelelaerrh{er king'.{ppea1ett to the Rornaag for help.As Maced'onia itsclf yas Ln daagerrQrassus reacli}y ad.vanced as far as Segeti.ka (r.Serdlica)rwhich he. occupiedrd.efeatdct first the Moeei antl then t[c Ba6trtniie (on their f1i8bt)-1a a hard battle on 292


legalry estabrishecl.crassusrs clai'n for this greatest honour - nore'of a sacral thaa uil_itary character _ that had. been granted' to onry tuo Ronans after Ronurusrd.oubtress quickened. the steps octavian und.ertook to regarise his supr"r" ,orr""[[.

Athens and. rrhespia"4'.craesus should. have had.rmoreoverrthe right to qporia opimarbecause he harit personarly kiI1ed an ene_ ny kingrbut thisrtoorwa3 cteaieil him on tne grounas tnat ie aia aot coad'uot military operations auspiciis suis.,rhis wour-d. oaly have beea true two years later ,ia 2l B.c. rwhen the p::incipate

winter grad.uaDy withdicr**. wer the*supposeclry terri_ tory back to l{aced.onialbut he was nevertheress attacked. by sone rhraeian tribes on the way.prom hls novenents that he took the relatively easily crossable route it forlows arong the valleys'of strynon and. rsker.The canpaign to be Jr"=rio Rome a triumph was votect for hiro """r"i. ancr. octavianrbut the titre of iPoerator 'was officially assuned onry by tbe"r[i.rnrrrr_ ciallyrhoweverrthe troops had ahread.y acclairned. bim as impera_ tor of their oyra accord.ras is attested. on two inscriptions fron

the rj'ver Ked'rcis (rciabiuE)rd.uring which he ki11ec[ wlth his orn hand their king Delcr.o.Arthough the rest of the people took refuge ia a strringhoril (id.entified by sorne witu n"tl"ri]io)ro" succeed'ed'' in coaquering it with. the help of Rolesrking of a Getic triberwho was reeeived. by augustusrprouabry at corinth, tluriag the sutreer of the sane year (Zg A.C. )_ and reward.ed. with 'the title of socius et atricus p 1.*i"-r""r-"i ,o" season he speat ia the Moesirand. -subd.uing at the approach of

Early in the next year crassus was forced. to take up the fielcl oace nore.ilbether,wlth the coasent of octavian or not _ perhaps the situatioa was aot d.eemed. urgent enough in none ana consequeatly supportrif it was wanted.rnot rea*ily seat - it oourtl aot heve nattered. ruuchras aot onry crassusrs persohal prestigerbut a3-so Ronan pot^rer geaerallyrlras at a stake.Never_ theress later events showed. that he had acted. ia agreenent with bigber authoritiei.He first repulsed. the Bastarnae who hacl again raiited. in revenge the te*itory of the Dentheletaelthen be oethod'i'caIIy turned g6ainst the r.laed.irserd.i and. sla,' trlbes uho had harassed hin cr.uring his ]eturn otheilrhrathe prev!.o_




ls yearrand. favoured. onry the Ioya1 oclrysaerunder uhose supenvision he pracecl the renowned. sanctuary of Dionysosrsituated previously in the region of the Bessi.rn coming to aid his for_ nei arry Rolesrhe subd.ued. severar Getic tribesrd.efeated. even those r'rho took refuge in the fanous cave Oirisrand_ conquered. the fortified suronghord Ggaug]og1 where,Roman stand.ard.s,captured d.uring Eybrid.ats unsuccessifut caropiigtrrvrere kept.Arthough these military.. enga8ements have not been localized with certaintyrthey are generarly thought to have taken place in the aorthera Dobrutlja arong the lower Danube45.oo the way back.he divicled. his army:part of it he dj-rected against the rebel-lious Itloesirand. with the rest of the troops bis connand he fought with the Moesian Artacii46rand. other peoples who had. as yet never been subd.uecl by the Rooans:Here Dio finishes bis account. (trig.2).
His text is cleag and coasistentrtherefore at reas.t a part of rnodern misconceptions on the basis of it and in comparlng other sourcesrrlfincts no justification whatsoever.They are clealt with ersewhere.on July-^+rzZ B.c.crassus celebrated. a triunph er Thraecia et Geteis47.r.n" question r+as raised. by tr.papazogru why the Bastarnae and Moesi were not includetl in the offieial'orrone shourcl. noterrrivy clesignates the war as being fougbt adversus Basternas et l.loesosrancl that it figures as b"11o, I'iou"i"orffior the Moesi tbe sorution was proposed. by the author herself:in antiquity this was much rnore of a geographicar aotion than ethnicar or poriticalrso they could have been probabry concearecl uniler the naroe of Geti49. It seems to roe that the Bastarnae not req':ire a separate nention eitherras they were incrutted. rex fhraeciaryBaluely:d.efeated ou the Thracian temitory.sinilarry censorinus celebtrated. a triunph ,4g9.@.rthat isrhe d.efeatotl an enemy who hacl iavadecl the provincial territory.lrhracia.wag reckoned. to be Maced.onian supervisionrand consequeatly in many way6 arread.y d.epend.ent on the enpire.rhis agrees wel-L rith the formuratioa of zoaarasrtha! cragsus was sentt tis r)/ Hqtttov(a,r, uol Ju ri, 0(u7t rd ril r7t, tEI,t{&. (Lo.jl.p.4}5 Dincl. ). }lhea the regions were coaoeraed. whioh stiu beronged. to barba284

of tlefeateil trib,es were stated. in a triuraprr rather than the aames of geographical areas rvhich they inhabited..This wasrfor exanprerthe case of Asinius polrio w[ose cerebrated victory was tex Parthinist.

0n the other hand. Mdcsy berieves one can d.etect ia cras* susts cqmpaigns a r,.rar the Daciansrpurposery refuted. by octavian - ?.s caesarts re{acy'too im$dttant for his prestige not to have been cond.ucted by hirnself - and therefore omitted. in a triunphSo.Ills opinion is based. rnainry on Diors initial sentence ijn d.escribing the eventsrin which he refers to Dacians who are never raentioned again in his subsequent account: l'oi1 re d*0,1 *.i ro?t garrftv.r1 i-*otiyloc (rL.Zr.Z).Dio himbelf ,however, uses aLternately both termgrGetae and Dacirand. moreover consid.ers the Daciang to be a branch of the Getae or Threcians (5t, 22.7)rand, probably frequently uses the naae in contemporary selrse as weLl.Mdcsyts further evid.encera 1ine froia Horace: Daci Cgtisonis asmen (Od.r.B.18)ralthough it has been eonnectedL with the events of 29 ancl 28 B.C.earlierrcannot be d.ecisive either.One shoulctrperhapsrnot put too much weight on such rather vague d.istinctions in a tenninorogy which was obviously not preciseras Suetonius speaks of the sane king as Getic (Auq.67.4).Theteforerthe arguments M6csy uses to prove the existehce of a Dacian campaigurd.o not seem convincing to meJ'In this' context one shoulcl note Swoboctats iirterpretation which app:roacheil the problem from an entirely differeat angle. IIe consid.erect Crassusts war a contj-nuation of Octaviants policy in the rBalkans, carefully pLannect by hin in ad.vance and. pursued. ever since his own campaigns in Illyricunrnamelyrto extead.' Ronan influence as tbe Danube ancl thus gaia an economicalIy and politically inportant base for further consolid.ation of Ronaa power i.n these regionsSl.

Of Crassusts euccessors who d.isposei[ of an afnyrup to tbe tine when duriag the Dalnatian-Pannonian revolt oi ^t.O.6 Arrlus Caecina Severus (cog.I.B.C.).already figures I t-r, *tZ"" are known Gtof{(ov Hw,'.1 itl^"(oio 55.29.} - see berow)rvery few by lane.lheae are listecl here ag'f-ellows:

2)rthus inplying that he conmand.ed. Ronan troops.rn his d.efence he allegecl to h,ave acted. with the approval of Augustusrwhich the latter denied..the backgiounif ol the-:-affair iJ ouscuruin-. M.LolliuE. After the gap of ca.5 years a new nane ctops up. speaking of the 16 B.c.rDio mentions tbat IiI.Lolli-us (cos.21 B.c. ) came 'so,e tine earlier to aid. Rhoemetalcesrone of the Thracian crient kingsragainst the Bessi (5+. ao.7).sJrme proposed. that the incirlent should. be connected. witnltlberiusrs d'eparture to the orieatrwhen part of the i,iaced.oni"rrj t"oop" accompanied. hinrof whicb the iiessi night have taken ad.vantage. He would.rthereforerdate it to 19 8.c.51.I{othiag nore is knowa of M.LoLLius in relatioa to l"iaced.onia.

M.Primus. Evidence is scarce:Dio mentions one I,I.primus (fron an otherwise unknown fanily)raccused before the senate io ZZ B.C.for having fought as H.(Ltror,'al 'lgrn agalnst Od.rysae (54.7.

ra 15 B.C.the Scord.isci

(Dio 54.2o.7).crear]-y no eonsiderable Roman troops were as yet stationed. in the ]ater Moesia54.Fl"""donia was defenclecl probably by proconsular regionsror perhaps fiberius d.j.rected. some nilitary campaign in these regions in 15 B.C., if there is any truth ia Eusebius (schoene J-42)rwhere he is arleged. to have fought against the Thraeians as well after the Vindelici55.

and. Dentbeletae invacted. Macectonia

t.Tariqs Rufus. Either inmed.iately following (as night result fron Dio)rorrmore rikelyrafter an intervalrthe proconsulate of r,.farius Rufus (99g.16 B.c.) should be placecr. (Der Kleiae Pauryrs.v.)rnow arnest without a doubt oonfirned by an earry Auguslan inscription fron Ampbipolislfmp.Caesare / djvj- t. e? io) .the interpretation. of rather
:r'eac[ ? - courd. be contesteaST..a,npuiporis was probabry aa inporta:at nilitary base of nuch greater varue than has beea until now attached. to it.situatecl on the via Egnatia anit aot far fron the searit was of uaique stnategicar irnpo:rtaace and co!veaieat for provicting suppries.another iuscriptionrof an

optio of lsio_Xlris kaowa to have coue frou Auphipolls (aee below).Any uorks on the Egaatian roadrabove aLl such ae ir the pneseat case coastructioa of a acroas the Stryuoarwere of prinary nilitary conpeteace.[he situatior of thd_legior X Freteasis before A.D.6 when it was postett to Syria'6ris aot
knowa.Its veterans had. eettled Patrae in 14 B.C.59.It nigbt

tear I'laced.oaia arouad. this tlne. or perbaps ia the provinde idleH.L.'darius Rufus is otherviee generally recogEised ia Diots comupted. nane Advtol Yt.1 (54.2o. ])rwbo repellett a Sarnatiaa (-probably Bastaraae) raitt across the Daaube and. uas oa the basis of this aotice alone suspected to have been a Maced.ouiaa procolsul6o. L.Calpuraius PiBo. fa 11 B.C.1BS Dio reports6lr" ser&oue rcvolt broke out iE llhraciarcentred. arouad Diouysosts saEctuary i.l
have beea statioaed. somevilere

the bound.arJ: area betweer the Bessi aacl Od.rlrsae.L.Ca1purnius .Piso (gE.I5 B.C.) had. to be sumnoned. fron Panphylia to proceeil against the i.rsu.rgeats aad aLso, to repulse the Sialetae (a NE l[braciaa tribe)rwho hail meaalrhile descend,ecl. oa. Maced.onia.It is oaly a supposltioa to consitler bin as oue of the Maceiloalal proconsule62raad, oae shoulit ratbet asEuae that Hacedoniaa legJ.ons wore ord.ered. by flberius to cone to Illyrlcunrwhere he was at the sane tine conclucting a l-arger nilitary canpalga, and thus the provlncial garrisons were Left irsufficiently protected.6].Tbis gtro@ras Velleius calls it (2.,98.1Iof.Llv.per.14o;Seneca,E!.8r.1+) rwas only end.ed after tbree years.Of, tbe legioas whicb bacl fought under Pisol/.Maced.onica 1e the only oae attesteil oa aE inscrlptiol fron Bulair Lr a'hraoiaa Chersonese (cIL IrI 7r85),It either belongecl to the rest of Maoed,olian troope whiob renaiaei[ in the provit""6f or to the leglolsrbrougbt by Pieo fron the East65.Patgch suggested that tbls night be thc evitlsnce of trooparleft lr {lbracla aftor tbo revolt6S.pff,erent llbraatal tribeg wete lsw united. lato a cllent kingdonreatrusted to Od.rysian Rhoenetalcee ([]).Ehe Greek ooloales of, Poatusrhorqvent were oflficlally stlll depend.eut on the Macecloaiaa procooeo167. lDhts provod to bc ssly arl g!.@ solutioaras dynastlc htri-. gues on one elcle ,aad bostile raidsratnecl noatly at Gneek citieeron the otberrcaueed Eeverel :revoltE aad. ag a result

l[hrace rag nad.e a proviece Claudiue.

N0 nore Maced.oniaa procoasuls

that are nentioaed on D g96fri,re*Aere piriaosely omitted.ras they a:re in regard. to tine as well aa prace too vaguerand. corsequently aay attenpt to reconstruct the events too hypothetical.l{hat was the positiou of Aerius catusrsaid. by strabo to have settled. 5o Ooo Getae aeross the Daraube where they weno henceforward, called. |1,loi (?.V.Loiror),remains likewise ir the d.ark68.

canpai6a agaiast the Getae ([ inportaat especially because he Ls reportect to have buirt praesi-d.ia aloag the lower Danube (Flor..Z.2g)rand. the niritary exproits,

are kuown by aane.LenturusrE

P.vinioius and.p.silius Nervg. verleius patercuLus is practi_ cally the only Eource whicb counects p.Vinicius ( and P.silius Nerva (s,,A,D,5) with llacecloaia.Ee states tbat b'e blneelf servecl as niritary tribune ia Thra_cla Maee4ouiaqlre unilee P.viai.cius and p,silius (2.ror,2-4) il a legionrpossiuii 5.MacecloEicarwhich acconpaaiedl Gaius caesar to the East69.p. YilicLue is-further attested. ou aa iascrlptioa fron calratie (lg t96o.1?8)$s patron of tbe city.[be key part of the ilscripttor where hia titulature is givea,is too fragroeatary to allow for Eafe reconstruction.rt has beea nore thar once suggeEted that both of tben were either successively p:raetorian proconsurs ,or inperiar regatee of the Maceclonian qrryTo.[h. et^id,eaoc at preaent at our dtispoga,r is aot knowa previoue goveraors of l1acedlonia wererfor examprerof coesurar rankral.though tbie dtstlnction was aot so inportaat uader Augustus.llhe oLd opinlol of, Bitterrlag tbat they night bavc beea legloaary regateerstiJ.I seens to be tbe besi?L.veLrei.usf E stateueut isriacictentlyrtbe Last nention of the Maced.onlal aruy.Boae tine betweea tbis d.ate (1.e.] B,c.) ald' A.D'6 it was transforred to tbe tnperial J.egate in Moesla, rbere a separate nllitary connand. had been uewly_establlsheil, betorc lt becane a province eanry uud,er fiberius7?.lt conpriacd pneeunabry at l,eagt Dard,aaia witb suitabl.e nllitary cea288

tres itr lriaissus and. scup r71 .ru,. rines rine - at this earry of course not yet in its d.everoped forro - had. been very probably shifteal from i.iaced.oaia to Lioesia souewhat earU-er (uut not bef'ore 16 B,c.:the raid, of the gsord.isci and. Deutheretae)rwhea this area uas sufficientry coasolid.ateaTt(pis.1) Ritterling believes that throughout this periotl tbe iiacedonian gagison counted. three legioasTSrsyro" thiaks that in the time before the .transnission tJ ;tf" t"toesicia regate there were t*o76, wbile Premerstein reckons with one onryrprus aux.i-Liarnauery
5.i'laceclgnica and probabry co4ors 2.Gallorun il?,cedonica.both statioaeil somewhere iu tbe rroriherr. part of the province, possibly ia }hilippiTT,Judgia6 by the surnFme on e shourd. acld. arso cobors l.Macedonicg78r"od. qra i"iaced.gaicara hitherto not attesteit alarknowa from the aew inscrj-ption recently found in thessalonike: cattq Bellqvaci f.,/ doqo segusiavo.equiti-,/ alag T. Cor to faci

ia tbe proviace ,arthough aot quite certaiuris nost probably


clisposecl of 5 ]eg.i"ons (VeU.Z,l.l7.Ird.ed.uced. froo Z.]..LA.+). ,Bitterring Judgeg that these regions,that is,the previous Maeeilontan. garnisonrwere Ar.$gvthicarl:I,iase$.onicg (botb of thero f,iret attestgd. Es Moesian Leglons in L,D,\r-+ at "buird,ing a tow path along tho DaauberD z?Bl.1cf ,sac,ann.4,!) and /.t"laced,oulca.Syne agroog about the raEt onerbut profers insteadl of, the firgt two,ln hto oplnion brought by, plauttus siivanus from syrlarB.Alrcuslg andl [.,whlcb RittErrtng asslgns to r].tyri.cuu8? Els ar8umontrnamel.yrthat d.urlng tbe paRnonlan :rEvol-t [ibenius netaiaodl caeclnate J.egionE dnd. eont him beck to l,iacedonia, cquar].y ta ctanBorrwlth Prautlusrs onesrress sultabLe f,on Barkan

As regard.s the nuqber,of the regionsrthree is a likelier conjectureras the enormous tenritory of what was late:r !{oesia ancl 'Ihracerover vrhich lisced,onian troops had. to watc]rrwas threatened. by the hostiLe incursioas to the crose'of pannonian revolt.shis nunber is aLuost certaialy attested 0aeelna severus:it is kaown that be and. plauttus sirvanus jointly




convincing'to ne.

Epigraphic evideace for places of nilitary inportance coiles onry fron philippir'rhessaloarke and. anphipolisrarl of then significantry situated. on the via xgnati.a. rra Amphipo.lis an sptio of Iesio Xf is attested,
have been severalrperhaps the legion r*as ia tnuth statioded ia the province;but Syners supposition is not necessarily


I'laced.oaia migJrt



that are later attesteal. ia the provinceruere present mainly to maintaia internal peace.

of the Danubiaa limes the miritary i'lacedonia clefinitery came to the cIose.fhroughout the subsequent centuri-es 'it vras counted among the provinciae inermePrand the few d.etachnents of the Roman imperial ar,y role of

,olith the estabrishment

attention shoul-cl be d.rawn to Dr.(..*Iachterrs paper: rzur en Doaau in ;;;";;"i";;5;-;"tfi, wheie would. have been goverleil by the inperiSl legates and..not by the rhis depeud.s lirrgely arso oi tue in[ezpigtttio3 p"o"t"i,]r", ;i-AE'iiil.n, -coni:[.i"r."e^, di:scussecL -cbuvinciirg.ruey in botf, . pipgrs. His argumentsl iit[ougir not seen gost d.o no[ruowev6rl"ri"= the synoosis given'"in the above ituayial o"ii'th;-;iili;fi;.";; H;";3;;"_ nors of I'laced.onia. Augustui_is in euestion.i["i-"u8iii' be cooqid.ered. eitho:r as prdcrinsurs in--cianeJ*oi t[J"arui]o-i r*rrr, Ieeali A.urrusti prae"bore_.







regariling tle history of liaced.oaia are geaerarly in any n1!or work oa Roman history.x'oi surrnlrized descriptioa with ar1 otber mod.era references" see A. and. upper Moesia,r,oad.oa (tgZD 9 ft _ her;_ If;:f ,f,ex33uia For HyEFidi,;Dio ]8.1oi51. z6 5isee EiR;s.i3rougI,Iag-i_strates q!- the Roman'Republi6 ff rmiricia- -" Lt93rtU" Phil. tssos. rl.Iew York'(1958) 1Eo -:.heieafter Broushton tr'or Piso : Oic. Pis. 87-99 , etc . ; see Broughton, 2oIiF. ffiogIu. sred.njobarkanska prgnena u frecr.rinsko (rd6q1
d.eart with


6 7 8 9

Suet. Caes.68.6;

.ff ;pFstET+Z tf .GelzerrPonpeiusrl,liinchen (1949) ZZgisee also his book: Caesar: Politician aad. Ste.tesmaa, rl,lass. (1969) i F.E.Ad.cock.chaoters on the civii war in-cri.H rxriambri.ise (rgir) Cic.6ov.41Pis. L?.4o;.I.5a5gLr tViae nilitarest .to be publisheal ia the Acta of the ro'-'congrees of Roman tr'rontier st. l_5r1, (f90f ) 119$.C6karSk.Anama]lrBuI.Univ.Shtet.Eirans 12o = AE 1966.419

tt - hereafter Papazogln,Z55

*li >i3 . ;"*:i:i:ii"Effiso $rn*"o;"t"3*i;*:"1*J=f: Sitzungsber. Akaclemie ,phi1. Patsch.

-Eist. , tJien (L912, n. 2I4)


Ia = D 2224 rwith



t2 L'

19 2o 2L 27

-L._ Nic.Dan.FGH 16.4I;Schnitthearer., l.4;l7Z i.48 I6 Schnitthenner, ibid.. ;Patsch, 51 ff . t7 DLo 4l,25,lgLi.v.per.122:M.Brutus ad.verqus Ihracas pr.ospgrg ren sesiit.Cf .p I8 @



)w. ) ,av u. .L-. ,,r. I i


t I.+


2? 2+ 25

It[.,I98 n.2 Td.. r57 ff .4:87.ff ;etc. Dio 4l.tt8;ZiPatsch, 5liB.LenkrRI 6 Ar1 4pp:!p (1915) 44, (Ehiake) P1ut.Ant. 24. IlPatscuL r5T ff Ins. It.XIII 1. 568;Schni'bthennerr12/;Sarikakis rlr8 ff 4pr ; pc r 5. 6t+-5 iDio 48. 28. 4 ;ete., cf . Patsch, 54 Cic.PhiI;lo.1lrattests that they wete in-Il1yricum.Cf. SchmitthennerrlT;B.SynerClass.Quart.]1 (tgl|) +Z, App.bc. 5,72ill retc. lDio 48.76.5i79.1i1t6. 1; calls j.t'Api*

20 Limes



within the province. 'b.r ..,r1 , -:29 Patscb,62 1o Iiuet.Aug.6l.4zfrom Antonyts i'iemoirsrluhere even inteniLecl narriage is mentioned.. 1t tr'or Dicones:Dio 51..22.8;this coulct be an ansvrer to octaviants repgrlgd plotting agaiast Antony among the parthiansi ff;for the fbrician kings:Lenkrolc.44J - - --1 l.-t"g}r9i Schnitthenner ,2 rlJ? ,3 t.ScvfBica:CrI, rII 29A;l.centurio:AE 1915.15 - probably

sextus- !omp91-u9 arso proves avaj.lsble


?atsch, i4 Patsch, ?1. f I ; Iiciimitthel+gr r I2l ; papaz o glu, 142 ; Sarikaki s, I4o ff ,wlro thiqkg that he not _take pait in cipturing-siiona. Asrnius Po11io cerei)rated a triunph ex parthiiris in"th;--sane year: fus. It.XIfI I.B5-l; 7q?-7i56Ei--.tqp. bc. 5. 54!.lPatsch, !6; Schniittenn6r r24Z n.J4: Resistence
ern unknown i'laced.oniaa




afainst lue "gent;-;i railitary fdrce wai

f rom Dium.


15 16

/ C.t. I?er4 X.f,VIrr, gomg /.Pisis. ;Ritterlffi rnscription of this schmitihenner,]2. For colonisation-:..Dio 51 .4.2iI{.GaebLerrZfN i9 eg7il ZAU antil<en i'iiinzen von liS.ked.onia u.paeonia'arbie aniiJd.. ken'lge i'iiinzen liord.-Griechenland.s ] (1915) 1o2.14:t'i.Graat. Imperiun to Aucto:i:itasrCarabridge- (fg+6) 2?5 lrom GaeblelrDie antiken l{linzeu.. Io2rIo;fd.. ro. c.5[: if ;Grant,

109*i r0Zp A.Sa1adr',3CH

i schnitt[#i;; i@@E ; li'AB 47 Q92i) E7 1924.55zSex.vo1casio

6 . t{a


: :



? . I,iae

ed.oir.ica : Id.-.,


PIR'I IB5 Ritterling, l22I; Schmitthennerr l4l 27 ,_? Ritterling, 1l!6 it577 it6L5 ;1664 ,') Ritterlingribid..;PapdzoglirlLT.She was the last to treat Crassusts carapaigas extensively (especially rrrith regarcl tothc i'loesj.) and refers to all meclern viorics on ii.Cf .aIso-sarikakis'I47-ff whg-4o9! qot touch the problens.See a good suryey in Patschr6t-82;A.SteinrDie Legaten vou l,loesi_6nrDiss. Paan.11 (f9+o) fo ff,and. ofliers. 4o ;i.Premersteinr tDie Arrfiinge cler provinz l,.{oesienr JijAI I (lagg) 14!rheieafter ?reilerstein, i:ut pats chr?j aoes-not agree. 41 ?io . 5f : 24.1iPreinersteinr lTS. [bis probably toqk_ place at iorinth where Augustus spent some tirne on his wly fron .i3rund.isium tgr.Asia in sumnter 29 B.C. +2 crl vr Q7727"" i:nperatorial accl;anationlr.l,ionmseu,,Res gestae po12 41 IGyalrr.v lit +I-18 r D 881,o (atfre4s)i i.f;.p.J llticu,. atxt'vrov k.'1rco"f. irS,irtr"v f t.l <itnraitcs- iegrf, I firrt,j t7.7i I ylvoi.1. $'s, rlc_Il 5o.(1926) 44r - AE 1928.+{ (grespiae):'6'd;r,'i v,[su* Awlv,* ug,iccov .irouiroq- /71, i<rro"- r.Jr2n"t icttfil- t eai ' ".i'rilrr{ 1.'1 l.rf! cf. Groag, o . c. 11 44 P.Grenad.e r.Essai sur les origines- d.u coIes d.e Rome (196f) 171;l.l.P.Charlesworth, CAI{ X,Cambriilse (L952) L25 +5 Patschr/!

Zonaras Lo.72.p.415 (itind.. );E.GroagrDie rbmischen Rei.chsi?g39tg"_von Achaia bi.s auf .DiocIeti6.n,Vj.enna (L,919) I1-I2;

o. c.212


Papazogl!J22 proves that Diots reference to Artacii yff_"f ,Io?zus) and. other tribes,nentioned there, l:lgiq_Il: as I'ioesiau peoplesris coriect. 47 Ins.It.XIII I p.r+4 tt ig6-? ;cf .5?l 48 tDer.vertuschte Dakerkri,eg des M.rricinius' crassus r, 15 (rO0S; 5Ir-14 {istor:La 5t E. Swobod.arl'orschungea an obermoeFisci:en limes rschr. Balkankonrnissioa, Ant. Abt. I.o (lor3g) 11o_1)_2 52 see nost recentlli B.LegicE-:inffi;;,uuren"-rnd Dio LIv.r'rGreiicE aacl,R6:me 22 (L9?5) iSA_iAi-5V and tiLe origin of pioesia; r[b3'24'(Dta) I:Fyggr.tlentulus L24 ;1.17 lbereaf ter : Syme, Leutu Ius Itl.Iiirkovig 54 rBip=Ei graqoffiffiinavu u Gornjoj r,reziji, Diss. lJeogract (1968) 2rii.ii6csyrGeserlbchaft und-R5manisition in der riimischen ?rovinz'riloesia superiorrBud.apest (L9?o) 4? 55 For different arguments see l.idcsyr24 56 A.Keraroongulos r,{1h. Ef em. Lg\z.}-4'i ILE 1916.rg'. tlis interprehmong. !g!io+ q4{ datation are pro 57 ITI: c_ 289,p.-9\ prefers itL*-tore.) 58 Ritterlin,e,r]..O?Z 59 $I!""]ins,1!^a1. gE.l,layerrRE 18 (n9a9) 221o (parrai) 6o ilitterLi+qr\???i$yBe , Lentulus ,I28;paisch, BJ jaIso .ereaersteinrJOAI 29 (19i5) Tlrr.riro- was of cliffereni opinion in
5o A. Ivldcsyr



61 62 6+ 65 66 67


69 7o 7L

(L97r) 27 ana 1,6? P.Col}artrPbilip_cesrville de ilac6d.oinerparis (LgT?) Z5o If nothing_elserthe nere fact that Ovidius wad expeffea to Tonirsufflces to show that t\i.s was protincial-territorX. see as last J.Il.oriverr tAthrns and. Romaa probleus arouad. 6 (1965) 5t-55;atd. d,Iso:CIass.phi1.52 (rgSZ) f.lgegia',GRBS 41-2 Ritter1ir'grl2T2 Syoe rLe!tu1us, I2l;Patsch, 96 ;Itemdrstein, 1-5I*!1 also J. H, 0liverrr[he establishment of i{oebia as i sepaiate pro'rincet rClass.Phil.62 (1967) 4L-2

t AnfH,ngerl55 :for the d.iscussion. of the exact year.see ii;rme, 24.r+,6ff trentulus,1)-/ n.8 3or rath6r aouUtful references eiire pIR2 C ZBg p,67 Syrne,I,entulus r lI9 B:EyrgrtSoie notes on the legions AugustustrJRS 2,



Mirkovid 1o. c. 22;Prenersteinr162;l2ut cf iIowrDie Legionen hovinz l,loesiarK1io Bh.5 (1906) 5 who,c6nclud.ine fron D Lr49 ( Treballiae-civi.t.) tir:.nXs t[at


it inc.lud.ed. friballia and l{oesia Superior. Z7isee also mistakea Ritterlingts view that this transfer took place already in 27 ts.C. tI2I9 Ritterling,l22I


78 79


8o 81

E6r iohors ?.Ga11.Mac. :CIL XVI,9;L61;cf.K.CicboriusrRE s. v. cohors r2SSlPrenersteinr 155ifor Philippi also: Collart 1o. c. 2+2 CfL II 42rZ ({Iarracc)iCichogiusrl .c.7L4 ph.petsas-rlrirOe!t.24' (1969) B )o2.The - iasgriptioa. shoul6 aot be d.aied iater thaa the reiga of [iberiusrbut lt is' confi:gneil this probably Augustan.hofo$.Birley r -'""{ '':6.atatioie. R.SSrnertSone notes oa tbe legions under Augustus)rJRS 2, (LgVr) (I?6q) \47 : AE 1968.466'publj-shed c.Siriiai,epi.sraphica '7 6een iounil 28 Anphipolis- j-s--givea in Philippirbut as havine as proveiience ia the inveatory bookrcoafirmecl by Mrs. Koukoulirthe ephor i,t KavaIIa.

Syne, Ireatulu s, L26 ; L51

F1g. 1.



Year 2b B.C.