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Exam I Review 9-11 comprehensive 1. Which is the first step of the scientific method? A. revise the hypothesis B.

conduct an experiment C. formulate a hypothesis D. observe and ask a question 2. The group given a specific treatment during an experiment is called A. the control group. B. the experimental group. C. the double-blind group. D. the blind group. 3. What name is given to the functional compartments of a cell? A) genomes B) nuclei C) genes D) organelles 4. A hypothesis is a(n) ______. A) tentative answer to a question

B) guess

C) observation D) theory

5. Carbon-12, Carbon-13 and Carbon-14 are examples of: A. ions B. isotopes C. molecules D. isomers 6. The number of protons in a given atom is equal to its: A. atomic number B. mass C. molecular number D. neutron number 7. Bicarbonate ions in the blood can absorb hydrogen ions, keeping pH balanced. Bicarbonate is acting as a ____ in blood. A. acid B. alkaline C. buffer D. base 8. The negative logarithm of the hydrogen ion concentration in the solution is referred to as: A. pH B. atomic mass C. -OH concentration D. electronegativty E. specific heat 9. Atomic nuclei contain protons and _______. A. ions B. neutrons C. isomers D. moles

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10. . Atoms in which the number of electrons does not equal the number of protons are known as: A. valences. B. ions. C. isotopes. D. isomers. 11. All atoms tend to fill their outer energy levels with the maximum number of electrons, usually eight. Depending on whether atoms satisfy the octet rule will predict: A. whether they will dissolve in water. B. whether they will be found in nature. C. the chemical behavior of the atoms D. their radioactive energy 12. When two atoms share a pair of electrons, the bonding is referred to as: A. ionic. B. covalent. C. unstable. D. hydrogen. 13. An atom has 16 electrons and 16 neutrons. What is the mass of this atom? A. 16 B. 24 C. 32 D. 8 14. Sodium has 11 electrons arranged in three energy levels. In order to become stable, sodium forms an ion with: A. +8 charge. B. no charge. C. -1 charge. D. -8 charge. E. +1 charge. 15. . Because oxygen is more electronegative than hydrogen, the water molecule is: A. hydrophobic. B. hydrophilic. C. nonpolar. D. ionic. E. polar.. 16. Water molecules are attracted to each other due to the opposite charges created by partial charge separations within the molecules. These attractions are called: A. peptide bonds. B. covalent bonds. C. ionic bonds. D. hydrogen bonds. E. double bonds. 17. The smallest sub-atomic particle is the ______. A. proton B. electron C. isotope D. ion E. neutron 18. These biological compounds are non-polar and insoluble in water: A. lipids B. proteins C. carbohydrates D. nucleic acids 19. Relatively small organic molecules with a central carbon atom which is bonded to a carboxyl group, an amino group, a carbon containing group, and a hydrogen atom are called: A. amino acids. B. fatty acids. C. enzymes. D. peptides. E. nucleotides.

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20. . Carbohydrates are polymers formed of structural units called: A. amino acids. B. fatty acids. C. nucleotides. D. glycerols. E. monosaccharides. 21. Proteins are polymers formed of structural units called: A. fatty acids. B. amino acids. C. nucleotides. D. phosphate groups. E. monosaccharides. 22. Three fatty acids bonded together with a glycerol are found in a(n): A. triglyceride. B. chlorophyll pigment. C. alcohol. D. enzyme. E. phospholipid. 23. Amino acids are linked together by peptide bonds in a ____ A. polypeptide. B. polysaccharide. C. phospholipid. D. nucleic acid. E. starch. 24. Macromolecules are broken down to monomers in ___ A. hydrolysis reactions. B. anabolic reactions. C. denaturation reactions. D. dehydration reactions 25. The formula C6H12O6 is a/an A. Saccharide B. Monosaccharide 26. Organic acids can be identified by their A. Low pH B. Attached OH group C. Carboxyl group D. High molecular weight 27. The structure shown is C. Polysaccharide D. Isomer

A. Propane B. Carbon tet C. Methane

D. Ethene

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28. The name of this molecule is

A. Butane B. Ethane 29. This is a molecule of

C. Methane

D.Iso-Propane

A. Methane B. Buanol

C. Propanol

D. Methanol

Use these diagrams to answer the next three questions.

A.

B.

C.

D.

30. Letter represents a/an A.carbonyl group

B.aldehyde A.

C.phoslphate group B, C. D.

D.carboxyl group

31. A carboxyl group is shown at letter 32.The molecule shown at letter D is A. ethane B,butane

C. propane

D.methane

33. How many electrons would be expected in the outermost electron shell of an atom with atomic number 12? A) 1 B) 2 C) 4 D) 6 E) 8 34. Pure, freshly-distilled water has a pH of 7. This means that A) there are no H+ ions in the water. B) there are no OH- ions in the water. C) the concentration of H+ ions in the water equals the concentration of OH- ions in the water. D) the concentration of H+ ions in the water is 7 times the concentration of OH- ions in the water. 35. How many electron pairs does carbon share in order to complete its valence shell? A) 1 B) 2 C) 3 D) 4 E) 8 36. Amino acids are acids because they always possess which functional group? A) amino B) carbonyl C) carboxyl D) sulfhydryl E) aldehyde

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37. Testosterone and estradiol are A) nucleic acids. B) carbohydrates. C) proteins. D) phospholipids. E) steroids. 38. Which functional group is not present in this molecule?

A) carboxyl B) sulfhydryl C) hydroxyl D) amino 39. All of the following statements concerning saturated fats are true except A) They are more common in animals than in plants. B) They have multiple double bonds in the carbon chains of their fatty acids. C) They generally solidify at room temperature. D) They contain more hydrogen than saturated fats having the same number of carbon atoms. 40. The molecule shown in the Figure is a

A) polysaccharide. B) polypeptide. C) saturated fatty acid. D) triacylglycerol. E) unsaturated fatty acid. 41. The structural level of a protein least affected by a disruption in hydrogen bonding is the A) primary level. B) secondary level. C) tertiary level. D) quaternary level. 42. Cilia and flagella of eukaryotic cells are composed of: A. actin filaments in a 9 + 2 arrangement. B. microtubules in a 9 + 2 arrangement. C. protein fibers in a helical arrangement. D. nine triplets of microtubules in a circle.

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43. The nucleolus is the site of: A. protein synthesis. B. chromosome replication. C. ribosome assembly. D. lipid synthesis. E. uncoiling and unraveling of chromosomes. 44. The eukaryotic organelle that is directly involved in the transport of proteins synthesized on the surface of the rough ER is called the: A. mitochondrion. B. vacuole. C. smooth ER. D. Golgi body. E. nucleus. 45. Who first described cells? A. Leeuwenhoek B. Golgi C. Linnaeus D. Hooke E. Darwin 46. All but which of the following are unique to plant cells? A.cell walls B.central vacuole C.chloroplasts D.lysosomes 47. According the Cell Theory, cells arise only by A. division of pre-existing cells. B. intelligent design. C. spontaneous generation. D. self-assembly of biological macromolecules. 48. Ribosomes on its surface make proteins destined to be secreted from the cell. A. smooth endoplasmic reticulum B. rough endoplasmic reticulum C. transport vesicle D. Golgi apparatus E. secretory vesicle 49. Lysosomes bud off from its membranes. A. smooth endoplasmic reticulum B. rough endoplasmic reticulum C. transport vesicle D. Golgi apparatus E. secretory vesicle 50. Which cytoskeletal fiber allows cells to crawl? A. actin filaments B. intermediate filaments C. microtubules

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51. Structure that contains chromosomes and is surrounded by double membrane A. Nucleolus B. Nucleus C. Nucleoid D. Mitochondria 52. Part of the endomembrane system made up of stacks of attened vesicles and packages proteins for export from cell.. A. mitochondrion B. endoplasmic reticulum C. golgi body D. vacuole 53. Ribosomes are assembled in the ___. A. cytosol B. Golgi apparatus C. nucleolus D. rough endoplasmic reticulum 54.complete the following reaction:

55.Use the structures below for the next three questions.

A.

B.

C.

56.The structure shown at A is A. glycerol B. Alanine 57.Alanine is shown by letter__. A. B. C. D.

C. Glycine

D. acetic acid

58.Show how the molecule at A could join with the molecule at B.

59.Protein structure at the tertiary level would consist of A. globular proteins B. two or more polypeptide chains C.a single amino acid chain D. a singlestrand of lprotein in a alpha helix 60.Proteins that lose their shape and hence their function are said to be A. fixated B. collaginated C. denatured D.hydrolyzed 61.Prokaryotic cells would lack A. cytioplasm B.nucleus

C.cell membrane

D.DNA

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62.Which one of the following is not a Eukaryotic cell? A. green plant B.Rabbit C. plrotozoan 63.Thread-like DNA is characteristic of A. Prokaryotes B. Eukaryotes D. Bacteria

C.Both of these

64.Leucoplasts are most likely to contain A. pigments B. starch C. glycogen 65.The cytoskeleton is important in A. holding organelles in place B. providing cell shape and rigidity C. cell movement D. all of these 66.Flagella are usually A. single in number and numerous B. double in number C. found singly on an organism D. short and numerous

D. water

67.Ceretain proteins attached to the cell membrane are important because they A. help to bind the membrane together B. help to bind cells to other cells C. are involved in cell recognition D. all of these 68.Which of the following is only found in animal cells? A. centrioles B.leucoplasts C.mitochondria D.ribosomes 69.The largest of the structures that make up the cytoskeleton are _____ and are _____nm. A. actin filaments,10 B. intermediate filaments, 10-15 C. microvilli, 10 D. microtubules, 25 70. Who proposed the Cell Theory as we know it today? A. Robert Hooke B.Virchow C. Schleiden and Schwann D.Galileo