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YOU CA N CO NST RUCT ARIT HMETIC

SAY N OBI A TO MATH EP HO BIA

BY

JOHN HAYS
TO MYL AD Y ES TH ER (1920-2000)

YOU BLES SED AND G RA CED MY LIFE

FO R FIFT Y-T HR EE YE AR S A S

MY LOVE M Y W IFE MY B ES T F RIEN D

I OWE YOU EVER YT HIN G

I MISS YOU SO !
IN TR OD UC TIO N

Those who Know seldom Care.


Those who Care rarely Know.
When Know meets Care,
And teams with Dare,
Then Mt. Constipation will blow! (jh)
Is it sm ar t to f launt Ma them ati cal in competence? People
don't flaunt reading inco mpetence.
We o we ever y s ignif icant advance in Civ iliz ation t o
Ma the ma tics , inc luding wr it ing. T he ea r lies t kn own wri ti ng
ar ti fact is a w olf bone f ound in Eur ope , d ati ng fr om the per iod
of 30,000 -25 ,000 B. C ., sho wing f ifty -fi ve cut s in g roup s of
fi ve. Ce r tain l y, tal lie s pr ovi ded the ear lie st for m of
bookk eep ing. In Su meria , icon s in ventoried stor es of whea t,
wi ne, etc. L ater t hese icon s became par t of gene ral w ri ting .
We a ll pa y a da il y educa tiona l tax i n buy ing ite ms and
ser vices - - even chil dr en pa y tax for toys or candy . W hy? Our
col le ge g radua te s ar e s o poor ly tr ained in Mathema tic s tha t
they mu st be re-educa ted , and co sts pa ss ed on to us . Do you
enj oy pa ying th is tax ?
I pr ed icted br eakdo wn of Gener al Motor s se ven y ear s ago ,
for ew ar ned by Le ster T hur ow, MIT economi st : "Amer icans
people ar e not used to a w or ld wher e or dinar y pr oduct ion
wor kers need ma thema tical s ki lls. " Toyota us es a ju st -i n-t im e
pr oduction syste m, coor dina ting car pr oduct ion w ith demand ,
to a void o ver-s to cking . (GM over pr oduces , sh uts do wn
factori es , la ys of f w or ker s, unti l inventor y decr ea ses
enough.) In Japan, hi gh schoo l g radua tes cou ld a ppl y the
for mu la for the j us t- in -t ime syst em. W hen T oyota s et up a
No r th C ar ol ina p lant , onl y A mer ican s tudent s on un iv er sit y
mas ter de g ree le vel could appl y the for mula .
But ma thema tic ians and col lecti vist teac hing ar e al so at
faul t. Mathema tic ian, Ric har d Bel lm an (1920 -1984), de veloped
Dy nam ic P rog ramm ing to min im iz e the co st or t ime spent on
Depar tment of D ef en se pr ojects . (Lob by is ts and pol it ici ans
ended hi s system , but it could be r estor ed i f enough ci ti zen s
car ed and dar ed .) B el lman sa id th is a bout s ome of h is
col lea gues , "95% of the Ma the ma tics D epar tment s of No r th
Ame rica ha ve opted out of c iv iliz ation. "
As tr onome r, biolog is t Ca r l Sa gan (1934 -96), sa id in his l as t
book, "T he Dr ea m-H aunted Wor ld": " We'v e ar ranged a global
ci vi liz ation in whi ch the mo st cr uc ial e lement s ... pr of oundl y
depend on s ci ence and tec hno lo gy. W e ha ve als o ar ranged
thing s so th at no one under stands science and te chnolog y ...
a pr escri ption for disa ster . We m ight get aw ay wi th i t for a
whi le, but so oner or later th is combu st ibl e m ixtur e of
ignor ance and po wer wi ll blo w up in our face s . ...." .
Becau se M athema tic s evol ved fr om the langua ge and cultur e
and da il y liv es of our ancestor s, I cons ider thi s a bas is for
"nor ma ls " to lear n Ma themeti cs , if teac hing i s gear ed to
ind iv idual experience. I once taught six st reet-s ma r t b oys
about fr action s, dec ima ls , per centa ges -- eac h b y adif fer ent
method , w hic h I de veloped after lear ning so mething about
eac h b oy's e xper ience.
T ha t i s the p lan beh ind th is book: to di spl ay man y dif fer ent
modes of lear ning M ath . T hi s is d ir ected t o con str uct ing al l
the N umber Sys tem s and the ir Ar ith metic s, to o ver come
ma thephobia.
It e xtend s a method de veloped b y the g rea t Iri sh
ma thema tici an, W ill ia m R owan Ham il ton (1805 -65), for
comple x number s. (Phy si ci st s toda y kn ow tha t Ha mi lton 's
tr ans for ma tion of opti cs to mec han ics , and vice -v er sa,
antic ipa ted quantum theor y, whi ch c hanged our c iv iliz ation.)
T his con st r ucts dir ectl y, w her eas Ax iom s cons tr uct
ind ir ectl y, w ith " contr actual loophole s" . On li ne y ou find th at
the P eano Axi oms f or S tandar d Inte ger s allo w Non standar d
Inte ger s, any one of whi ch is g rea ter than an y Standar d
Inte ger .
T he Euc lidean G eometr y Ax iom s al lo w " T he Banac h-T ar sk i
Par ado x" : the moon can be cut i nto fi ve p ieces , refi tted, and
put i n your poc ket. No one kn ows how to do th is . Fuz zi nes s on
putti ng pieces together see m t o a llo w it .
Eac h use r of Ha mi lton' s cons tr uct ion get s the sa me r esul t,
but can lea r n it in an ind iv idua l way.
As noted in C ha p. Fiv e, Ma the ma tics i s a bout Patter ns, a
concer n it shar es wi th e ver y think ing per son .
T he Frenc h anthr opolog is t, C laude Lév y-S tr auss (1908 -?) said
he f ound , the w or ld over, among s o- cal ll ed pr im it iv es and
among the civ ili zed, the common year ning to feel th at t heir
liv es made sen se -- fit a pa tter n . He c ite s as ins tance of love
of pa tter n an aborig ine, tr ac king ga me acr oss the Ka lahar i
De ser t, wearing onl y a lo inc loth , ar med wi th on l y a wooden
spea r, w ho mi ght r est fr om the noonda y s un in the shado w of
a r oc k. T hen fr om h is lo inc loth mi ght pul l an embr oider y hoop
and be gin to e mbr oider lit tle red f lo wers - - s ome thing he
lear ned fr om a miss ionar y woman.

PRAYER OF A FECKLESS FOOL


Before I go to that Great Playground,
To spend that Last Recess,
Lord! Make my Life a Pattern,
Instead of this mishamy! mashamy! mess! (jh)
I'm concer ned about the Am erica I le ave to m y two s on s and
four g randc hi ldr en . W ho el se is doing any thing about th is ? I
chal lenge you t o f ind a book w ith any of t he Kno wable s of my
book.

If you car e and dar e, Const r uct Ar ithmet ic , and join me in th is


upg rading of our educa ti on and it s g radua te s, for our
wonderfu l countr y, f or our dear people, f or the futur e of you
and your s.

T hank God ! for pr oblem s wi th s ol uti ons .


CH AP TER ONE: H OW Y OU C AN L EAR N in " YOU CA N
CO NST RUCT ARITH METIC , sa y Nob ia to M athephobia "

1. Pr otoT ype s evok e a clas s of so me type . One school


Pr otoT ype is "factoring number s", w ith lea st common
mul ti ple and grea tes t common di vi sor . Pr oto Type f or a ll
par ti al or dering s i n Ma the ma tics and in mil itar y and
bus ine ss hier ar chie s .
2. Pr otoLear ning : You kno w Kno wables you didn 't kn ow you
knew unt il r eminded of fam il iar P rotoT ypes of these
Kno wables . Sa y, the la tt ice of number f actor s , kn own via
"i nc lus ion in , conta ined in, dom ina ted by, subse t of ,
factor of , subor dina te to" .
3. TEA CH YOUR SELF : Lear n by Teac hing Your se lf M ath and
other K no Wable s. A ppend ix C.
4. Gr am mar and Ma thema tics : Gramm atica l Con str aint s
lear ned in s choo l ar e im pl ic it Pr otoT ype s for
Ma the ma tics , since Mathema tic s evol ved fr om human
langua ge and ever yday ance str al experience .
5. Inheritance : our WILL of Inher itance fr om Ance stor al
langua ge and cultur e, in vok es a un ique indi vi dual way of
Lear ning ever thi ng, inc luding Ma th and Science , via
ind iv idual hi stor y.
6. ACTI VITH M : Cha pter Fi ve, on Patter ns c ite s Al ber t
Ei ns tein (1879-1955) and other s sa ying muc h of wha t we
see is con str ained by m ode of thought -- impo sed i n
ACTI VITH M upon the w or ld . An ins tance de velops in a
Ma th iv ity f or C hi ldr en , " Col or ed Mu lti pl ica tion Table s,
Co lor ed Con ser va tion Laws ", s ho wing pa tter ns of po wers
of tw o and fi ve; mu lt ipl es of n ines and ele ven s, i nvok ing
fam il iar Algor ithm s of "ca st ing out n ines and ele ven s - -
ACTI VITH M of i mpo si ng t he dec imal ba se upon the
counting number s .
7. Vector Logic . Standar d Logic is con str ained to the
dec lar atv e mood , ignor ing moods of inter roga tiv e,
sub junct iv e, im per ati ve, pet it iv e , etc. Vector f or ma t
cor rects th is . In phy si cs , speed i s a scal ar (0 -v ector) ,
explic ated b y a sing le number ; but veloci ty is s peed i n a
spec ifi c d ir ection , so expl ica ted by a tw o-tup le: t wo
number s, sho wing s peed i n "X " and "Y " dir ect ions .
Si mi la r ly, a ll spee ch mood s can encompa ss a two-t uple
whose fir st component i s s peak er' s mood, s econd i s
speak er' s sp eec h . T hi s al so sa ti sf ie s Cons tr aint of be ing
TR UTH -F UN CTI ONAL : TH E TR UTH -V AL UE O F A CO MP OU ND
STATEM EN T D EP EN DS ONLY ON THE TRUTH -VAL UE OF
CO MP ON EN TS , not O RDE R or CON TE XT or "w ha te ver" . T he
moods ar e sym bol iz ed:
o dec lar ati ve , by Be r tr and Russe ll 's "tur n-st ile " s ymbo l:
|- li
o in ter roga ti ve : ?
o im per ati ve : !
o sub junct iv e : % (a s in "W ou ld I wer e at home .")
o peti ti ve : * (as in " Pl ease go .")

Vector Logic al so res ol ves a famou s 1960 's pr oble m,


when man y thoght C OM PU TER TRA NSLA TI ON O F
LA NG UAGES could sim pl if y publ ica tion of tec hn ical or
liter ar y- dr ama ti c l iter atur e . Bu t onl y lim ited s ucces s was
ac hie ved. Cr it ics of "ma chine tr ans la tion " c ited an
Eng lis h s entence , " Ti me fl ies ", fr om the La tin, " Temp is
fugit s" . But a computer tr ans la ted it a s "mea sur ing fl ight
of cer ta in i ns ects ". T hi s amb igui ty ar is es on l y in scal ar
log ic . Vector Log ic d is ti ngui she s:

o [|- , "Ti me f li es ."] , for the f ir st (dec lar ativ e) ver sion .
o [! , "T ime fl ie s. "] , for the second (i mper ati ve) v er sion.

Vector LOG IC al so function s as me talangua ge of s peak er .


An y st atement is in t he alethi c mode (T r ue or Fals e). But ,
Ar is tot le d is ti ngushed the te mpor al mood , suc h as
"G eor ge W. Bu sh is Pr es ident of T he U ni ted S ta te s" , tr ue
at one t ime , not tr ue at ti me of th is w ri ting . T he pri mar y
MO DE S ar e:
o ALE THI C M OD ES or M OD ES OF T RUT H ar e, pr incipa ll y,
neces sar y, po ss ib le, i mpo ss ible , contingent . (F or
di scu ss ion belo w adopt, A, as the a leth ic m ode
oper ator .)
o TE NSE MOD ES repr esent TEM PO RAL aspect s of
sen tences . ( Ari st otle cited a dec lar ation w hic h is
TR UE a t a g iv en ti me, and FALS E a t other s. )
o T he DE ON TIC MOD E dea ls w ith obl iga tion , can , may ,
etc. (T his is the MO DE in ETHI CAL and MOR AL
di scu ss ion s, as wel l as L OGIC AL and TH EO LOGI CAL
ones .)
o T he EPIS TEMIC MO DE dea ls with ter ms su ch as
kn owing, be lie ving . (F or pur pos es of th at di scus sion ,
adopt E, as the ep is tem ic mode oper ator .)
o T he PR EFERE NC E MO DE se r ves econom ic and
pol it ical d is cus si on.
o T he FRE E M OD E a llo ws for fic tiona l ima gina tion .
o Etc .

VE CT OR LOGI C R ES OL VES "T he Mor ning S tar Par ado x". In


syll ogi st ic for m:

o "T he Shepher d kno ws tha t V enus is T he Mo r ning


Star ."
o "T he Mor ning S tar is T he Ev en ing Star ."
o T her ef or e, " T he Shepher d kn ows tha t Venu s is T he
Ev en ing S tar ."

But the Shepher d may not actua ll y kno w thi s. T he second


line is Aleth ic o r D ec lar ati ve. B ut the f ir st and thir d line s
af e E pi ste mic : wha t is kno wn. And noth ing ju st ifi es Mode
sh ift , so the Par ado x v ani she s. Othe r amb igu iti es and
par ad oxes could be r esol ved sim il ar l y. Vector L OGIC
explic ates cer tain di st inct ions nece ssar y to Lear ning .

8. Condot . You 'v e seen chil dr en's p lay books in w hic h they
"connect the dot s" to sha pe a per son or ani mal or
land sca pe or wha te ver. You need to lear n t o "connect the
dots " to r ea li ze tha t one Kno wable m ay be Connected to
another , and sh ould not be ignor ed.

9. BY PAS S : So meti mes , you can BYPASS a d if ficul t or


unf ami liar pr oble m b y
o tr ans for mi ng i nto a pr ob lem you kno w ho w to s ol ve
o so lvi ng the pr oble m
o tr ans for mi ng s ol ution into t er ms of ori gina l pr oblem

BY PAS S ha s for m:

difficult/impossible/desired task
------------------------->
transform| ^transform
to new | |back to
task | |terms of
| |original
| |task
V------------------------>
perform task

A PR OTOTYP E of BY PAS S IS se en i n the 1963 fi lm , "T he


Gr eat E sca pe" .

flee across a garded space


------------------------->
transform | ^tunnel up
horizontal | |to ground level
to | |escape into woods
vertical | |
| |
V------------------------>
dig underground tunnel

You real iz e ho w N ONTRI VIAL th is ST RA TE GY by


WE Blear ning tha t, in MA THE MA TICS , IT DE TERMI NES THE
EIG EN VAL UES OF A MA TRIX OR MU LTIV ECT OR. T ha t, in
Phy sic s, I T IS TH E PRI NCI PAL TOOL OF QUANT UM MA TH
FO R FI NDI NG T HE S TABLE STATES O R R ADIA TIO N STATE S
OF FUN DAM EN TAL P AR TICLES .
BY PAS S i s a favor ite str ate gy of ma the ma tician s. You
tak e a pr oblem to a m athem atic ian and she/he st ar ts
talk ing about another pr ob lem , whic h mak es y ou th ink
she /he i sn't listen ing to y ou . But not to w or r y! It should
tr ans for m bac k i nto an an swer to your pr oblem .

10. BN F . If y ou kno w SEMIO TIC S ( T heor y of S ign s), th is w ill ,


in Cha pter T hr ee , be review ed. If you don't kn ow thi s,
you' ll be in tr oduced to it . T he su bject is her ein c ited to
explain another guidance M ethodolog y of th is book.
o Br iefl y, the su bs yte m of Sem ioti cs la be led as
"S yntact ics " -- yes , th at' s al so in G rammar -- dea ls
onl y w ith rela tions betw een Sign s , but not the ir
Meaning s or R ef er ent s,
o T he sub sys tem of Se mio tic s la be led "Semanti cs " a ls o
deal s wi th the Mean ings or Refer ents of S ign s.
o T he sub sys tem of Se mio tic s la be led "Pr agma ti cs "
al so deal s wi th t he Sign User . A par ticu lar sign can
ha ve di fer ent m eaning s for dif fer ent peop le, (You' ll be
sho wn an ins tance wher ein a s ign, r esemb li ng an
eight on it s side , has a dif fer ent M eaning for thr ee
dif fer ent pr of essi onal s -- and ho w thi s amb igui ty is
Pr agma tical l y r esol ved.

T he above comment is to pr epar e you for a B YPASS of


those var ious Se miot ic di st inct ions b y a po werful
for ma li sm whic h has been thor oughl y te sted : Bac kus -
Naur -F or m (B NF) . It has the st r uctur e:

<term>:@ <another term>

An in stance :

<USA first president>:@ George Washington


Both side s may h ave meaning for you . But it doe sn't ha ve
to be mean ingful . One side could be i n Russi an, the other
side about topo logica l m ani fold s -- both perha ps unkno wn
to y ou. For, in ef fect. BNF sa ys: " Replace the s ign- st ring
on the lef t b y the s ign-s tr ing on the right. " A pri mar y
sc hool student can do t hi s.

11. Ant itone : Bypa ss unf old s fr om th is dia g ram med S tr ate gy
whic h ma y be imp li ci t i n al l of Real it y' s pr oces se s . It i s
la cking when For ce is der iv ed fr om N ewton 's Law s of
Moti on . Bu t tho se Laws y ield Mo mentum , with it s
Con ser vation of Linear Momentum and i s Ant iton ic .
Der iv ing fr om Ant itone , B YPASS tr anso r ms i nto
Amp li fic ati on -- mor e in Ouput t han Input - - whic h
explain s Mac hines and pr ovides us wi th " ri ches ".
Lear ning the A nti tone-B ypas s- Am pl ify connect ion teac he s
"the wonder s of N atur e".
12. Indica tor-S iga l . In Sem iot ics , Peir ce taught us about
Indica tor , Signa l, Icon , S ymbol , a f our some pr ovi ding
Str ate gie s for Sc ience and Educa tion . Acr on ym ISIS :
I(ndica tor) S(ignal) I(con) S(ymbo l). An indic ator has the
fol lo wi ng t wo- tuple st r uctur e, wher e "O " denotes
Ob ser va bi li ty and "I" denotes Inf or ma tion .
13.
<Hi O-Low I, Low O-Hi I>

as in

<pink litmus paper, acid in test tube>

A Si gnal is an Indica tor under Phy sica l and Lingui st ic


Contr ol :

<Hi O-Low I, Low O-Hi I>⇒<Phys.-Ling. control>

as in:
<lightning, electricity>⇒<telegraph key, Morse Code>

In pa st ti mes , fever was cla ss if ied as a di sea se . La ter , it


was real iz ed t o be a highl y obser va ble sym ptom of a
hid den i nf ect ion . So, med ica l s ci ence pr og res sed fr om
so lel y al le via tor s of f ever (e .g, co ld compr ess es) to
conjo in w ith alle vi ator s of i nf ect ion , s uc h as penec il lin.
In a Histor y of a S cience -- W ik ipedia ha s s ever al -- y ou
see cita tion s of thi s Str ate gy of Science . Tur ni ng to the
other ha lf of ISIS, an Icon is a fam il iar sigm on a
computer Des ktop , a s in waste ba sk et f or dis car de d fi les .
And a Sym bol is wha t your read on thi s pa ge, T he
Str ate gy of Educa tion is to tr ans for m the Icon into the
Sy mbo l . An ins tance is the thr ee -finger ta ll y w ho se sha pe
became the numer al for thr ee . Also the w or d "f iv e"
deri ves fr om the wor d " fi st ".

14. T he Logic -A ss erb il it y Co mit y (toler ant together nes s) , as


descr ibed in Cha p. Ele ven: T he "Ep is temo log y Ga me"
(W ha t A re C oncr etion s? A bs tr action s? I ll ations ?) . T his
comi ty m or e cor rectl y desc ribe s Sci entif ic advance s than
noted b y sc ient is ts : expla ins w hy monoton ici ty of Logic
encumber s cor rection of s ci entif ic pr onoun cement s when
exp er iment su r pri se s . T his Log ic-A sse rbi li ty C om ity
explain s ho w the nonmonotonic Am pl ify ing of A sserb il ity
compens ates f or Log ic not be ing a ble to lo se in t r uth
when it s u se in sc ience is cor rected , a s Rela ti vit y T heor y
and Quantic T heor y.( As serbi lit y is Asser tion sub ject to
ver ific ati on, tha t i s, h ypothes ized pr edict ion conf ir med or
di sconf ir med .) But the im med ia te im por tance of thi s for
your Lear ning is tha t i t "put s you i n the s tand s wi th other
nonsc ienti sts to watch sci enti st s pla y the ir br an d of the
Epi st emolog y G ame ". It al so al lo ws y ou to us e A sserb il ity
to sear ch for Kno wables and to bu ild your own Secur it y
Sy stem .
15. T he Topo logica l Per pecti ve r evea ls inher ent V alue s not
appa rent otherwi se . To mathema tic ians , Topolog y i s an
advanced sub ject . B ut many of them fai l to real iz e th at,
via it s a ttr ibute " Connnect ion: Ho w T hings A re
Connected" , Topolog y i s omnipr esent in our dai ly l ives .
One Pr oto Type of T opol og y is the Jor dan Cur ve (one for m
is a cir cle) whic h separ ates the plane in to In side and
Ou ts ide ; c losed Boundar y betw een . T he inf ant copes wi th
Topo log y in tr yi ng t o k ic k of f b lank ets . Ch il dr en cope
wi th T opol og y in slee ves, t rouser le gs, door s, dr aw ers,
etc. We cope wi th Topo log y in our elect rica l cir cu its ,
eac h f or ming a Jor dan C ur ve wi th i ts Ins ide -Ou ts ide -
Boundar y connect ion. Many ph ys ici st s for get, or don't
kn ow tha t the Ge r man ph yi ci st , Gu st ave Kir kf of f (1824-
87) used T opolog y i n de vis ing hi s famou s Laws of
El ectri cal Cir cui ts . And Topo log y is omn ipr es ent i n our
Lear ning , as in th is book: la be ls , defin it ions ,
explana tions , va lu ati ons , ag reements , whic h c lose the ir
contents with in a Jor dan Cur ve, bounding u s fr om
ambi guit y, sto len ident it ies , t ri cker y -- you name i t! . We
can lear n m uc h abo ut both En vi ronment and Kno wledge
by "look ing for T he Topo logica l Condot" . Quer yi ng: "Am I
Ou ts ide ? In si de? acr oss a Boundar y? " - - "Ins ide of or
Ou ts ide of T he Law? " -- "In side of or Outs ide of the Rule s
of Gr ammar or ofMa thema tic s? " "Ha ve I cr os sed a
Boundar y-C ons tr aint ?" Condot !

di mens iona l
16. Di men si onal Al ge br a ( DA) T he F OR MS of
anal ysis can be used as a Alge br a for deri ving FO RMS
fr om ba si c F OR MS . In Cha pter T wenty on Science , you
wi ll see ho w to der iv e equa tions ne ver bef or e s een. It has
long been the cus tom to i gnor e D imens iona l A nal ys is for
any except s pec ial ist s. A consequence, in the ni neteenth
centur y, was tha t the Ge r man ph ys ici st , Lud wig Bo ltz man
(1844-1906), in der iv ing "T he Mo st Pr oba ble Dis tr ibut ion
of Mo lecule s in a Sy stem" , fai led to complete the
in te g ration at the end and evalu ate the g iv en cons tant,
whic h ha s the dimen sion s of Planc k's con stant h, Had he
done so, quantum theor y mi ght h ave be gun decade s
ear lier . T his is based upon the anal ys is of G erhar d A.
Bl as s, T heor et ical Ph ys ic s , pp .236-43) . If the vas t s ub ject
of Di men si onal Anal ysi s i s ignor ed , or ne glected, it is no
su r pri se tha t i t isn 't used for a Dim ens iona l A lg ebr a .

Se mantic
17. In "Barb ie D ol l" Math (A ppend ix C) , it s
Trans for ma tion sho ws you t ha t you kno w, at l eas t, tw elv e
mor e M athem atic s syst ems than you thought y ou knew ,
bef or e be ing to ld . Y ou kno w y ou kno w the se syste ms
because you s tud ied the Pr oto Type of these systems
when you lear ned to factor number s in ar ithmet ic .

18. Pr og ram med Lear ning (PL) :


o A Kno wable, s uc h as the Euc lidean A lgori thm, i s
outl ined
o the s tudent is giv en rele vant number s f or t hi s
Al gori thm and attempt s to a ppl y the Euc lidean
Al gori thm to t hese number s
o ne xt, the s tudent look s up the so lu tion in a wor kbook
or on a la ptop - - if cor rect, pr oceeds to another
Kno wable - - if incor rect , the e r ror i s r evea led, and
st udent t rie s another v er sion of thi s Kno wable .

T his encour ages the s tudent to be inter acti ve and


pr oceed at own pace . PL is not the sa me a s Pr og ram med
Inst r ucti on (PI) of beha viour ps ycho logi st , B . S . Sk inner .

19. Ho molog y : fr om ancient Gr eek mathema tic s, no w re-


appli ed to advance ma thema tic s, but -- in o rig inal s ens e,
the be st for mal is m for lea r ning and dis co ver y. Ins tance:
To expla in the g reat ad vanta ge the Fresne l len s over t he
con vex len s. (T he F resnel le ns made pos sibl e to wering
lighthou ses to guide ship s at sea.) So you for mu la te th is :

20.
Frenel lens: convex lens:: stairway: ramp

"T he Fresne l len s compar es to the con vex l en s as a


st ai rw ay compar es to a r am p." N ew Kno wable s i n ter ms
of ol d one s. H er e i s the gener al Homo log y for m:

A: B:: C: D

Actua ll y, y ou 'r e t wice Pr oto -educa ted t o the Ho molog y. It


appe ar s in M ult ip le c hoice tes t ite ms . Sa y,

legs: human::__: vehicle

You se lect the c hoice wheels a s veh ic le pr opell ant, jus t


as the le gs ar e the hu man pr opel lant . You'r e al so Pr oto -
educa ted to the Ho molog y i n su ch a fam il iar f or m, a s

2: 4:: 3: 6

You' ve u sual l y s een thi s as:

2/4 = 3/6

Yes. I mpl ici t in lea r ning fr action s i s one of the mo st


po werful simpl e f or mal ism for lear ning and d is co ver y w e
ha ve. You need onl y kn ow thi s and u se Ho molog y.

21. CY CL ES O F DIV ERS E S TRA TEGI ES (CO DS) : Var ious of t he


above Methodo logie s, a s wel l as other "ol ogie s" , for m
Cycles .

AN TIT ONE C YCLE


STRA TEG Y: CA US ALITY -TEL EO LOGY
STANDARD CHANGE
------------------------->
GOTO NON-| ^
STANDARD | |MINTONE
CHANGE | MOTION |
V------------------------>
MAXTONE

STANDARD CHANGE
------------------------->
GOTO NON-| ^
STANDARD | |MINTONE
CHANGE | REVERSE MOTION |
V------------------------>
MAXTONE

22. Flo wchar t : In the be ginn ings of the compute r, the


pr og ram was im ple mented b y a p lugboar d, a s us ed at th at
ti me by te lephine oper ator s. And da ta was input by ho les
in punc hed , a s used in I BM ca lcul ator s. Ma thema tici an
Joh n von Neuman (1903-57) and engineer Her man
Go ld st ine (1913 -2004) cr ea ted t he inter na l pr og ram for
computer s, a g rea t sim pl ica tion . T o faci lit ate the ir wor k,
they de veloped the flo wchar t i n 1945-7 . Y ou w il l s ee , i n
Cha pter 5 , se ver al flo wchar ts for impor tant ma thema tica l
algor ith ms . W her e pos sibl e, I wi ll di sp lay a flo wchar t f or
so mething , and b y doing you m ay l ear n.
23. T he AS P T riad -- Algor ithm , Str ate gy, Pr os thetic
(di scus sed in C ha pter 10 -- pr ovides another Methodolog y.
W hene ver us ing a B YPASS , be aw ar e of it s com it y wi th
Str ate gy. A usefu l defin iti on of M ili tar y S tr ate gy i s
fight ing the enem y on g rounds of your choo si ng . In
gener al, S tr ate gy i s deal ing w ith a pr oblem under
condit ions of one's competen cy . And thi s is wha t you'r e
doing in Bypa ss .
As noted in C ha p. Ten, an excell ent i ns tance of su ch m ili tar y
ST RA TE GY is to be seen in the g rea t 1938 fi lm , "A le xander
Ne vsk y" , dir ected by the ma ster Ser gei Ei sens tein (1898-
1948), wi th an resound ing m us ica l s cor e by the g rea t
compose r, Ser gei Pr ok ofief (1891-1953) .

On A pr il 5 , 1242, Gr and Pr ince of N ovgor od and V lada mi r


(1220? -1253) le d h is f oot s ol dier s onto the ice of the Lak e
Peipu s, kno wing tha t (on the g round of his c hoos ing), his
enemie s, the i nvading mounted kn ight s of the L iv on ian br anc h
of Teu tonic Kn ight s, w er e mor e he avil y ar mor ed . M any
cr ac ked thr ough the ice and w er e dr oawned, le aving a
sm al ler for ce h is lim ited for ce cou ld c hal lenge. T he resul t
was a g rea t vic tor y. (And wha t a Bypa ss !

You may f ind th at A ppendix A, " Ar ithme tic and Mo i" , sug ge st s
many kno wables about the pur pos e of t hi s book.
Cha pter 2 : WH AT IS INT EN SIO N? EXT EN SIO N? RELA TI ON ?
FUN CTI ON ? OPE RA TI ON ?
You lear n tha t the ter m intenS ion (not in tenTion ) is a
ref er ence wi th Kno wable r ef er ent s . Its Pr otot ype is Idea:
in tens ion of a w or d is the id ea imp li cit in t he wor d , so
in tens ion can se r ve as pr oxy or su r roga te of the wor d . T hi s
you no w kn ow.

T he Pr otot ype of in tens ion . in set theor y , you can under stand.

T he in tens ion f or ma t f or def ining a s et , S, by in tens ion i s S


={x|P(x)} : "s et of al l x s uc h th at pr opo si tion P(x) i s tr ue ,
wher e 'x ' ha s so me mean ing" . T his def ines a se t indir ect ly ,
tha t is, by pr oxy, (cr oss ing a B oundar y) , a s you kno w. O r
define s a set ind ir ectl y , tha t is, by sur roga te , (cr os si ng a
Boundar y), as y ou kno w. Or def ines a se t indir ect ly (cr oss ing
a B oundar y) , by descr ipt ion , as you kno w.

In A ppendix B , y ou can wi tnes s your se lf tea ching thes e and


rel ated concept s.

SE QU EN CE -PAR ALLEL LE AR NIN G IN TEN SIO N OF SET


(In se ri es connected l ights , if one goe s out, all go out; not so
in par al lel . If one of le ar n-s equence i s unkn own, ma y su pr es s
other s in sequence; ma ybe not in par alle l. )

{x:x in N} M EA NS se t of Na tur al Nu mber s


ß ß ß
{x:x in Z} ME AN S set of Inte ge rs
ß ß ß
{x:x in Q} M EA NS se t of Ra tiona l N umber s
ß ß ß
{x:x in R} ME AN S set of Real N umber s
ß ß ß
{x:x in C} ME AN S set of Co mple x N umber s
You kn ow tha t, in se t theor y, the extens ion of a s et is a list
of me mber s becau se y ou 'v e se en th is i n the r oll -cal l of a
sc hool cla ss . N oth ing m or e is needed ( no Boundar y cr oss ed ).
SE QU EN CE -PAR ALLEL LE AR NIN G OF EXTE NSI ON

number set ME AN S {2 , 5 , 11, 87}


ß ß ß
le tter s et ME AN S {a , d , g, k, v }
ß ß ß
color set M EA NS {r ed. blue , white , pink}
ß ß ß
food s et ME AN S {br ead, mil k, cor n}
ß ß ß
book set M EA NS {no vel , te xt, chec k}
S-P LE AR NIN G RELA TIO N

rel ation ME AN S ma ri tal


ß ß ß
rel ation ME AN S par enta l
ß ß ß
rel ation ME AN S ne ighbor
ß ß ß
rel ation ME AN S emp lo yer
ß ß ß
rel ation ME AN S on look er
S- P LEA RNI NG FUN CTI ON

function ME AN S subtr ahend


ß ß ß
function ME AN S inter ect ion
ß ß ß
function ME AN S ne ga ti on
ß ß ß
function ME AN S div idend
ß ß ß
funtion ME AN S dif fer enc e
S-P LE AR NIN G OP ERA TIO N

oper ation ME AN S ad di tion


ß ß ß
oper ation ME AN S div ision
ß ß ß
oper ation ME AN S mu lt ip lic ati on
ß ß ß
oper ation ME AN S logari thm
ß ß ß
oper ation ME AN S subtr act ion
T ha t a desc ript ion can fit m any dif fer ent se ts or per son s, o r
wha te ver (many Boundar ies m ay be cr os sed) i s so mething you
kn ow, becau se y ou saw it a bo ve. S o, in t er ms tak en up be lo w,
in tens ion i s a one -man y r ela tion : one ref er ence w ith man y
pos si bl e r ef er ent s .

You real iz e th at, a s a s pecif ied se t, the e xten sion of a ter m is


a one -one r ela tion: one ref er ence, one ref er ent (no Boundar y
cr os sed) .

You real iz e the se di st inct ions ar e cri tica l because, a s you


lear ned in s choo l, f or t wo thousand year s, the s tandar d
defin iti on of a mathema tica l sub ject via AXI OM S , (some you
st udied in schoo l) w hic h, a s you real iz e, ar e inten siona l:
mul ti ref er ent (cr oss ing many B oundarie s) .

You can under stand tw o cr it ical con sequences of the one-


many e xpl ica tion of AXIO MS .

You kn ow how to sear ch the Web f or the Peano Ax iom s


defin ing i nte ger s . And you kno w ho w to sear ch the web f or a
webs ite sho wing tha t the P eano Axi oms f it nons tanda r d
in te ger s, eac h of whic h is g rea ter than a st andar d in te ger .
(You' ve hear d of a per son' s iden tit y being stol en , so you can
note the sim ilar it y her ein ,) Y ou, then , under stand th is a s a
cri tica l consequence of thi s one s et of A xio ms rela ting t o
many d is ti nct i nter pr et ati ons .

You can al so sear ch the Web (sa y, W iki pedia) for the Banac h-
Tar sk i Par ado x , whic h s ho ws th at the E uc lidean Geo metr y
Ax iom s al lo w cutt ing the m oon into f iv e pieces , putti ng the
fi ve p ieces togethe r, and putting the moon i n your poc ket . No
one kno ws ho w to do t hi s, but Euc lidean Ax iom s im pl y i t can
be done as consequence of (Boundar y) fuz zine ss in de scrib ing
ho w piece s can f it together .

(T hink of A xio ms a s Contr act s. Law yer s f ind loopho les in


contr acts so th at the contr actee s can vio la te the intent s of
the contr actor .)

T he gener al pr ob lem condots bac k to Eur opean Mid ddle A ges ,


when Sc ho las ti cs dis co ver ed Langu age t o be pr one to the
oxy mor on (s elf -contr adict ion) . Be lie ving tha t "w ha te ver can
be s ai d m us t be tr uth -e xi stent ", the y recogniz ed den ial of th is
in ep ithet, " im potent G od" .

T his cr it ica l f au lt is l abel led " im pr edica ti ve" : pr ed ica ting


it se lf: s el f-r efer encing . T hi s can de velop when a se t i s not
ref er enced dir ect ly, but ind ir ectl y, i n ter ms of another se t . A
famou s P totoT ype of th is i s "R us se ll 's Par ax ox" .

T he g rea t Bri ti sh ma thema tici an-l ogi cian -phi lo sopher ,


Ber tr and Russ el l (1872-1970) , f or mul ated in 1901 to cha ll enge
"the nai ve s et theor y" of Ge r man log ician , Go tthold Fr e ge
(1848-1925).

Con side r a se t S contain ing onl y tho se se ts not member s of


them sel ves . If S is not a m ember of it self , it i s el igi ble under
the def ini tion ; but to be under the defin iti on i s a
CO NTR ADIC TIO N!

W ik ipedia notes th at "R us se ll 's Par ado x" led to Göde l' s Pr oof
tha t we cannot u se fir st -or der logic to pr ove the cons istenc y
of Ma thema tics .

We can BY PAS S th is const r ucti vel y by tr an sf or ming fr om


Ax ioma tic s to G ener atics , fr om Indir ect ion to Dir ect ion .
(Pl aton is m e xh ibit s the sa me Ind ir ection : don't tak e
respon si bi li y f or an yth ing i n Ma the ma tics , but sh ift
respon si bi li ty to s ome "Hea venl y r ea lm " .)
Russe ll s ay s he wanted cer ta int y a s other s want r eli gion , but
la ter real iz ed th at ma th cer ta int y is tautol ogica l ( mer el y a
ma tter of langua ge) , and be yond thi s ri sks contr adic tion via
any defin it ion tha t can be render ed se lf -r ef er encing
(i mpr edica tiv e) by Ind ir ection : us ing one s et to ident ify
another s et . Russel l then ga ve up m ath and l ogi c and
phi los ophy .

T his C ondots to wha t so me con si der a sim ilar contr adictor y


pr oblem in R el igion : T heod ic y - - if ther e i s a God, ho w can
suf fer ing be ? But , again . I mu st not h ide behind thi s
ind ir ecti on . Facing dir ect l y the suf fer ing and ignor ance I se e
dai l y, I kno w w ha t I can do and mu st do , and th is "k eep s id le
hands bus y" .

You can under stand tha t, in th is book , the cons tr uct ion of
ari thmet ic B ypas se s Axi oms b y being extensi onal (no
Boundar y cr oss ed) , by giv ing up i nd ir ection and d ir ectl y
accepting respon si bi li ty . You can under stand th at th is means
no one can use the se method s t o con str uct an ari thmeti c
dif fer ent fr om the one i n thi s book.

W her ea s, th is const r uction be gin s w ith W. R. Ha mi lt on's


see ming ly Non standar d w ay, yet it in vok es the Equ iv alence
Rela tion of eac h con str ucted syste m, whic h a llo ws the
resu lt s to be in ter pr eted i n the S tandar d appe ar ance -- the
one supposed l y dec lar ed by Ax iom s in the manner of Mos es
del iv ering T he Ten Co mmandment s fr om M t. Ar ar at.

T he resu lt of th is i nten si onal for mal is m is tha t S tandar d


Ar ithme tic is often pr oven nonco str uct iv ely via pr oof b y
contr adict ion (cr oss ing Boundar ies) .

T hu s, a s you can lea r n on the W eb (say , W ik ipedia) , to pr ove


pr opos it ion P, you h ypothe si ze non- P (cr os si ng a Boundar y),
and, if th is r ea soning impl ie s a contr ad iction , then (cr oss ing
a B oundar y) the contr ad ictor y of non - P m us t be va lid, na mel y,
P.
As you l ear n on the Web (W iki) , thi s noncon str uct iv ism be gan
wi th E uc lid 's pr oof b y contr adicti on th at t he squar e r oot of
tw o is not a ration of t wo inte ger s ,

Equi va lentl y, the s ide of a s quar e i s incomp ati ble wi th the


dia gonal of the squar e . T ha t i s, s o many un it s of the s ide of
the s quar e w ill never matc h so m any other unit s of the
dia gonal of the squar e.

In T he E lement s of G eometr y of Euc lid (365-275 B .C .) ,


number s ar e accepta ble if the y ar e tr ans la ted, for example ,
in to rela tions betw een s e gments of line s .

You kn ow the d ia gonal of a squar e di vi des i t in to the fus ion


of tw o r ight tr iang le s wi th equa l ba se and al ti tude . It' s eas y
to s ee when tw o se gments ar e equal : t he se gments extend in
par all el , wi th end s ma tc hing -- ob viou sl y compa tibl e .

But ho w do you compar e line se gment s of dif fer ent length s to


see if the y ar e compa tib le? S ay, in a tr iang le of base thr ee
unit s, of al ti tude four un its , of d ia gonal fi ve un it s, s o tha t, by
"T he Pytha gor ean T heor em " (on li ne), 3 2 + 4 2 = 5 2 = 9 + 16 =
25 . (Two su ch t riangles cou ld fu se i nto a thr ee -by -f our non -
squar e rectang le s liced b y thei r d ia gonals .)

You see belo w tha t the above ari thmet ic i s geometr iz ed by


the d ia g ram (in red) of a thr ee -unit se gment (a s i n the ba se of
one tr iang le) . T hen y ou d ia g ram (in blue) a f our-un it se gment
(as in the al ti tude of th at tri ang le). T hen you dia g ram (in
bla ck) a fi ve-un it se gment (as in t he tr iang le 's d ia gonal).

|- --- ^-- -- ^--- -| |- --- ^-- -- ^--- -^- -- -| |- -- -^- -- -^- -- -^-- --^-- --|
Si nce 3 · 4 = 4 · 4 = 12 , you can compar e (be lo w) four copie s
of the thr ee-un it se gment wi th t hr ee copie s of the four -uni t
se gment :

|- --- ^-- -- ^--- -|-- --^ -- --^ -- -- |-- --^-- --^-- --| --- -^- -- -^-- --|
You note th at the se tw o extend equa ll y, tha t i s, the y ar e
cong r uent . T his i s the mean ing of "com mensur able" : Two
se gment s ar e com mensur ate if a mul ti ple of one se gment is
cong r uent to a m ult ip le of the other .

You can no w see - - because 3 · 5 = 5 · 3 = 15 th at fi ve


in stance s of the 3 -se gment ba se is commen sur able w ith thr ee
of the fi ve-s e gment d ia gonal :

|- --- ^-- -- ^--- -|-- --^ -- --^ -- -- |-- --^-- --^-- --| --- -^- -- -^-- --|- --- ^-- -- ^--- -|
|- --- ^-- -- ^--- -^- -- -^- -- -|- --- ^-- -- ^-- -- ^--- -^- -- -|-- --^ -- -- ^-- -- ^-- -- ^--- -|
From the abo ve note on cong r uence, you real iz e the
cong r uence of thes e t wo extensi ons in dic ates the
commen sur abil it y of the base and dia gonal of the abo ve
tr iang le. A nd, since 4 · 5 = 5 · 4 = 20 , we can co mpar e fi ve
copie s of the four- se gment al titude wi th four cop ies of the
fi ve-s e gment dia gonal :

|- --- ^-- -- ^--- -^- -- -|-- --^ -- -- ^-- -- ^-- -- |-- --^ -- --^ -- --^ -- -- |-- --^-- --^-- --^ -- --| --- -
^-- --^-- --^-- --|
|- --- ^-- -- ^--- -^- -- -^- -- -|- --- ^-- -- ^-- -- ^--- -^- -- -|-- --^ -- -- ^-- -- ^-- -- ^--- -|-- --
^-- --^-- --^-- --^ -- --|
T he cong r uence of thes e t wo extensi ons in dic ates the
inco mmensur abi li ty of the alt itude of any s quar e w ith its
dia gonal .

T he above demon str ations ha ve been geometr ic . We can again


wr ite their inter pr eta tion s in ari thmet ic , in t er ms of
fr action s:

• in ter pr et " four copie s of the thr ee -se gment " a s the
fr action , 3/4 ;
• in ter pr et " thr ee cop ies of the 4- se gment" as the fr act ion,
4/3 ;
• in ter pr et "f iv e cop ies of the 3-se gment " a s the fr act ion,
5/3 ;
• in ter pr et " thr ee cop ies of the 5- se gment" as the fr act ion,
3/5 ;
• in ter pr et "f iv e cop ies of the 4-se gment " a s the fr act ion,
5/4 ;
• in ter pr et " four copie s of the 5 -se gment" as the fr action,
4/5 ;
• then w e find tha t 4/3 · 3/4 = 1 = 5/3 · 3/5 = 5 /4 · 4/5 = 1.

T he ari thmet ical equ iva lence of the fr act ional pr oducts
cor respond s to the geomet ric commen sur abl y of the ir
cor respond ing e xten sion s . T hen geometri c com mensurb il ty of
se gment s cor respond s to r epr esenta tion of thes e se gments
as a fr action .

Ho wever, the "pu zz le of the Squar e" i s tha t the r ela tion of a
side of the Squar e to it s d ia gonal cannot be repr esented by a
fr action .

In Euc lid 's Element s of G eometr y appea rs a pr oof (a ppa rentl y


due to Hipp ias ) th at t he dia gonal of a un it su qar e is not a
fr action . T he cr it ical not ion, in t he pr oof , i s tha t ever y
fr action can be reduced s o tha t both numer ator and
denomin ator ar e not even number s, otherw is e t he com mon
factor of tw o can be div ided out . (Remember ! An even na tur al
number ha s the f or m, 2n , for so me n atur al number n, and it s
squar e has the for m, (2n) 2 = 4n 2 = 2(2n 2 ). Si mi la r ly, an od d
na tur al number has the for m, 2n + 1, and it s squar e has the
for m, (2n + 1) 2 = 4n 2 + 4n + 1 = 2(n 2 + n) + 1 .)

T he inco mmensur able pr oof pr oceed s a s fol lo ws :

• Con side r a/b = √2 .


• T hen a = √2b
• Squari ng both side s: a 2 2b 2 .
• T he ri ght-hand side has the for m of an even number
(twi ce some number) , mean ing t ha t the l eft -hand numbe r,
a, is an even number .
• To denote i t as an even nu mber , y ou w rite a ≡ c, for some
na tur al number c.
• T hen you h ave (2c) 2 = 4c 2 = 2b 2 .
• Di vid ing out the common factor of two , you ha ve: 2c 2 = b
2
.
• You notice tha t the left -hand s ide has the for m of an even
number (twice so me number) , meaning tha t the sq uar ed-
number on the ri ght-hand side is an even number . But we
sa w a bo ve t ha t onl y an even number has an even s quar e ,
hence, number b mu st be an even number .
• We no w h ave the r esul t t ha t, if ther e is a fr action , a/b
su ch th at a/b = √2 , then i t mu st ha ve the pecul iar for m
tha t numer ator and denom ina tor ar e both even and
cannot be reduced . T her e i s no s uc h number . T he
contr adict ion ne ga te s t he ass umpt ion th at the s quar e
root of tw o is a fr action .
• Hence , the dia gonal of a un it sq uar e is i ncommen sur able
wi th e ither of its side s .

You real iz e th at t hi s pr oblem -- " the f ir st cr is is in t he


founda tions of m athem ati cs " - - when so lv ed v ia rea l nu mber s ,
made po ss ible the d if fer entia l and in te g ral calcu lus and
moder n mec han ics whose appl ica tion render ed human s laver y
no l onger co st ef ficient . You f ind On li ne th at c hi ldr en can
lear n of th is mask ed in a st or y of a Cand y Mi se r and Ge lv es --
in Goog le("cand yfr ont+jonhay s") .

Eudo xus of C nidu s (cited above) de veloped a theor y of


pr opor tion s (in Book III of Euc lid 's Element s of G eometr y )
whic h per mitted ir rational number s s uc h as the squar e root
of tw o. T he " axio m of continu ity " of Eudo xu s i ndi ca ted tha t,
gi ven the pr opor ti on of t wo ma gnitude , you can al so gi ve tha t
mul ti ple of one as a mul lt ip le of the other , ensur ing tha t
these ma gn itudes ar e commen sur able . In par ticu lar , th is
axio m of E udo xus al lo ws the pr opor tion betw een t wo spher es
to be compar ed w ith two cub ical str uctur es er ected on the
dia meter of eac h s pher e.

T he g rea t Ger man ma themti cian , Ri char d D edekind (1845-


1916), ref or mu la ted (in 1872) the idea of Eudo xu s a s the
soca ll ed " Dedekind cut" :
• A cut s epar ate s the r ationa l nu mber s into two c las se s,
"lo wer" and " upper", s uc h tha t e ver y number of the l ower
clas s i s l es s t han ever y nu mber i n the upper clas s .
• No w, if a repr esent ati ve of the l ower cla ss can be
for mu la ted in a fr actiona l r ela tion to a pr esenta tiv e of
the opper cla ss , then the cut its elf is rational .
• Ot herwi se , the cut is i r rationa l .

Dedek ind ther eby fr eed thi s d is ti nction fr om geometr y .

For our pr esent ca se, we can as sign to the upper clas s a ll


number s whose sq uar es exceed tw o, and to the lo wer cla ss
al l number s whose sq uar e ar e l es s t han two . So, the cut i s
the s quar e r oot of t wo.

You can sho w th is b y cons ider ing, to se ven digi ts , the


appr oxima tion of the squar e root oft wo:

• (1) 2 = 1 < 2 < 2 2 = 4;


• (1.4) 2 = 1. 96 < 2 < (1.5) 2 = 2 .25 ;
• (1.41) 2 = 1. 9881 < 2 < (1.42) 2 = 2. 0264 ;
• (1.414) 2 = 1, 999396 < 2 < (1.415) 2 = 2. 002225 ;
• (1.4142) 2 = 1. 9999616 4 < 2 < (1 .4143) 2 = 2 ,00024449 ;
• (1.41421) 2 = 1. 9999899 924 < 2 < (1 .41422) 2 =
2,0000182084 ;
• (1.414213) 2 = 1. 9999984 09369 < 2 < (1 .414214 ) 2 =
2,000001237796 ;
• etc.

You notice tha t

• as you augment the a ppr oxim ati on b y one digi t,


• it s squar e a ppr oac hes clo ser to tw o,
• whi le i ts exceeder dim ini she s (antiton ical l y!) do wn
to war d t wo,
• and you (Ant iton ical l y!) appr oac h the s quar e root of t wo
as the cut.
You lear n tha t the Eudo xian theor y of pr opor tions m oti va ted
ancient Gr eek ma thema tic ians to abaudon the d is continuou s
or d is cr ete s tr uctur es of a rith metic for the continuou s
st r uctur es of geometr y to de scri be rela tions betw een
se gment s and suc h. And, s ince time was con sider ed
continuou s , it was al so se par ated fr om ar ithmet ic. You r ea li ze
thi s meant tha t concept s of dyna mica l mec han ics , su ch a s
speed , vel ocit y, acceler ation, f or ce , etc ., cou ld not be defined
in ter ms of ar ith metic .

You see tha t even T he Fundamental T heor em of A ri thmet ic i s


pr oven by tw o pr oof-b y- contr adict ion ar gument s .

T his book onl y pr oceed s con str uct iv el y (cr oss ing no
Boundar ies) .

You kn ow the s ci ma th i mpor tance of rela tions , funct ions ,


oper ation s . You l ear n ho w to explic ate rel ation s, function s,
oper ation s :

• defin iti on of R ela tion : number of ref er ents of a ref er ence .


• gi ven R el ation ref er ence R, Rela tion s ar e c la ssi fied by
number of ref er ents coor din ated w ith R. T hu s:
o Ru ref er ents a unar y Rel ation o r a ttr ibute, as in "r ed" ;
o Ruv (uR v) r ef er ent s a b inar y R el ation, a s "ne xt to ";
o Ruvw ref er ents a ter nar y R ela tion , as in m ar ria ge
cer emony with mi ni ste r R br ide, g room
o Rela tion s ar e man yÞ RÞman y , as in many ob ser ve
many
o Rela tion s ar e man yÞ RÞ one , as in man y voter s
elect ing one of ficia l
o Rela tion s ar e oneÞ RÞmany , as i n one per son tak ing
censu s of man y people
o Rela tion s ar e oneÞ RÞone , as in spous e i n
monogamous s oci ety
o T he scope (r ange ) of a Rel ation input is its Doma in
(an In side)
o T he scope of a Rela tion output is its Codoma in (an
Ins ide)
o Doma in of a R ela tion can d if fer i n type fr om
Codoma in ( Boundar y cr os sed betw een them) .
• Def init ion of Function : a R el ation tha t is man y- one or one -
one .
• Doma in of a Funct ion can dif fer in t ype fr om i ts Codoma in
(Boundar y cr ossed) , as in the In ventor y Funct ion w ho se
Doma in compri se s number s, but C odomai n compr ises
war eho use i te ms
• An Oper ation is a one-one Function whose Doma in is
sa me t ype as i ts Codoma in (no Boundar y cr oss ing)

You kn ow your const r ucti ve tool s in th is book ar e funct ions


(wi th perha ps onl y domai n B oundar y cr os si ng) and oper ation s
(no Boundar y cr os si ng) , whic h ar e e xten siona l (no cr os sing of
rele vant B oundarie s), contr ar y to the (Boundar y cr oss ing)
in tens ional Ax iom s of S tanda r d Ma them ati cs . ( Topolog y i n
Rela tion s! )

A ques tion ari se s. Giv en the man y- many or one -many


in tens ional -noncon str uct iv e-too ls of Standar d Ar ith metic ,
compounded by a ppeal to the s ame amb igui tie s in A xio ms ,
and all the Boundar y-cr oss ing . Does th is, a t lea st in par t,
explain the dif f ficult ie s student s di sp lay i n lea r ning
Ar ithme tic ? Dif ficul tie s, m any or mo st of whi ch cou ld be
al le via ted b y Medodolog ies whic h ar e extensi onal ,
const r ucti ve, b ypa ss ing , mi ni mal boundar y cr oss ing ,
syntact ic , pr agma tica ll y ind iv idual is ti c, pr esenta ble b y chil d-
friend ly pr og ram ming ?
CHA PTE R 3 : WH AT IS S EMIO TICS ? PEIR CE 'S TH EO RY O F
SI GN S?

You kn ow fr om the Web tha t Cha r le s Saunder s Peir ce


(pr onou nced " pur se" , 1839-1914) i s Amer ica' s
g rea te st ph ilo sopher , Am erica 's g rea tes t 19th
centur y mathema tic ian and log ic ian, the planner of
T he Bur eau of Standar ds , and the cr ea tor of
Sem iot ics : T heor y of Si gns . (You kno w tha t te xt s and
ref er ence books , ci ted on the W eb, often w ri te mor e
about the independent s em iot ics i dea s of Frenc h
sc hola r, F er dinand Saus sur e (1857-1913). You
under stand t ha t, s ince P eir ce's w or ks a gener ativ e
bas is , th is can be bui lt upon. Bit Sau ss ur e's i s quas i-
axio ma tic , whic h doe s not a llo w bu ild ing.

You can under stand us ing the acr on ym , "ISIS" to


enca psul ate wha t m ay be the f ou r pr imar y sign s
Peir ce t aught us: I(ndic ator)S( ignal)I(con)S(ymbo l) .

You lear n an I NDI CA TOR IS A N ORD ER ED PAI R O F


SIG NS .

TH E FIRST SI GN IS HI GHLY VISI BLE, L OW IN


INF OR MA TIO N CON TE NT ; T HE S EC ON D SIG N IS LOW
IN VISI BILITY , HIG H IN INFO RMA TI ON C ONT EN T.

(Exampl es of I NDI CA TOR: LI GH TNI NG I NDI CA TI NG


TH UND ER ST ORM -- LITMU S PAP ER TU RN IN G RE D,
IN DICA TI NG LI QUI D A CID IN TE ST TU BE .)

YOU lear n a SIG NAL is AN IN DICA TOR UND ER


PH YSI CAL AN D LIN GU ISTIC CONT ROL.

(Exampl e of S IG NAL: TELEG RA PHI C SI GNAL - - under


PH YSI CAL CO NTR OL OF EL ECT RIC CIR CUIT AN D
BR EA KE R K EY; under LI NG UISTI C C ONT ROL OF
MO RS E C OD E. )
You can under stand TH E IN DICA TOR- SIG NAL
ST RA TE GY : T HE GOAL O F SCIE NC E IS T O SE AR CH F OR
SIG NALS AND TRY TO T RA NSF OR M I NT O SI GNALS!

You unde rstand th is in a Table of Indica tor s and


SIG NALS .

INDICATOR-SIGNAL TABLE
IND. 1st IND. 2nd SIGNAL PHYS. SIGNAL LING.
COMMENT
COMP. COMP. CONTROL CONTROL
Telegraphy first
Lightning Thunderstorm Telegraph Key Morse Code important application
of electricity
Medievalists used
Symptom Disease Diagnostic tests Instructions "semiosis" for
"symptom"
Fever formerly
Fever Infection Diagnostic tests Instructions
miscalled "disease"
Red litmus
Acidic liquid Chemical tests Instructions --
paper

AS INDICA TOR S- INT O- SIG NALS .

You kn ow, fr om your computer' s De sktop , tha t an


ICO N IS A SI GN T HAT S UG GEST S O R I NV OKE S ITS
ME ANI NG O R REFER EN CE .

(Exampl es of I CO NS : Trash can f or de leted fi les . Also ,


"N o S moking !" IC ON ED a s CIG AR ETTE WI TH SL ASH
TH ROUG H IT ; O NOMA TOPO EIC WOR DS ; etc.)

You lear n A SY MB OL IS A SI GN WIT H A RB ITR ARILIY


AS SIG NE D M EA NIN G OR REF ERE NC E.

(An ICO N is H IG HLY VI SIBLE , but with LIMITED


ME ANI NG O R REFER EN CE . A SYM BOL ha s L OW
'VI SIBILITY" , BUT UNLIMITE D I NFO RMA TIO N
CO NTE NT.)
You can under stand TH E IN DICA TOR- SIG NAL
ST RA TE GY : T HE GOAL O F ED UC ATIO N IS TO SEAR CH
FO R I CO NS AND T RY TO US E T HE m AS BRID GES TO
SY MBO LS! (Y ou can under stand why th is was the
pr actice of the noted adu lt l iter ac y t eac her , Dr. Frank
Laubac h, as de scr ibed i n AP PEN DIX A.) You kno w,
fr om the Web, tha t SY NT ACTICS IS T HE S TU DY OF
RELA TIO N BE TWEE N SIG NS WI TH OU T TH EIR
REF ERE NTS .

You kn ow, fr om the Web, tha t S EMA NTI CS IS


SY NT ACTI CS WIT H T HE SI GN REFE RE NTS .

You kn ow, fr om the Web (w iki ), tha t P eir ce concei ved


PRA GMA TICS AS SEMA NTIC S WI TH THE SI GN U SE RS .

You real iz e th is means a fr equent er ror is: "T he ir


di sa g reement was a dif fer ence of s eman tic s. " You
kn ow it i s dif fer ence of pr agma tic s.

You can under stand tha t the ne glect or confus ion


about Pr agma tics o ver looks a powerful us e of i t,
wher eby the one-man y rel ati on of C ha p. Two becomes
one-one . You real ize thi s mean s tha t Semant ics
al lo ws one sign to h ave many r ef er ent s. Giv en the
sign ∞, the ref er ent to the ma the ma tician is " inf ini ty ".
To the meteor ologi st , "haz e". T o the ca ttle ranc he r,
"the la zy e ight ca tt le br and". One sign with thr ee
ref er ents .

T hu s, the Semant ic for mat,

[sign, reference]⇒[referent(s)]

her ein becomes one -thr ee :

[∞, reference]⇒[infinity, haze. cattle brand]


But Pr agma tic for mat r educe s t hi s to one-one
Rela tion s:


• [∞, mathematician] ⇒ [infinity]

• [∞. meteorologist] ⇒ [haze]

• [∞, cattle rancher] ⇒ [cattle brand]

(O NE -M AN Y R ELA TI ON S TR AN SFO RME D T O SE VER AL


ONE -O NE RELA TIO NS BY P RA GMA TIC S. FROM
CO LLEC TIVISM TO I NDIVI DU ALITY !)

SE QU EN CE -PAR ALLEL LE AR NIN G SY NT ACTI CS


(R ELA TIN G SI GN S)

SemSign SEQUENCE 1000000000


⇓ ⇓ ⇓
SemSign SEQUENCe abcdefghij
⇓ ⇓ ⇓
SemSign SEQUENCE 1z2y3x4w5u
⇓ ⇓ ⇓
SemSign SEQUENCE !@#$%^&*()
⇓ ⇓ ⇓
SemSign SEQUENCE ,./?:;"'{[

SE QU EN CE -PAR ALLEL LE AR NIN G OF SEMA NTI CS


(inc lud ing REFE RE NTS)

@ MEANS at-sign
⇓ ⇓ ⇓
$ MEANS dollar
⇓ ⇓ ⇓
& MEANS ampersand
⇓ ⇓ ⇓
% MEANS percent
⇓ ⇓ ⇓
* MEANS asterisk
And pr a gm atic is sho wn abo ve.

SEMIO TI C S PACE (H OM OL OG Y-- GROU PABLE :


UNGROU PABLE: : FI NITE: I NFINI TE)

• SY NT ACTI CS (r ela tion s betw een SIG NS onl y)


• SEM AN TICS (SI GN S a s RELA TOR S of REF ERE NC E
to R EFE REN TS)
• PRA GMA TICS (al so RELA TE t o SI GN -US ER)
• TR AN SA CTI CS (al so o ther G ROUPABLE SI GN -
US ER S)
• CO NSE NSIC S (r ela ting w ith UNGROUPABLE SIG N-
US ER S)

LE VELS OF LITE RA CY A ND ILLITERA CY

• SY NT ACTI C LIT ERA CY/ILLITE RA CY


o LITERA CY : "I kno w my A- B-C 's and my
numer al s! A nd I can r ead and wr ite them !"
o ILLITERA CY: "I don't kn ow my A -B- C' s and
numer al s. "
• FO RMALI C LITE RA CY/LITE RA CY
o LITERA CY : Pr of icient in count ing,
r ud imentar y calcu la tion
o ILLITERA CY: Incompetent.
• SEM AN TIC LITERA CY /ILLITERA CY
o LITERA CY : "I can u se my A -B- C' s and
numer al s to r ead and w rite them and
calcu la te -- as wor ds and number s, t oo! "
o ILLITERA CY: "I can read and wr ite my A -B- C' s
and numer als . But I don't unde rstand w or ds
and number s. "
• PRA GMA TIC LIT ERA CY/ILLITE RA CY
o LITERA CY : "I kno w ho w wha t I r ead af fect s
me in so ciet y!"
o ILLITERA CY: "I wi sh I knew ho w wha t I r ead
af fect s me! "
o (Ho w does PRA GMA TIC LITERA CY/ILLITE RA CY
rel ate to sel f-e steem ?)
• TR AN SA CTI C LIT ERA CY/ILLITE RA CY
o LITERA CY : I under stand ho w l iter atur e
rel ates to other sign -us er s.
o ILLITERA CY: Doe s l iter atur e real l y rela te to
other s ign- user s?
o (W ha t ha s TR AN SA CTI C
LITERA CY /ILLITERA CY to do wi th gett ing
along wi th other s? )
• CO NSE NSIC -C HOIC E-D ECISI ON
LITERA CY /ILLITERA CY
o LITERA CY : Mak es for DEMO CR AA CY.
o I gue ss D EM OC RA CY tak es car e of it sel f.
• EX PLA NATOR Y C ONS EN SU S
LITERA CY /ILLITERA CY
o LITERA CY : Con sens us on TH EO RY and
EX PERIM EN T i s O NLY "C ER TAI NT Y" for
SCIE NTI STS .
o ILLITERA CY: I gue ss S CIE NCE can tak e car e
of it sel f.
o (W ha t ha s EX PLAN ATOR Y
LITERA CY /ILLITERA CY to do wi th S TATE OF
SCIE NC E IN SCI EN CE? )
• ONTI C-E PIST EMIC LITERA CY/ILLITE RA CY
o LITERA CY : Kno ws enough of ONTOLOGY
(w ha t i s real) and EPIST OMEL OG Y (H OW W E
KNOW) to ne gotia te con sensu s wi th o ther s.
o ILLITERA CY: Doe sn't kno w enough a bout
ONT OL OG Y and E PISTE MO LOGY to ne gotia te
consen sus w ith other s
o (W ha t ha s ONTI C-E PISTE MIC- CO NSE NSIC
LITERA CY /ILLITERA CY to do wi th
democr ac y?)
• SCIE NC E- CO NSE NSIC (IL)LITERA CY
o LITERA CY : Kno ws enough sc ience to
ne got ia te consen su s wi th other s b y
explana tion.
o ILLITERA CY: Cannot do th is .
CH AP TER 4: W HAT IS M ETALA NG UAGE ? ONT OL OG Y?
EPIS TEMO LOGY? A XI OL OG Y?
You kn ow, fr om the Web, tha t M ETALA NG UAGE IS LAN GU AGE
TALKI NG AB OU T LA NG UAGE .

You kn ow, fr om the Web, the thr ee s ubs yste ms of


ME TAL AN GU AGE ar e:

1. ONT OL OG Y: T he expl ica tion of WH AT IS RE AL;


2. EPIS TEMO LGY: T he expl ica tion of WH AT WE CAN K NOW;
3. AXI OL OG Y: T he e xpl ica tion of WHA T IS OF VAL UE .

You lear n on the Web tha t tw ent ieth centur y Phy sic s
wi tnes sed a cr it ica l d is ti nction betw een O NTOLOGY and
EPIS TEMO LOGY, in vol ving a de bate betw een Al ber t Ein ste in
and Nei l Bohr concer ned the us e of P ROBABILITY TH EO RY i n
quantum t heor y. T hat, by Say ing , "G od doe s not place dice! ",
Ei ns tein ar gued tha t the use of P ROB AB ILITY in QUANT UM
TH EO RY w as on l y due t o C UR RE NT LIMI TATIO NS I N O UR
KNOWLED GE , perha ps due to HI DDE N CA US AL V AR IABL ES i n
bas ic phenomena, and. the se i dent ified , PR OBABILITIES could
be e li mi na ted . H ence, y ou real ize, E in ste in was sa ying tha t
QU ANT UM PROBABILITIE S A RE EPISTEMIC , w hil e B ohr , in
counter ar gument , s ai d Q UAN TU M PR OBABILITIES ar e
ONT OL OG ICAL , because any attempt to in vest iga te th is i n a
syste m w ould de str oy the s ystem or change i t cri tica ll y.

You kn ow, fr om the Web, tha t, toda y, mo st ph ys ic is ts a g ree


tha t Ei ns tein was i ncor rect and tha t B ohr w as cor rect, for the
fol lo wi ng r ea son.

You kn ow, fr om the Web, tha t E in ste in f or mu la ted a " thought-


exp er iment " w hic h wou ld i nvolv e cr ea ti on and separ ation of
"tw in" phenomena s uc h tha t c hanging the S PIN of one
changes the SPI N of the o ther , no ma tter ho w far aw ay it i s .
Ar guing tha t th is i s a con sequence of the ONT OL OG IC AL
in ter pr eta tion, and tha t it cannot be t r ue, E in ste in thought he
had won the de ba te . You kn ow, fr om the Web, thi s "thought
exp er iment " ha s been tr ans for med into actua l e xperi ments
confir ming occur rence of w ha t Eins tei n thought was
im pos sibl e!

You can under stand tha t the di st inct ion betw een O NTOLOGY
and EPISTEM OL OG Y ma y concer n your med ical i ns ur ance,
since it 's now pos si bl e, fr om DNA e vidence & other pr otocol s,
to kno w so me per sons ar e genet ical ly d is posed to so me
di sea se o r i mpa ir ment . You l ear n tha t, kno wing t he DNA
tes ts , some in sur ance copan ies ha ve cance lled the m edica l
in sur ance of s ome client s and refused to ensur e other
appli cants , upon lear ning of s uc h di spo si ti ons .
Ho wever, you can under stand t ha t the s ta ti st ic s for in sur ance
ar e NOT ba sed upon wha t i s kn own about cer ta in peop le, but
about "w ha t is out ther e" , in the st atis tica l uni ver se .

So , you r ea li ze tha t compan ies do ing t hi s ar e, ther eby, u si ng


A DO UBLE STAND AR D: co llec ting da ta ONT OL OG IC ALL Y, but
deter mining ELI GIBILITY for in sur ance E PIST EMICALL Y. You
real iz e th at, i f cour ts cou ld be made to under stand thi s, su ch
action s by i ns ur ance companie s mi ght be rever sed . T hus , you
real iz e th at di st inct ion betw een O NTOLOGY and
EPIS TEMO LOGY see m to ha ve econom ic sign ificance in
ever day lif e.

HY PE RN YM : SEM AN TIC- ONTI C R ELA TI ON O F RA NG IN G OVE R


HYP ONY MS
Some HY PO NYM S of t he HYP ER NY M R ED ar e scar let ,
car mine, ver mi lion , cr im son , rose ate, blush ing .
Some HY PO NYM S of t he HYP ER NY M r e gularP OLYGOn ar e
tr iang le, s quar e, penta gon, hepta gon, he xa gon, nona go n .
Some HY PO NYM S of t he HYP ER NY M of S UR FACE ar e soft ,
har d, sm ooth, rough, wet , dr y .
Some HY PO NYM S of H YPE RN YM of TAST E ar e sweet, s our ,
sa lt y, bland , b itte r, s auc y .
You can under stand tha t the role of AXIO LOGY i s exempl ifi ed
in the RULE : DO NO T BASE A D ECISI ON O N TH E P ROBABILITY
OF A PROTOTYPICAL EVEN T, BUT U PON TH E PR OD UCT OF T HE
PR OBABILITY WI TH TH E VAL UE OR CO ST OF T HE E VE NT IF IT
OC CUR S. Exa mple : In a fai r l otter y, s el ling 1000 lo tter y
ti ckets , the pr ob abil it y of wi nning is 1/000 . Suppose the pri ze
is $500 , then the EX PEC TATIO N is (1/1000)·500 = 50 cent s.
T hen you r ea li ze tha t the ti cket price sh ould be m or e than 50
cents , "to mak e an y mone y" .

You read on the Web tha t, during the "V ietnam Er a" , Def en se
Secr etar y R ober t Mac Namar a (w ho had been Head og Gener al
Motor s) vio la ted th is R ULE in ar guing tha t South V ietnam
AR VAN s ol dier s w oul d def eat the Vietcong f omr No r th
Bi etnam , since ther e wer e ten ti me s as man y AR VAN sol dier s
as Vietcong . T ha t s ome one noted , "W hat ha ppen s i f tho se 10
AR VAN s ol dier s w on't fight, and tha t one V ietcong fight s lik e
hel l? "

So you r ea li ze tha t Meta li ngui st ic di st inct ions , su ch as


AXI OL OG Y, i nvolv e National De fense and our sold ier s " put i n
har m' s way ".

You al so Web-l ear n tha t AXIO LOGY i s often ignor ed, but i s
im pl ic it in ref er ence to AXIO MA TICS , since an ax iom is
langua ge of spec ial v al ue.

• you r ea li ze ONTOLOGY (S tudy of "Rea li ty ") shou ld be


for mu la ted in the SUBJ UN CTI VE MO OD, because we ne ver
kn ow tha t another descr ipt ion m ay better fit -- another
hypothe si s m ay yield as m uc h or m or e in conf ir med
pr edict ions than pr esent l y accepted one. So , we mu st
sa y, "If th is w er e the ca se about RE ALITY , then .... "
• you r ea li ze th at E PISTE MO LOGY (S tudy of Kno wing) m ay
be i n the D ECL ARA TI VE mood, since we m ay ass ume we
kn ow wha t we kno w about te chnica l s ub jects . (T his may
ha ve to be c hanged .)
• You real iz e A XIO LOGY (Study of V alue) shou ld be i n
IN TER ROGATIVE MOO D since we can onl y a sk wha t
another per son val ues .
You Web-l ear n tha t ma thema tic ian-l og ician -ph il lo sopher ,
Ber tand Russe ll (1872 -1970) noted th at i f he suf fer ed fr om a
toothac he , he wou ld not e xpect other s per sons to sen se the
pain (acr os s a B oundar y) . B ut if he hear d a loud noi se , he
wou ld e xpect t hose other s to hear i t (no s oni c B oundar y in
betw een),
SE QU EN CE -PAR ALLEL LE AR NIN G OF ONTOLOGY

thundering MEANS thunderstorm


⇓ ⇓ ⇓
high winds MEANS windstorm
⇓ ⇓ ⇓
loud sound MEANS explosion
⇓ ⇓ ⇓
water rising MEANS flooding
⇓ ⇓ ⇓
moon rising MEANS nightfall
SEQ UE NC E- PARALLEL LEA RNI NG O F EPIS TEMO LOGY

summons MEANS court appearance


⇓ ⇓ ⇓
hisiren MEANS fire alarm
⇓ ⇓ ⇓
phone bell MEANS phone caller
⇓ ⇓ ⇓
store bill MEANS payment due
⇓ ⇓ ⇓
door-bell MEANS visitor
S- P LEA RNI NG AXIO LOGY

receipt MEANS payment


⇓ ⇓ ⇓
bankloan MEANS indebtedness
⇓ ⇓ ⇓
bankcheck MEANS cash return
⇓ ⇓ ⇓
statebond MEANS investment
⇓ ⇓ ⇓
I. O. U. MEANS indebtness
You real iz e th at A g rea t pr oble m w hic h str ad dles both
On tolog y and Epi ste molog y i s tha t of "so li pci sm ", the cla im
tha t since my mi nd is the th ing I kno w to exis t, then perha ps
you and ever th ing an ima te and al l of "r ea li ty " ar e mer el y
cr ea ti ons of m y ima gin ati on . You Web-lea r n So li pci sm can' t
be pr oven , but also can't be pr oven -- s ho wing the l imit s
(constr aints) of Langua ge and Metalangua ge,

You web-l ear n tha t the B ri ti sh poet , A . E . Ho us man (1859-


1936), famou s f or h is 1896 book of poetr y, "A Shr op shir e
Lad", wr ote a poem a bout So li pci sm :

Good folk, do you love your life?


And have you need for sense?
Observe this knife. Like other knives
It cost but fifteen pence.
I need but draw it across my throat,
And down will fall the sky!
And Earth's foundations will depart!
And all you folk will die!
You Web-l ear n tha t a cri tica l ONT OL OGI CAL pos sib il it y tha t
"cr ies out " f or the SU BJ UN CTI VE mood i s tha t, in WA VE
TH EO RY (a bas is theor y of Q UANTICS) , we do not kno w th at
the comp le x equa tion model s waves , or the qua ter nion
equa ti on mode ls waves , or the octonion equa tion m odel s
waves , or so me hyper comp le x equa tion be yond th is m odel s
waves - - or it tak es al l po ss ib le hyper comp le x equa tions to
model w aves , to pr ovide the best fit.
You real iz e i t is somet mes dif ficult to kn ow wha t we real l y do
kn ow. Y ou can under stand t hi s ques tion is pr ovok ed by t he
di scu ss ion on LA TEN CY i n the book , " T he Na tur e of Phy sica l
Rea li ty, A P hi los ophy of Moder n Ph ys ic s" , pp . 171-6 , by He nr y
Mar genau.

W hen you see a b lue flo wer , Mar genau a sk s if the f lo wer is
blue when no one is l ooking at it. H e sa ys thi s co lor ati on i s
not po ss es sed by the flo wer ( attr ibuti ve ) but la tent i n the
flo wer unt il evok ed b y an ob ser ver . You r ea li ze th is i s
compar able to the old ques tion , "W hen a tr ee f all s i n a f or est
wi th no human ar ound, doe s it m ak e a s ound ?" It m ay mak e a
vibr ation , but "sound" is w ha t tha t v ibr ation become s wi thin a
nor ma l hu man ear .

You real iz e one may a ls o co mpar e th is to the tr ansducer tha t


changes the "cont inuous " ener gy of a telephone line to the
"di scr ete " ener gy of a computer i n a mode m (acr on ym for
"mo du la te dem odul ate"); or vice ver sa. O ther eva lua tor s i n
the l iter atur e ar e "d is pos it ion s" and " pr opensi ti es ".
La tenc ies , di spo si ti ons , pr opens iti es Usual l y, onl y r hetorica l-
phi los ophica l def ense s appe ar in the liter atur e and on li ne.

W ith the development of T he Web and a ss oci ated s ear ch


engine s and de velop ment of Ar tifi cia l Intel li gence, another
meaning of " ontolog y" has become w ide spr ead. To a void
langua ge a bu se, perha ps it s hou ld be named " A TY PE
SY STEM ".

W ik ipedia sa ys of i t: "In compute r s ci ence and i nf or ma tion


sc ience , an ontolog y i s a f or mal r epr esenta tion of a s et of
concepts wi thi n a domai n [of d is cour se] and the rela tion shi ps
betw een thos e concept s. It is used to rea son a bout the
pr oper tie s of tha t doma in , and ma y be used to def ine the
domain .

Examp le of an onto log y.

OWL ONT OL OG Y FO R WOR LD WIDE WEB


T he da ta descr ibed by an OWL ontolog y i s i nter pr eted as a
se t of "i ndi vi dual s" and a set of "pr oper ty as ser tion s" whi ch
rel ate the se ind iv idual s to ea ch other . An OWL ontolog y
cons is ts of a s et of ax iom s whic h place cons tr aint s on s et s
of in di vi dual s (cal led "c la ss es ") and the t ype s of
rel ation sh ips per mi tted betw een the m. T hese axio ms pr ovide
se mantic s by a llo wing syste ms to in fer ad ditiona l in for ma tion
based on the da ta expl ici tl y pr ovi ded. For e xamp le, an
ontolog y de scr ibing fam il ies might inc lude ax ioms s ta ti ng
tha t a "has Mother" pr oper ty i s on l y pr esent betw een tw o
ind iv idual s when "ha sP ar ent " i s al so pr esent , and indi vi dual s
of cla ss " Ha sT ypeO Blood " ar e ne ver r ela ted via "ha sP ar ent"
to m ember s of the "Has Type ABB lood" cla ss . If i t is sta ted
tha t the ind iv idua l Ha r rie t i s rela ted via " hasMo ther" to the
ind iv idual Sue, and tha t Ha r riet is a m ember of the
"H as TypeO Bl ood" clas s, then i t can be in fer red th at Sue i s
not a me mber of " Ha sT ypeAB Bl ood".

In theor y, an ontolog y i s a "for ma l, e xpl ici t spec ific ati on of a


shar ed conceptual is ation" . A n onto log y pr ovide s a shar ed
voca bular y, w hic h can be u sed to m odel a domain — tha t i s,
the t ype of ob jects and/or concept s th at exis t, and their
pr oper tie s and r ela tions .

On tolog ies ar e used in ar tif icia l in tel li gence, the S emanti c


Web, s oftw ar e eng ineering , biomed ical i nf or ma tics , libr ar y
sc ience , and in for ma tion ar chi tectur e as a for m of kn owledge
repr esenta tion about the wor ld or so me par t of it .

FO RMAL ONT OL OGY EXPLICA TES AR TIFICIAL IN TELLIG EN CE


(AI) " RE ALITY" via C ONSI STE NC Y C ONT ROL OVER DOM AIN S
AN D SU DOM AIN S O F SU BO NT OL yGIES AND A M OD EL FO R
TH EIR DE VE LOPMEN T.
TW O EXPLICA TIVE CO NCE PTS OF FORM AL O NTOLOGY A RE
EN DU RA NT (a s in an a pp le), WH IC H CA N BE PHO TOG RA PH ED
and PER DU RA NT (as in a pr oces s) , WHI CH C AN NOT BE
PH OTOG RA PH ED

Some in stance s of the EN DU RA NT L OGIN E ar e pear , human,


dog, car , house , sc hool , st adiu m .
Some in stance s of the PER DU RA NT LOG IN E ar e month , t ria l,
se ssi on. seme ste r, examin ati on, va ca tion, hea ling .
Another de velopment ser ving the user s of "onto log y as
kn owledge r epr esention " i s s ear ch-pr ocedur es for
"di sa mbigu ation ", fall ing under E pi st molog y. W ikiped ia s ay s
of th is s ubj ect: "Di sa mbigu ation in W ikiped ia i s the pr oce ss
of res ol vi ng conf lic ts in W ikiped ia ar tic le t it le s tha t occur
when a s ing le ter m can be ass oci ated w ith mor e than one
topic , mak ing th at t er m lik el y to be the na tur al ti tl e f or m or e
than one ar tic le. In other w or ds , di sa mbigua tion s ar e pa th s
lead ing t o d if fer ent ar tic le s whic h could , in pr incip le , ha ve
the s ame tit le.

"F or e xamp le, the wor d "Mer cur y" can ref er to s ever al
dif fer ent t hing s, i nc lud ing an ele ment, a planet , an
automobi le br and, a r ecor d l abel , a NASA manned -spacef light
pr oject , a p lant, and a R oman god . S ince onl y one W ik ipedia
pa ge can ha ve t he gener ic name "Mer cur y" , unambiguou s
ar tic le ti tle s ar e u sed f or ea ch of t hese topi cs : Mer cur y
(element) , Mer cur y (planet) , Mer cur y (automobi le) , Mer cur y
Recor ds, Pr oject Mer cur y, Mer cur y (plant) , M er cur y
(my tholog y). T her e mu st then be a w ay to d ir ect the r eader to
the cor rect specif ic ar tic le w hen an amb iguous ter m i s
ref er enced by l inking , br owsi ng or se ar ching ; thi s is wha t is
kn own as dis ambi gua ti on . In thi s case it is ac hie ved u si ng
Mer cur y as a di samb igua tion pa ge .

"T wo method s of di samb igua ting ar e dis cus sed her e:

• di samb igua tion link s – a t the top of an ar tic le ( ha tnotes ),


tha t ref er the r eader to other W ikiped ia ar tic les w ith
sim ilar ti tl es or concepts .
• di samb igua tion pa ges – non-ar tic le pa ges tha t ref er
reade rs t o other W ik ipedia ar tic le s. "
CHA PT ER FIVE : W HAT AR E P ATTE RN S I N LIFE? IN S CIE NCE ?
IN M ATH EMA TI CS?
You can under stand tha t "p atter ns " ar e wha t you mus t look
for your wor k or res ear ch and in your dai l y l ife.

You can under stand the F renc h anthr opolog is t, Claude Lév y-
Str au ss , when he s ai d he found , the wor ld o ver, a mong so-
cal ll ed pr im it iv es and a mong the ci vi lized , the com mon
year ni ng to fee l th at thei r l ives made s ens e - - fit a pa tter n . He
ci tes an e xamp le of lo ve of p atter n .

You can under stand hi s in stance of an aborigi ne, tr ac king


game acr oss t he Kalahar i De ser t, wearing onl y a lo inc loth,
ar med wi th onl y a wooden s pea r, who m ight rest fr om the
noonday sun in the shado w of a roc k. T hen fr om hi s lo inc loth
mi ght pu ll an embr oider y hoop and be gin to embr oider litt le
red flo wer s -- someth ing he le ar ned fr om a m issi onar y woman.

You found on line a ver se about th is need for pa tter ning .

PRAYER OF A F ECK LESS FOOL


B ef or e I go to th at G rea t Pla yg round ,
T o spend tha t La st Rece ss ,
Lor d! Mak e my L if e a P atter n,
In stead of thi s misham y! m asha my ! me ss !
You found on line tr ue stor ies a bout tw o men who made
di sco ver ies a bout pa tter ns. You r ea li zed the di sco ver ies
became po ss ib le by the fam il ia r pr act ice of e xpo sing a
"fi gur e" a ga inst a contr ast ing "g round" to mak e the figur e
"s tand out ", a s when childr en col lect a f ew s no w- cr ysta ls
agains t the g round of a bla ck c lo th to mak e the ir geometr ic
pa tter ns "s tand out".

You read tha t, an ar chaeo logi st tr aveled , as air pl ane


pas senge r, over ter rain he knew a t g round le vel . From th is
per spect iv e, t he ar chaeo logi st sa w, outl ined on the g round
belo w, the buried fr agments of w all s and bu il ding s. L ater ,
dig ger s di sco ver ed r uins d ating fr om the R oman inva si on of
Br ita in (ar ound 120 AD ), duri ng E mper or H adr ian' s reign .
People had lived upon thes e r uin s for centurie s wi thout being
aw ar e of them . T he ar chaeolog is t r ea li zed tha t tho se people
wer e too close to se e bur ied p atter ns.

You al so lear ned tha t, in 1839 , ho w G er man biolog is t,


T heodor e S chw ann, di sco ver ed (in the k ind of pa tter n-
sear ching b iol ogi st s do , s uc h as d ye-s ta ini ng speci mens to
in vok e pa tter ns) tha t the ba si c p lant and an ima l un it is the
cel l . T ha t i t repr oduces (subd iv ide s) dur ing the pr oce ss
cal led "m ito si s" t o e xhib it subp atter ns , highl ighted agains t
the g round of the dye-st ain . You lear ned tha t the se
subp atter ns became la be led b y tw o Greek w or ds : "c hr omo "
for "col or ed" and "s oma" for "bod y" , fus ing into the wor d
"c hr omo some s" . (You lear ned tha t, la ter , chr omo some s wer e
ident ifi ed a s her editar y car rier s, w ith gene s of " DNA". )

You al so found on line a ma thti vit y about the pa tte r n th at


number factor become a figur e agains t the g round of a ten-
by -ten g rid to be co lor ed as a ki nd of " stain ing" .
TE N- BY-T EN G RI D F OR COL OR ED NUMBE R P ATTE RN S
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19
20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29
30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 9
40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49
50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59
60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69
70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79
80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89
90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99
TEN -B Y-TE N GR ID FO R CO LORE D NUM BER PATTER NS 100 -199
100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109
110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119
120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129
130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139
140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149
150 151 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159
160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169
170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179
180 181 182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189
190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199
TEN -B Y-TE N GR ID FO R CO LORE D NUM BER PATTER NS 1000-
1099
1000 1001 1002 1003 1004 1005 1006 1007 1008 1009
1110 1111 1112 1113 1114 1115 1116 1117 1118 1119
1120 1121 1122 1123 1124 1125 1126 1127 1128 1129
1130 1131 1132 1133 1134 1135 1136 1137 1138 1139
1140 1141 1142 1143 1144 1145 1146 1147 1148 1149
1150 1151 1152 1153 1154 1155 1156 1157 1158 1159
1160 1161 1162 1163 1164 1165 1166 1167 1168 1169
1170 1171 1172 1173 1174 1175 1176 1177 1178 1179
1180 1181 1182 1183 1184 1185 1186 1187 1188 1189
1190 1191 1192 1193 1194 1195 1196 1197 1198 1199
TE N- BY-T EN G RI D F OR COL OR ED NUMBE R P ATTE RN S 10000-
10099
10000 10001 10002 10003 10004 10005 10006 10007 10008 10009
10010 10011 10012 10013 10014 10015 10016 10017 10018 10019
10020 10021 10022 10023 10024 10025 10026 10027 10028 10029
10030 10031 10032 10033 10034 10035 10036 10037 10038 10039
10040 10041 10042 10043 10044 10045 10046 10047 10048 10049
10050 10051 10052 10053 10054 10055 10056 10057 10058 10059
10060 10061 10062 10063 10064 10065 10066 10067 10068 10069
10070 10071 10072 10073 10074 10075 10076 10077 10078 10079
10080 10081 10082 10083 10084 10085 10086 10087 10088 10089
10090 10091 10092 10093 10094 10095 10096 10097 10098 10099

As noted abo ve, you real iz e t ha t thi s twos s ubpa tter n of the
tens pa tter n i s in vok ed over and over in the g rid becuse tw o
is a pri me f acto r of t he ba se ten impo sed upon the counting
number s .

You al so see tha t, equi va lentl y, t he twos p atter n is conser ved


by ad ding po wer s of ten to any number of a g rid pa tter n.

You see tha t, sim ila r ly, the pa tte r n for po wers of 5: 0, 5, 25,
125, 625, ... repea ts ever y repeti tion of po wers of 10 .
Equi va lentl y, it s pa tter n i s con ser ved b y ad ding po wer s of 10
to an y number of a g ri d p atter n.

You kn ow these repet ions occur becau se 2, 5 ar e the pr imar y


number factor s of the base 10 u sed for decima l numer ation.

You kn ow these ar e ob viou s subp atter ns of the ten s pa tter n


im posed upon the counting number s. And other subp atter ns
ar e invok ed by t hi s deci mal pa tte r ning .

You see tha t a g rid color ed for mul tip le s of nine has an upper-
left to lo wer- right dia gonal pa tter n, r unning 9. 18, 27, 36 . 45 ,
54, 63, 72 , 81 , 90 .

You note th at the se dia gona l d igi ts a lw ay s su m to n ine


because , i n dia gona ling , you dr op down one grid -r ow and sh ift
one co lumn left -- incr eas ing r ow number and decr eas ing
colu mn number .

You note th at th is is T he ANTIT ON IC PR OC ES S: an incr ea sing


or der coor dina ted wi th a decr ea sing or der , w hic h may pa tter n
ever y clo sed pr ocess , as descr ibed i n Cha p. 14 . (And e ver y
Patter n or qua si -Patter n is Ant iton ic , but readi l y not icea ble i n
so mething as p at as a g rid- dia gonal .)
You remember lear ning an Algor ith m a bout thi s in s choo l:
"Ca st ing Out Nines ". To e xpla in the na me, cons ider the
number , 4523168 , you s ee it ha s the pa ir s-and -s ing le ton,
(45)( 36)(18)2 , or (9)(9)(9 )2 . If w e cas t out thos e none s w e
ha ve lef t a tw o . W ha t does th is m ean? Divi de the or igina l
number by ni ne and notice the rema inder . 4523168/9 = 502574
wi th r emainder tw o. and thi s rema inder of tw o also resul ted
above fr om "cas ting out nine s" .

Ho wever, desp ite the name , "ca sti ng out nine s" , ther e i s an
eas ier way of do ing th is, w hic h W ik ipedia does not ci te. It
avoid s tha t "pa ir- g rouping " - - t ediou s for lar ge nu mber s. You
repea tedl y ad d the d igi t of the nu mber unt il a single d igi t is
obtained , T hen cast out the n ines . If th at sing led igi t i s nine ,
cas ting it out yield s zer o, indic ating tha t the or igina l number
is a m ult ip le of nine ; otherwi se , tha t is the rema inder after
di vi di ng by nine .

T hu s, 4+5+2+3+1+6+8 = 29 and 2+9 = 11 and 1+1=2 , ag reeing


wi th pr eviou s resu lt . (Yes , wr it ing out the method is ted ious .
But the "menta l ari thmeti c" tak es onl y a se cond or tw o or
slightl y mor e.)

T ha t number yielded by e ither for m of the Algor ithm is kno wn


as "the digi tal root of the o rig inal number ".

Examp les : In 144 , digi ts sum to nine . (1 + 4 + 4 = 9.) And 144


= 9 x 16 . On the other hand , 144 + 7 = 151 , whose dig ita l r oot
is se ven, and 151 d iv ided by n ine yie lds r ema inder se ven .

W hy does "n ines ca st ing" cr ea te a s ubpa tter n of t he ten s


pa tter n impos ed on counting number s ? On the ten-b y- ten g rid,
the n ine mul tip le s for m a d ia gonal fr om top r ight to bottom
left . You dr op do wn by one row and s hi ft by one co lumn -- tha t
is an i ncr ea se of r ow number coup led w ith a decr ease in
colu mn number -- ANTIT ON IC ALL Y y ield ing a f ix ed su m,
namel y, n ine.

TE N- BY-T EN G RI D F OR COL OR ED NUMBE R P ATTE RN S


0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19
20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29
30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 9
40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49
50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59
60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69
70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79
80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89
90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99

W ik ipedia , in us ing the nine s- pair ing for m of the Algor ithm ,
sho ws how thi s can be us ed a s a c he ck on calcu la tion s. B ut
W ik i f ai ls to note a " ca tch" i n thi s, exposed i n the f or m kno w
as "bookk eeper' s chec k" . Giv en a colu mn of " Cr ed its " and a
colu mn of " De bit s" , both can be c hec ked by " nine s cas ting" .
But thi s onl y wor ks w hen t hey di sa g ree -- po inting to er ror.
Ho wever, the f ollo wing sho ws how ta bular colu mns can a g ree
by "n ine s- cast ing" , yet di sa g ree as co lumns . For get do llar s
and cent s; j us t look at number s:

2415 1111
1111 3
_ __ _ _ __ _
3526 1114
T he dig ita l root of f ir st ad dend on left is thr ee ; of second ,
four ; f or d ig ital r oot su m of se ven. T his ag rees wi th the
dig ita l root of the fir st su m. T he d ig ital r oot of fir st ad dend is
four ; f or s econd ad dend, thr ee ; f or d igi tal s um of s even,
ag reeing wi th d ig ital s um of s econd s um and ag reeing wi th
tha t for fir st su m. B ut, ob vou sl y, de bit s and cr ed its do not
ag ree! T his wor ks onl y for di sa g reement , point ing to e r ror,
T he reason is tha t i mp li ci t i n thi s ty pe of chec king i s modula r
ari thmet ic : th at i s, d iv ide all number s i nvolv ed and k eep onl y
the r emainder . O bviou sl y, 25 and 16 ag ree i n a digi tal root of
se ven , but do not ag ree as nu mber s. R epea ting . thi s for m of
chec king on l y te ll s when the calcu la tion (ad dit ion,
sub tr action , m ult ip li ca tion, div isi on) i s i ncor rect , so mething
W ik ipedia fai ls to tel l you . T hus , modu lar ari thmet ic i s many -
one , ju st as factor ar ithmet ic -- a suba rith metic of ar ith metic
is many -one , as sho wn in C ha p. 23,

You may a ls o kno w a bout cas ting out e le ven s . (W ik ipedia


doesn 't s eem to ment ion t hi s, as of 5 /19/09.)

You note the other main dia gonal of the t en-b y- ten g ri d i s
fr om upper lef t to lo wer righ t, wi th number s 0, 11 , 22 , 33, 44,
55, 66, 77 , 88 , 99 .

TE N- BY-T EN G RI D F OR COL OR ED NUMBE R P ATTE RN S


0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19
20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29
30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 9
40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49
50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59
60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69
70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79
80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89
90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99

You note tho se ar e al l mu lt ipl es of e le ven but don't sum to


the s ame numbe r, as in the nine s case !

You ju st lea r ned someth ing a bout pa tter ning! T ha t the


co ver se pa tter n need not be t he same . You f ound the nine s
pa tter n to be ANTIT ON IC . You not ice tha t the ele ven s pa tter n
is ISO TON IC . Star ting fr om zer o, whi ch can be named the
codig ita l r oot , you dr op do wn one r ow and sh ift ri ght -- both
incr ea ses .
Ho wever. you may kno w t ha t ma thema tici ans us e an
al ter na ting s um tha t w or ks for thi s co ver se pa tter n . Star ting
on the ri ght, ad d th is number ; s ubtr act the ne xt nu mber - -
al ter na ting ad di tion and s ubtr act ion. You note th at an
ISO TONI C pa tter n , when al ter na tel y su mmed , acts as an
AN TIT ONI C p atter n .

You now al ter na tel y ad ding t he digi ts of th at ele ven s


dia gonal , yie lding -1 + 1 = 0 ; -2 + 2 = 0; -3 + 3 = 0; etc . You
ha ve al ter na tel y su mmed to t he cod igita l root of zer o .

You tes t the Algor ithm of ca sti ng out ele ven s on 16 x 11 =


176 ,

You find +1 - 7 + 6 = 0. Che cks ! An ele ven mu lt iple .

On the other hand , 175 + 5 = 181 and +1 - 8 + 1 = - 6 . Giv en a


ne ga tiv e cod igi tal root, y ou Just ad d ele ven to it : -6 + 11 = 5 .
And you f ind t ha t 181 di vided by ele ven yield s fi ve r ema inder .

You may kno w r esul ts s uc h as t hese nine s and ele vens


Al gori thm s der iv e fr om modula r ar ith metic , in whi ch you
di vi de a ll number s by a fi xed number (la be led " modulu s") , but
keep onl y t he rema inder pa tter n . For mu lt ipl es of t wo and
fi ve, or nine and e le ven, a s modul i, the a bo ve " in var iants " ju st
pop out . You under stand about t wos and fi ves p atter ns ; the y
ar e subpa tter ns of the tens p stter n impo sed on the count ing
number s. And the s ubpa tte r ns for ni nes and e le vens ar is e
because they ar e the near est neighbor s of the base ten .

You wonder if ther e i s a subpa tter n for se vens in ba se ten.


Yes, but it is so co mpl ica ted tha t you ar e bette r of f di vidi ng.

You may kno w th at these co lor ed pa tter ns reveal co lor ed


conser va tion la ws . Si nce the tw os pa tte r n repea ts ever y ten ,
you can sa y the tw os pa tter n i s conser ved by ad ding ten .
You al so find tha t the 2·2 = 4 pa tter n repea ts ever y 10 · 10 =
100 . Equi va lentl y, the four s pa tter n i s conser ved under
ad dit ion of one hundr ed .

T he 2 · 2 · 2 = 8 r epea ts ever y 10 · 1o · 10 = 1000 .


Equi va lentl y, ...

And the e ight s pa tter n is con ser ved under ad dit ion of one
thousand . Etc .

You real iz e th at c hi ldr en lear ning t hi s wi ll be pr epar ed f or the


conser va tion la ws of ph ys ics -- con ser vation l aw s of ener gy,
of linear mo mentum, of angular momentu m , etc .

You may kno w the se tw o "ca st ing" Algor ithm s car r y o ver to
Nu merica l Al ge br a. Her e, you change fr om ba se t en to base x ,
so th at the homo logue of 10 - 1 = 9 i n the A lgo rith m i s x - 1,
and the homologue of 10 + 1 = 11 in the Algor ithm is x + 1 .
T ha t i s,

9: 10 :: x -1 : x 11: 10: : x+1: x


cas ting -out- nine : decima l base :: ca st ing- out-(x -1): x-base
ca sti ng-out -ele ven: deci mal bas e: : cas ting -out- (x+1): x -ba se
You kn ow tha t (x - 1) 2 = x 2 - 2x + 1 has factor (x - 1) by
const r ucti on, And the coe f fic ient s of (x - 1) 2 = x 2 - 2x + 1 su m
as 1 - 2 + 1 = 0, ind ica ting (se miot ic ind ica to r!) it ha s a f acto r
one les s than the ba se (her e, x), co mpar able to the nines
case (one les s than base ten .)

You al so kn ow tha t (x + 1) 2 = x 2 + 2x + 1 has f actor x + 1 by


const r ucti ng. If you perf or m alter na ting su m on its
coe f fic ient s fr om the ri ght , you find 1 - 2 + 1 = 0, so has
factor x + 1 , compar able to the ele ven s case .

Or con si der x 2 - 1 . Its coef ficien t s um is 1 - 1 = 0 . So i t ha s


factor (x - 1) . It s al ter na ting s um is - 1 - 0 + 1 = 0, so it ha s
factor (x + 1) . In fact, (x - 1)(x + 1) = x 2 - 1.
Another Al gori thm is imp li cit in a ll thi s, app ar entl y not taught
wi th the pr evious A lgor ith ms . It is T he "Ac ti vi thm " Str ate gy ,
meaning tha t kno wledge may co me onl y fr om fal li ble act ion
whic h somet ime s cr ea te s pa tter ns- in -p atter ns -i n- pa tte r ns -
in -. .., when you

• im pose a pa tter n , P ( say , ten) upon "w ha te ver " ( sa y, the


counting number s) ;
• enquir e if pa tter n P ha s subp atter ns , S (sa y, of nine s and
ele ven s -- neighbor s of P.
• If so , then enquir e if subp atter ns of S ar e conser ved
under a tr ans for ma tion g roup G ( say , ad ding po wer s of
ten);
• If so , then la be l thi s as the pa tte r n P con ser ved by g roup
G (a s de scr ibed i n Cha p. 22) .

If your Figur e of pa tter n P fi ts the Gr ound of "Rea lti y" , then


you W IN ; otherw is e, so me pr eviou sl y unnoticed Si gnal of
Expecta tion has been e xposed , whic h m ak es you a winner .

You kn ow tha t a f ami liar example of THE ACTIVITH M i s


im pos ing thr ee d imen si ons of s pace and one of t im e upon our
"w or ld" . T ha t Alber t Eins tei n (x -y) said of th is, " ... ti me and
space ar e m odes in w hic h we thi nk and not cond iti ons in
whic h we l ive."

You kn ow tha t R. Sear le wr ote i n T he Phi lo soph y of Langu age


, 1978 : "[ W]ha t counts as r ea li ty . .. a s a glas s of water or a
book or a ta ble . .. i s a matter of wha t ca te gor ies we i mpo se
on the wor ld . ... Ou r concept of real it y is a ma tter of our
[l ingui st ic] ca te gorie s. "

You kn ow tha t thes e t wo comment s sh ift the per specti ve fr om


ONT OL OG Y (w ha t is RE ALITY) to EPIST EMO LOGY ( you r
kn owledge) and A XI OL OG Y (w ha t i s of va lue) .

You kn ow the v al ue of di sco ver ing or impo si ng pa tter ns to


see wha t you can lear n ther eby.
In Su mmar y, you kno w thi s ha s taught y ou tha t pa tter ns can
reveal the con ser vation law s whi ch ar e im pl ic it wi thin them !
Cher chez la p atter n!

You kn ow tha t su bl im ina l p atter ns can al so occur i n a


per son' s dai l y l ife. A fr iend may not ice tha t thi s per son
usua ll y goes thr ough s ever al beha voria l st eps i n a repea ted
situ ati on, al though unaw ar e of it.

You kn ow tha t ty pe of beha viour was ob ser ved during a v er y


cri tica l period of i ndus tri al iz ation i n the tw ent ieth centur y,
T he pur pose was to in st al l qual it y engineer ing on ma ss
pr oduction line s i n factor ies . (T his had emer ged fr om the
wor k of engineer , Walte r Shew har t (1891-1067), "the father of
qual it y cpntr ol" , after WWI .) A s par t of the pr ocedur e, a
randomi zed sa mple of pr oduct s w as dr awn fr om t he
pr oduction -- randomi zed to a void or dinar y pa tter ning in
se lect ion. B ut s ome senio r eng ineer s pr ootested the "e xtr a"
st ep of dr aw ing b y a r andom ta ble , sa yi ng, the y could dr aw
randoml y. It was nece ssar y for jun ior engineer s to con vince
them of pa tter ns in the ir beha vi our b y wr iti ng do wn, ahead of
ti me, w ha t a gi ven s eni or eng ineer wou ld do in dr aw ing a
sa mple , then s ho w i t to hi m afterw ar ds .

Qua li ty contr ol engineer ing had a r evoluti onar y ef fect upon


the econom y.

You kn ow tha t the g rea t Frenc h m athem atic ian , J ules Henri
Poincaré (1854-1912), sa id , "M athema tic s is the a r t of gi vi ng
the s ame name to dif fer ent th ing s. "

Con ver sel y, you mi ght s ay tha t ma thema tic s is the ar t of


gi vi ng d if fer ent name s to the s ame or sim ilar pa tter ns. You
see the la tter in A ppend ix C , " Barb ie Dol l Math". A nd y ou see
in vari ous for ms be lo w.

You kn ow tha t the ter m, "figur ate geometr y" , la be ls the


"ar ithmet ic geometr y" orig ina ted by Py tha go ras of Samo s
(579-475 B C) in contr ast to the dia g ramma tic geometr y of hi s
teac he r, T ha les of Mi letu s (624-547 BC) . You kn ow tha t the
Py tha gor ean geometr y w as appar entl y figur ated fr om p ebbles
or s uc h, ori gin ating the "geometr ic" langua ge of today 's
ari thmet ic - - la bel s su ch as "squar es", " cubes ", "t riangu lar
number s", etc . ( You kno w th at th is, r ather than "the
Democr itean atom ", ma y be ba si s of "r eduction is m" i n
sc ience .)

You kn ow tha t the figur ate ori gin and f igur ate exp lic ation
her ein of so m any number concepts man if est s simp li ci ty th at
young c hi ldr en can in ter activ el y compr ehend , a ttr acting them
to m athem ati cs . For, ma the ma tics i s a bout pa tter ns.

You kn ow tha t the Py tha gor ean s f igur ated squar es of in te ger s
by recur siv el y ad ding od d number s, i.e ., nu mber s of the figur e
2n + 1, n = 0 , 1, 2, . ... T hu s,

• 0 + 1 = 1 2;
• 1 + 3 = 4 = 2 2;
• 1 + 3 + 5 = 9 = 3 2;
• ... .

In gener al , 1 + 3 + 5 + . .. + (2n - 1) = (n - 1) 2 .[1] Y ou kno w th at,


in the liter atur e, the od d nu mber funct ion i s defined a s O(n) =
2n + 1, a single ter m or for mula . You kn ow, ho wever, th at 0the
tr iangular number function is wr itten both as a su m, T(n) = 1
+ 2 + 3 + ... + n, and as a sing le t er m or f or mu la, T(n) = 1 /2n(n
+ 1) . For par ity , you can def ine the od d number recur si ve su m
as O(d n) = 1 + 3 + ... + (2n - 1) . (You kno w thes e con st r ucts
wer e pr ecur sor s of ar ith metic , geometr ic, and har monic
pr og res sion s, w hic h the P ytha gor eans used to con str uct the
chr oma tic mu si cal scale of W ester n mu si c.)

T hen , y ou find th at, g iv en n i n od d and triangu lar funct ions ,


and in t he recur sion function , R (n) = n + 1, the se jo in wi th the
resu lt , T(n) - T(n-1) = (1 /2n(n+ 1)) - (1/2;n(n -1)) = n. T hen you
can wr ite : O(n) = 2n + 1 = n + n + 1 = n + R(n) = T (n) - T(n - 1) +
R(n) . You se e th at, i n fulf il lmen t of P oincaré, y ou can ad joi n
the thr ee "th ings ": R(n) = O (n) + T(n -1) - T(n) .[2]

You kn ow tha t the recu rsi ve f igur ation of squar es by od ds is


usua ll y demon str ated geometri cal l y, via dots o r s uc h, wi th
rhetori cal gener al iz ation , but r ar el y put i n ari thmet ic f or m.
Ho wever, you can sho w tha t, gi ven (n + 1) 2 2 = n 2 + 2n + 1 = (n 2 )
+ (2n+1) , then , t o the sq uar e, n 2 , ther e is ad ded the ne xt od d
number , 2n + 1, comb ini ng for the ne xt sq uar e: n 2 + 2n + 1 = (n
+ 1) 2 .

One ma y wonder as to why do od d number s ad join thus , but


even number s do not. You kno w tha t rea son i s a pa tter n often
di scu ss ed her ein, clos ur e . T he su ms of od d nu mber s for m
both od d and even number s, clos ing on a pr oper s ub set of al l
number s . Ho wever, s um s of even nu mber s close on even
number s, bifur ca ting the s et of all number s b y excluding
od ds .

You kn ow tha t cubes recur siv el y deri ve fr om mo vi ng s um s of


od d number s . T hu s, r ecur siv el y f or med

• 1 = 1 3;
• 3 + 5 = 8 = 2 3;
• 7 + 9 + 11 = 27 =3 3 ;
• ... .

T his l eads to for mi ng cube s fr om dif fer ence s betw een


squar es of consecut iv e tr iangu lar nu mber s, of the r ecur siv ely
for med T(n) = 1/2n(n + 1) f or T(1) = 1 , T(0)= 1. And , in gener al ,
recur si vel y for med : n 3 = T(n) 2 - T(n - 1) 2 = (1/2n(n + 1)) 2 -
(1/2n(n - 1)) 2 .

You kn ow tha t the d if fer ence pa tter n is pr oven by expanding


the gener al for mula : n 3 = (T( n )) 2 - (T( n - 1 )) 2 = (1/2n(n + 1)) 2 -
(1/2n(n - 1)) 2 = (n 22 + 2n + 1) - ( n2 - 2 n + 1 )) = ( n2 /4 )( 4n ) - (n 2) (n) = n3 . T hus:
13 = 1 = T (su b 1) 2 - T (s ub 0 ) =1 -0 =1;
• 2
23 = 8 = T (su b 2) 2 - T ( sub 1 )2 = 32 - 1 2 = 9 - 1 = 8 ;

33 = 2 7 = T (s ub 3 )3 - T (s ub 2 )2 = 62 - 32 = 36 - 9 = 2 7;

... .

You kn ow th e ge ner ation of c ubes by od d num ber recu r sion a nd by a tr ian gula r nu mbe r r ec ur sion i mpl ies

th at one for m is propo r tio nal t o t he o the r, with fu r ther c onn ecti ons . Y ou k no w t his l eads t o numbe r p ower s

as tr ian gula r nu mbe r s .

For , f r om T(n ) = 1 /2 n( n + 1 ) a nd T(n - 1) = 1/ 2n (n - 1 ), you fi nd: T (n) + T (n - 1) = (1 /2n (n + 1 )) + 1 /2 n( n - 1) = n2

= O(d n) . [ 3a ]

T(n ) - T (n - 1 ) = (1 /2 n( n + 1 )) - 1/ 2n (n - 1) = n . [3 b]

Be for e n otin g th e r ela tion from [ 2] a nd [ 3] , y ou c onside r a sing le r esul t f r om [3 a] , t o mo tiva te

gen er ali za tion or e xt ende d r el ating: T (5) = 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + 5 ; T (4) = 1 + 2 + 3 + 4. T (5) + T (4) = 1 + ( 2 + 1) +

(3 + 2) + ( 4 + 3 ) + (5 + 4) = 1 + 3 + 5 + 7 + 9 = 25 = 5 2 = O (d 5 ) = T (5) - T(4 ) = 1 + (2 - 1) + (3 - 2) + (4 - 3) + (5

- 4) = 5 .

Fr om [ 3], You fi nd t he o r derin g o f p ower s:

n = T (n) - T (n - 1) ;

n2 = T (n) + T (n - 1) ;

n3 = ( T(n) - T (n - 1) (T(n ) + T (n - 1) ) = ( T(n )2 - ( T(n -1) )2;

n4 = ( (T(n ) + T(n - 1 )) 2 ;

n5 = ( (T(n ) - T (n - 1) )(( T(n ) + T(n - 1 )) 2;

n6 = ( (T(n ) + T(n - 1 )) 3 ;

n7 = ( (T(n ) - T (n - 1) )(( T(n ) + T(n - 1 )) 3;

... . [4 ]

. Y ou k no w t ha t, by de fi ning , f or di f ferences a nd su ms : D = T (n) - T (n - 1) , S = T (n) + T (n - 1 ), th e or deri ng o f

po wer s be comes:

n=D ;

n2 = S ;

n3 = D S;

n4 = S 2;

n5 = D S2 ;

n6 = S 3;

n7 = D S4 ;

... .[4 A]

And you fi nd, in g eneral: n(2 i-1) = D S( i - 1) , n (2 i) = Si , i = 1, 2,. .. . [ 4B ]

Also , y ou f in f th at [2 ] be comes a recu r sion of n umbe r po wer s : R( n) = O( n) - D . [2 A]

You shif t, n ow, t o Numbe r P ower s as Odd Numb er s . T o sho w it can be d one , y ou de fi ne O(1, n ) =1 + 1 + . .. +

1 = n . T hen, this c onn ects:

n = O (1,n );

n2 = O (d n );

n3 = O (1, n)O (d n );

n4 = ( O( d n )2 ;

n5 = O (1, n) (O( d n )2 ;

... .;

n( 2i-1 ) = O(i ,n)O (d n) (i - 1 );

n( 2i ) = ( O( n) )i , i = 1 , 2 ,... .

In pa r ti cula r, (1 + x) n = ( 1 + x)O (1 ,n) .

Of co ur se, t his is l ess "e le gant " t han "p ower s from t ria ngul ar s" , bu t y ou see t ha t i t symbo lica ll y e xp lic ates

anc ien t Py tha gorean f ig ur ations a nd i nvok es A Tri ple Rel ation ( Poi nca ré! ), as fol lo ws.

Giv en:

O(n ) = 2 n + 1 = n + ( n + 1 );
1.
T(n ) - T (n -1) = n ;
2.
R( n) = n + 1 .
3.

You fi nd T he Tri ple R el ati on : O( n) = T(n ) - T (n -1) + R (n ). Or : T (n ) - T (n-1 ) = O (n ) - R( n) [5 A] .

D( n) + R( n) = O( n) [ 5B ].

O(n )( 1/ 2) = n i [5 C] .

D = O (n) (1 /2 ) [ 5D ].

You not e be lo w th at cube roots c an b e c alcu la ted by subtr actin g odd n umbe r s , whose ini ti ato r is

de ter mined via " mo vin g" tr iang ular s .

Giv en t he p r esent symbolism , th is ca n be opera tiona ll y w rit ten : O(d T(n )) = n 3 = DS [5 E].
You consi der , n ow, rel ate d P att er ns as Alg orit hms , w her ein n umbe r r el ations n ot recog niz ed i n t he

li ter atur e a r e i mpli cit or e quiva lent to r eco gniz ed alg ori thms.

T hus, y ou see t ha t the o r de ring of p ower s in [ 3] h as al gori thm ic r ela tions .

T hus, power on e f or m t ells us y ou c an p ass from f or m , T(n -1) to the ne xt f or m , T(n ) by adj oini ng t he

fi gura te for num ber n. T his is an al gor ithm imp lici t in th e pa tt er n o f n umbe r po wer s as t ri angu lar n umb er s ,

rh etor icall y m ani fes ted . T hen, po wer t wo is imp lici tl y the alg ori thm t ha t sec ond p ower s of n umb er s ar e

cal cul ate d by mo vi ng p air ed sums o f tri angu lar s . T hen, po wer t hr ee co nveys a n a lgor ith m in the lit er atur e

and onl ine . And , po wer f our is im plic itl y th e al gori thm t ha t t he sq uar e root o f t he f our th po wer of n umbe r s

is ca lcul ated by m oving p air ed-sums o f tr iang ula r nu mber s . Et c.

You shif t, n ow, t o Bin omia l Co ef fi cien t P att er ns .

You kn ow it is k no wn , in the li ter atur e a nd o nli ne, t ha t a tr iang ula r nu mber has a bin omia l co ef fi cien t f or m:

T(n ) = C (n ,2 ) = n !/ 2!( n - 2) ! = n (n - 1 )( n - 2) !/ 2! (n - 2 )!= 1 /2 n( n - 1) . A lso kn own is th at a d ia gon al o f "T he

Pasca l T ri an gle " c onta ins th e t rian gula r n umbe r s , as suc h. Y ou t hen see t ha t th e a bo ve r el ations sh ow th at

all ot her d ia go nals o f T he P asc al T rian gle can be c onst r uc ted f rom th is dia gonal . You kn ow th at it is also

no ted i n t he l itera ture th at th e Fi bona cci Nu mber s a re present i n t he " Trian gle ", so th ey can be d eriv ed

from t ria ngul ar n umbe r s . T he imp lici t r el ation o f Be r nou lli n umb er s to "F er mat num ber s" is k no wn. B rie fl y,

th e " Pascal Tri angle r eper tor y", as e xplic ated i n th e li tera tur e, is subsu med i n t he T ria ngul ar r eper tor y .

And all even per fect num ber s a re T rian gula r o f the for m , T(p) , for p rim e p. A nd K. F . Gauss (1 777 -186 5)

pr oved th e co njec tur e o f Pi er re Fer mat (1 601 -166 5) th at ever y posit iv e i nte ger is t he sum o f at most three

tr iang ular num ber s .

You no w tu r n t o De ter mina tio n o f S qu ar e a nd C ube Roots . Y ou k no w i t is not ed, i n t he l itera ture an d on line ,

th at squar e roo ts can be e xtr acted by sub tr act ing c onsec utiv el y o r der ed odd n umbe r s .

T hus,

144 - 1 = 143 ;
1.
143 - 3 = 140 ;
2.
140 - 5 = 135 ;
3.
135 - 7 = 128 ;
4.
128 - 9 = 119 ;
5.
119 - 1 1 = 10 8;
6.
108 - 1 3 = 95 ;
7.
95 = 1 5 = 8 0;
8.
80 - 17 = 63 ;
9.
63 - 19 = 44 ;
10.
44 - 21 = 23 ;
11.
3 - 23 = 0 .
12.

So , sinc e 12 su btr ac tio ns, o f c onsec utiv el y o r der ed odd n umbe r s, r ed uces 144 to z er o, the sq uar e root o f

144 is 12 , as may b e c onf ir med by cal cul ati on.

Also k no wn is a tr ic k ( imp lici tl y in volving t he d igi tal root ) w hi ch m ay consi der abl y reduc e th e nu mbe r of

requ ir ed su btr ac tio ns .

As in th e stan dar d squar e roo t pr ocedure, t he t ar get n umbe r is m ar ked o f f i n p air s o f di gits f rom th e ri ght .

(T his is be cause a one -dig it n umb er h as a squ ar e o f one or tw o dig its , as i n 42 = 16 .)

T hus y ou pa r se: 1'4 4. T his t ri ck n ow reduc es th e subtracti ons from tw elv e t o 1 + 2 = 3 , i.e ., o ne

subtr acti on f or t he l ef t pa ir (01 ); tw o subtracti ons f or th e ri ght pai r (1 2) . A nd t he d igi tal root o f 12 is 1 + 2

= 3.

Ho wever, you fi nd n oth ing i n t he l itera tur e o r on line to d emo nstr ate, o r e ven c omme nt, th at, by th e same

pr oc edur e, y ou ca n e xtr ac t th e square r oo t nu mbe r tw o to any d esir ed n umb er o f de cima l pl aces.

Dua ll y, you can sho w t ha t the p roce dur e f or c alc ula tin g cu bes by mo vi ng t rian gula r n umbe r s , is a

pr oc edur e for using th is "m oving " p lo y t o c alcu la te c ube roots by su btr ac ting odd nu mber s .

T hus, g iv en 216 , q uic kl y fi nd ( by p r odu ct (5) (5) (5 ) = 125 ) t ha t 216 (b ei ng g r eate r t han 125 ) has a cub e r oo t

gr ea ter tha n fi ve.

Via tria ngul ar n umbe r s -- and th e fi ve c ube l ower bo und, abo ve -- y ou k no w th at th e subtracti on sho uld

star t af te r 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + 5 = 1 5 odd n umbe r s.

So , y ou be gin su btr ac tion with the sixt eent h odd n umbe r, 2( 16 ) - 1 = 3 1.

You pr oc eed:

216 - 3 1 = 18 5;
1.
185 - 3 3 = 15 2
2.
152 - 3 5 = 11 7;
3.
117 - 3 7 = 80 ;
4.
80 - 39 = 41 ;
5.
41 - 41 = 0.
6.
So , sub tr act ion o f six c onsec utiv el y o r der ed odd n umbe r s r edu ces 216 t o z ero . And you con fi r m, by

cal cul ati on, t ha t 63 = 21 6.

(Pr oof o f th e ge ner al c ube roo t pr ocedure is i mpli cit i n t he abo ve proo f o f cu bes from d if fer ences o f

tr iang ular num ber s , and may b e le ft as h omew or k.)

You not e th at a c or r espon ding "t ri ck" p r oce dur e i n t his case wou ld n ot r educe steps, since it w oul d in volv e

1+ 2 + 6 = 9 s teps t o r ep lace the pr ec edur e of si x steps.

You tu r n t o Factor ials ( co mpr essed g eom etr ic prog ressions) .

You kn ow th at facto rials p rovide a basis f or w riti ng f or mu las f or mul as in n umb er t heo r y an d in

com bin ato rics .

You kn ow it is som etim es not ed i n th e l itera ture (a nd onl ine ) t ha t tr iang ular num ber s f or m the additiv e

dua l to th e mu ltip lic ativ e f acto rials i n c onst r uc ting num ber-t heoreti c or com bin ato ric f or ms . You can sho w

th is symboli call y: S in ce n = D, i t f ol lo ws th at: n( n - 1) (n - 2 ). ..1 = D( D - 1) (D - 2 ). ..1 .[6 ]

T he l ef t side of [ 1] is symb oliz ed in the li ter atur e as n! . Using the S pa nish i nver ted e xcla ma tion poi nt ,

nam el y, "¡ ", y ou ca n symbol iz e t he r igh t side of [ 6] as " ¡D ", r et aini ng pref ix f or mat t o e mph asiz e th e

dist inct ion. T hen [ 6] b ecom es: n! = ¡ D. [ 6a ] T hus , n-f act oria l eq uals D-t ri ango rial .

You tu r n n ow t o Com bin ati ons (ra tios o f com pr essed Geo met ric p rog ressions ) . T hus, giv en th e

com bin ati onal for mula , C( n, r ) = n! /r !( n - r )! , y ou f in d:

C( n, 1 ) = n! /1! (n - 1 )! = n = D

C( n, 2 ) = n! /2! (n - 2 )! = 1/ 2n (n - 1) = T
• n-1
C( n, 3 ) = (1 /3 )T (D - 2 )
• n-1
C( n, 4 ) = (1 /1 2) T (D - 2 )(D - 3 )
• n-1
C( n, 5 ) = (1 /6 0) T (D - 2 )(D - 3 )( D - 4)
• n-1
A = [ 2T /r! D( D-1 )]
• n-1
...

C( n, r ) = AD (D -1) (D -2) (D-3 ). ..( D - r - 1) .

You introduc e new not ation: B( -) , d ef inin g B( n, r) = D( D-1 )( D-2 )(D -3) ... (D - r - 1 ). And you can writ e: C(n , r ) =

AB (n, r) . [ 7]

T hus, n-c omb ina tio ns ar e p r opo r ti onal to B-c omb ina tio ns.

You tu r n t o P er mut ati ons (a lso ra tios o f C ompressed Geom etr ic P r og r essions ). W ha t is th at t er m "A " in [7 ]?
A = [ 2T /r! D( D-1 )] . A nd 2T /r !D (D -1) = 2T /r !n (n -1) = T /r! T = 1/ r! = A .
n-1 n-1 n-1 n-1 n-1

So [7 ] be comes: C(n ,r ) = ( 1/ r! )B (n ,r) . O r,r!C (n, r) = B( n,r ). [8 ]

No w, th e le ft side o f [ 7] is f am ilia r in com bin ato rics: r!C (n-r ) = P(n ,r) = n! /( n-r )!, f or p er muta tio ns.

T hus, t he n-c omb ina tio n eq uals t he B-p er mut ati on.

In para phr ase of ( transla ted ) P oi nca ré, t he ar t of m athem atics giv es t hr ee nam es to many " di f fer en t

th ings " by r ecogn izing pa tt er ns. I f s tude nts un der st and t his, t hey c an r ealiz e ho w to lea r n t he n ew from

th e f amil iar o ld.

You kn ow th at a p rim ar y p atter n typ e in ma the ma tics is t ha t o f th e Al gori thm, so ma ny of w hi ch w ere

consi der ed .

You kn ow th at W ikip edia bel ie ves t his w or d d eriv es f r om a m an 's na me by a misu nder stand ing. Al-

Khw ariz mi, P er sian astr on ome r an d ma th ema tic ian, wr ote a trea tise i n 82 5 AD , 'On Cal cul ati on wit h Hind u

Numer als'. It w as tr ansla ted i nt o La ti n in the 12t h ce ntu r y as ' Al gor itmi de n umero In do r um' , w hic h ti tle

was lik el y i nte nded to m ean 'A lgo rit mi o n th e nu mbe r s of t he I nd ians ', w her e 'A lgo rit mi' w as th e

tr ansl ator 's r en diti on o f th e au thor 's n ame; bu t pe ople misun der sta ndin g th e t itle tr eated ' Al gori tmi ' as a

La tin plural a nd t his le d to th e w or d ' al gor ithm ' ( Latin ' al gorism us' ) c omin g to me an ' ca lcul ation m eth od' ."

You kn ow th at, f or d if fer en t in ter pr eta tions o f th e t er m, you can consu lt W ik iped ia. " Al gor ithm

chaac ter iza tions ", a nd f or so me a lgo rith ms, "A lg ori thm e xam ples ".

You kn ow it may b e e nlig hten ing t o assoc ia te t he n oti on o f Alg ori thm wi th t he d ia gr am " flo wcha r t", o f

whic h ma ny app ear in C hap . 1 9.

Orig in o f fl owchar t: I n be ginni ngs o f t he c omp ute r, the pr og r am was imp leme nted by a p lug boa r d, as used

at ta t tim e by t elep hine opera tor s. A nd d ata w as in put by ho les in pun che d, as us ed i n IB M c alcu la tor s.

Ma them tici an J ohn v on Neu man ( 19 03-5 7) an d en gine er Her man Go ldsti ne ( 19 13-2 004 ) crea ted t he i nte r na l

pr og r am for com pute r s, a gr ea t simp lica etio n. T o f acil ita te t he ir w or k, t hey de velop ed t he f lo wchar t in

194 5-7.

You kn ow th at th e fi r st alg orit hm k no wn to appear in E uropea n li ter atur e was "Eu clid 's A lgo rith m" (i n h is

"El emen ts o f Ge omet r y" ) for cal cul ati ng t he GCD o f t wo i nte ger s.

As f ol lo ws:

giv en nu mber s a < b, t o f in d GCD( a,b ) by Eu clidea n Al gori thm:



pe rf or m b/ a an d k ee p onl y t he remai nde r, d < a
o
th en p er for m a/d a nd k eep remai nde r e < d
o
r epe ating t his u nti l r em aind er is 0
o
th at last q uot ien t is GCD (a ,b)
o

As a f lowchar t:

\====== =/

\ STAR T/

\ /

\_/

___ __|_ ____

|d ivide |

|g r eater |

|n umb er by |

|sm alle r |

|__ ____ ____ |

| /\

/ \ ___ ____ ____ ____ ____ / \

/ I S\---Y ES-- >--| PR IN T L AS T QUO TI ENT |- ->--/ STOP \

/ \ | AS GC D( a,b ) | _ ___ __

/ t he \ |__ ____ ____ ____ ____ _|

/ R E- \

--- ---- >----- --/ MA IND ER \ -- >---NO---- -

^ \ ZER O / |

| \ / |

| \ / |

| \ / | | \ /

| . |

^ | V

| v |

| | |

| ___ ____ |___ ____ ___ |


| | DIV ID E L AS T | |

| | DIV IS OR B Y I TS | |

--- ---<-- ---| R EMA IND ER | -- -<---

| |

--- ---- ---- ---- ---- -

To f in d LCM( a, b ): giv en GCD( a, b ), th en ( as sh own i n Ch ap. 1, LCM (a , b) = ( a · b) /G CD( a,b ). T his is so

simpl e it isn 't w or th l isting steps o r f lo wchar ti ng.

You kno W ho w to fi nd the facto rial fu nct ion N!= 1 ·2·2 ·... ·n:

\====== =/

\ STAR T/

\ /

\_/

___ __|_ ____

|se lec t N |

|M=1=F |

|__ ____ ___|

_ _ | _ ___

| se t |

|F &mi dot t;M|

|__ ____ ___ |

| |

/\

/ \ _ ___ ____ ____ __ / \ / \

/ \ --- YE S- ->--| PRIN T A S |- ->--/ STOP\

/ \ |A S N FACT OR IAL | _ _____

/ \ |__ ____ ____ ____ |

/ \

--- ---- >----- --/ M = N? \- ->--- NO- ----


^ \ / |

| \ / |

| \ / |

| \ / | | \ /

| . |

^ | V

| v |

| | |

| ___ ____ |___ ____ ___ |

| | | |

| | set | |

--- ---<-- ---| M+1 |- --<-- -

| |

--- ---- ---- ---- ---- -

You kn ow ho w t o fi nd the PR IMOR IA LS : just as th e F ACT OR IA L, n!, is P RODUCT o f F IR ST n

NUMBER S, so th e nth PR IMOR IAL , n# , I S P RODUC T OF TH E F IR ST n P RIM ES , 2,3,5 ,7,. ..

You also k no w ho w to fi nd t he P AR TORI ALs: n## I S PRODUC T OF T HE FI RS T n PR IMORI ALS . Y ou

kn ow i ts nam e de riv es f r om DEN SI TY FUNC TION o f n## w hi ch, P ROVI DING A CANONIC AL P AR TI TION

OF (n +1) !-- I T R ELA TE S T O o-NUMB ER S ( Ch ap. 17 ) as FACT OR IAL RE LA TES t o t -n umb er s.

You kn ow th at a p r ope r ty o f PATT ERN S w hi ch w as n ote d in anc ien t ti mes, w hi ch is n ow widel y

obse r ved a nd p r act ised, a nd is ever -pr esen t i n da il y l ife, is S YMME TR Y. W ik ipe dia e xpl ica tes t his as

"'p atter ned se lf -simil ari ty' t ha t c an b e de monstra te d or pr oved acc or di ng t o th e r ules o f a for mal

sy st em: by geo met r y, th r oug h physics o r o the rwise."

You kn ow th e p leasin g 1D symmet r y o f t he l ine se gme nt; the 2D symm etr y of t he c ir cle; t he 3 D

symmet r y o f the spher e; et c. S ymme tr y is obse r ved, dail y, i n l ids f or r ec ept ac les: r oun d, squ ar e,

even the less symme tric r ect angle. T his p r ope r ty f aci lit ates c losi ng t he r ecept ac le: y ou ne edn 't

r et ur n l id i n t he o rie nta tio n it cam e of f. Y ou kn ow t ha t, c on ver sel y and in ver sel y, you may d etec t

pil feri ng o f go odies f r om y ou r r ecept ac le by BR EAK ING TH E S YMM ET RY via se gment al m ar king on

lid coi ncid ing w ith se gmen tal m ar kin g on side o f r ec ept ac le , be lo w t he lid ma r kin g. I f, i n l ast usa ge ,

you le ft t he ma r kin gs coi ncid ent , bu t la te r fi nd th em n ot, y ou susp ect a ta mpe ring by some one .

(You remem ber t he use, say , i n a James B ond m ovie, o f a t hr ead a cr oss a d oor c losin g, t o d etec t

in tr uder entrance .)
You kn ow th at S PON TAN EOUS S YMM ET RY BR EAK ING h as, f or se veral y ear s, b een obj ect o f

assiduo us r esearc h i n P ar ti cle P hysics, to pr ovide cri tica l in for mation as to ho w our univ er se c ame

in to b eing and too k shape, T ha t' s ho w im por tant SY MME TR Y a nd A SYMM ET RY ar e,

You kn ow a f am ilia r e xamp le o f SY MME TR Y-B RE AKING an d NE W SU BS YMME TR Y is i n a "sp or t" o f

children: t hr owing r oc ks in to a pon d. T he S YMM ET RY o f t he w ate r sur fac e -- bec ause g r avi ty

ac tiva tes w ater t o a tt ain equ ile vel ("W ater seeks i ts o wn le vel. ") -- is BR OK EN by r ock entrance ,

fol lo wed by S YMME TR IC AL W AVES as a S UBP ATT ERN.

You kn ow th at RANDOMNE SS r epr esents a n p ecul iar kin d o f S YMM ET RY -- no n ot able disti ncti on o f

one sect ion f r om an othe r. Y ou a lso k no w t ha t p leasi ng S YMME TR Y is an E ME RGENT o f S YMM ET RY-

BR EAK ING OF RANDOMNE SS -- e vid ence d in obse r va tions o f, pe rhaps, e ver y o ne, b ut si ng led o ut i n a

boo k. " Sy mme tr y" by J oe R osen.

You kn ow th is is e xpli ca ted by a symme tri cal p r ocess, n ame d qu asi-symmet rica ll y, as "F u-T e- sa-te -

fu "

You kn ow th at th e g r ea t Cz ec h-Ame ric an m athem ati cian , Kar l Men ger , i n his b ook , W hat Is

Cal culus? , d escri bes three basic m athem ati cal m ode ls : FL UENT , TR EMB LAND , S AL IE NT.

FL UENT : mod els a st eady-st ate pr oc ess e it her u nc han ging or c ha ngi ng uni for ml y
o
TR EM BLANT : osci lla to r y
o
SA LI EN T ( fr om L atin, "sa ltus ", f or " ju mp ") : j umps f r om one sta te t o an oth er .
o

You kn ow th is insp ir ed " T he F uT eS atef u Hypot hesis: E ver y pr oc ess is a F ute Sa te fu p r ocess ",

mea ning it passes from o ne c ond itio n to ano ther : FL UENT ®T REM BLAN T ® SA LI ENT ®

TR EM BLAN T®F LUEN T.

You kn ow th at th e com posit e label, "fu tesa te fu " , uses t he fi r st c onson ant, fi r st v owel o f t he t hr ee

labels -- "fu " f or " flu ent ", "t e" f or "t r em blan t" , " sa" f or "s alie nt" . S in ce " fu" an d "t e" o ccu r in ini tia l

and fi nia l posi tio ns , th eir c onson ants are capit aliz ed in the ini tia l posi tion a nd lef t l ower -case t he

fi nia ls : FuT esa tef u.

You kn ow th at most fol ks ha ve e xperi ence an " ever yday" Fu Tesa te fu p rocess : st ar ti ng a n

au tomo bile . Be for e " sta r tin g" , th e e ngin e is OFF in a stea dy-sta te , h ence , FL UENT (F u) ; t ur ning t he

ign iti on k ey a nd st eppi ng o n sta r ter evok es as TR EMB LANT ("Ug-u g-u g-ug ", mor e voca l an d

sustai ned i n pre vious g enera ti on c ar s) ; th e en gine "c atches" , go ing S AL IENT LY (Sa ) f r om OFF-st ate

to ON- st ate; a TR EMB LANT in " se ttli ng d own " ( also ver y n ot iceable i n ö lde r" car s); t hen t he eng ine

sett les do wn F LUEN TLY to the r evving fi xed f or en gine -idl ing.
You kn ow th at, i n his b ook , Meng er c ites as a m ath-e xampl e o f T REMB LANT , the "W ei er str ass

Fun cti on" , w hi ch is "co ntin uous e ver yw her e", b ut "d if fer en tia lble no where" .

You kn ow th at th is is, p oten tia ll y, a W IN-W IN S TRA TEGY. Y ou c lai m "A ll pr oc esses a r e F uT es ate fu ".

If th e pr ocesses you r au dito r s obse r ve f it th is claim, you W IN. If a ppar en tl y, fu r ther study sh ows

why a co mpon ents h as bee n o ver look ed, o r reasons w hy a c ompo nen t is e xclude d. A nd t his r esul ts

from q uer ying w hi ch, lik el y, y ou 'd n ever tho ugh t o f m aki ng -- a ga in W IN. He nce, WIN -WIN .

(You k no w th e FL UENT is typi call y CON TINUOUS o r " an alog ic" , w hil e th e SA LI EN T is

DI SCON TINUOUS or "d igi tal ". He nce, you 'v e sp ecul ated abou t th e " Sa Tefu tesa P r ocess".

Retur ning t o R osen, he t ak es, as exa mple , o f the symmet r y-from-rando mness, b lo wi ng o n a g r ass

bla de o r o n th e mo uth o f a hor n,

You bl ow on a g r ass bl ade l yin g on you r to ngu e. T he wi nd f lo ws symmet rica ll y o n e ith er sid e o f t he

bla de -- a flu ent p r ocess: t he fi r st " Fu " o f " Fu Tes ate fu ". B ut " som eth ing " c an " ca use" an asymm et r y

of f low -- g rea ter on o ne si de t han the oth er - - i nvoki ng osc ill ati ons in th e fl ow : th e " Te" t r emb lan t

for ming th e seco nd sta ge o f t he " Fu Tes atef u" pr oc ess. T hen t his asymme tr y i nvok es a "j um p" and a

"r ag ged " t on e em its -- the salie nt, "sa ", for ming the thi r d a nd m edi al sta ge o f t he p r ocess. A ft er

goi ng t hr ou gh i ts own oscil la tion , or tr embla nt p hase ( th e " te " f or ming t he f our th stage o f the

pr oc ess), i t t hen sta bliliz es int o a " smo oth " t one : th e fi na l fl ue nt " fu" o f the pr oc ess.

T he process o f b lo wing o n t he l ip o f th e bo ttl e is ( pr esu ma bl y) simi lar . ( Tr y it. )

Retur ning t o t he i mpo r tan ce o f spon tane ous symmet r y-breaki ng , you kn ow th at W ikip edia says: "In

physics, spo nta neous symm etr y br ea king o ccu r s w hen a sy st em t ha t is symme tri c with r espec t t o

some symm et r y gr oup [ Ch ap.2 2] goes i nto a vac uum st ate th at is n ot symme tri c. W hen th at

happens, the sy st em n o lo nger appear s t o b eha ve in a symme tri c ma nne r. I t is a p hen omen on t ha t

na tur all y o ccu r s in many si tua tio ns. .. .. A com mon e xam ple t o h elp exp lain this p hen omen on is a

bal l sit ting on t op o f a hil l. T his b all is in a co mple tel y symmet ric s ta te. H owever , i ts sta te is

unst able : th e sli ghtest pe r tur bing for ce will cause the bal l to r ol l do wn t he h ill i n som e pa r ti cula r

dir ecti on. A t t ha t po int , symmet r y h as bee n br ok en b ecause the dir ectio n in whic h th e ba ll r olled

has a fea ture th at dist ingu ishes it from a ll o the r directi ons. . ... T he St an dar d Model o f p ar ti cle

physics is a th eo r y of t hr ee of t he f our kn own f un dame ntal in ter ac tions [ om itt ing g ra vity ] an d th e

ele men tar y p ar tic les th at tak e par t i n th ese in ter ac tions. T hese p ar ti cles m ak e u p a ll visib le m atter

in t he univ er se. T he stand ar d m ode l is a gau ge t heo r y o f the ele ctr oweak a nd c hromodyn amics . ..

str on g in ter ac tions wi th t he g aug e g r oup W a nd Z b osons."


As st ate d a bo ve, t his is r ese ar ched " to pr ovid e cr itic al i nf or ma tion as to ho w ou r un iv er se c ame

in to b eing and too k shape. " ( Fr om thro wing r oc ks in the water t o u niv er se -bui ldin g!)

T he f ol lo wing is a Me thod olog y i n P atte r ni ng.

TR AP PING TH E W IL D W ORD!

T his ma th tivity in tr od uces t eens t o uni moda l searc h m eth ods . F or e xamp le, y ou a r e assig ned t o

de ter mine the b oil ing p oin t o f h ydr oquin one , a c he mica l use ful in p hot og r aphy . Giv en th e typi cal

sensit ivity o f m ost i nstr ume nts, p ar ticul ar ly t hose a vail able in s cho ols, t his is o nl y measura ble in a

RANGE of m easur es, so th at the pr oc ess o f R EA CHING BO IL ING T EM PE RA TUR E AN D GOING BE YOND

r esemb les th e f ami liar "b ell cu r ve" used (i ncor rectl y! ) f or g r adi ng stu den ts. T he g r aph o f suc h a

pr oc ess is cal led UN IMOD Al, e xpla ined as f ol lo ws.

T he w or d MOD E is a ge ner al te r m f or " aver age" . S up pose y ou h ave a 10 -da ta sa mple : 5, 7 , 4 , 7, 3, 8 ,

5, 1 , 9 , 6 . T his samp le h as tw o mo des -- or tw o kin ds of " mos test" -- nam el y, 5, 7 , o ccu ring twice in

th e samp le, i n c ontr ast to o nce for th e ot her s. T ha t is, t his samp le is B IMO DAL ( no t UN IMOD AL ).

Consi der , o n t he o the r ha nd, t he 1 0-d ata samp le: 2, 1, 6, 8 , 4 , 6, 7, 4 , 5 , 6 . T hese are on e-ti mer s o r

tw o-ti mer s, e xcep t th at 6 is a three-t ime r. Hen ce, t his sa mple has j ust ONE MOD E ( on e "m ost est

kin d" ): it is UNIMOD AL.

Many measur ing p rocesses an d ot her types o f experi ment al proced ur es ar e UNIMOD AL.

Si nce RE SEA RCH CO ST S MONEY AND T AK ES T IM E AN D SOM ET IM ES S EVE RAL RE SEA RCH ER S, y ou

wish t o MIN IMI ZE T HE P ROC ES S.

T her e a r e t hr ee f avor ed UN IMOD AL SEA RCH P ROCE DURE S:

BIN ARY SEA RCH;


1.
FI BBON ACCI SEA RCH;
2.
GOLDEN S ECT ION S EAR CH.
3.

Of th ese, B IN AR Y S EAR CH is t he sim plest and , usua ll y, the chea pest t o car r y ou t. T his mathtivi ty

te ac hes th e pr ocedure o f B IN ARY S EAR CH ( a recur siv e pr oc ess , as disc ussed in Ch apte r T wenty-

One) ,

BIN ARY SEA RCH requires lab eq uipm ent : TEA CHE R; S TUDEN TS ; T WO-COL UMN DI CT ION ARY, of 10 00 +

pa ges.
One t een pi cks ou t a DE FIN ED WORD ("T he W ild W or d") ON A P AGE OF TH E D IC TI ON AR Y, sh owing

WOR D an d P AGE NUMBE R to te ac her. Also not ed is t he or di nal n umb er o f the wor d's p osit ion o n t he

pa ge : th e fi r st de fin ed w or d; or the secon d; o r th e u mpte enth .

Ano the r stud ent , ha ving b een giv en th e c losed D ict iona r y, g uesses the pa ge num ber , t hen the

or deri ng o f th e "w ild w or d" o n t he page.

BIN ARY SEA RCH E NABL ES T HE PER SON T O F IND TH IS W ORD E XA CT LY IN 15 GU ES SE S! H ow?

Le t's say t ha t t he D ict iona r y has 1017 p ages. Y ou n ote th at 1017 < 1 024 = 210 ( a bin ar y n umb er) .

T hen B IN ARY S EAR CH A LL OWS FIN DING T HE PAGE IN TEN GUE SS ES.

Ha vin g th e P age, t he g uesser c oun ts the DE FIN ED WOR DS on t he p age, and GUES SES I TS

ORDIN ALI TY.

A ty pica l di ctio nar y of t his desc rip tion has, a t most, 32 D EF IN ED W ORD S T o A PAGE . N ow, 32 = 25 .

So th e w or d c an b e g uessed i n 5 or f ew er gu esses - - t otal ing, 10 + 5 = 15 g uesses, f or t he e ntire

pr oc edur e.

As an exampl e, sup pose t he w or d is on p age 849 an d is t he F IF TH D EF IN ED W ORD o n t ha t pa ge.

Taki ng t ha t 101 7 pa ge fi gure (t he pa ge num ber w oul d be kn own t o a ll t he st uden ts), and

appr oxim ating i t by the num ber 1024 = 2 10 , th e gu esser asks, " Is th e pa ge nu mber gr ea ter tha n

512 ?" ( T his is h alf o f th e nu mber 102 4.)

Si nce it was desig na ted abo ve as on page 849 , t he AN SW ER is "Y es." T hen t he P age Num ber is

be tw een 513 an d 102 4. O f t he 512 pa ges, ha lf o f th at is 256 , and 512 + 256 = 768 . Hence , GUE SS ER

(SE COND Guess ): " Is th e P age Numbe r g r ea te r th an 768 ?" AN SW ER : "Y es."

T he R ANGE is n ow 769-1 024 = 2 56 p ages. Ha lf o f 256 =128 . And 768 + 128 = 896 . Hence , GUE SS ER

(THI RD GU ES S) : " Is th e P age Numb er g r eate r t han 896 ?" AN SW ER : "N o."

T he R ANGE n ow is 769-8 96 = 1 28 pa ges. Hal f o f 128 = 6 4. A nd 768 + 6 4 = 83 2. Hen ce, GU ES SE R

(FOUR TH GUE SS ): " Is t he Page Nu mber gr ea ter tha n 832 ?" ANS WE R: " Yes. "

T he R ANGE n ow is 833-8 96 = 6 4 pa ges. Hal f o f 64 is 32 . A nd 832 + 3 2 = 86 4.

GUES SER (F IF TH GU ES S) : " Is th e P age Numb er g r eate r t han 864 ?"AN SW ER: "N o." T he R ANGE is no w

833 -864 = 32 p ages. A nd h al f o f t ha t is 16. A nd 832 + 1 6 = 84 8. GUE SS ER ( SIX TH GU ES S) : " Is th e

Page Numbe r g r ea ter th an 848 ?" AN SW ER : "Y es."


T he R ANGE is n ow 849-8 64 = 1 6 pa ges. Hal f o f t ha t is 8. And 848 + 8 = 8 56 . Hen ce, GU ES SE R

(SE VE NTH GU ES S) : " Is th e P age Numb er g r eate r t han 856 ?" AN SW ER : "N o."

T he R ANGE is n ow 849-8 56 = 8 p ages. Ha lf o f th at is 4. A nd 848 + 4 = 852 . Hence , GUE SS ER

(EI GHTH GUE SS ): " Is th e P age Numbe r g r ea te r th an 852 ?" AN SW ER : "N o."

T he R ANGE is n ow 849-8 53 = 4 p ages. Ha lf o f th at is 2. A nd 848 + 2 = 850 . Hence , GUE SS ER (N INTH

GUES S): "Is t he P age Num ber g r eater t han 850 ?" ANS WE R: " No ."

T he R ANGE n ow is 849-8 50 = 2 p ages. Ha lf o f rh at is 1. A nd 848 + 1 = 849 . Hence , GUE SS ER ( TENTH

GUES S): "Is t he P age Num ber g r eater t han 849 ?" ANS WE R: " No ." GUE SS ER :" T hen t he page n umbe r is

849 ." AN SW ER : "Y es."

Ha vin g f ou nd t he P age Num ber , l et 's fi nd the DE FIN ED (W IL D) W ORD B Y TH E OR DIN AL IT Y OF ITS

PO SI TION ON TH E P AGE. We sa id t ha t i ts or dinal ity is f ift h.

Assumin g a M AXIMUM o f 32 D EF IN ED W ORD S t o a tw o-co lumn pa ge, th e RANG E is 1-32 . Hal f o f th at

is 16 . Hence , GUE SS ER (F IRS T GUES S): "Is t he o r di nali ty gr ea ter tha n 16 ? ÄN SW ER: "N o."

RANGE no w is 1-8 = 8 p osit ions. Ha lf o f t ha t is 4. Hen ce. GU ES SE R ( SECOND GUE SS ): " Is t he

or dina lity g r eate r th an 4?" ANS WE R: " Yes. " R ANGE is 5-8 . Hal f is 2. A nd 4 + 2 = 6 . GUES SER (THI RD

GUES S): "Is t he o r di nali ty gr ea ter tha n 6?" AN SW ER : "Y es."

RANGE is 5-6 . Hence , GUE SS ER (F OUR TH GUE SS ): " Is th e or dina lity g r eate r t han 5?" ANS WE R: " No ."

GUES SER : " T hen o r di nali ty is 5." ANS WE R: " YES ."

And , lo okin g on Page 849 , th e Guesser f in ds th e fi fth DE FIN ED (W IL D) W OR D.

T his w as just for fu n. As not ed abo ve, t he same B IN ARY S EAR CH c ould det er mi ne the b oil ing p oin t

of h ydr oq uino ne , a chemi cal us ef ul i n ph otog r aphy .

You fi nd a RE LA TION b etw ee n ANS WE RS T O GU ES S AN D P AGE T O F IN D. Y ou wr ite do wn th e

seque nce o f AN SW ER S: Y , Y, N, Y , N, Y, N, N, N, Y .

You RE PL ACE "Y " by on e; " N" by z er o, to f in d: 1,1,0 ,1,0 ,1,0 ,0,0 ,1 .

You INV ER T T HAT S EQUENC E, a nd o mi t co mmas t o fi nd : 100 0101 011 . A B IN AR Y NUMB ER!

. E VAL UATING t he I NVE RTED SEQUENC E A S PO WE RS OF t wo, y ou o btai n a su m in DE CIM AL T ERMS : 1

+ 0 x 21 + 0 x 2 2 + 0 x 2 4 + 1 x 24 + 0x2 5 + 1 x 26 + 0 x 27 + 1 x 2 8 + 1 x 29 = 1 + 1 6 + 64 + 256 + 512

= 849 . BIN ARY GUES SES T RAN SLA TE AS T HE NU MB ER S EAR CHE D FOR !
<F

"Tra pping T he W ild W or d" is a MA THT IV IT Y t ha t trains stu den ts for US ING BIN ARY SEA RCH T O

PER FORM US EFUL MEA SUR ING OR O TH ER R ESE AR CH P ROJE CT S!

US EFUL A PPL ICA TI ON: A commi tte e mus t c hoose ON E am ong m any P ROPOS AL S o r RE SUM ÉS o r

wha tever. T hey ca n S EPARA TE OUT TH E W ORS T HALF OF TH E OR IGIN AL SET R EJ EC TE D. O f

SM ALL ER S ET, S EPARA TE OUT TH E W ORS T HALF AN D RE JE CT. Et c. CONT INUING IN TH IS WA Y, a SET

OF RE AS ON ABLE S IZE C AN BE RE ACHE D SO THA T E ACH RE MAIN ING ONE C AN BE C ARE FULL Y

CONS ID ER ED .

You kn ow th at BIN AR Y NUMERA TION (while used by com pute r s is n ot " MODE RN", no t pa r t o f " T he

New Ma th" . A ctua ll y, BIN ARY COMPU TATION ( bU T NO T BIN ARY NUMERA TION ) is ANC IE NT !

BIN ARY COMPU TATION is men tion ed i n T he B ible . For mem ber s o f th e T ri bes o f Isr ael l ear ned i t i n

Eg yp t, d urin g th eir "c aptivity ".

T he t er m " me di ati on" me ans " to com e be tw een "; i n c ompu ta tion , " to halv e a n umbe r" . An d

"d upl atiion " m eans, of c our se , "t o d oub le" .

T he A LGORI THM OF M ED IA TION AND DU PLA TI ON was used t o MUL TI PLY T WO NUMBER S - - d if fi cult to

do w ith Gr eek n umer als or R oma n nu mer als.Giv en, say , d x m :

You dup la te on d (d ou blin g it ) while medi ati ng on m (h alvi ng i t) , u ntil the med ia tion pr oc ess
1.
r ea ches o ne ( "th e bo tto m" ).

Note : In m edi ati ng ( ha lving a n o dd n umbe r) , su ch as k , y ou m edi ate on ( ha lv e) k - 1, a n e ven


2.
num ber : (k - 1) /2 is t he m edi ate in suc h a c ase.

Going ba ck t o t he results, Y ou UND ERL INE TH E OD D ME DIA TE S.


3.
You ADD TH E DU PLA TE S A SOC IATE D W IT H ODD M ED IA TES . ( You k no w t ha t, in B IN ARY
4.
NUMERA TION, t he OD DS wou ld b e r epresent ed by n umer al on e. t he e vens by n umer al z ero .)

T his SUM is TH E P RODUCT OF d x m.


5.

(You n ote th e ANT IT ONIC for m o f t his P ROCE SS : as one ORDE RING - - DU PLA TION -- IN CRE AS ES, th e

ot her COOR DIN ATED ORDE RING - - M ED IA TION DE CR EA SE S. O f c our se , any c alc ula tio n or or der ed

sy st em is Anti toni c .)

Le t's st ar t with 85 x 2 6, wr itin g th e produc t in this w ay b eca use it shor tens t he p r ocess t o ME DIA TE

ON T HE SM ALL ER ONE ( if o ne b e sma ller ). T he process lo oks lik e th is, UNDE RLING DU PLA TE S
AS SOC IATE D W IT H ODD M ED IA TES :

85, 26 - > 170 , 13 - > 340 , 6 - > 680 , 3 -> 1360 , 1. F INI SH ED .

Adding the UNDER LIN ED DU PLA TE S, w e f in d: 170 + 6 80 + 1 360 = 2 110 . T hen 85 x 2 6 = 2 110 . (C he ck

th e stan dar d way.)

Se e h ow a nci ent B IN ARY COM PUT ING is!

Onlin e a so ur ce o f pa tt er n-f in din g is data mi ning .

T he geome tri c pa tt er ns o f pol yhe dr a ar e explai ned by the fol lo wi ng r esu lt, i n t he b e gi nngs o f

Top olog y.

EULE R CHA RA CT ER IS TIC

As a pol yhedr on co nside r th e te tr ahe dr on . It h as four v er tices ( V), six e dges ( E), f ou r f aces ( F). And

al ter nate summ ing yi elds 4 - 6 + 4 = 2 .

Ex plo rin g fu r ther , sp lit a f ace wi th a new e dge , ca using o ne f ac e to bec ome t wo. N ow w e h ave 4 - 7

+ 5=2 .

Ne xt , spli t an edg e wit h a n ew v er te x, ca using t he o ne e dge to b eco me t wo. W e ha ve 5 - 8 + 5 = 2 .

T his is n ot c oinc iden ce b ut a dem onstra tio n o f the Su rf ace Eu ler char ac terist ic : x = V - E + F , a nd

th e be ginn ing o f a proo f o f th e in varia nce o f t he E ul er c haracte risti c . T his result is kn own as

Eu le r's f or mula, as il lustr ated in W ik iped ia. T he se vent een w alpaper g r oups ar e also sh own in

W ikip edia .

Ev en m or e a mazin g th an I sla mic d isco ver y of t hese g r ou ps is th e f ol lo wing stor y, whic h a ppear ed

onl ine.

Medi eval I slam ic d esigne r s used e labor ate g eom etri cal t il ing p atter ns at le ast 5 00 y ear s b ef or e

West er n m athem aticia ns de velope d th e co ncep t. P hysic ist P ete r L u o f Ha r var d Univ er sity sigh ted

15 th-c entu r y t iles t ha tf or med so -cal led P enr ose g eom etri c pa tt er ns, cr eate d by m athem ati cian

Roger P en r ose i n 19 70s.


CH AP TER 6: W HAT IS IA TROG EN IC ME DICIN E?
You Web-l ear n tha t IATROGE NI C M EDICI NE deal s wi th
ME DICAL PR OBLEM S C AUSE D B Y ME DICAL PR OCE DU RES . For
example , y ou go into the hosp ita l for an appendectomy and
get s ta ph i nf ect ion . (In an ep isode in the TV s er ies , M*A *S *H ,
sta ph in fection was tr aced to the wooden floor of the
Oper ating Room, w hic h had to be r ep laced b y a concr ete
floor .)

You Web-l ear n tha t the Gr eek pr efix "i atr o-" mean s " se lf" .

So you r ea li ze tha t man y pr oble ms in S CIMA TH ar e cau sed b y


it s EXP OSITI ON , TEA CHI NG , and other cor rect ible pr ocedur es

You real iz e need for im medi ate attent ion to th is ! A nd f or other


sug ge sti ons of pr ob lems .

You WE B-l ear n tha t, to d ia gnos is one IATROGE NI C F ACT OR,


you can in tr oduce an ep inome , a ref er ent named after a
per son who taught u s about it. ( YoU WE B- lear n Med icine is
ful l of epino mes -- d is ease s named f or t heir dia gnost ician s --
su ch a s "A lz hei mer' s di sea se" , named f or D r. Alz hei mer , who
fir st sa ti sfactori l y d ia gnosed it .)

T he epinome you lear ned fr om W ikiped ia is "bu r ke", named


for the l iter ar y cr it ic and rhetor et ician , Kenneth Bur ke (1897-
1993), descr ibed in W ik ipedia as l eader of a per specti ve un
Rhetor ic. B ur ke cr it ic iz ed "gener al ph ilo soph ies ", e specia ll y
when the phi los opher tr ied to e xp lain "e ver ythi ng" i n ter ms of
a g iv en "cau se" or f actor . (Examp le: a phi lo sopher e xpla in ing
"e ver ything " i n ter ms of "the en vir onment " wr ote about the
en vir onment as if it is al iv e and can act as " an agent" .)

You see an e xamp le of bur king i n Ia tr ogenic Ph ys ic s , when


pr ob abil it y becomes a DYNAMIC .

You recogniz e IA TROGEN IC MA THEMA TICS as dea ling wi th


ma thema tical pr ob lems cr ea ted by the tea ching of Ma th, it s
langua ge, etc .:
• Ka r l Menger : "T he langua ge of calcu lu s is so a tr ociou s
tha t it mak es the pr of ound look tr iv ial and t he tr ivi al look
pr of ound!" [" Gee! You mean tha t ∫xdx = ∫udu = ∫vdv? W ha t
theor em' s tha t?" No! T hi s is Log ical replacement , not a
calcu lus theor en .

As another m isunder stand ing, " Sur e, I kno w tha t


(dy /dx)(dx/dt) = dy /dt . I lear ned tha t in fr act ions !"

Wr ong! T hi s im pl ied theor em look s pr oper l y pr of ound


when view ed in Leibn iz ian nota tion : ( D x y)( D t x) = D t y.

• T he pri mar y oper ations of "calcu lu s of one v ar ia ble" ar e


dif fer ent ia tion and antid if fer enti ation -- not "i nte g rati on",
whic h is a functiona l , not a funct ion-funct ion ma pp ing ;
"i ndefin ite and defin ite in te g rals " in vok e "i atr ogen ic"
confus ion.
• Ber tr and Russ el l: "T he th ing a bout a v ar ia ble is tha t i t
doesn 't v ar y." You can s ay functand , since it' s the ma p of
a funct ion , jus t a s we s peak of oper ator and oper an d .
• You kn ow tha t so me student s detect wha t s eem s to be
chea ting in the quas i- axio ma tic pr esenta tion of
ari thmet ic i n our s choo ls ["Y ou sa y you can su btr act 5
fr om 3 unle ss you put a funny sign in fr ont of it !" "You sa y
you can 't d iv ide 12 by 5 wi thout r emainder unle ss you put
a funn y s ign betw een 12 and 5! "]
• you r ea li ze th at s ay ing "ad d a top ic" , in stead of "ad join a
topic ", mix es ar ithmet ic and rhetor ic, confu sing man y
about ma thema tic s.
• You web-l ear n tha t "l es s" i s analog ic - - tha t "f ew er" is
dig ita l. (E ven " langua ge m aven" W. Saf ir e s tut ter s over
thi s) ,
• You real iz e th at a g reat bu zz -w or ds is "a ver age", whi ch
means " se t-r epr esentor" : mode(s) , median , ari thmet ic
mean, geomet ric mean , har monic mean , l ogar ithm ic
mean, etc ., a ll a ver ages . You can under stand tha t the
wor d " aver age" deri ves fr om La tin "ha var ia" for "shar e" ,
in a pri mi ti ve f or m of Med iter ranean mer chant 's theft -or -
other- lo ss in sur ance.
• You real iz e s ay ing "ne ga tiv e one", not "minu s one"
confuse s s ubtr act ion w ith or dering in the number syste m.
You real iz e r ep lacing med ial signs by s uper sc ript signs
help s: -5 , not -5; and + 3 , not +3 ; etc.
• You WE B-l ear n tha t, not A ri st otle , but C hr ysippu s t he
Sto ic (280 -207BC) in st ituted the constr aint of bi va lenc y
in logic (tha t st atement s ar e on ly tr ue or fals e ), as c ited
in E. W. Beth , "T he Founda tion s of Mathema tic s" , 1959.
• You recognis e Q uanti ty ! Qual it y! Qu ib ble ! Quac ker y: th at
"qual it ati ve" is m easur ed by typol ogica l and or dina l
sca le s; " quantit ati ve" , by inter val and r atio scale s -- as
noted i n Cha p, 19 .
• You recogniz e IA TROGEN C MA TH in T he "Chal lenger
Di sas ter R epor t", de scri bing the k il ling of astr onaut s and
a s choo l teac her . G ood eng ineering mea sur ement s wer e
wasted and b ypas sed by v ague ad min is tr ativ e deci sion
langua ge. (An engineer was or der ed to "tak e of f your
engineer ing h at and put on your adm ini str ati ve ha t and
vote wi th u s for tak e-of f !")

IATR OGE NIC SCIEN CE

• "W e' ve ar ranged a globa l ci vi liz ation in whi ch the mo st


cr uc ial elements . .. pr of oundl y depend on sc ience and
tec hno log y. W e ha ve a ls o ar ranged t hing s so tha t no one
under stand s s ci ence and tec hnolog y. T hi s is a
pr escr ipt ion f or d is as ter . W e mi ght get aw ay w ith it f or a
whi le, but so oner or later th is combu st ibl e m ixtur e of
ignor ance and po wer wi ll blo w up in our face s . ...." , Ca r l
Sa gan, "T he De mon-H aunted Wor ld".

SE QU EN CE -PAR ALLEL N OTI NG IATR OGE NIC MA TH

calculus MEANS pebble, stone


⇓ ⇓ ⇓
average MEANS representative
⇓ ⇓ ⇓
less MEANS continuous decrement
⇓ ⇓ ⇓
fewer MEANS discrete decrement
⇓ ⇓ ⇓
these kind MEANS this type of typons
variable MEANS fuctand of function
⇓ ⇓ ⇓
minus one MEANS negative one
⇓ ⇓ ⇓
reductio proof MEANS failure to construct
⇓ ⇓ ⇓
food set MEANS {bread, milk, corn}
⇓ ⇓ ⇓
book set MEANS {novel, text, check}

S-P NOTI NG IATROGEN ICS CIEN CE

law MEANS uniformity by statute


⇓ ⇓ ⇓
declarative MEANS subjunctive
⇓ ⇓ ⇓
relation MEANS neighbor
⇓ ⇓ ⇓
relation MEANS employer
⇓ ⇓ ⇓
relation MEANS onlooker

An ia tr ogenic ques tion ari se s. Giv en the many -m any or


one-man y in tens ionna l-noncon str uct iv e-too ls of Standar d
Ar ithme tic , compounded by a ppeal to the s ame
ambi guit ie s in Ax iom s, and al l the Boundar y-cr oss ing .
Doe s t hi s, at lea st in par t, explai n the dif f ficul tie s
st udents disp la y in le ar ning Ar ith metic ? Dif ficul tie s,
many or mo st of w hic h could be a lle vi ated by
Medodolog ies w hic h ar e extens ional , cons tr uct iv e,
bypa ss ing, mini mal boundar y cr oss ing , syn tactic ,
pr a gm atica ll y in di vi dual is ti c. pr esenta ble by chil d-
friend ly pr og ram ming ?
CHA PT ER SE VEN : WHA T IS A SY NTACTIC DICTI ONARY? A
MET HO COP OEI A?
You real iz e a dic tionar y of ma thema tical te r ms can be
defined SY NT ACTI CALL Y, wthout mean ings .

You kn ow, i n a typ ical dictionar y, t he RELA TI ON BETW EEN


DEFIE ND UM (ter m D EFIN ED) and DE FINIE NS (ter m DE FINI NG)
is SE MA NTIC , th at i s. betw een TE RM and REF ERE NC E
(MEA NIN G) -- a "s emant ic d ict ionar y" -- wher eas a TWO-
LA NG UAGE DIC TIO NARY (say , Eng lis h- Ger man or Engli sh -
La tin) i s a "syntact ic dict ionar y", m er el y r ep lacing the sign s
of one l angua ge by the signs of the other la gua ge, wi thout
ci tne ref er ent s i n ei ther l angua ge.

T ha t i s, y ou kno w th at A T WO- LA NG UAGE DI CTIO NARY IS


(so meti mes or mo st l y) A SY NTACTIC DIC TIO NARY in w hic h A
TE RM I N LA NG UAGE L IS RE PLA CE D B Y A TERM IN LA NG UAGE
K -- A R ELA TI ON O NLY BE TWEE N SIG NS : THE SY NTACTIC
RELA TIO N.

But you kn ow tha t A ONE- LAN GU AGE D ICTI ONARY IS A


SEM AN TIC DIC TIO NARY i n whic h A TE RM IS R EPLA CED BY A
REF ERE NT : T HE S EMA NTI C R ELA TI ON .

You real iz e th at W HAT WE NE ED TO UND ERS TAND


MA THEMA TICS (A ND SCI EN CE) ! M ATH EMA TI CS IS A S PE CIAL
LA NG UAGE, W HI CH CAN R ELA TE T O AN Y UNI VER SAL
LA NG UAGE.

You real iz e our te xtbooks pr esent ENG LISH T ERMI NO LOGY


and MATH EMA TIC AL T ERMI NO LOGY -- BUT GUID AN CE IN THE
RE PLA CEM EN T S TEP (TH E CRI TICAL TEA CHI NG S TEP) IS
OMI TTE D!

You real iz e A M ATH EMA TI CAL SY NT ACTI C DI CTI ON AR Y wou ld


cor rect th is e g r e gious om is sion .

You can under stand ACHIEVI NG th is mor e ef fect iv el y than i n


any other way by r esor ting to a POWERF UL DE VICE ("B NF") OF
CO MP UT ER SCIE NC E W HI CH H AS WI TH ST OOD M AN Y DE CA DES
OF ANALYSIS AND C RITI CISM.h is is BNF (intr oduced i n Cha p.
1): BAc kUS NORM AL FORM . renamed B ACK NAUR FO RM .

You Web-l ear n tha t in 1955 , an IBM team , headed by compute r


sc ient is t, J ohn B ac kus , announced comp leti on of F OR TR AN ,
the s econd (after COB OL) "hi gh-l evel pr og ram ming langua ge" .
To expla in i t, Bac ku s de veloped a SYN TACTIC PR OCE DU RE for
DEFI NIN G TE RMS . T his became kno wn as " BN F" ("Ba ckus
No r mal F or m"). T hat, l ate r, i n 1960, an I BM t eam i n V ienna,
Aust ria , led by P eter Na ur, announc ed the de velopment of
another high-l evel pr og rammi ng l angua ge , AL GO L. N aur
modif ied the B ac ku s N or mal For m and used i t to define ter ms
in ALGOl.

You Web-l ear n tha t Dut ch co mputer s ci enti st , E. W. Di jk istr a,


sug ge sted k eep ing the in it ial s " BN F", and sim pl y c hange the
"N " fr om " No r mal " to " Naur ".

From C ha p. i, you kno w tha t the bas ic for m was a s fol lo ws :


<langua ge-te r m- 1>: := <langua ge-te r m- 2>.

You mer el y R EPLA CE TER M-O N-LEFT by TERM -O N-RI GH T.

You see you don't ha ve to UND ERS TAND E ITH ER TE RM. T he


TE RM- ON- LEFT could be i n Russi an, spel led by the Cyr il lic
alpha bet , and the T ERM -O N-T HE -R IG HT COU LD BE I N TH E
AD VANC ED MA TH OF LIE GROUP TH EO RY. You s imp l y
RE PLA CE ONE B Y TH E OTHE R! Pur el y SY NTACTIC -- RELA TIN G
SIG NS , WIT HO UT RE GA RD FO R MEA NI NG O R REFER EN CE.

You kn ow tha t Ba ckus sa id he u sed the " ::=" CONN ECT OR


betw een ter ms because it wou ldn't be confu sed with other
nota tion. You kno w man y no w dr op one of the colon s, a s wi ll
be done her e. Al so, y ou rea li ze the need for the equa l s ign as
a T ERMI NAL on the r ight sude of the f or m, s o you c hange the
"=" of the lef t of t he for m t o " @" ". So you rename t hi s BN FA,
for "B ACKU S NAUR FO RM AD APT ED" . You kn ow tha t the
W ik ipedia ar tic le on B NF list s man y modif ica tion s of it ,
usua ll y for the sak e of a par ticu lar pr og ramm ing l angua ge.

<langua ge-te r m- 1>: @ <langua ge-te r m- 2>.

You REPLA CE TE RM-O N-LEFT (kn own as a "nonter minal) by a


TE RM- ON- RI GH T, whic h ma y be a TE RMIN AL , sub ject to no
fur ther c hange in an y of the lis t of for ms a t a par ticula r s ite.

You rea; iz e th is bypa ss es the comp laint of a st udent w ho


sa ys, "T he Chem Pr of wants the ' ratio of pr es sur e-to-
volume of a ga s' . Is th at so me k ind of ma th ?"

You can expla in, "You ha ve a mea sur ement of the gas
pr es sur e and of the gas volume . To get thei r ratio , you D IVID E
TH E PR ESS URE MEAS UR EME NT BY T HE VOL UM E
ME ASU REM EN T. W hen you hear 'r atio ', th ink ' di vide' !"

In BNF :
<rati o-of -pr es sur e-to- vol ume >: @ <pr es sur e>/< volume >.

You kn ow thi s can be ref or mu la ted in B NFA (but w ithout


color s) a s a pur el y ma thema tical r atio .

<r ati o-of -thr ee-to -f our> :@ 3 /4

You note th at ther e ar e no br ac kets on t he RI GH T. T he


br ac kets on the right in the "c hem istr y" example ar e
neces sar y becau se of ref er ence to PR ESS UR E and VOL UME by
the E ng li sh langua ge of the LEFT . If you put number s i n, you
wou ld dr op the br ac ket s, a s in th is l as t case .

Repe ati ng, a " nonter minal " i s a te r m or e xpr es si on h ic h needs


to be replaced by a ter mina l (on the r ight or in another for m
belo w). Opti ons ar e s ymbo li zed by "| " ("o r"). You kno w some
sim ple in stance s of BNFA: <etc .>: @ ...
<numer al s>; @ 0, 1, 2 , 3, ...
<na tur al number s (denoted b y numer al s)>; @ 0, 1, 2 , 3, ...
<pos it iv e in te ge rs>: @ +1, +2, +3 , . ..
<n e ga tiv e inte ge rs>: @ -1 , -2, -3, ...
<r ati onal number s (denoted as ratio s of i nte ge rs)>: @ 1/2 , 3 /7,
-5 /11, ...

T he cha pter t it le ask s, "W HA T IS A ME TH OD OC OP OE IA? "

You Web-l ear n tha t a Methocopoeia is a d ata base of teac hing


method s m odeled on the Phar mocopoe ia pf or ph ys ic ian s.

You Web-l ear n a phar macopoe ia i s a m edica l book contain ing


an of fic ial list of m edic inal d r ugs , together wi th the ir
ef ficacie s and side -ef fects , along wi th tes ted pr ocedur es . You
you r ea li ze th at ph ys ician doesn 't ha ve to remember al l of
thi s. But you can ima gine the publ ic reaction if phy si ci ans
sa id ther e i s onl y one medic ina l d r ug to dea l w ith a gi ven
medi cal pr oble m!

You real iz e th is is the s itua tion wi th r e gar d to mos t


ma thema tical pr ob lems . T he teac her usual l y kno ws onl y one
and of fer s onl y one . It ma y be ef ficac ious for th is s tudent and
"bad m edic ine" for tha t student .

You real iz e th is is the p rinc ipal sour ce of IA TROG EN IC


MA THEMA TICS -- MATH PROBLE MS C RE ATE D B Y MA TH
PR OCE DU RES , ju st as IA TR OG EN IC ME DICIN E concer ns
ME DICAL PR OBLEM S C REA TED BY MEDI CAL PR OC ED UR E.

And you r ea li ze it is the princ ipal cau se of the " lear ning-
cycle s" w e go thr ough , betw een e xtr eme s su ch a s "T he Ne w
Ma th " and "Ba ck to Ba si cs ".

You may f ind, in educa tiona l liter atur e, many ar tic le s and
pa pe rs c la im ii ng t ha t "a sign ificant number of elementar y
sc hool chil dr en" h ave lear ned SU BT RA CTIO N by "the tak e-
aw ay method" ; but a ls o o ther ar tic le s and pa per s cla im ing
tha t "a sign ifi cant number " h ave lear ned fr om " T he Aust rian
Method" ; e tc.
You Web-l ear n an account of a v olunte r tuto r a t Y or kvi lle
Sett lement Hou se in N ew Yor k Cit y who used s ix dif fer ent
method s f or tea ching fr action s, dec imal number s,
per cent age s to 6 dif fer ent s tudent s. After eac h m as ter ed
these subjec ts , eac h taught the other s "the way he lear ned" .

You real iz e th at A Methodocopaoeia , loaded on a l aptop


computer could ena ble the teac her -on- the-l ine to find th at
method whic h su ited the needs and bac kg round of the
ind iv idual st udent . Onl ine tutor ial s could "w alk" the tea cher
thr ough an y algori thm or pr ocedu re.
CH AP TER EI GH T: THE GRA MMA R O F MA THEM ATICS
From y our stud ies , you real iz e th at the e ss entia l att ribute
shar ed by G rammar and M athem atic s is con str aint .

T he onl ine Mer riam -W ebster Di ct ionar y define s "1 a; the act
of being con str ained by the st ate of be ing c hec ked,
res tr ained, or compe lled to avoid or per for m so me act ion ; b : a
constr aining restr icti on, agenc y, or for ce. 2 a : repr es si on of
one's o wn feel ing s, beha vi our , fr om a sense of con str aint .
EM BARR ASSM EN T."

Al so s har ed i s the e xperience of a chi ld , in tuit iv el y, le ar ning


the C ons tr aint s of Gr ammar and the Contr aints of
Ma the ma tics , fr om counting to s chool calcu la tion .

You sug ge st th at, bef or e the age of fi ve, a chil d kno ws the
g ramm ati cal dif fer ence betw een "B il l y hit Mar y! " and " Mar y
hi t B ill y,": evidence the chi ld imp lic it l y the dif fer ence
betw een sub ject and ob ject i n a sentence w ith a tr ans it iv e
verb , su ch a s "hi t" .

You can under stand tha t the link betw een our alpha r oot s,
flo wering in to g rammar and numer ic roots can be e xpl ica ted
by a flo wchar t (a dia g ram de scibed in C ha p. 5).

You Web-l ear n tha t Ma thema tical Langua ge T heor y has


become a ri ch fie ld due to the r esear ch of MIT' s lingu is t,
Noa m C homsk y. T ha t T he P HR AS E S TR UC TU RE GRA MMA R of a
SIMPLE SEN TEN CE EX AMPL E f or ms the TREE -G RA PH :

[SE NT EN CE]
/\
/ \
/ \
/ \
/ \
/ \
/ \
[S UB JECT] [P REDI CA TE]
/\ /\
/ \ / \
/ \ / \
/ \ / \
[A RTICL E] [NO UN PH RA SE][VE RB PH RA SE]
[O BJEC T P HR AS E]
| /\ /\ /\
| / \ / \ / \
| / \ [AD VER B] [ VER B] / \
| / \ | | / \
| [ADJ ECTI VE] [N OUN ] | | [ AR TICLE]
[N OU N]
| | | | | | |
| | | | | | |
| | | | | | |
THE SPO TTE D DO G LOUDLY YE LPED
A GRE ETI NG
Do you s ee ho w th is become s a F LOWCHAR T FO R C HIL DRE N
TO TEA CH H OW T O HOP OUT A SE NTE NC E?

• CR EA TE GRA MMA R T YP E-S ETS with va riou s MEM BER S


(one or mor e of eac h S ET TE RMIN ATI NG T HE TREE) :
o ar tic les ;
o adject iv es ;
o nouns ;
o adv erb s ;
o verb s .
• STAR TIN G FROM " SE NTE NC E" PO SITI ON , A CHILD HOPS
DOWN A TREE -B RA NC H TO A T ERMI NAL ( RED) ;
• TH E CH ILD CALL S O UT TH E TER MIN AL TYP E ( ar tic le or
adject iv e or verb , etc.) TO T HE C AL CUL ATOR;
• CA LCULA TOR RA ND OMLY PIC KS AN ITEM OF THE GIVE N
GR AM MA TIC AL T YPE FROM A S ET OF T HE M;
• T he CH ILD AN NOUN CE S T HE W ORD T O PRI NT ER, W HI CH
PRI NTS IT OUT.
FL OWCHA RT
-- ---- ---- -
\ S TART /
\ /
\ /
\ /
\ /
*
|
|
v
|
|
- ---- ---- ---- ->- -- ---- ---- --*
| / \ *
| / \ / \
^ / \ / \
| / \ __ __ ___ ___ ___ _ / \
_ __ __| ___ ___ /T ERMI NAL? \- YES -> -|A NNO UNC E
TY PE| -- >/LA ST \
| FLY AGAIN |- -< - NO-- --- ---- \ / -- ---- ---- ---- -
/T ERMI NAL ?\
- ---- ---- --- \ / __ ___ ___ ___ \ /
\ /- <- -- |FL Y A GAI N| -< -- NO- --- -\ /
\ / -- ---- ---- - \ /
\ / \ /
* \ /
*
|
YE S
|
V
/ \
/ \
/ ST OP \
- ---- --
CA N YOU SE E H OW T O CR EA TE TREE -G RA PH S F OR O TH ER
SE NTE NC E FO RMS ?
YOU CA N DO TH IS.

CH OMS KY pr oved th at EVE RY TY PE OF PHR ASE STR UC TU RE


GR AM MAR COR RE SPO ND EN DE D TO A PAR TICUL AR TY PE OF
FINIT E S TATE A UT OMA TON ("mac hine" , actuall y a "l ogine" , a
de vi ce of F OR MAL LA NG UAGEU AGE) .

A FINIT E S TATE AUT OMA TON (a.k .a. FS A, a.k.a . CO MPL ETE
SE QU EN TIAL MA CHIN E) con si sts of :

• A FINIT E S ET, I, OF I NP UT S (homo logous to GR AM MA R-


TY PE MEM BERS) ;
• A FINIT E S ET, S, OF I NT ER NAL STATES (homologou s to
GR AM MA TIC AL-T YPE S);
• A FINIT E S ET, O, OF OUT PU TS (homologou s to w or ds in
sen tence);
• AN INITIAL STATE, S 0 (homologou s to t ree-r oot pos it ion,
"S EN TEN CE ");
• A NE XT STATE F UN CTI ON , N (homo logous to TR EE -
BR AN CH );
• AN OUT PU T F UN CTI ON , T (homologou s to T ER MIN AL-
BR AN CH ), "or der ing w or d selec tion" .

Student s i n CO MP UT ER SCIE NC E use thes e FS A in plann ing


PR OGR AMMI NG L AN GU AGES or P ROG RA MS .

You real iz e th at t hi s bond of C ons tr aint betw een Grammar


and Mathema tic s exhibi ts fur ther sign ificance in the recent
judg ment th at an ancient Grammar ian of India -- Pan in i (cir ca
500BC) -- cr ea ted , f or t he g rammar of hi s langua ge,
meta r ule s, tr an sf or ma tions , recur sions th at gi ve h is s ystem
the " ri gor" of the moder n T uring for mal is m, whic h anti cip ated
the co mputer .

Al so, th at Pan ini u ses connect iv es so simi la r to the moder n


po werful Ba ckus -N aur- For m (f or e xpl ica ting ter minol og y
syntact ica ll y, w ithout se mant ic r ef er ence) . T ha t thi s
for ma li sm is no w la be led, b y many , the Pan ini -B ac kus -N aur -
For m. T ha t a h ighl ight of P anin i' s wor k is "P anin i' s T heor em
on R anking of Con str aints ".

You Web-l ear n tha t the Amer ican lingu is t, John J.Mc Car thy , in
hi s book, "Opt ima li ty i n Phonolog y" (onli ne i n Gogle Book s),
pr ovides two f or mu la tions of Pan ini 's T heor em.

"If a cons tr aint is mor e gener al t han another in the sen se


tha t the se t of i nput s whic h it non vacuous l y appl ies i nc lude s
the other 's non vacuous input set , and if the tw o confl ict on
input s to whic h the mor e s pec ific appl ies non vacuousl y, t hen
the m or e specif ic constr aint mus t do min ate the mor e gener al
one for its ef fect s to be visi bl e i n the g rammar . . ... Intui ti vel y,
the i dea is tha t, if the mor e s pecif ic wer e lo wer -r an ked , then ,
for any input to whic h i t non vacuou sl y applie s, thi s ef fect
wou ld be over -r uled by the higher -r ank ed constr aint wi th
whic h it confli cts . T he ut il it y of th is is tha t it al lo ws the
anal yst to spot eas y ranking ar gument s. "

"Panin ian Rela tion . Let S, G be tw o con str aint s as s pec ific to
gener al i n in a PR if, f or an y input i to whic h S a pp lie s
non vacou sl y, an y par se of whic h S f ail s G .

Pan ini 's T heor em : Given above. S uppose thes e con str aint s
ar e par t of a hier ar chy CH on so me input i . If G >> S, then S i s
not act iv e in i ."

Giv en the CO NST RAI NT BO ND betw een Gr am mar and


Ma the ma tics , Pan in i' s (Gr am mar) T heor em on Rank ing of
Con str aint s mu st ha ve a sim ilar for mul ation in M athema tic s,
whic h (unnoticed el sew her e, W ik iped ia, in par ticu lar mak es
no r ef er ence t o th is sub ject) i s replete wi th Cons tr aint s, as
you r ea li ze fr om your st udie s

MA THEMA TICAL CON ST RAI NTS

• T he CO NST RAIN TS on the gener al connectiv e of


RELA TIO N: i n it s binar y for ma t it can be M AN Y-MA NY
(many peop le r ead many book s of a par ticu lar l ubr ar y) or
MA NY-O NE (many peop le boar d the bus) or ONE -M AN Y
(one bus dr iv er tr an spor ts many pa ss enger s) or ONE- ONE
(one hus band monomou sl y has one wi fe). T he
CO NST RAIN TS on R ELA TI ON yield tw o i mpor tant
MA THEMA TICAL "par ts of s peec h" :
o CO NST RAINI NG the R ELA TI ON to onl y be MAN Y-ONE
(many i nputs f or one output, or one i nput for one
output) tr an sf or ms the RELA TIO N into it s F UN CTI ON
spec ial iz ation
o the D OMAI N of a R ELA TI ON or it s F UN CTI ON
spec ial iz ation is the a ttr ibute of thei r I NP UT , whi le
thei r C OD OMAI N i s the a ttr ibute of the O UTP UT . T he
CO NST RAIN T of ATT RIB UTIVE AGREEM EN T of INP UT
AN D OUP UT tr an sf or ms RELA TI ON and F UN CTI ON into
an O PE RA TI ON . Or der ing in Relations invok es the
Rela tiona l Da ta base, s o usefu l i n go ver menta l and
cor por ate w or k. Or ac le is a gian t cor por ation
de velop ing R el ationa l D ata base s.
• the L OGIC AL C ONS TR AIN T of C OND ITIO NAL: sta tement P
is necs sar y for st ate ment Q if q i mp li es P, wher as Q i s
suf fic ient for P
• the L OGIC AL C ONS TR AIN T of B IC ON DITI ON AL : if , onl y i f
("If f") P <-- > Q
• the L OGIC AL C ONS TR AIN T of D ISTI NG UIS HIN G EQU ALITY
fr om A SSI GN ME NT
• the M ATH EMA TI CAL CO NSTR AIN T of DISTI NG UI SHI NG
EQ UALS fr om EQU IV ALEN CE
• the O PE RA ND C ONS TR AINT on Na tur al Nu mber
sub tr action tha t SU BT RA HE ND NOT BE G REA TE R TH AN
MIN UE ND
• the O PE RA ND con str ain t on DIVISI ON of NON ZE RO
DIVIS OR
• the O PE RA ND con str ain t on DIVISI ON , i n Na tur al Nu mber
and Inte ger System s, tha t DI VIDE ND MU ST BE M UL TIPLE
OF DI VISO R
• the O PE RA ND con str ain t on LOGARIT HM , in Natur al
Nu mber , Int e ger , Ra tiona l Sy stem s, th at BASE AND
EX PO NE NT BE N ONCO PRIM E
• al l of the se O PE RA ND C ONS TR AINT S ar e CL OS UR E
CO NST RAIN TS
• pr escedence con str aints on oper ator s.

T he la st list ing , "pr escedence constr aints ", i nvok es pau se i n


the l isti ng becau se W ik iped ia de scr ibes "pr escedence" r ul es
in for mal is ms wi thout u si ng t he la be l "cons tr aint ".

You Web-l ear n tha t compr ehens ib le not ati on without


par enthese s w as developed b y the P oli sh logic ian , J an
Lukas iew icz (1878-1956), one of man y P oli sh logic ian s and
ma thema tici ans who pr ovided excel lent wor k in t he 20th
centur y.)

T his not ati on ha s become kno wn as " Pol is h not ati on".
Read ing left to ri ght, it place s oper ator s bef or e oper ands ,
wi thout par enthe ses , yet the or dering can be par sed w ithout
ambi guit y.

In th is not ati on, a pr oblem could er roneous l y be wr itten as

+ - 10 , 3 , 2
Si nce the sub tr action oper ator ( "-") is near est the oper ands
and since it is a binar y oper ation (scop ing t wo oper ands), the
oper ation of 10 - 3 = 7 is perf or med and pr ovides one oper and
(7) r equ ir ed by t he rema ini ng binar y oper ation of ad diti on
("+") , s o the oper ation is erf or med 7 + 2 = 9. (Yes, i t does tak e
longer to explain it, than to perf or m it -- for the f ir st t ine . But
I'l l sho w you belo w tha t you may a lr ead y kno w - - by usa ge --
but m ay not kno w you kn ow "R ever se Pol is h notaion" , tha t is,
"s uf fix P oli sh nota tion" .)

But the intended pr oblem wou ld be w rit ten in P oli sh nota tion
as
- + 3, 2 , 10
so th at the ad dit ion wou ld be fir st perf or med on t he near est
oper an ds a s 4 + 2 = 5, pr ovid ing one of the tw o oper ands
scoped by the su btr action oper ation , yie ldi ng 10 - 5 = 5 .

You kn ow abo ut thi s if y ou ha ve e ver us ed a hand ca lcul ator ,


you f ind it tak es oper ands bef or e oper ator . T hu s, f or t ha t
"i ntended" pr ob lem , above, y ou w ould punc h the k eys f or the
oper an ds 10 , 3 , then punc h the subtr act ion k ey, to obtain 7.
because "10 - 3" = 7 . Ne xt, not punc hing the "c lea r" key, s o
tha t 7 i s st ill "on de ck", y ou punc h in the 2 k ey, and now
punc h the ad dit ion key ("+") , to see t he ans wer, 0, since 7 + 2
= 9.

Do you not ice tha t th is r ever ses wha t was perf or med abo ve i n
Pol is h not ati on?

You can no w under stand a f or ma li sm i n log ic wher ein th is


nota tion e xce ls . (It' s a v ar iant on a game adv er tiz ed i n
ma gaz ines for the Mens a Soc iet y of "ner ds ", an appela tion
they ma y accept.)

As noted in C ha pter Se venteen , standar d s ta tement log ic is t-


log ic, r estr icted to type . You kno w th is can be ea si l y lear ned
by ass ign ing alpa betic letter s to the oper ation s and oper ands
of t-l og ic, with cons tr aini ng r ule s for the " wf f" or wel l- for med
for mu la, co mpar able to the w ell -f or med s entence in a
uni ver sa l l angua ge.

You kn ow tha t st ate ment l ogi c concer ns on l y ass er ti ons


whic h, potentia ll y can be deter mined as tr ue or fal se ,

You kn ow tha t the combin ator s of t-l ogic ar e:

1. conjunct ion ( "and"),


2. di sj uncti on ("or") ,
3. condit ional ( "if _, then _) ,
4. bicond iti onal ("If _ and onl y i f _ "),
5. ne ga tion ("not _") .

You see tha t the fir st four ar e binar y , th at i s, oper ate on t wo


sim ple or compound ass er ti ons at a ti me , wher eas the fifth is
unar y , tha t is, oper ates on a s ing le simp le or compound
as ser tion at a ti me .

Contr ar y to Men sa' s mor e co mpl ica ted as signment of l etter s


for oper ator s, you a ss ign the vowel s , A, E, I, O, U, to denote
these oper ator s : "A" for "and" , "E " f or " equi val ence or
bicond iti onal ", "I" for "cond it ional " (" if") , "O " for "or" , and " U"
for "ne ga tion " ( "undoes") . You a ss ign con sonants as oper ands
of sim ple or noncompound pos it iv e sta tements , th at i s,
wi thout N EGA TI ON .

You kn ow you can use , for thi s, Pol is h pr ef ix not ation .

You kn ow you can be gin w ith the Con str aint s of th is


DEFI NITIO N:

• reading left to ri ght. T he s cope of oper ator is the a llo wed


number of oper ands fol lo wing it
• W hate ver i s denoted by a con sonant is a t- wf f
• W hate ver i s denoted by A , E , I, O , fol lo wed by tw o t- wf f 's ,
is a t- wf f
• W hate ver i s denoted by U follo wed b y a t-wf f is a t- wf f .

You real iz e th is mus t be cons tr ained a clo sur e r ule : Noth ing i s
a t-wf f unle ss it i s constr ained by r ul es 1-4.

You kn ow tha t the constr aining r ules g iv en for t-l ogic can be
eas il y demon str ated for modus ponent s (a .k.a . va li di ty of
as ser ting the pr ecedent ), the mos t famous of log ical pr oof
r ules .

You as si gn con sonants P, Q a s tw o oper and sta tements , tha t


is, dec lar ati ve sen tences constr ained b y st atu s as verif ia ble
as TRUE or FALS E . Pr oceed ing:
• "If P, then Q" denote s the cond itiona l , "If sta tement P i s
TR UE, then st ate ment Q is TR UE" . In Poli sh Pr efix
No ta tion, th is i s for mu la ted (wi th " I" for CO NDITI ON AL) :
IPQ
• "(If P, then Q) and P " denote s thi s cond itiona l as ser tion
conjuncted ("anded") w ith the st atement tha t P is
ver ifued a s TR UE ; or AIP QP
• "If ((If P, then Q) and P) , then Q " denote s th at the
pr emi se , "(If P, then Q) and P ", i mp li es its consequent ,
"then Q" i s so ; or IAIP QP Q. You kno w an Exampl e of M P:
"If i t is rain ing , then the st reets ar e w et ; it i s raini ng;
then the st reets ar e wet"

. You kno w tha t T he s tandar d w ay of PR OOF is to CH EC K


on pa per , whic h in vol ves U NDE RLINI NG the t-WFFS ,
spac ing the ter ms , for con ven ience.

Pr oceeding :

o IAIP QPR Þ I A I P Q P Q (b y R ULE 2 on CON SO NANT S)


o IAIP QPR Þ I A I P Q P Q Þ I A I P Q P Q (b y RULE 3 ON I)
o IAIP QPR Þ I A I P Q P Q Þ I A I P Q P Q Þ I A I P Q P Q (b y
RULE 3 on A)
o IAIP QPR Þ I A I P Q P Q Þ I A I P Q P Q Þ I A I P Q P Q Þ
IAIP QP Q (b y RULE 3 on I)
o ence, IAIP QP Q = IAI PQ PQ .

QE D,

On pa per , y ou kno w y ou can o mi t the cha in of st eps abo ve


by UNDE RLINI NG an UND ERLI NE , but you can't eas il y
sho w tha t by the computer .

T he above log ic appea rs a ls o i n Cha pter Se venteen,


"W ha t is t-ma th? o -ma th? ", to sho w ho w the above t-m ath
(r ecogniz ing onl y type , not or der ) can be extended to an
o-m ath al lo wi ng mu lt ip le tok en s of a s pecif ic ty pe .
t-logicnumers
CHA PT ER NI NE : WH Y IS PH YSIC S C ORRI GIBLE AND
MA THEMA TICS IN CO RRI GIBLE ?
You Web-l ear n tha t, in "T he W or ld of M athema tic s" , edi ted by
Jame s R. New man, the Austr alian phi lo sopher . Douglas
Ga sk ing, ha s an es sa y st ating in the dec lar ati ve wha tt is
st ated in the in ter roga ti ve in the above ti tl e.

You real iz e G as king meant tha t, if phy sic s does not a g ree
wi th r ea li ty, phy sic s is cor rected. Bu t, if mathema tic s does
not a g ree wi th real ity , one ma the ma tical for mal is m is
exchanged for another one.

You can under stand a s imp le e xamp le of thi s in " T he Cas e


W her ein T he A ver age I s Be lo w Aver age" . In a s ma ll subof fice
of thr ee e mpl oyees , it is found t ha t "the aver age" sa lar y is
$25,000 per year, but th at tw o of the thr ee e mpl oyees ear n
belo w thi s aver age ea ch y ear of the ir emp lo yment ther e. T he
"head" recei ves a sa lar y of $ 40 ,000 per year . T he typ ist
recei ves $ 20 ,000 per year . T he reception is t r ece iv es $15 ,000
per y ear . T he year l y s al ar y tota l is $ (40 ,000 + 20,000 +
15,000) = $75,000 . T he aver age (ar ithmet ic mean) y ea r ly
sa lar y is $ 75 ,000/3 = $25 ,000 , whic h p lace s t wo of the
empl oyee s under the aver age. You real iz e the s eem ing
par ad ox is tha t, wher eas "a ver a ge" sh ould be r epr esenta tiv e
of the st atis ti cal uni ver se in vol ved, the ari thmet ic m ean is
not r obu st under e xtr eme s of va lue , s o ma y not be
repr esent iv e.You real iz e t he repr esenta tiv e aver age i n thi s
in stance is the medi an , whic h, her ein , i s $20,000 , plac ing one
empl oyee above aver age and one be lo w, a r epr esenta tiv e
resu lt .

You real iz e th at the ma thema tic s of the a rith metic mean is


not cor rected by r ejecti ng its use . Ra ther one ma the ma tics
for ma li sm is exchanged f or another . (So mathem atucs
remain s in cor ri gib le .)
You can under stand tha t the reason so man y people thi nk th at
the ar ith metic mean is "the aver age" is th at, a s the
st atis ti cal uni ver se in cr ease s in size, al l other a ver ages --
mode, med ian , geome tric mean , etc. -- appr oac hes the
ari thmet ic m ean in v al ue.

You web-l ear n of a s ta ti st ica l pr oblem in the book. Fact s Into


Figur es , by F. J . Mor one y, a Br it is h co mmunic ati on eng ineer .
Mor oney st ated the fol lo wi ng pr ob lem, w hic h hundr eds h ave
so lv ed incor rectl y over t he year s.

• A fl ier in a "pr op" plane is fl yi ng a sq uar e cour se , 100


mi le s on a size.
• He flie s the f ir st 100 -m ile cour se , W -E, at an a ver age
speed of 100 mph .
• He flie s the s econd 100 -mil e cour se, N-S , at an aver age
speed of 200 m ph.
• He flie s the t hir d 100 -mil e cour se, E- W, at an a ver age
speed of 300 m ph. He f li es the four th (fina l) 100 -m ile
cour se, S -N , a t an aver age speed of 400 m ph, to comple te
the s quar e-cou rse.
• Pr oble m: WHAT IS TH E AVERA GE SPE ED FO R TH E E NT IRE
SQ UARE -C OU RS E?

You see tha t sol ution of th is pr oblem requir es onl y A DDI TIO N,
SU BT RA CTI ON , MUL TIPLI CA TIO N, DIVISI ON , all s ubj ects
in tr oduce d by FIFT H G RAD E s tud ies !

You kn ow tha t the typ ica l r espon se pr oceed s a s fol lo ws .


T hinking it is an ar ith metic mean pr oblen , the for mul ati on
unf old s:

PHY SICIST 'S SOL UTI ON B Y AVERA GE SPE ED MET HO D

• Aver age speed is T OTAL D IST AN CE TRQVER SED DI VIDE D


BY T OTAL TI ME I N TR AVE RSIN G.
• W hat i s TOTAL DIS TANC E TRA VER SED . F or a s quar e, 100
mi le s on a side , or 400 MILE S.
• W hat i s TOTAL TIME IN T RA VERSI NG ? F ind t im e f or eac h
side -cour se fr om i ts aver age s peed .
• Fir st 100 -mil e cour se, W-E , is tr aver sed at 100 m ph,
hence, ti me is 1 H OUR.
• Second 100 -m ile cour se , N -S, is tr aver sed a t 200 mph --
tw ice a s fas t f or s ame dis tance, so tak es ha lf the time of
the f ir st cour se: so , t im e i s 1/2 HOUR .
• T hir d 100 -m ile cour se , E -W , i s tr aver sed at 300 m ph - -
thri ce a s fas t f or s ame dis tance, so tak es one -thir d the
ti me of the f ir st cour se: so, t im e i s 1/3 H R.
• Four th (and f inal) 100 -m ile cour se , S -N , is tr aver sed a t
400 mph -- four ti mes a s fas t for sa me d is tance, so t ak es
one-f our th the ti me of the fir st cou rse: hence, time is 1/4
HR .
• TOTAL TIME : (1 + 1/2 + 1 /3 + 1/4) H R.
• Least com mon denom iana tor of the se fr actions i s 12 , so
we ha ve: (12/12 + 6 /12 + 4/12 + 3 /12) HR = (25/12) H R.
• AVERA GE SPE ED FO R 400 -MILE CO URS E IS TOTAL TIM E I N
TR AVE RSIN G DI VIDED BY TIME IN TRA VERSI NG : (400
MI)/(25/12 H R) = [(400 )(12)]/25 M PH = (4800/25) MP H = 192
MP H.

You kn ow tha t, since the cor rect ans wer is 192 MPH , the
RELA TIVE ER ROR com mi tted i s (250 - 192)/192% -
(58/192)% , a lit tle over 30% r ela tiv e er ror.

STATISTI CIAN 'S SOL UTI ON B Y "A NO TH ER AVERA GE "

You kno w ther e is an aver age tha t yield s the co r rect


ans wer "r ight on the no se". It is T HE H AR MO NI C M EA N,
denoted h.

You kn ow the ea si es t comput ati on of a har mon mean is is


to us e the Bypa ss of computing the recipr oca ls of the
number s ( in ver se s! ), and tr ansf or ms th is to a rith metic
mean of recipr oca ls , then tr an sf or ming the ans wer
obtained in to i ts revi pr ocal (in ver se) as the har monic
mean an swer.
1/h , as ari thmet ic m ean of the aver age speed s , 100 , 200 ,
300 , 400 →1/100 , 1/200, 1/300 , 1/400 , who se leas t
common denomin ator is in the fr action 1/2000

T hen you h ave:

1/h = (1/4) (1/100 + 1/200 + 1/300 + 1/400) =


(1/4) (12/1200 + 6/1200 + 4/1200 + 3/1200) =
(1/4) (25/1200) = 25/4800 = 1/h.

T hen ,

h = 4800/25 mph = 192 mph.

You kn ow thi s sho ws tha t the har mon ic m ean is the


aver age f or R ATE S .

So you kno w thi s i s another ca se of real iz ing an er ror in


sti sti cal "a ver age" (e xposed by the phy si ci st 's Aver age
Speed pr ocedur e), but not chang ing the math, mer el y
exchanging for a d if fer ent mathema tica l for ma li sm.

But y ou kno w th is is usua ll y not taught i n our s choo ls o r


re gular col le ge cla ss es ; and isi al l y doe s not a ppear on
standar di zed tes t.

You can under stand th at t he aver age whic h often be st


repr sent s in cr ease or decr ea se i n economic va lue s (land ,
st. ). You Web-lea r n th at t he ea sie st way to compute a
geomet ic mean i s to u se the B ypas s of tr an sf or ming the
number s i nto thei r l ogar ithm s (in ver ses !) , so lv e by
ar ithme tic mean method , then tak e ant il og (in ver se) of
the ans wer as the geometr ic m ean.

You kn ow tha t the phy si cs of quantu m theor y is. in


seem img par ado x, t he sci ence tha t s eem s mos t to
conf ound "co mmon s en se" , yet has had s ucces se s
inco mpar able in h is tor y, with meas ur ements pr ed icted
wi th accur ac y inompar able in h is tor y. You also kno w i t
ha s been commented by s ome phy sic is ts th at these
ac hie vements r esul ted fr om ig noring "comon se nse " and
mak ing theor y fit e xper iment. (Ph ysi cs i s co r rig ib le!) You
als o r ead onl ine t ha t quantum t heor y gained , ear ly, a
signif icant number of adher ents -- whi ch cont inued to
incr ea se w ith fur ther find ings - - because of good
exp er iment s based upon the sp ectr oscop y whi ch had
been ma tur ing for decades bef or e "quantu m" was
ment ioned. T he real it y of con sensu s tha t the
experi menta tion w as "s ound", y et s eemed to contr ad ict
so muc h of "Cla ssi cal Ph ys ics ", w as too mu ch to ig nor e.
T his e verw hem ing l y s ho wed phy sics t o be cor r ug ible . At
the sa me tine , as sho wn in W ikiped ia, " the m athem atic s
of quantun mec han ics ", m any pr imar y ma the ma tical too ls
of Cla ss ica l Phy sic s wer e "secondaried " b y ma thema tics
(suc h as matr ix t heor y) pr evi ous l y unkno wn to pr acti si ng
ph ys ic is ts of man y year s of experience .

Im fact, ther e is no con sens us on inte r pr eta ti ons of


quantum t heor y, except the lim ited one th at "Q uantum
Mec han ics is an algor ith m th at pr edict s exper imenta l
mea sur ement wi th g rea t accur ac y."

You kno w th at the dif fer ence her e is Topolog ical : math
and g rammar mus t, eac h, be con str ained by i nner
con si sten cy s o one for mal is m ma y face r evi si on b y being
ran ked b y another f or ma li sm , yet rema in as a constr aint
(wi thin the Boundar y) . But sc ience mus t be con str ained
by an exter nal cons is tenc y, s ubj ect to "r evi si on b y
excis ion" .

You kno w th at tea cher s mi ght get some good wor k fr om


thei r s tudent s by ha vi ng the m s ee if the a bo ve these s
need any cor recti on or emenda tion , other wi se expli ca ting
th is per specti ve muc h, m uc h mor e. You al so kno w th at
thi s appl ies to wr iter s of books . Good thi nking and
writ ing !
CH AP TER TEN : WH AT IS ST RA TE GY ? WH AT AR E TACTICS ?
You real iz e th at, cur rent l y. you find no u seful def init ion of
these ter ms , nor , appar entl y, any in ter es t i n these ter ms .

You kn ow tha t, onlIne , the Webs ter' s Ne w U na bridged


Di cti onar y defin it ion of "s tr ate gy" as " gener als hip ",
sug ge sti ng th at on l y a gener al can kno w it s m eaning , and
tha t the rest of u s, inc lud ing admir als , ar e not s upposed to
kn ow it s mean ing.

You weblear n the s imil ari ty of "s tr ate gy" to the L atin ter
"s tr atu s" (f or "g round") sug gest s the def ini tion for mi lit ari st s,
"Str ate gy is m eeting the enemy on g round s of one 's
choos ing ", and the defin it ion for nonmi li tar is ts , "Str ate gy is
deal ing w ith a pr oblem under condit ions of one 's
competenc y."

You WE B-l ear n tha t an e xce llen t i ns tance of s uc h mil itar y


ST RA TE GY is to be seen in the g rea t 1938 fi lm , "A le xander
Ne vsk y" , dir ected by the bri lli ant Ser gei Ei sen ste in (1898-
1948), wi th an resound ing m us ica l s cor e by the g rea t
compose r, Ser gei Pr ok ofief (1891-1953) .

On A pr il 5 , 1242, Gr and Pr ince of N ovgor od and V lada mi r


(1220? -1253) le d h is f oot s ol dier s onto the ice of the Lak e
Peipu s, kno wing tha t (on the g round of his c hoos ing), his
enemie s, the i nvading mounted kn ight s of the L iv on ian br anc h
of Teu tonic Kn ight s, w er e mor e he avil y ar mor ed . M any
cr ac ked thr ough the ice and w er e dr owned , l ea vi ng a smal le r
for ce his l es ser f or ce could cha llenge . T he resu lt was a g rea t
victor y. (And w ha t a Bypa ss !)

You real iz e th at, w hen a teac her does not mot iv ate a student
to l ear n a K no wable in a way favor ing her /hi s experience , the
teac her is, unintent iona ll y, den ying Str ate gy to the s tudent .

You lear n, fr om other act ions cited i n thi s book , the mean ing
of a WIN -WI N ST RA TE GY. If other s ag ree, you WI N. B ut i f
so me one sug ge sts a cor rect ion or emenda tion , you WI N al so ,
because your pur pose is T O LEA RN .

You kn ow, then , tha t, gi ven th is , y ou can connect to w ha t i s


perha ps the g rea te st epi ste mic st rate gy , the one th at t he
Canad ian mathema tic ian, Z . A. Mel zak, taught us i n hi s book,
By pas s, A Si mp le Appr oac h to Comp le xit y , intr oduced in
Cha p. F our teen . B RIEFL Y, T o so lv e a gi ven pr ob lem :

• you b ypa ss i t
• by tr an sf or ming it i nto a s imi lar pr ob lem whic h you kno w
ho w to so lv e;
• so lv e the tr ans for med pr oblem ;
• TH EN tr an sf or m the ans wer bac k i nto ter ms su ita ble f or
the or ig inal pr ob lem.

T his i s so simpl e i t can be eas il y dia g rammed :

bypass difficult/intractable problem


--------------------------->
transform| ^transform
into a| |answer into
tractable| |form of original
problem V-------------------------->problem
solve tractable problem
You kn ow tha t Cha p. 14 conta ins a lis t of BYFR AMS (dia g ram s
of Bypa ss es) , sk owing ho w f ami li ar thi s is i n ma the ma tics ,
sc ience , eng ineering , and da il y lif e.

You kn ow tha t you lear n ther e t ha t bypa ss ing i s not tr ivi aal .
T ha t, as noted by Me lz ak, it is, under the la be l " conjugac y" ,
the pr imar y al gori thm f or s ol ving pr oble ms i n quantum t heor y ,
lead ing t o the tr ans isto r, the la se r, and other device s.

You kn ow of Mel zak' s sp ecul ation tha t " Ho min id became


human b y in ter nal iz ing bypa ss" .

You real iz e y ou can connect ST RA TE GY with the concept of


AL GO RIT HM in m athem ati cs , whi ch act iv ate s ma the ma tics ,
and, on the other hand, to wi th the concept of PR OS TH ESIS ,
whic h all human s need in s ome for m or another . (C ivi liz ation
is the pri mar y pr ostheti c of humanit y. T he dolph in ada pt s so
wel l to i ts en vir onment tha t it ha s no need of su ch a
pr osthet ic .)

You real iz e the se connection s can be d ia g rammed :

STRATEGY
/\
/ \
/ \
/ \
ALGORITHM/________\PROSTHESIS
You real iz e th is evok es an agenda for resear ch: examine the
ri ch ma the ma tical stor e of Al gori thm s (W ikiped ia exten si vel y
list s algor ith ms) to see if an y A lgo rit m s ug ges ts a Str ate gy or
Pr os thetc; examine Str ate gies to se e i f one sug ge sts a
Pr os thetic . You real iz e th is yie lds not onl y car e for the
Di sa bled but als o oppor tun iti es to contri bute to Civi liz ation.
CH AP TER EL EVE N: T HE " EPIST EMO LOGY-GA ME " (W HA T ARE
CONC RETI ON S? AB STRA CTIO NS ? ILLA TIO NS ?)
YoU kno w t ha t Cha p. F our explic ated M etalangua ge w ith thr ee
Subs yste ms : On tolog y, Ep is temo log y, and Ax iol og y.

You kn ow tha t thr ee i mpor tant s ubs yst ems of Epi ste molog y
(s tudy of wha t one can kno w) ar e Concr et ions , Ab str act ions ,
and Ill ati ons .

You kn ow tha t Concr et ions ar e wha t w e obser ve, suc h as a


bear .

Tou kno w tha t A bs tr action s ar e col lect ions of concr etions , as


in the spec ie of bear . Ab str act ions can thus tr an sf or m into
concr etion s. P eir ce, founder of Sem ioti cs (Cha p. T hr e)
for mu la ted the ter m "il lation" fr om L atin wor d for "i nf er" .
T hu s, fr om the Concr etion s of a bear and it s tr ac ks. O n one
occas ion, y ou kno w tha t, mer el y confr onted wi th tr ac ks i n the
mud. So you can i nf er tha t a bear m ade the se tr ac ks . If a bear
appe ar s, you kn ow you can cla im tha t th is bear made the
pr evi ous l y ob ser ved rac ks .

T hu s, y ou kno w peop le be lie ve, fr om s uc h experience s, th at


an I ll ation can become a Concr et ion. Bu t y ou kno w tha t, in
gener al, th is not po ss ib le , becau se t he alle ged C oncr etion is
too s ma ll for obser va tion or too d is tant in ti me .

SE QU EN CE -PAR ALLEL LE AR NIN G OF CONC RETI ON S


(In se ri es connected l ights , if one goe s out, all go out; not so
in par al lel . If one of le ar n-s equence i s unkn own, ma y su pr es s
other s in sequence; ma ybe not in par alle l. )

Concretion MEANS house


⇓ ⇓ ⇓
Concretion MEANS rabbit
⇓ ⇓ ⇓
Concretion MEANS automobile
⇓ ⇓ ⇓
Concretion MEANS little girl
⇓ ⇓ ⇓
Concretion MEANS tall building
SE QU EN CE -PAR ALLEL LE AR NIN G AB STRA CTI ON S

Abstraction MEANS color


⇓ ⇓ ⇓
Abstraction MEANS gender
⇓ ⇓ ⇓
Abstraction MEANS ethnicity
⇓ ⇓ ⇓
Abstraction MEANS legality
⇓ ⇓ ⇓
Abstraction MEANS flavor
SEQ UE NC E- PARALLEL LEA RNI NG O F ILLA TIO NS

Illation MEANS ancestor


⇓ ⇓ ⇓
Illation MEANS Mammoth
⇓ ⇓ ⇓
Illation MEANS exoplanet
⇓ ⇓ ⇓
Illation MEANS gravity
⇓ ⇓ ⇓
Illation MEANS yesterday
T his S cide bate become s a k ind of "Ep is temo log y Ga me" . Does
thi s sci entif ic clai m " scor e as a Kno wn" ? Doe s tha t cla im ?

Sci enti st s ha ve the ir way of "k eep ing scor e" in th is


"Ep is temo log y Ga me" . T hey peer review pa per s. And tr y t o
dupl ica te an e xper iment tha t a s ci enti st per for med and
publ is hed h is d ata and resu lt s. If other s ac hie ve s imi lar
resu lt s, a con sesu s be gins to de velop among sc ient is ts of
tha t par tici lar science .

But thi s a li ena tes non sci enti st s (puts the m out si de a
Boundar y), whi ch ma y explai n the accepted pub lic ig nor an ce
of sc ience and te chnolog y tha t C ar l Sa gan deplor ed in the
quota tion c ited in Cha pter One .

T his i s why you kn ow tha t the onl y pr esentl y kn own By pas s of


thi s Ali ena tion is (as noted in the Methodolog ies of C ha pter
One) As serbi lit y Measu ring of hypothes is-
confir med/di sconf ir med - - pr ed iction s . T his i s eas y to
under stand and is ca lcul ated on li ne by a chil d- friendl y
computer [Goog le(a ss er calc+jonha ys )].

As serbi lit y uniquel y gi ves a nonsc ient is t one ad vanta ge over


a s ci enti st i n thi s "Ep is temo log y Ga me" . Scien ti st s sa y the y
use Log ic in t heir rea soning s. N oth ing wr ong wi th u si ng Log ic
for it s two a chie vements : Logic cannot l os e an y tr uth put into
it ; and Log ic sho ws th at kn owing one Kno wable s ome ti mes
sho ws you kno w another impl ied by the for mer . Bu t Log ic i s
Con str ained ne ver to "go bac kw ar ds" (and a s Kie r ke gaar d
sa ys, "Li fe can onl y be under stood bac kw ar ds" and B el lman
sho ws opti mal it y is attained by ad jus ting a pr eviou s st age to
a l ate r one .

But Logic cannot do tha t: lo se in the sco ring of tr uth ta bles .


T his m eans tha t Log ic i s kn own to be monotonic : to remain
the s ame in t r uth ta ble va lue or i ncr ea se i n va lue, but ne ver
to decr ea se i n tr uth value .

Ho wever, bef or e discu ssi ng the monotonic it y of Log ic - - w hic h


is in compa tibl e w ith the pur pose s of sc ience and of l ife --
le t's con si der o ther l imi ta tion s.

T he tr uth ta ble s of logic mer ge a ll t r uth s in one c las s,


equi val ent and in terhc hangea ble; hence, all v al id it ies ar e
equi val ent and in ter change able ; hence, syn tactic (not
se mantic , pr agma ti c). equi va lent to s ay ing, "If i t is r aining ,
then i t is raining ."

T he bes t Log ical method of pr oof , modu s ponens (La tin: mode
of af fir ming -- a.k .a. l aw of detac hment, ass er ti on of
pr ecedent, af fi r ma tion of antecedent) ha s t he for m: ((P ->Q) &
P) - > Q. It is, by t r uth ta bles , equ iva lent to P&Q - > Q. In
gener al, equ iva lent to (S1&S2&. .. &Sn)-> Sn .

And it i s a ls o tri via ll y equi val ent to wr it ing (2 2 - 1) in binar y


numer ation to yield al l all one s on la st l ine; hence, and-i ng
wi th th is yie lds a one to ag ree wi th one s in la st ter m: pr oof .
Her e's a compari son to monotonic it y of Log ic: ne ver being
able to l os e - - a not ion s ci ence adopt s wi th Log ic.

Ima gine the S toc k Ex change if st oc ks could "ne ver go do wn".


T he "Bear s" of the Mar ket buy up "f all ing st oc k" , ther eby
maki ng po ss ib le, l ater, for the " Bul ls" to set up a "r al l y of
buy ing" . T his i s as ess entia l to a ma r ket - - and to a sci ence --
as the food-c hain is in t he En vi ronment.

Sci ence is not monoton ic . You do not hear sc ient is ts s ayi ng i t


is. But , if remi nded, they w ould ha ve to ag ree t ha t the Log ic
they u se is monoton ic.

Becau se the "r evolution s" of R ela ti vi ty and Qu antum T heor y


and Par tic le T heor y r ele ga ted n ineteenth centur y phy sics t o
ver y constr ained "Cl as si c" ranks : "belo w the s peed of light ",
or " suf fic ientl y abo ve the quantal le vel ". T his in ter re gnum
in vok ed the g rea te st tec hno logica l c hanges in h is tor y and the
mos t succe ss ful pr edict ion s and nos t accuur ate calcu la tion s
in his tor y . T ha t's K no wable!

T he "team of Log ic and Ass erbi lit y" cor rectl y des cribe
sc ient ific change , w hil e putt ing nonsc ienti st s in " the s tand s"
to w atc h sc ient is ts p lay t heir par t in " the Ep is temo log y
Ga me".

We a ll m us t M AK E D ECI SIO NS -- ever y da y. Some mor e t han


other s. In Bu si nes s, in pr ofi t or nonpr ofit mana gement , i n T he
Mi litar y, a s par ents , etc.

W hen undecided , human s seek GUI DANC E i n MA KIN G


DE CISIO NS . T he mo st fr equent mode , perha ps, is pr ayer.
Si nce the 18th centur y, m athem ati cian s ha ve gi ven s ome
thought to th is pr ob lem .

One su ch guide was by, not PR OBABILIY , but "e xpecta tion".
Expla ined as follo ws. Suppose in a "f air lo tter y", 1000 t ic ket s
ar e sol d. Fair ne ss i mp li es th at eac h t ic ket ha s 1/1000 th
pr ob abil it y of be ing the wi nning ti cket . Suppo se t he Pri ze is
$500 . T hen the expecta tion equa ls v al ue t ime s pr oba bil it y , or
$500/1000 = 50 cent s. (T o accr ue an y mone y, the ti cket pr ice
mus t be g reater than th at expecta tion ).

Histor ic examp le: the famed phi lo sopher , Volta ir e (1694-


1778), di sco ver ed a to wn l otter y gi ving muc h mor e p ri ze
money than tota l co st of t ic ket s. B or rowing fr om fr iend s,
Volta ir e bought al l the t ic ket s and c lai med the Pr iz e.
In ves ting it s hr ew dl y, he was "fi xed for lif e", and cou ld de vote
hi s ti me to ph il osoph y and w rit ing .)

No t pr oba bi li ty , but exp ecta tion as a deci si on-gu ide can be


usefu l in case s sim ilar to the fol lo wing .

T he pr ob abil it y of a fir e in your neighborhood may be ver y


sm al l. But , if it occur red , the COS T to you could be V ER Y
GR EAT. N ot onl y pr oper ty, but y our "dear one s". S ince the
ne ga tiv e e xpecta tion of not en suri ng a gain st fir e is so muc h
extr eme than the C OS T OF A PREMI UM, E NS UR IN G is the best
decus ion.

Ho wever, the g rea t Sw is s mathema tic ian, D anie l Ber nou ll i


(1700-82), disco ver ed a " par ado x" about expecta tion .
Con side r a game in whi ch one is of fer ed tw o cho ices :

• Toss a " fai r co in" (head on one side , tai l on another) , to


recei ve $1 for eac h H EA D resu lt , but ga me end s w ith a
TAIL r esul t.
• T he other c hoice is an outrigh t s um of mone y, s ay,
$50,000 .

W hat' s the par ado x? Well , RA ND OMN ESS DOE S N OT R ULE OUT
AN "E NDLE SS" RUN OF H EA DS . So , TH E EX PEC TATI ON O F TH E
GA ME IS INFI NITE . Ho wever, v as tl y mor e people ask ed wou ld
tak e the second cho ice. Dec idi ng again st the g rea te r
exp ecta tion .

T his s et of f ma the ma tician s and econom is ts , since th at t im e,


to war d con sider ation of other GUI DES . Many econom is ts ha ve
won Nobe l Pr iz es in E conomic s for wr it ing on thi s pr ob lem.
For example , He rber t S im on ( Nobel is t, 1978), s ug ges ted
"s atis fic ing" your deci sions . T hus , a y oung woman ma y not
continue to look for the " Pr ince C har ming of her dr eam s" , but
mar r y the " bes t" of her cu r rent sui tor s. (She satisfi ce on
"w ha t's out ther e". ) S im ilar l y, an potent ia l in vestor with a
"nes t e gg" m ay not continue to look for the "c hance of a
lif eti me", but sa ti sf ice on the "be st " of t he cur rent of fering s.

Of al l the DE CISIO N- GUI DES so far, onl y EX PE CT ATIO N use s


an ar ithme tica l m easur e (PR OBABILITY) to RA NG E OVE R T HE
PO SSIBILITIE S.

You now lear n another su ch one -- AS SER BILITY -- whi ch


RELA TES TO L OGIC AL A SSE RTI ON S TH E WAY P ROB AB ILITY
rel atES TO E VE NT S. And , lik e P ROBABILITY , A SSE RBILITY is A
ME ASU RE FO R DE CISIO NM AKI NG U NDE R CO NDITI ON S O F
UNC ER TANT Y! T ha t is, two per sons , gi ven t he same da ta and
pr oceeding cor rect l y, wi ll AR RIV E A T T HE S AME
CO NCL USIO N! (W e can pr ove thi s by A UT OMA TI NG T HE
PR OCE DU RE , a s a C OMP UTE R P ROG RA M or a CA LCULA TOR
PR OCE DU RE .)

Giv en th is , y ou ma y so meti mes be le ss BE DE VILED BY


DE CISIO NS .

From the verb "a mpl ify " deri ves the su bs tanti ve, "a mpl ia ti ve",
jar gon i n the ph ilo soph ical theor y of log ic .

· "A mpl ia ti ve" : A gi ven rea soning pr oces s can i ncr ease the
kn owledge a lr eady po sse ssed .
· But thi s i s be lie ved to be i mpo ssi ble in STAND AR D LOGI C ,
whic h REVE ALS "O NLY W HAT IS THE RE" . STAN DARD L OGIC is
al so MO NO TONI C - - R EM AINI NG T HE SAME OR IN CRE ASI NG
ONLY WHE N NE W TR UTH S AR E A DJ OIN ED -- fr om outs ide .
ONLY A NONM ONO TON IC ME ASU RE WHIC H IN CRE ASE S A ND
DE CRE ASE S C AN GUID E U S IN DECISI ON S. Log ician s sa y tha t
su ch a COR RE CTIVE is i mpo ss ible .
Ho wever, CIVILIZA TI ON D ERI VES FR OM AT LE AST TW O
AM PLIA TIVE PR OCE SSES :

• TR ADI NG B ETW EEN H UMA NS STARTED TO " SH OW A


PR OFI T". T he C AL VINIST outmanue ver ing of TH E ROM AN
CA THO LIC BAN O N "U SU RY" ACC UM ULA TE D OUR
PR ESE NT EC ON OMIC SO CIE TY.
• CR UDE PREH IST ORIC DE VICE S P ROG RE SSE D I NT O
ME CH ANI CS . By defin it ion, A MA CHI NE is a PROCE SS
WH OSE OUT PU T MA GN IFIES OR AMPLIFIES ITS INPU T.
Examp les :

o A LEV ER TR ADE S-O FF LEN GT H FOR LOAD : Pl ace the


FU LCRUM (balancer) of the LE VER so PART ON
FOR CE- AR M i s TH RE E TIM ES TH E LEN GT H ON LOAD-
AR M, and you can RAI SE TH REE TIM ES AS MU CH FO R
A GI VE N F OR CE. A LE VER IS AM PLIA TIVE .
o A PU LLEY TR AD ES- OFF ROP E- LEN GT H FOR LOAD : A
PU LLEY SY STEM WI TH TH RE E ROP E-L EN GT HS ACTIN G
ON TH E LOAD RAISE S T HR EE TIME S T HE LOAD F OR
GI VEN F OR CE. A PULLE Y IS AMPLIA TIVE .
o So ar e other MA CHIN ES : w hee l-and -axle , inc lined
plane , scr ew, etc.
o So al so ELEC TRI NES : computer s, radios , TV s et s,
ta pe and C D pla yer s, etc. .

AM PLIA TIO N in our DE CISIO N- MA KI NG C AN U SHE R US I NT O A


WILD CA T REV OL UTIO N!

W hat can Logic do?

Her e ar e t wo INV OL UABLE PU RP OS ES of Standar d Log ic

• Logic pr ovides a for m -- T HE C ONDI TIO NAL A SSE RTI ON - -


tha t extends and "d ynam izes " the f or ma li sm . T hi s is the
for m "if A , then B" ( sy mbo li zed A → B) wher e A, B ar e
dif fer ent A SS ER TIO NS . T ha t is, "if A, then B" s ay s " IF
YOU KNOW O NE TH IN G , T HE N YOU KNOW AN OTHE R" .
• Logic pr ovides a TAUT OL OGY, "modu s ponen s" (MP) --
us ing a C ONDI TIO NAL A SS ER TI ON - - tha t PR OVE S T RUT H
WH EN P RE SEN T. It i s of the for m: "If A, then B; & A is
TR UE. T hen B i s T RUE ."

Using → for the CO ND ITIO NAL OP ERA TOR and & f or


CO NJU NC TIO N, M P can be s ymbo li zed thu s:

((A → B) & A) → B.
T he tautolog ica l n atur e of M P can be ea si l y DEM ON ST RA TE D
in two d if fer ent ways .

• By IN DICA TOR or TR UT H TAB LES :

o WFir st , wr ite COL UM NS for al l PO SSI BLE TR UT H


SU BT AB LES of ASSE RTI ON S A, B, EN CO DI NG T RUE AS
"1" , FALS E A S "0" :
A B
0 0
0 1
1 0
1 1
o A CO NDITI ON AL AS SE RTIO N (s uc h a s A → B is
CO NSIDE RED FALSE ONLY WHE N PR ECE DE NT (her e,
A) IS T RUE and CO NSE QU EN T (her e, B) IS FAL SE --
thir d ROW in abo ve T able. A C ONJ UN CTI ON - - s uc h as
(A → B) & A -- IS TR UE ONLY WH EN BO TH CON JU NC TS
AR E T RUE , four th ROW in T able. So we can compl ete
the S ubta bles f or M P, r epea ting thos e co lumn s a bo ve:
A B A→B (A → B) & A ((A → B) & A) → B

0 0 1 0 1

0 1 1 0 1

1 0 0 1 1

1 1 1 1 1
o T he total it y of " 1's " in the la st SUB TABLE reveal s the
TAUT OL OG IC AL na tur e of M P: IT CA NNO T B E
FALSIFIE D.
o T he second way to pr ove M P u ses t hese CL UES : A → B
is EQ UIV AL EN T T O "B INCL UDES A" ; and s ayi ng " A is
TR UE" is EQU IV AL EN T T O "A IS NO T EM PTY, a s
FALSIT Y WOU LD BE ". If y ou dr aw a CIR CLE (or
rectang le) f or " A" , putti ng it in si de t he CIR CLE
(r ectan gle) for "B" , then a point (or as teri sk) in
CIR CLE (r ectang le) A is NE CE SSA RIL Y i n CIR CL E
(r ectan gle) B -- a s sim ple and ob viou s as tha t.
o
_________________________________________________B
o |
|
o |
|
o |
__________________________________A |
o | |
| |
o | |
| |
o | | *
| |
o | |
________________________________| |
o |
|
|
_______________________________________________|

WA RNI NG ! T he f or m ((A → B ) & A) → B us es the


CO NDITI ON AL OP ER ATOR ( → )
tw ice, but in TWO D IFFFERE NT WAYS, whi ch is
IMPLIED BY WH AT IS P LA CE D
PAREN TH ETIC ALL Y and WHA T IS NO T. T he par t ((A →
B) & A) s ay s (A → B)
IS T RUE , and a ls o A SS ER TIO N A IS T RUE . SO, TH ESE
TW O TRUTH S IMPL Y TRUTH -HOO D
OF ASSE RTI ON B.
An yone who has s tud ied the for m of a S YLL OGI SM
can under stand the above, b y homo log y. Tak e the
Pr otoT ype of Syl logi sm s: "A ll men ar e mor ta l.
Socr ate s i s a m an. T her ef or e, S ocr ates i s m or ta l. "
T he fir st tw o AS SE RTI ON S ar e PR EMISES of the
SYL LOGISM . T he thir d AS SE RTIO N is the
CO NCL USIO N of the S YLL OG ISM . T hi s i s s ome ti mes
sho wn by the fol lo wi ng f or m:

All men are mortal.


Socrates is a man.
__________________
Socrates is mortal.

No te ho w th is rese mble s, s ay, a SU M:

3
2
_
5

T hen you can put M P in a s imil ar for m:

A → B
A
______
B

T ha t i s, the PR EMISE S ar e A → B and A; the


CO NCL USIO N is B. (T hi s is cr it ica l i n wha t fol lo ws .)

Rest ated , M P i s of the for m: "If A, then B; & A is


TR UE. T hen B i s T RUE ." U sing → f or T HE
CO NDITI ON AL OP ER ATOR, & for CON JU NC TIO N
OP ERA TOR , then MP can be sym bol iz ed thu s:

((A → B) & A) → B.
No w, M P P ROVI DES THE FO RMA T F OR FAC (FALLA CY
OF ASSE RTI NG THE CON SE QU EN T) , fr om whic h
deri ves A SSE RBILITY .

In per spect iv e, MP sh ould be ca ll ed " Tautolog y of


As ser ting T he Pr ecedent" . For, gi ven the
CO NDITI ON AL STATE MEN T, (A → B) , MP then
CO NJU NC TS ("A ND S") t hi s CO NDITI ON AL wi th
AS SER TIO N A, DE CLARI NG T HAT A SS ER TIO N A IS
TR UE. B ut A SS SER TIO N A is the PR ECE DEN T ("par ty
of the fir st par t") of CO NDITI ON AL , (A → B) , so thi s is
AS SER TIO N OF THE PREC EDE NT, and lead s to a
TAUT OL OG Y. -- wi th A T RUT H-T AB LE C ONSI STIN G OF
ALL ONE S (f our ONES) , m eaning al l TR UES , a s se en
belo w:

A B A→B (A → B) & B ((A → B) & B) → A

0 0 1 0 1

0 1 1 1 1

0 0 0 0 1

1 1 1 1 1

A TAUT OL OGY. And TAUT OL OG IES "ar e not a bout


RE ALITY (outs ide ONT OL OG Y) but a bout LAN GU AGE
US AGE".

But su ppose WE INTER CHA NGE A ( CO NDI T I ON AL


PR ECE DEN T) w ith B ( CO NDI TIO NAL C ONS EQ UE NT,
"par ty of the second par t") in the res t of t he for m.
T hen , w e ha ve: ((A → B) & B) → A.

It i s sho wn belo w th at FAC has a TR UT H TAB LE (a.k .a.


IN DICA TOR TABL E) NOT OF F OU R ONE S (as wi th MP),
but T HR EE ONE S and a SIN GLE ZER O (f or "FAL SE") .
T hr ee "th ings ha ppen" her e:

 FAC fai ls (by the SIN GL E Z ER O) to be a


TAUT OL OG Y.
 T his FAIL UR E p luc ks FAC out L AN GU AGE and
gi ves i t RE ALITY potenti al . IT CA N BE FALSIFIED :
EX PEC TED EV EN TS CA N FAIL TO O CC UR.
 But the SIN GLE FAIL URE MINI MIZES TH E
DE VIA TIO N FR OM T AUTOLOGY -- whi ch giv es FAC
it s USEF ULN ESS and (as la ter sho wn) it s POWER
TO GEN ER ATE BO NUS ES) .

Her e is the TABL E f or F AC:

A B A→B (A → B) & B ((A → B) & B) → A


0 0 1 0 1
0 1 1 1 0
1 0 0 0 1
1 1 1 1 1

You note "0 " i n second Row of the LA ST C OL UM N O F


TH E TABLE . T his i s the " de vi ant" -- whi ch g iv es FAC
it s REALIT Y potent ial ; but it s SI NG UL ARIT Y
MINIMI ZES DE VIA TIO N FR OM T AUTOLOGY.

You note someth ing e ls e. T he th ir d C OL UMN ( TABLE)


above is THE SAME AS SEC ON D COL UM N (TABLE)
above. W hat doe s tha t mean ?

It m eans tha t (A → B) & B) i s TR UT H-E QU IV ALEN T T O


B. Hence , ((A → B) & B ) → A i s TR UT H-E QU IV ALEN T
TO THE CON DITI ONAL sta tement, B → A ! T ha t i s, W E
AR E G IV EN THE INFO RMA TI ON O F TH E C OND ITIO NAL
STATEM EN T, A → B, and we c lai m to der iv e fr om i t the
CO NDITI ON AL STATE MEN T, B → A.

We l ear n tw o "th ings " fr om th is:


 T he for m B → A i s la beled "CO NT RA RY" of A → B .
So FAC can also mean "F al lac y of Asser ting the " .
 To mak e thi s for mal is m usefu l, w e need to
RE PLA CE "A " (IN "A → B") b y A CO NJU NC TIO N OF
MA NY ASSE RTI ON S o r H YP OTHES ES, tak ing the
for m & i H i , with i = 1,2 ,. ..; and we need to
RE PLA CE B (in A → B ) b y A CO NJU NC TIO N OF
MA NY OTH ER AS SER TIO NS or PR EDIC TIO NS ,
taking the for m, & j P j , with j = 1,2 ,. ...

Good ! T his f inding about Con tr ar y mak es it EA SIER to


WRI TE and PR OVE A FORM ULA for th is
GE NE RALI ZA TIO N of FAC. We simpl y wor k w ith (& j P j )
→ (& i H i ).

T he sim ple for m i s: (( H ⊃ P) & P) ⊃ H .

 H ⊃ P : Hypothese s H i mp li es pr ed iction P.
 (. .. ) & P: Pr edict ion P is CON FIRME D.
 ((. ..) &P )⊃ H: T his i mp li es th at H is (po ss ibl y)
TR UE.

Rela bel li ng t he TAB LES for thi s:

H P H -> P (H -> P) & P ((H -> P) & P) -> H


0 0 1 0 1
0 1 1 1 0
1 0 0 0 1
1 1 1 1 1

Ho wever, it was noted thi s uses s ometh ing the


Logic ian l abel s "FALLA CY OF A SSE RTI NG T HE
CO NSE QU EN T" . Ho wever,

 FAC FAILS BY JUS T O NE CA SE OUT O F FO UR .


 T ha t s ing le FAIL URE QU ALIFIES IT TO DEAL WIT H
RE ALITY , w her eas NO FAIL UR E (a s w ith MP)
TAKES IT OUT OF R EALIT Y A ND PU TS IT INT O
LA NG UAGE!
You note the LAS T C OL UMN A BO VE DI SPLA YS ONLY
ONE POS SIBILITY OUT O F FO UR OF T HE C ONCL USI ON
BEI NG U NTR UE.

T he g rea t finding is tha t the "po si ti ve par t" can get


better , wi th "the ne ga tiv e" r emain ing C ONS TANT.

 Suppose tha t, be side s the C ONFI RMED


PR EDIC TIO N P (no w l abeled P 1 ), Hypothes is H
mak es another pr edict ion P 2 W HI CH IS ALS O
CO NFIRME D.
 T he FO RM becomes (( H ⊃ ((P 1 & P 2 )&(P 1 &P 2 )) ⊃ H.
Her e ar e the COL UMN S f or th is :

H
(((H ->
-> ((H ->
(P1&P2))&
H P1 P2 (P1&P2) (P1 (P1&P2))&
(P1&P2)) ->
& (P1&P2)
H
P2)

0 0 0 0 1 0 1

0 0 1 0 1 0 1

0 1 0 0 1 0 1

0 1 1 1 1 1 0

1 0 0 0 0 0 1

1 0 1 0 1 0 1

1 1 0 0 1 0 1
1 1 1 1 1 1 1

 TH E NUM BER OF R OWS (PO SSIBILITIES)


DO UBLE D, fr om FOU R ROWS to EIG HT ROWS .
 TH E NUM BER OF P OS SIBLE FAIL URES
RE MAIN ED TH E SA ME, O NR -- NOW ONE
PO SSIBILIT Y O UT OF EI GH T OF BEI NG
IN CO RR ECT RE AS ON IN G!

Cont inuing , if H P RE DICTE D O NE MO RE


CO NFIRME D P RE DICTI ON ,

 TH E PO SSIBILITIE S W OUL D D OUB LE TO


SIXT EEN
 wi th s til l onl y ONE P OS SIBILLITY OUT O F
TH E SIXT EEN O F IN CO RRE CT RE AS ON G!

"S UC CES S B RE EDS SU CC ES S! " A s l ong a s TH E


NUM BER OF C ONFI RMED PREDI CTIO NS FOLL OW
FR OM THE SI NGL E H YPO THE SIS, the "S CO RE " ( in
the E PISTE MO LOGY G AM E) get s BE TTE R and
BE TTE R. T hat' s the " g rea t th ing" about FAC.

And , i ns tead of chec king b y COL UM NS OF


TABLE S, YOU' LL B E GI VEN A F OR MUL A T O DO
TH AT IN A LI NE O F WOR K. EV EN B ETT ER , Y OU"LL
BE DI REC TED TO A N O NLINE CAL CULA TOR T O
CA LCULA TE T HE ASSE RBILITY OF Y OUR EN TRI ES.

Revi ewing , fir st the simp le f or m of FAC,


pejor ativ el y l abel led "f alla cy of a sser ting the
consequence" , w hic h (unl ik e MP and other
tautolog ie s ) g iv es FAC the potent ia l of ref er ring
to R ea li ty .

Its A SSE RTI ON S ar e "H, P " -- "H " for


"H YP OTHESIS ", "P" for "P REDI CTIO N" . So it r uns :
((H -> P) & P) -> H . T ha t i s,
 (H -> P) : "H ypo these s H imp lie s the pr edict ion
P" .
 (. .. )& P: "Pr ed iction P is C ONFIRM ED" .
 ((. ..) & P) - > H: "T his EV AL UATE S H as
(pos si bl y) T RUE ".

It ha s the T ABLE :

H P H->P (H->P)&P ((H->P)&P)->H


0 0 1 0 1
0 1 1 1 0
1 0 0 0 1
1 1 1 1 1

No tice tha t the fina l Table (Col umn) ha s thr ee


of ones (f or "Tr ue") and a single z er o ( for
"F al se") : One pos sib il it y out of four for
IN CO RR ECT RE AS ON IN G .

T ha t can be quant ified by def ining a


ME ASU RE , whic h wi ll incr ease : ASS ER BILITY .
DEFI NITIO N: T he BASIS of a TABL E equa ls
the N UMB ER of SI GN S it conta ins . Abo ve,
BASE is F OU R.

(You r emember t ha t BASIS is a POWER OF


TW O (f or the pai r, T,F)

DEFI NITIO N: T he BALL OT of a C OL UMN


equal s the N UMB ER of ONE S it conta ins .

DEFI NITIO N: T he AS SER BILITY of a L OGI CAL


FO RM, denoted A(F) , is the RATIO (in i ts
FIN AL COL UM N) of BALL OT to BASI S: A(F) =
BALL OT/ BASIS .

Abo ve, A( FAC) = 3/4 .


T hen was cons ider ed the ca se w her ein THE
SA ME H YPO THE SIS Y IELD ED AN OTHE R
HY PT HE SIS, AND IT WAS CO NFIRME D. T ha t
is, one hypothes is, H, wi th t wo pr edict ions ,
P 1 and P 1 . T his took the FO RM, (( H - > (P 1 & P 2 )
& P 1 & P 1 )) -> H .

Her e ar e the COLIM NS for thi s:

(((H-
H- ((H-
H P1 P2 (P1&P2 >(P1&P2))&(P1&P2))-
>(P1&P2) >(P1&P2))&(P1&P2)
>H
0 0 0 0 1 0 1
0 0 1 0 1 0 1
0 1 0 0 1 0 1
0 1 1 1 1 1 0
1 0 0 0 0 0 1
1 0 1 0 1 0 1
1 1 0 0 1 0 1
1 1 1 1 1 1 1

T he BASIS for th is i s eight . Agai n, a sing le


zer o. So it s A SS ERBILIT Y i s A(F AC) = 7 /8 >
3/4 , an incr ea se of ONE -EI GH TH .

W hat w oul d ha ppen if, g iv en the sa me s ing le


HY PO TH ESIS , H, another CO NFIRME D
PR EDIC TIO N was deri ved? B AS E wou ld
DO UBLE , fr om EI GH T to SIXT EEN , wi th st ill a
single zer o, A SS ERBILIT Y W OULD BE CO ME
A(F AC) = 15 /16 - - AN I NC REA SE of ONE -
SIXT EEN TH .

You see the AN TIT ONI CITY , so far, of th is


CH ANG E PR OCES S: AS T HE A SS ERBILIT Y
IN CRE ASE S, TH E IN CR EMEN T OF CHA NGE
DE CRE ASE S. THIS PR EVILS FO R ONE -
HY PO TH ESIS YIEL DIN G MO RE CO NFIRME D
PR EDIC TIO NS .

Ho wever, so me ca ses r equ ir e i ncr ease s in the


hypothe se s , s o w e need a F OR MUL A f or t he
GE NE RAL CASE , NAM ELY, (((& i H i ) - (& j P j )) &
(& j P j ))) - > & i H i , wi th i = 1 ,2, ... ; j = 1 ,2, ...

T ha t i s, a number (i) of hypothe se s IM PLY


another number (j) of pr edict ions , whic h ar e
CO NFIRME D; so w e CL AIM " TR UT HNE SS" OF
TH E HY PO TH ESIS SU M.

We need a FORM ULA on the number s i, j in


thi s GEN ER AL F OR M. For reason gi ven be lo w
fi le, th is GE NE RAL FORM is l abeled "T he
Oc kam Function" , i, j PAR AMET ERS .

FO RMU LA -TH EO RE M: A( O( i, j)) = 1 - 1 /2 j + 1 /2 i+j .

Tr y i t on the s imp les t ca se, na mel y, O(1 ,1) :


A(O (1, 1)) = 1 - 1/2 1 + 1/2 1+1 = 1 - 1 /2 + 1/4 =
3/4 . Che cks .

Tr y i t on tha t second case (a bo ve), namel y,


O(1 , 2) : A(O (1,2)) = 1 - 1/2 2 + 1 /2 1+2 = 1 - 1/4 +
1/8 = 7 /8 . Chec ks.

T he g rea t th ing a bout O( i, j) , is wha t ha pp en s


in the case O(1 ,j ) w her ein j I NC REA SES -- tha t
is, TH E SAM E H YPO THE SIS Y IELDS MOR E
AN D MO RE C ONFIRM ED PR EDIC TIO NS .

A(O (1, j)) = 1 - 1/2 j + 1 /2 1 + j = (2 1+j


- 2 + 1) /2 1 + j =
(2 1+j - 1)/2 1+j = 1 - 1 /2 j+1 .

In th at L AST FRA CTIO N:

 T he numer ator remai ns CON STANT at


one;
 T he denomin ator IN CRE ASES with j;
 So thi s fr action "g rows s mal ler and
sm al ler ";
 For some lar ge va lue of j, sa y, j = 100 , it
is "subtr act ing pr act ial l y noth ing fr om
the one"
 So , wi th i ncr eased su cces s, AO(1 ,j) --
GE NE RALI ZED FAC -- ha s A SS ERBILIT Y
AP PR OACHIN G ONE! a lmo st as good as
the T AUT OL OG Y, MP!

(Students of "Ca lculu s" w il l note


rese mblance to m any "li mi t pr oces ses ". )

In fact , we find the above res ult as a theor em


along wi th o ther B ONU SE S (theor em s) of thi s
FO RMU LA .

T he AS SER BILITY FO RMU LA is: TH EO REM


ONE :

A(O(i,j)) = 1 - 1/2j + 1/2i+j.

(Pr oof is on line (Google(pr oof .ht m+jonha ys)) .)

Many T HE OR EMS follo w fr om thi s FO RM ULA --


so me M ATH EMA TI CALL Y DE RIVI NG
IN TUITI ON S of long standing liter atur e - -
SO ME VE RY SU RP RISI NG. T he fir st one
FO RMALIZ ES wha t w as noted abo ve a s
"s ucces s incr ea ses ".

TH EO RE M T WO (PR OMI SEDL AN D T A (O(1 , j)) =


1 - 1/2 j + 1/2 1+j , TH EN lim(j - > *∞ )A( O(1, j)) = 1 .

T ha t i s, "I N TH E LIMIT" , A(O (1, j)) IS "A S


GOO D AS A T AUT OL OG Y" , su ch as MO DUS
PO NE NS , the pri mar y " pr over" in LOG IC .
PR OOF : As j -> & infin ', the ter ms - 1/2 j + 1 /2 1+j
GO TO Z ER O, l ea vi ng onl y one r emain ing.

Bef or e the ne xt BO NUS , a l itt le hi stor y.


W il lia m of Oc kam , bor n in Ockham , Eng land ,
was a F ranci scan Friar of man y
accompl is hment s.

 Long bef or e Ga li leo or Ne wton, W ill iam


exp ressed the es sent ial s of t he ph ys ica l
concept of " iner tia " .
 Con sider ed many -v al ued l ogi c , no w a
spec ial f iel d of L OGIC .
 Expr es sed idea s in ter pr eted a s "O ckam 's
Ra zor : D on't mu lt ipl y enti tie s" -- th at i s,
IF A SIM PLE EXPL AN ATI ON O R
HY PO TH ESIS (or TI P) DOE S A S WELL AS A
MO RE COM PLICA TE D O NE, DE CIDE UP ON
TH E SIMPLE ONE .

Ga li leo used " Oc kam' s Ra zor" to def end " T he


He li ocentri c T heor y" a ga inst the Pto loma ic
"G eocentric T heor y" , because it w as
SIMPLE R.

Becau se the Francis cans adv oca ted po ver ty


for the C hur ch and W il lia m ad voca ted shar ing
po wer wi th T he V atican C ounci l (a st ep
adopted by P ope Joh n VII i n 1950), the
Chur ch denounc ed W illiam as a "her et ic" ,
sa ying it would "be no s in to kil l hi m" .
W il lia m of Oc kam d is appear ed during TH E
BLA CK PLA GUE , cir ca 1249-50 .

TH EO RE M T HR EE (O CK AM -RA ZO R- TH EO RE M):
A(O (i , j)) > A (O( i + 1 , j) .

T ha t i s, R EQ UI RIN G ONE MOR E H YPO THE SIS,


Hi+1 TO Y IELD TH E SA ME j P RE DICTI ON S & j P
j, DEC REA SES TH E AS SER BILITY . T hat is, TH E
SIMPLE R F OR M H AS G REA TE R ASS ER RBILITY
ME ASU RE TH AN TH E MO RE COMPLI CA TE D
ONE , FO R TH E SAM E P RE DICTI ON
(EX CEPTI ON S).

PR OOF : A(O (i , j)) - A( O( i + 1, j )) = (1 -1/2 j +1/2 i+

j
) - (1-1/2 j + 1/2 i+j+1 ) = (1/2 i+j )-(1/2 i+j+1 ) = (2 -
1)/2 i+j+1 =1 /2 i+j+k+1 > 0, for all i,j >=1 .

"O ckam 's R az or " ha s hi ther to been an


AN SA NT Z: A SS UME D f or P UR PO SE . But it
fol lo ws a s a T heor em of the F or mula .

T he fol lo wi ng LE MMA (to the ne xt T HE OR EM)


sho ws tha t the A SS ERBILIT Y Mea sur e is
OP TIMALL Y SEN TITIVE TO P RE DICT ABILITY .

LEMM A: Given a "si mp le" ar gument and a


"comp le x" ar gument , r epr esented,
respect iv el y, by O cka m-Funct ions A( O( i, j ))
and A( O( i + k, j )), both ar gument in voking the
sa me j conf ir med pr edict ions . T hen , A(O (i , j))
> A (O( i + k, j )) .

PR OOF : T his i s, of cou rse, simpl y another


case of the OCK AM -R AZ OR -T HE OR EM, a lr eady
pr oven. But the "mar gin of v ictor y" wi ll be
rele vant to the T heor em whi ch follo ws:

A(O(i, j)) - A(O(i+k, j)) = (1-1/2j+1/2i+j) -


(1-1/2j + 1/2i+j+k)=(1/2i+j) - (1/21+j+k)
= (2k
-1)/2i+j+k > 0, for all
k > 1.

For lar ge va lue s of k, the compound ar gument


can be "v er y far behind" . But the fol lo wi ng
T heor em pr oves th at - - no matter "ho w f ar
behind" -- i t can "a lw ay s ca tc h by mak ing
onl y one mor e confir med pr eduction than the
sim pler ar gument.

TH EO RE M F OU R (T ORTOISE& HAR E-
TH EO RE M): A(O (i + k, j + 1) > ( O(i ,j )) .

PR OOF : A(O (i + k, j + 1) - A(O (i , j) = (1 - 1 /2 j+1 +


1/2 i+j+k+1 ) - (1 - 1 /2 j + 1/2 i+j ) = (1/2 j - 1 /2 j+1 ) +
(1/2 i+ j+k+1 - 1 /2 i+j ) = ((2 - 1) /2 j+1 ) + ((2 K+1 - 1)/2
i+j+k+1
) = 1 /2 j+1 + ((2 k+1 - 1)/2 i+j+k+1 ) = (2 k (2 i -
1)/(2 i+j+k+1 ) > 0, for all i,j,k >= 1 .

T hu s, no ma tter "ho w far behind " i s the


CO MP OU ND AR GUM EN T WITH M OR E
HY PO TH ESES , it can AL WAYS "ca tch up and
for ge ahead" of the SIMPLE R one if it
INV OK ES ONE MO RE CO NFIRME D P RE DICTI ON
TH AN TH E S IMPLE R O NE. T he " Tor toi se" can
alw ays " ca tc h up and for ge ahead" of the
"H ar e".

And the " mar gin" sho wn abo ve can be


cons ider able a s PARAM ETE R k. It w as t hi s
tha t sug ge sted the ne xt ( "WILD CA T")
TH EO RE M, the mos t supr is ing of a ll these
T heor em s.

To pr epar e for th is , a deri viv ation of an


"a ppr oxim ating " C or ol lar y fr om eac h of
T heor em s 3 and 4.

CO ROLL AR Y (T H. F OU R) : A(O (i , j)) - A( O( i + k,


j)) = (2 k - 1)/2 i +j+k > 1/2 i+j , for al l i,j ,k >= 1.

CO ROLL AR Y (T H. FI VE): A( O( i + k, j + 1)) -


A(O (i , j)) = (2 k (2 i - 1))/(2 i+j+k+1 ) > 1/2 j+1 , for al l
i,j ,k >= 1.
W hat ar e the consequences of the se
Cor ollar ie s?

EX AMPLE : Suppose th at the compound


ar gument invol ved in T heor em Fi ve, and it s
Cor ollar y, m us t accept tw enty I NDE PEN DE NT
HY PO TH ESES to IN VOKE THR EE CO NFI RME D
PR EDIC TIO NS , wher ea s the "si mp ler"
ar gument invol ved ther ein need mak e onl y
TH RE INDE PEN DE NT HYP OTH ESE S T O
INV OK E thes e s ame TH RE E CO NFI RMED
PR EDIC TIO NS . If we subs ti tute i = 3 , j = 3, k =
19 i n the C OROLLA RY of THE OR EM FO UR , we
find tha t its A PP ROXI MA TE resu lt is 1/2 i+j =
1/2 1+3 = 1/2 4 = 1 /16 . T hen we h ave:

A(O(1, 3)) -
A(O(20, 3)) > 1/16,

whic h is signif icant .

Suppose , ho wever, fur ther anal ysis of the


compounD case sug ge st s a cr it ical
exp er iment deri ved fr om the hy pothese s of
the co mple x ar gument wi th i ts as soc ia ted
pr edict ion. Suppo se, fur the r, th at thi s
pr edict ion i s obser ved. T hen the DO MIN AN CE
seen abo ve "changes side s" :

A(O(20, 4)) - A(O(1, 3)) > 1/16,

again sign ificant .

But the RELA TI VE change i s e ven mor e


sign ificant : 1/16 + 1/16 = 1/8 .

And we ma y lear n even m or e i f w e MEA SU RE


the A SS ERBILIT Y c hange wi thi n the comp le x
ar gument as it ad vances fr om thr ee to four
CO NFIRME D P RE DICTI ON S:

A(O(20, 4)) - A(O(20, 3)) = (1 — 1/24 + 1


/224) - (1 — 1/23 + 1/223
=< (1/23 — 1/24) + (1/224
— 1/223) = (2 — 1)/24 +
(2 — 1)/1/224 =
1/24 + 1/224 =
(220 + 1)/224 > 1/24 =
1/16.

But the BASIS shou ld be i n the P RE VIO US UNI VERS E, th at, a


BASIS of tw ent y- thr ee, so w e ha ve 2 20 /2 23 = 1 /2 3 = 1/8 , as
bef or e.

T his A SS ERBILIT Y c hange is so SIG NIFIC AN T th at i t de ser ves


it s own s pecif ica tion as a ME ASU RE -C ONC EPT.

Def . ONE . Giv en an OC KAM UNI VER SE, w ith OCK AM


FU NC TIO N, A(O (i , j)) , wi th A( O( i, j + 1)) , the AS SER BILITY
ME ASU RE resu lt ing when TH E CO NJU NC TIVE HYP OTH ESIS of
thi s un iv er se YI ELDS ONE M OR E C ONFI RMED PREDI CTIO N. Let
p denote the numer ator of the A(O(i, j + 1)) - (O(i, j)).

Then P A(O(i, j)) denotes the PREDICTION POTENTIAL of this OCKAM


FUNCTION (or its universe) iff (if, and only, if) R(O(i, j)) = r + 1.

The "predictive potential" has been symbolized by "r" and "R"


(second letter of "predictive, rather than "p",which might lead to
confusion with the probabiity measure. And this result leads us to
another Theorem.

THEOREM SIX (WILDCAT THEOREM): A(O(i, j)) = 2i.

PROOF: R(O(i, j + 1)) - R(O(i, j)) = (1 - 1/2j+ 1 + 1/2i+j+1) - (1 - 1/2j +


1/2i+j) = (1/2j - 1/2j+1) + (1/2i+j+1 > 1/2i+j) =
(2 - 1)/2j+1 + (1 - 2)/2i+j+1 = 1/2j+1 - 1/2i+j+1 = (2i - 1)/2i+j+1 .

Then we have r = (2i - 1. And D(O(i,j)) = 2i - 1 + 1 = 2i , as stated.


(The "+1" in the definition of the prediction potential is to remove
the unsightly "- 1" in the Theorem. But what does this mean?
ANALYSIS SHOWS THAT A CONJUNCTIVE HYPOTHESIS WHICH CAN
YIELD ONE MORE CONFIRMED PREDICTION THAN PREVIOUSLY DOES
THEREBY INCREASES ASSERBILITY MEASURE. But WHAT PRODUCES
THE PREDICTIVE POTENTIAL? You might expect the DIFFERENCE
BETWEEN "BEFORE" AND "AFTER" TO CARRY A TERM RELATED TO
THE PREDICTION PARAMETER, j. But it DOES NOT. It CARRIES A TERM
RELATED TO THE HYPOTHESIS PARAMETER, i. THE PREDICTION
POTENTIAL CAME FROM WHAT THE HYPOTHESIS CLAIMED -- which is
THE RISK TAKEN BY THE INVESTER.

Then, this result is A CLARION CALL TO WILDCATTING, professional


or amateur! If one is "willing to take the risk" of "loading" the
HYPOTHESES -- a procedure which scientists and philosophers
peoratively label as "ad hoc" -- then the POTENTIAL "waiting to be
released" -- in the event "the risky hypothesis pays off" -- is AN
EXPONENTIAL OF THE TOTAL NUMBER OF "RISKS TAKEN"!

THEOREM SEVEN (NEGENTROPY THEOREM): GIVEN "WILDCAT"


THEOREM, THE INCREASED ASSERBILITY HAS THE FORM OF THE
NEGENTROPY MEASURE IN THE SZILARD-SHANNON THEORY OF
INFORMATION.

PROOF: From WILDCAT THEOREM, R(O(i, j)) = 2i. In the SZILARD-


SHANNON THEORY OF INFORMATION, the INFORMATION MEASURE is
log2c, where c is THE NUMBER OF CHOICES in a given situation. Here
we have log22i = i BITS.

THEOREM EIGHT (NONMONOTONICITY THEOREM): A FAILED


PREDICTION MUST BECOME A NEGATED PREMISE, DECREASING THE
ASSERBILITY MEASURE, HENCE, NONMONOTONICITY IN LOGIC.
(PROOF, obvious.)
CHA PT ER TWEL VE : WH AT IS C OGNITIV E D ISS ON ANC E?
(An "A XIO LOGY G AM E" ?)
Cogn iti ve di ss onance is a confl ict iv e feel ing caused by
sim ultaneou s im pos it ion of oppos ing act iva tor s. Se ver al
dif fer ent oper ator s may i nvok e th is "Ax iol og y Ga me":

• Langu age : br ain scans ma y sho w tha t hear ing


mul ti meaningfu lw or ds can evok e confl ict iv e br ain events
fr om contr ad ictor y ideas , rese mbl ing mus ica l di ssonance
fr om oppo si ng tone s; th is can be By pas sed by l angua ge
whic h is U NIV AL EN T - - w ith one meaning .
• Per petr ator : br ainw ash ing of a per son's v al ue s ystem by
in st il ling cer ta in a tti tudes and bel iefs in a per son (often
confl icti ve) t o contr ol the per son 's thought -pa tter ns and
beha vior
• Demogog y :
• Self -Impo si ti on : ad dict ion can change the v al ue s ystem ,
engendering acts not wi tnes sed bef or e ad dic tion
• Acc ident :
• Di sease :
• Per sonal it y Do minance : (m ir ror neur ons , belo w)

Un iv al enc y i s dif ficu lt to a chie ve, g iv en pr esent a tti tudes


of exper ts and t eac her s and pub li sher s. Pr oto Typica l of
thi s atti tude is the follo wing.

You kn ow tha t, although ther e i s m uc h teac hi ng of


phonomes , deal ing wi th the so und of w or d component s,
ther e i s on l y one dict ionar y on li ne (and a ppar entl y none
publ is hed) dea lng with the m or pheme, the uni t of
"w or dines s" . (T hu s, "dogs " i s one phoneme and one
sylla ble , but two m or pheme s: "dog+ s" .)

You kn ow tha t one con sequence of th is is the f olo wing


"di ctionar y game" .

You kn ow the Ir is h m athem ati cal phy sic is t, J . L . Sy nge


(1897-1995), in vented th is game. (S ynge co wr ote a book
on anal yt ical d ynam ics , one used in man y uni ver sit ies .
Sy nge i s kno wn t o man y ma thema tica l ph ys ici st s for
sho wing th at quantum equ ation s in vol vi ng s pi n can be
wr itten in ter ms of qua ter nion s -- math cr eated b y hi s
fel lo w Iri shman , W il lia m R owan Ha mi lt on (1805-1865) .)

You kn ow tha t Sy nge wr ote a del ightfu l l itt le book of


es sa ys whic h inc luded an es sa y abo ut the ga me of " Ci rc",
cr ea ted t o s ho w the fal lib il it y of l angua ge.

Two o r mor e per son s compete i n "C ir c" , eac h ar med w ith
a cop y of the sa me standar d d ict ionar y, under the
super vi sion of a "r ef er ee" . T he ref er ee choo ses a defined
wor d i n the d ict ionar y th at i s defined onl y i n ter ms of
se ver al synony ms . At " Go ", the contes tants be gin . E ac h
choos es to look up one of the synon ym s, whic h is ther ein
defined in ter ms of s ever al synon ym s, one of w hic h (w hen
look ed up) is defined in ter ms of se ver al s ynony ms , one
of whi ch (w hen l ook ed up) i s ... . T he f ir st per son to retur n
to t he or igi nal l y ass igned wor d c rie s out " Ci rc! " (f or
"goi ng in a cir cle") and the game end s.

You kn ow the loop her e ha pp en s becau se y ou sta y in the


real m of w or ds or names . If y ou shif t out si de l angua ge to
the w or ld of ref er ent s , the pr oces s wou ld a br upt l y end .

You kn ow tha t Cogn iti ve Di ssonance fr om Langua ge


shou ld be of pr imar y cons ider ation in th is tw ent y- second
centur y, whic h some cal l "the centur y of the br ain ". You
kn ow thi s depends on g rea t resear ch i n the l ate ninteenth
and ear l y tw ent ieth centur y by a Span ish biolog is t.

You kn ow he ha s been cal led "T he Man W ho 'r ead the


br ain" .

You kn ow hi s name was Santia go Ra món y (1852-1924).


You kn ow tha t, in 1906, the fir st Nobe l Pri ze in P hy siol og y
and Med icine was aw ar ded to (Ital ian) C ami llo Go lg i
(1843-y1 926) and S antia go Ramón y C aja l for thei r
resear ch on the human ner vou s s ystem . You kno w tha t, in
par ti cula r, G ol gi had ( in 1873) in it ia ted and de veloped the
tec hn ique of s ta ini ng i ndi vidua l ner ve and cel l ti ssue to
ill um ina te the st r uctur e. ( Kno wn as the "b lac k reaction ",
it u ses a weak s ol ution of s ilver ni tr ate - - used in
photog raphy since 1614 -- and is par ti cula r ly va lua ble in
tr acing the pr oce ss es and m os t de li ca te ramif ica tion s of
cel ls .) You kno w tha t, in 1887 , R amón y Ca ja l be gan u se
of th is te chnique , l ead ing to hi s dis co ver y of the neur on
as the oper ati ve ele ment of t he br ain .

La ter he s et out car efull y to e xplor e the finer aspect s of


the br ain. W it h h is r educed s ilver ni tr ate tec hn ique he
demons tr ated neur on s and thei r connect ions s o eas il y.
His in tr oduction of hi s gold chlor ide- mer cur y bi chlor ide
tec hn ique to demon str ate as tr oc ytes w as a monumenta l
contribu tion as w as h is wor k on de gener ati on and
re gener ati on of t he ner vou s syste m l ater . He w il l be
remember ed a s a w or ld famou s neur opa tho logi st .

Ca jal 's i ma gina tion w as fir ed by the idea tha t the ner vou s
syste m i s made up of bil li ons of separ ate ner ve cel ls .
Ca jal 's w or k le d to the con clus ion tha t the bas ic unit s of
the ner vous syst em wer e repr esented by indi vi dual
cel lul ar e lement s (w hic h Walde yer c hri stened as
"neur ons " i n 1891). T his conc lu si on i s the moder n ba sic
princ ip le of the or gani za tion of the ner vous system .

Al so, C aja l defined "the law of d ynam ic polar iz ation, "


st ating t ha t the ner ve ce ll s ar e po lar iz ed, recei vi ng
in for ma tion on the ir cel l bodie s and dendr ites , and
conducting in for ma tion to d is tant loc ati ons thr ough
ax ons , whi ch tu r ned out to be a bas ic princ ipl e of t he
function ing of neur al connect ions . Ca jal a ls o m ade
fundamental obser va tion s on the de velop ment of the
ner vous s ystem and i ts reaction to in jur ies (h is v olu me
"De gener ation and R e gener ation of the Ne r vous S yste m"
tr ans la ted and ed ited by R. M. May , London, Ox for d
Un iv er si ty P res s, 1928, has been r e-edi ted by J. D eF el ipe
and E.G. Jones , O xf or d Un iv er si ty Pr ess , 1991) .

GOL GI di sco ver ed the too l used by C aja l in his s tud ies
and pr ovided outs tanding contribut ion s in man y fie lds of
cel l bio log y and of pa tho log y, and im por tant contribut ion s
al so on the st r uctur e of the ner vou s s ystem (s uc h, f or
example , the de scrip tion of br anc he s g iv en of f b y the
ax on, of d if fer ent t ype s of neur ons , of glial ce ll s) .

You kn ow tha t g rea t a chie vement s ha ve been m ade i n


br ain scann inng, but appa rentl y lit tle has been done
about the pr oblem of Cogn it iv e Dis sonance fr om
Langu age .

Neur ologica l of recent y ear s ha ve pr ovided e vidence of


mi r ror neur ons , pr omoting imi ta tion of another ani ma te ,
par ti al l y adopt ing another 's val ue s ystem .

A mi r ror neur on is a neur on whi ch f ir es both when an


ani mal acts and when the ani mal obs er ves the same
action perf or med by another an ima l (e specia ll y by
another an ima l of the s ame specie s. T hu s, the neur on
"m ir ror s" the beha vior of another ani mal , as though t he
obser ver w er e it se lf act ing . T hese neur ons ha ve been
dir ect l y ob ser ved in pri ma te s , and ar e be lie ved to exi st in
humans and other s pec ies inc lud ing bir ds .

In human s, br ain act iv ity con si st ent w ith mir ror neur ons
has been f ound in the pr emotor cor te x and the in ferio r
parie tal cor te x .

Some sc ient is ts cons ider mi r ror neur ons one of the mo st


im por tant find ings of neur oscience i n the l as t decade.
Among them is V.S . Ra mac handr an, w ho bel ie ves the y
mi ght be ver y im por tant in imit ation and langua ge
acqui si ti on .
Ho wever, desp ite the popu lari ty of t hi s fie ld, to da te no
plau si ble neur al or computa tional mode ls ha ve been put
forw ar d to descr ibe ho w mi r ror neur on act iv it y suppor ts
cognit iv e funct ions su ch as imi ta tion .

T he function of the mi r ror syste m i s a subject of m uc h


specu la tion . M any res ear cher s in cognit iv e neur oscience
and cogn iti ve p sycholog y con si der th at thi s system
pr ovides the phy siol ogica l mec han is m f or t he per ception
action coupl ing (see the co mmon cod ing t heor y) .

T he se m ir ror neur on s m ay be im por tant for under stand ing


the a acti ons of other people , and f or l ear ni ng new sk ill s
by i im it ation .

Some resear cher s a ls o s pecu la te tha t mir ror s ystem s


may s imu la te ob ser ved action s, and thus contr ibute to
the theor y of mind sk il ls, whi le other s rel ate m ir ror
neur ons to l angua ge abi li ti es .

Com mon cod ing c la im s tha t per ception and act ion contr ol
shar e repr esent ation s. An idea in it ia ted byA mer ican
ps ychol ogi st W ill ia m J ame s. A mer ican neur ophy siol ogi st
and Nobel pr iz e w inner Roger S per r y. Sper r y sa ys the
per ception–act ion c ycle is the bas ic function of the
ner vous s ystem .

You can onl y exhor t neur olog is ts and br ain scanner s to


wor k to ame li or ate co r rectib le i ns tance s of Cogni ti ve
Di ssonance . B ut you can look to way s of avoid ing CD by
one-man y/ many -m any ref er ences . In Cha p, T hr ee , i t' s
sho wn how to avoid one for m of the man y ref er ent
pr oblem by u si ng the ne glected or mi sunder stood
pr a gm atic for mal ism , T her e, giv en a s ing le sign tha t
in vok es a dif fer ent ref er ence for thr ee exper ts , th is one -
one by the pr a gm atic for mal ism . T his can be become a
pri mar y cor rect iv e for CD by sho wing ho w m any -r ef er ence
can be avoided .
One way is, for an y t ec hnica l concept aleady as signed an
"e ver yda y" la be l, to rela be lled by a neolog is m scr ambled
fr om the exi st ing l abel .

Ma the ma tician s and s ci enti st s fr equentl y i nvok e th is


ambi guit y.

T hu s, " Na tur al Nu mber s" (w ha t wou ld Unn atur al Nu mber s


be?) could be r ela bel led " Ntr l Nu mber s" .

T hen the pr agma tic for mat can explain in S tandar d ter ms.

[Nt r l N umber s]Þ[N atur al Nu mber s]

Al so, " Intger s" could be renamed "Nt g r s" w ith pr a gm atic
explainer for other s.

[Nt g r s]Þ[Inte ger s]

T hen rename " Ra tiona l N umber s" (not cr az y number s) as


"R tnl Nu mber s", with pr a gm atic expla iner f or other s.

[Rtn l N umber s]Þ[Ra tiona l Nu mber s]

And "R eal Number s" r enamed "R l Number s" w ith
pr a gm atic expla iner f or other s.

[Rl N umber s]Þ[R ea l Nu mber s]

Fina ll y, " Comp le x N umber s" renamed "Cmp lx N umber s"


wi th pr agma tic explainer for other s.

[Cmp lx Nu mber s]Þ[Comp le x N umber s]

W ith thes e perha ps non sug gest iv e name s s ome Cogn it iv e


Di ssonance may be mini mi zed.
A good example of w her ein a "consc iou s" comment ma y
sub li mi nal ly i nvok e C ognit iv e D issonce.

A fam il ia r com ment i s, " tha t's a s sur e as th at 2 + 2 = 4. "

Ot her w or ds ha ve the sound of "2 ", name l y, "t o, too" . And


"pl us " s ug ges ts "ad joi n", w hile "equa ls " sug ge sts
"e gal ity ", and "4 " s ug gest s gol f.

So , does "2 + 2 = 4" become , sub li minal l y, "too , ad join to


e gali ty go lf"?

CH AP TER THIR TEE N: TH E M YSTER Y O F HIST OR Y


Si nce Inher itance fr om your pr edeces sor s via Hist or y is one
of your Lear ning Methodo lig ies , i t' s unf or tun ate th at His tor y
is a my ster y to so m any adul ts , teens , and c hi ldr en . I s tha t
the f au lt of h is tori ans ?

You may kno w co mments b y thr ee i mpor tant B ri ti sh wr iter s,


about the ignor ance of h is tor ians or the ir ignor ing h is tor y.

You WE Blear n Br it is h Rebecca Wes t (1892 -1983) was a fine


wr iter of no vel s and nonficti on. You kno w her monumental
book, Bl ac k Lamb and Gr ey Falcon - - over 1200 pa ges was a
tr avelogue and compendiu m of hi stor y, i nc lud ing a
descr ipt ion of Wes t and her bank er husband tr aveli ng in
Yugo sl avi a bef or e WWII . You m ay kno w th at, after WWII , Wes t
co ver ed the tr ial s of B ri ti sh ci ti zen s who fled to Ge r many
during the War to br oadcast pr opa gan da to po ss ib le Br it is h
listener s. You Weblea r n West wr ote ar tic les about the ir tr ial s,
whic j a ppear ed in T he N ew Yor ker Ma gaz ine , and wer e
col lected in her book, T he Meaning of Trea son . You Weblear n
tha t her peer s cal led W est "the bes t r epor ter of our time ".
It m ay inter es t y ou th at, man y year s late r, W est was
in ter view ed on PB S b y Bi ll Moyer s. T ha t M oyer s ask ed Wes t
ho w sh e f ound ti me, i n her bu sy lif e, to co ver T he Nur ember g
Trial of N az i mil itari st s.

T ha t W est ans wer ed, "I fel t I had t o. H istori ans ar e s uc h liar s,
you kno w!"

You may kno w th at, a few year s l ate r, on PB S, R ober t Mc Nei l,


then w ith the McNe il -Lehr er News R epor t, in ter view ed the
famou s no veli st, J ohn Le Car ré (1931- ), author of "T he S py
W ho Ca me in F rom the Col d", " Ti nk er , T ai lor , So ldi er, Sp y" ,
and other spy no vel s -- who sai d, "Hi stor y i s t he lie on whic h
hi stor ian s find consen sus ."

You may kno w of a th ir d op inion by a wr iter on hi stor ians ,


tha t of the g rea t B ri ti sh dr ama tis t, Geor ge B er nar d Shaw
(1856-1950). You may kno w Shaw w rote the pla y, "P ygma li on",
ada pted as the pri ze winning mu si cal , fi lmed in 1964 , " My F air
Lady ". You WE Bl ear n th at an ear l y play of S haw i s "T he
De vil 's Dis cip le" whic h w as abl y fi lm ed in 1959 , sta r ri ng Be r t
Lancaste r, K ir k Doug la s, and Lawr ence O livie r, about the
be ginning of our Ame rican Revolut ion. You WEB lear n t ha t
Oli vie r p lay s B ri ti sh Gener al B ur go yne , who is to ld tha t the
reinf or cement s he need s w on't be avai la ble because some
one in t he War Of fice fai led to rela y hi s ur gent reques t. You
may r emember hi s commenton on th is : B ur go yne sa ys,
"H isto rian s wi ll tel l the usua l lie ."

OUR A LPH AN UMERI C R OOTS


"T he ta sk of the educa tor i s to m ak e the chi ld 's spi ri t pa ss
again wher e it s for ef ather s ha ve gone, mo vi ng rapidl y thr ough
cer tain sta ges but su r pr es si ng none of them ." Henri P oincér e
(ma the ma tician who - - a year bef or e E in ste in' s "Rel ativ ity "
pa per -- de scribed Relativ it y at " T he Sain t Lou is W or ld 's Fair "
whic h Judy Ga r land and her f ami l y v isit ed at end of the 1944
fi lm , "Meet Me in St . Loui s") .
You ar gue the T HE SIS: H uman s best appr ecia te the va lue of
so me ar ti fact b y inter act iv el y go ing thr ough t he sta ges to it s
de velopment . If chil dr en wor k thr ough our "al phanumeric
roots ", the y may bet ter under stand and appr eci ate the
sho r tcuts of our AL PH AB ET and NUM ERA TIO N,

ALP HA ROOTS
You sa y childr en sh ould be s ho wn a char t of the st ages fr om
cr ude dr awing s to an alpha bet, and kee p it po sted on wal l
during al l ses sion s.

• picto g rams ( i. e. , icon s of concr ete or abs tr act ideas ; fir st


appe ar ed on ca vew all s)
• ideo g rams : combin ati ons of pictog ram s , but often r un
together ; e xamp le, Ch ines e i deog ram s for ëy e"and
"w ater "to r epr esent "tear" ; al so in Me sopotam ian
cuneif or m i ns cr ipti ons , Eg ypt ian hier og lyphic s, and al l
Ch inese char acter s ar e l ogog ram s
• logo g rams : ideo g rams se par ated i nto wor ds; ma y be
par ti al l y sound -r efer ence d as in the Su merian langua ge t o
repr esent people 's name s
• sylla bar y : sym bol s repr esent sylla ble s , not wor ds;
appa rentl y fir st de veloped by Sem ite s & Phoen ici ans
cir ca 1700 BC ; ada pted i n Old He br ew, Cypr iote, and
Per si an s cr ipts . A sylla bar y f or the Cher ok ee l angua ge
was de veloped in the la te 19th centur y b y Sequo ya (1776-
1614).
• alpha bet : symbo ls r epr esent phoneme s (unit s of sp ok en
sound) ; thus Ameri can Engli sh has about 44 phonemes ;
fir st came con sonants , then vowels l ater ; f ir st fu ll y
alpha bet ic langua ge was Gr eek

NUME RIC R OOTS


You sa y childr en sh ould be s ho wn a char t of the st ages fr om
tal lies t o an Hindu -Ar abic Dec ima l N umer ation , and keep it
pos ted on wall dur ing al l se ssi ons .
• To count , our ances tor s used su ch ma te ria l
repr esenta tion s of quanti tie s as ta ll y cuts i n bone or
iv or y or stone; cla y tok ens ; tal ly s tic ks; knots in cor ds,
pe bble s in ba gs ; mar ks on w all s; wooden beads on a wi re ;
etc.
• Tal l ying is a ppar entl y t he ear li es t for m of wr it ing , a s in
tha t wolf menti oned abo ve. Cer tainl y, tal lies pr ovided the
ear lie st for m of bookk eep ing .
• In later Neol ith ic ti mes a ppear ed tok ens : clay
repr esenta tion s of ty pes of count able of pr oduct s of
ag ri cultur e or cr aft. . From these wer e abstr acted sign s
for wor ds , another in stance of wr iti ng der iv ing fr om
pri mi ti ve ma the ma tics .
• Dif fer ent numer ic system s de veloped in var ious cu ltur es .
T he Gr eek numer al s spr ead wi th the E mpir e of A le xander
the G rea t. But the se w er e often rep laced wi th Roman
Nu mer al s wi th the extens ion of T he Roman E mpi re.
• T he Hindu s be gan de veloping the pr ecur sor s of the
numeri c s ymbo ls w e pr esent l y use, c ir ca 3r d centur y BC .
T he se nu mer als w er e absorbed and mod ified in the
extensi on of I sl am ic r ul e. But Hindu-Ar abic numer als
wer e res isted in Eur ope for so me t ime . An y mer chant
found w ith the se i ns cri ption s was lia ble to char ge s of
rel igi ous her esy or po li tica l in trigue . Yet one w ould ha ve
to go to the be st uni ver sit ies i n Ital y t o mu lt ipl y wi th
Roman nu mer als , and onl y a t the Uni ver sit y of Bo logna
wou ld y ou l ear n how to div ide wi th Roman nu mer als .
• Leona r do of Pi sa (a .k.a . Fibonacc i) (1175? -1250 ?)
in tr oduce d them into Eur ope in 1201 w ith hi s ar ithmet ic
book, Liber Abacc i . T hey "caught on" by fac il it ati ng the
g rea t per iods of T rade and N avi ga tion .

You kn ow you can 't ba lance y ou r c he ckbook or do y our


inco me tax wi th Roman numer al s tha t pr eceded Hindu-Ar abic
numer ation . You remember an extant le tter , wr itten to an swer
a m er chant f ather , who wis hed to tr ain his s on for tr ade. He
was tol d th at, to lear n ad ding and s ubtr act ing i n Roman
numer ation, man y loca l sc hool s wer e suf ficient . To lear n to
mul ti pl y i n Roman nu mer ation , a f ew co lle ge s cou ld teac h
thi s. But , to l ear n to di vi de i n Roman nu mer ation , onl y one
un ver sit y in Eur ope cou ld t eac h h is son -- the Un iv er si ty of
Bo logna. You kn ow tha t's ho w d if ficu lt ca lcul ation w as in
Roman nu mer ation ! You kn ow in tr oduction in Eur ope of Hindu -
Ar abic numer ation m ade po ss ib le the s ucceeding Age of
Trade and T he Age of Na vig ation , lead ing to d is co ver y of t hi s
continent .

You kn ow the e vent in it ia ting deci mal numer ation was


publ ica tion , i n 1201, of "L iber Abac i", b y Leonar do of Pi sa
(1175? -1250) -- not to be confused wi th Leona r do da V inci ,
who liv ed m uc h la ter . You kno w of Leonar do of P isa , a ls o
cal led "Fibonacc i" ("Son of Fi bon"). But uou kn ow tha t
hi stor ioan s w ri te l itt le o r l itt le or noth ing a bout t hi s event
whic h changed ci vi liz ation!

Pr oto- Ma them ati cs con si st s of s ome of the kno wable s of our


"pr im it iv e" ance stor s whi ch l ate r became for mal iz ed a s
ma thema tics .

T he Pr oto- Ma th s ci ted in the liter atur e, suc h as ta ll yi ng, ar e


quas i- ma thema tical - - " half -w ay ther e" . But ther e m us t h ave
been mor e r ud imentar y kn owables bef or e thes e "qua si 's" .

To count , our ances tor s used su ch ma te ria l repr esenta tion s


of quanti tie s as ta ll y cuts i n bone or iv or y or stone ; cla y
tok ens ; tal ly s ti cks; knot s in cor ds , pe bble s in ba gs ; ma r ks
on w all s; wooden bead s on a wi re ; etc.

Tal l ying is a ppar entl y t he ear li es t for m of wr it ing . A w ol f


bone found in Eur ope , da ting fr om the per iod of 30,000 -25,000
B . C ., s ho ws f ifty -f iv e cut s in g roup s of fi ve. Ce r tain l y, tal lies
pr ovided the ear li es t f or m of bookk ee ping .

You kn ow why so me f inancia l in ves tments ar e cal led


"s toc ks" . A st oc k is a stou t s ti ck. T hu s, a st oc kade i s a f or t
or p ri son bor der ed b y tal l sti cks, dr iv en into t he g round ,
edged togethe r, to keep domes ti c an ima ls i n, other s out .
Ca ttle or other ani mal s fenced i n by st icks con st ituted far m
st oc k .

W hen a c lient ga ve m oney to a br ok er to inves t, the br ok er


br ok e a s tic k in t wo piece s, k eeping par t for hi ms elf , the
other par t g iv en to the i nvestor . W hen t he inves tor retur ned
to c lai m ca pital or in ter est , he i denti fied hi ms elf by fitti ng h is
br ok en st oc k t o th at of the i nvestor . Le gend ha s i t tha t " Wall
Str eet" be gan under a che stnut tr ee on lo wer M anha ttan
Is land . T he tr ee pr ovided a pl enitude of sti cks to r epr esent
st oc ks .

T his w as one for m of a ta ll y st ick to repr esent a count of


so mething . We l ear n in schoo l to ta ll y counta bles .

Once onl y a sma ll e li te could read, wr ite, and calcu la te .


Il li ter ate cler ks used not ched ta ll y st ic ks to in ventor y coin s
or bar s of gold or sil ver, etc . T hu s one notc h touc hed
repr esented a co in counted . W hen al l notc hes of a sti ck had
been ass igned , t he sti ck was la id as ide , and a new ta ll y sti ck
accounted for mor e coin s. T hi s was once the pr ocedur e in
T he Ex chequer -- the Eng lis h tr easur y, s o- cal led because
orig ina ll y, of fic ial s sat at a ta ble co ver ed with a c hec ker ed
cloth .

Long bef or e Dic ken s' ti me , liter ate cle r ks of T he E xchequer


ceased to use tal l y st ic ks . In 1724 , tr ea sur y of fic ial s
commanded t ha t tal lies no lo nger be used , but the y long
remained va lid .

Sa id Di ckens , ".. . i t took unt il 1826 to get the se st ic ks


aboli shed . In 1834 . .. ther e was a cons ider able accumu la tion
of them . ... [W]ha t was to be done w ith suc h wor n-out wor m-
ea ten , r ot ten old b it s of wood ? T he st ic ks w er e hou sed i n
Wes tmi ns ter , and it wou ld n atur all y occur to an y i nte ll igent
per son tha t nothing could be eas ier than to allo w them to be
car ri ed aw ay f or f ir ew ood by the mi ser able peop le w ho l ived
in tha t ne ighborhood. Ho wever [the st icks w er e no longer]
usefu l and of ficia l routine requir ed tha t the y never should be ,
and so the or der w ent out tha t they s houl d be pri va tel y and
confident ial l y bur ned . It came to pas s tha t the y w er e bur ned
in a sto ve i n the H ous e of Lor ds. T he s to ve, over go r ged w ith
these pr epo ster ous st icks , set fir e to the pane ll ing ; the
panel li ng set fir e to the H ous e of C ommon s; the t wo house s
[of go ver nment] wer e reduced to ashe s; ar chitect s wer e
cal led in to bui ld other s; and we ar e now in the second
mi llion of the co st ther eof ." ( Nu mber , by Tob ias D antz ig, p p.
23-4 .

T he "N ew Par liament " ce le br ated "open house" in 1844 .


Mor al : To st ar t a f ir e, r ub t wo pol it ician s together .

Histor ians a ls o f ai l to w ri ting about the number of indu st ria l


revolut ions th at occur ed -- even f ail to def ine, pr oper ly, the
la be l. You kno w an i ndu str ial r evolution de velop s when a
di vi sion of ph ys ic s ma tur es suf ficient l y to engender a
tec hno log y.

You kn ow tha t hi sto rian s usua ll y us e the ter m "the indus tria l
revolut ion to de scr ibe the impr ovement , cir ca 1776, of the
st eam engine , f or pump ing water fr om m ine s, b y Jame s Watt
(1736-1819). You kn ow thi s should be cal led " the
ther mod ynam ic i ndus tr ial revolution ", for ther e was at lea st
one indus tria l revolut ion bef or e th is , and se ver al afte r,
in vol vi ng other div isi ons of ph ys ics .

You kn ow tha t the book, "T he Med ie va l Ma chine , T he


Industr ia l Revolut ion of the M id dle Age s" , tr ans la ted fr om the
Frenc h of J ean G impel (a ppar entl y m iss ing fr om mo st publ ic
libr ar ies and sc hool and un iv er si ty libr arie s), te ll s of T he
Mec han ical Indust ria l Revolut ion of the 12th -13th centurie s,
in it ia ted by m onks , wi sh ing to r ais e the ir own food s and other
resour ce s, yet ha ve t ime for pr ayer and med it ation . You kn ow
these monk s recei ved per mis sion fr om the P ope to tr an sl ate
"pa gan" R oman wr it ing s on ef ficient water and wind mil ls.
You kn ow tha t so on the se spr ead over E ur ope. T ha t the
Dome sda y B ook i n Eng land lis ts mor e than fi ve t housand su ch
mi lls.

Ho wever, you kno w th at these event s w er e obscur ed by the


"B lac k Pla gue" ( "B lac k Dea th ") i n the m id dle of the 13th
centur y. You kno w thi s ep idemi c a ppar entl y de veloped
because of wi despr ead ki ll ing of c ats , whic h k il led the rats,
whic h car ried the l ice, whi ch car ried the d is eas e. You found
onl ine, to the hy mn, "Let All Mor ta l Fles h K eep S ilence" a
descr ipt ion of ho w "noca t" caused thi s pla gue .

nocat pipes the rats through our Heartland,


Ravaging our fields and our stores!
nocat and the rats pipe the Black Plague,
Blooming forth in boils -- bloody sores!
nocat, rats, and Plague -- they pipe Apocalypse Four:
FAMINE, PESTILENCE, DEATH, AND WAR!
You kn ow tha t. in so me sector s of Eur ope, 50% of the
populace died fr om the pla gue. T ha t, in man y to wns , ther e
sur viv ed no b lac ksm ith s, car penter s, cooper s, or other
ar ti san s.

Becau se tr aining had been or al among i lliter ate m en, the


Pope no w allo wed tr an sl ation of "pa gan" tr aining te xts . Giv en
both of these di spen sa tion s (to monk s and f or tr aining) ,
sc holar s now be gged per mis sion to tr ans la te l iter atur e and
phi los ophy . And thi s l ed t o " T he Rena is sance" - - be ginn ing
wi th an ignor ed indu str ia l r evolut ion.( Do y ou wonder th at
muc h of his tor y i s a myster y? )

T he Am ish of pr esent -da y Pennsy lvan ia remain in the


tec hno log y of the me chanica l r evolut ion . (You see th at i n the
1985 fil m, W itnes s , st ar ri ng H ar ris on F or d and Kell y McG il lis.

You kn ow tha t tha t Civi l W ar (W ar Be tw een the S ta te s) mi ght


be con sider ed as A W ar of Indus tria l Revolut ion s, s ince the
Conf eder ac y r emained (wi th the Am ish) in T he Mec han ical
Revolut ion, w hile the spr ead of T he T he r modyna mic
Revolut ion in the Nor th allo wed the g rea t pr oduct ion of
resour ce s th at contributed to the U ni on w inn ing the War.

You kn ow tha t the T her mod ynam ic Industr ial R evoluti on w as


fol lo wed by T he E lectr ica l Indu str ial R evoluion and T he
El ectr onic Indust ria l Revolut ion , and we ar e no w i n the m id st
of a Nano -Photon ic Indu str ial R evolution . Al so, You kno w th at
al l thi s ha s been ne glected by our his torian s!

You kn ow thei r s our ces contr adict the hi stor y they w rite . You
kn ow tha t even s ci enti fic hi sto rian s cr edit Is aac Newton
(1642-1727) with the r ot ati onal equa tions of m ec han ics . Yet ,
as you kno w, reco r ds s ho w the se equa ti ons didn't appear
unti l decades after New ton's dea th, in the wor ks of Sw is s
Leonha r d E uler (1707-83) , one of the fi ve or six g rea te st
ma thema tici ans of a ll t ime s, and the mo st pr ol ific
ma thema tici an in h is tor y.

You kn ow, but hi sto rian s often fail to empha si ze, tha t Eu ler
founded two v ast fie ld s of ma thema tics : topo log y (w hic h
inc ludes geometr y a s a s pec ial ca se) and combin ator ics , the
ma th beh ind the repr esenta tion of our republ ic , and the
choi ces of our commer cial ma r kets . You kno w tha t, not onl y
ar e Ameri cans ig nor ant of Leonar d Eu ler , but neither do t hey
kn ow of the g rea t contr ibuti ons of S wi ss ma thema tici ans in
the 17th and 18th centuri es : Jacob Ber nou ll i (1664-17- 6) and
Joh anne s B er noul li (1667 -1748), whose ma the ma tics f ounded
"v ari ational anal ys is" , w hic h ac hie ved mor e in phy sic s than
the N ewton ian m ethodolog y. Dan ie l B er noul li (1700-1782), son
of Johann es, taught tha t hea t i s t he mo tion of mo lecule s ; and
hi s Ber nou ll i Pr inci ple explai ns flight of a ir cr aft.

You kn ow tha t, in the popular 1949 fil m, " T he T hir d Man" , the
char acter H ar r y Lyme (pla yed by O r son Well s) sneer s at Sw is s
hi stor y as one of "cuc koo cloc ks" .

And you kno w t ha t sc ient is ts bear some respon si bi li ty for


thi s. You kn ow one fail ur e invol ves t ha t famou s A mer ican,
Ben jami n F rankl in (1706-90). You kn ow sour ce s cr edit
Frank lin wi th founding tw o vas t sc iences i n phy si cs . T hat
Frank lin founded me teor olog y by not ing tha t so me s tor ms
tr avel . You kno w tha t, as mo st pri nter s of the ti me, F rankl in
publ is hed a news pa per. T ha t, to get new s, he went often to
the b ig Far mer' s Mar ket in Ph ilade lphi a. T hat, one day , hi s
con ver sa tion s wi th v isit ing far mer s made h im real ize tha t a
st or m recentl y v isiting Ph il adelph ia r esemb led a st or m
obser ved ea r lier in wester n P enn sy lvan ia. T hi s idea -- th at
st or ms tr avel -- eventual l y led to the de velopment of s ynopti c
char ts of the continent being dr awn s ever al time s dai l yy.

You kn ow the other field tha t Frankl in f ounded was tha t of


elect ric it y . Not wi th th at sil ly and danger ous key on kite
st ri ng explo it ! Y ou'v e read th at the f amous mathema tica l
phy si ci st , Sir Edmund W hittak er, in h is book, A Histor y of the
T heor y of Aether & E lecr oma gnet is m , say s (p . 53) th at
Frank lin founded T he Law of C onser va tion of Electr ic
Chhar ge, by not ing t ha t elect ric char ge i s ne ver los t . If i t
di sa ppear s one place, it r ea ppear s at another .

You kn ow tha t W hit tak er cr edit s the Br it is h-A mer ican


sc ient is t, J oseph Pr ie st ley (1733 -1804), w ith the other
di sco ver y founding the s ci ence of electr ic ity : the in ver se
squar e la w of electr ic fie ld , simi la r to Newton' s in ver se
squar e la w f or g ravit y . (It was g iv en it s pr esent
ma thema tical f or m by Cha r le s- August in de C oulo mb (1736-
1806), hence is gener al l y kno wn as " Cou lomb' s Law" .) Y ou
kn ow tha t Frankli n he lped h is fr iend Pr ies tle y di sco ver th is
la w b y shar ing an i mpor tant ob ser vation: if you put char ge
in si de a meta l hemi spher e -- sa y, via a Ley den jar, su ch as
was us ed then to e xtr act e lectr ic char ge -- then elect r ric
char ge disa ppear ed w ith in, but was found ar ound the ri m of
the he mi spher e.

You kn ow cr edit for thes e d is co veri es should be w ide spr ead.


T he Sm ith sonian Mu seum shou ld ha ve a r e gula r e xhib it to
mak e the publ ic kn ow about the se a chie vement s of F rankl in.
No , Bu t y ou kno w it' s mor e gener all y kn own tha t Franklin
sug ge sted da yl ight savi ng t ime .

You ar e aw ar e of other ne glect of hi stor ian s a bout the or ig in


of the "M *A *S* H" ho spi tal s orig ina ting in T he South Kor ean
Pol ice A cti on - - the de bt to Dr. Al ber t Sc hw ei tz er (1875-1965) ,
kn own for hi s phi lo sophy of " Rever ence for Li fe". You kno w
tha t, at hi s mis sionar y hosp ita l in Lambar ene, Frenc h
Equa tor ia l A fri ca, Sc hw eitz er and hi s nur se wif e, He lene
Br ess slau , w ished to m ak e condit ion s see m a s litt le st range
as po ss ib le for the l ocal peop le. So , as y ou kno w, Sc hw eitz er
wor ked out the min ima l anti sep si s needed to function .

You kn ow tha t, when mi litar y med ical author it ies , pos t W WII,
planned for hosp ita l un it s as clo se to t he "fr ont " a s pos si ble ,
they u sed S chw ei tz er 's m odel .
You found on line an octe ri ck a bout the ne glect or ignor ance
(or l ies ?) of his tori ans :

See historian hyperbolic!


Mad as mythorian with colic,
He hath disavowed math
And all that math hath
Endowed our body politic.
He shall be forgiven,
Sic sins quite shriven:
Getting high on high colonic.
And you kno w i gnor ance per ta ins a ls o to the be ginning s of
thi s countr y. You read t hi s in T he F or gotten Founder s and T he
My ths of Augu st , by pub lic se r vant Stew ar t L. U da ll (1920-) ,
who se r ved as Secr etar y of the Inter ior under P res ident s
Joh n F. K ennedy and L yndon B . J ohnson , 1961-69 , and
for mu la ted our mos t im por tant en vir onmental le gis lation .

You al so kn ow tha t the onl y s atisf actor y hi stor y of sci ence in


Co lonia l ti mes and la ter was wr itten by D utc h Ame r ucan, Dir k
J. St r ui ck (1894-2000) , " Yank ee Sc ience i n the Mak ing" . Ev en
W ik ipedia is confused about th is .
CHA PT ER FO UR TEE N: WH AT IS A N A NT IT ONE ? BY PAS SIN G?
AM PLIFICA TIO N?
You may kno w th at the w or d "tone", as i n a " step" of a
mus ica l sca le , is fr om the G reek w or d "tonus" mean ing
"or der" or " or dering" .

T ha t the ter m " isotone" mean s TW O ORD ERI NG S I N CA DE NC E


AN D DI REC TIO N -- BO TH INC REASI NG O R B OTH DE CRE ASI NG ,
and PER HAP S B OUND ED , so not "go ing on for ever" .

T ha t the ter m "an titone " mean s TW O O RD ERI NG S IN CA DE NC E


in OPP OSITI ON - - ONE IN CR EASI NG , TH E OTHE R D EC RE ASIN G ,
su ch th at ONE ORD ERI NG IS BOU NDE D.

You can la be l as "m axtone" T HE I NC REA SIN G OR DE RIN G


since eac h T ON E AFT ER TH E FIRST MAXIMIZE S T HE
PR ECE DIN G TONE OR TONE S.

You can la be l as "m intone " the DE CR EASI NG O RD ERI NG , since


eac h T ON E AFT ER TH E FIRST MI NIMIZES THE PR EC EDIN G
TONE OR TONE S.

You real iz e th at, i n the A NTIT ON E, the B OUN DI NG of ONE


OR DE RIN G IN DU CE S A B OUND ON T HE O TH ER , SIN CE TH EY
MU ST RE MAI N I N CA DE NCE .

You WE Blear n tha t the AN TIT ON E o r A NTIT ON IC PR OCE SS as


a SI MPLE OR DE RIN G of THE GAL OIS CON NEC TIO N or
CO RR ESP ON DE NC E whic h can be betw een PAR TIAL
OR DE RIN GS or LATTI CES as i n Ga loi s' Pr oof of F ai lur e to
Sol ve al l 5th De g ree Alge br aic Equ ati ons by R adica ls . T ha t
the M AXT ON E was ther ein the DE GR EE of a ROO T FIEL D; and
MINT ON E, the D EG RE E O F TH E UNS OL VED EQ UATIO N. )

You real iz e y ou can d is ti ngui sh tw o types of AN TIT ONE S:

• DANTIT ON E, wi th dis cr ete or di scont inuou s s tep s.


• CA NTIT ON E, wi th cont inuous change s.
T ha t D AN TIT ONE S and CAN TIT ONE S m odel va riou s pr oces se s.

You real iz e th at, a s pr ototype , the D anti tone can be simpl y


explained to chi ldr en or t een-a ger s in ter ms of da il y
pr oces ses .

You may kno w th at Amer ican ma the ma tit ion, Norber t WIE NE R
(1894-1954), in h is book , Cyber net ic s (1948 ) , de scibe s the
Dant itone i n di scu ss ing CLIM BIN G UP O R D OWN STAIR S. T hat
in climb ing, T HE M AXT ON E IS T HE S ET OF RI SERS UPS TAI RS ;
TH E MINT ON E IS TH E D IST AN CE F ROM TH E T OP. (In
descend ing, the role s ar e rever sed .) Y ou r ea li ze tha t eac h
RISE R CO RR ESP ON DS TO A UNIT DIS TANC E FR OM TH E TOP.
Ob viou sl y, the N UMB ER OF RI SER S O F TH E S TAIRS IS
BO UND ED , s o THI S I ND UC ES TH E NUM BER OF D EC RE ASES .

YOU Rea li ze th at find ing a so ck in a dr aw er, or a folder in a


fi li ng ca binet is D AN TIT ONIC .

You WE Blear n tha t, as Pr ototype , the C AN TIT ON E ca b MO DEL


TH E LIMIT P ROC ESS in C AL CUL US . (You r ea li ze tha t th is can
be compar ed wi th the calcu lu s exp lic ation in C ha pter 16 .)

You real iz e th at, i n a (C AN TIT ONIC) LIMIT PR OC ES S:

• the O RDE RIN G is, to r epea t, CON TIN UOU S or ANALOGIC ,


not D ISC RETE or DI GIT AL, a s in the case s above;
• the M AXT ON E cons is ts of the IN CRE ASIN G SE QU EN CE O F
TE RMS ;
• the MI NT ON E cons is ts of "di st ance fr om the l imi t" ;
• by CHOO SIN G an EPSIL ON -DIS TANC E fr om LIMIT L, the
MA XT ONE IS TE NT ATIV ELY BO UND ED ;
• thi s IND UCE S a DE LTA- BO UND on TH E MINT ON E of
SE QU EN TS .
• the S PE CIFICA TIO N AL LOWS RE PEA TED CH OICES ON T HE
MA XT ONE , NE CE SSA RIL Y IN DU CIN G BO UND O N TH E
MINT ON E.
• T his " real zes " TH E LIMIT of TH E SE QU EN CE .
• T his M OD EL can be ada pted f or a ll LIMIT P ROC ESSE S I N
ANALYSIS .

You real iz e th at one of the mo st im por tant Ant iton ic


Pr oces se s was di sco ver ed ear ly in the hi stor y of s ci ma th.
Py tha gor as is suppo sed to h ave di sco ver e tha t. when you
subd iv ide a fi xed str ing and pl uc k one su binter va l, the pi tc h
of the tone i ncr ease s whi le the l ength of the s tr ing remai ns
constant . T he maxtone is tonal p itc h; the m in tone is l ength of
st ri ng subin ter va sl pluc ked .

As to B ypas si ng, you WE Bl ear n th at C anadian ma thema tici an


ma thema tici an, Z. A. Me lz ak, taught us about th is in hi s book,
"B ypa ss es , A Simp le Way to Cope w ith Co mple xity ". Me lz ak
sa ys "Man evol ved b y lear ning to cope wi th co mple xi ty. .... It
may e ven be th at the b ypas s pr inci ple , in it s v ar ious a spect s,
was so s ucces sfu l a mean s of cop ing with comple xity th at the
evol vi ng ho min id ended up b y in terior iz ing it , and so became
man. "

You lear n tha t A B YPASS has the for m:

difficult/impossible/desired task
------------------------->
transform: | ^transform back
possible | |to terms of
or easy or | |original task
desired | |
task| |
V------------------------>
perform task
You real iz e ho w N ONTRI VIAL th is ST RA TE GY by W EB lear ning
tha t, in MATH EMA TIC S, IT DE TERMI NE S T HE EI GE NV AL UE S O F
A MA TRIX OR M UL TIVE CT OR. T ha t, i n Phy sic s, IT IS THE
PRI NCIP AL T OO L O F QUANT UM MATH FO R FIN DIN G TH E
STABL E S TATES OR RA DIA TI ON STATES OF FU ND AM EN TAL
PARTICL ES.
Doe s con juga tion r ela te anti tone and bypa ss ? T he str ate gy
kn own as "T he C onjuga cy Pr inc iple ", or the ma the ma tical
oper ation kno wn as con juga tion , is the pr imar y eval ua tor of
exp er iment s in quant ic theor y. Perh aps be gan in group theor y
(Cha p.22) wher e conjugac y appl ies to sub g roups .

Giv en g roup G, wi th e lement s d, e, . .., s. t . d -1 is the in ver se of


of d, with conca tena tion a s g roup oper ation . And cons ider the
resu lt :

ded-1 = f
If the resu lt , f is als o i n the g roup , then e,f ar e s ai d to be
mutua l con juga te s . As an equi val ence rela tion (w ith
pr oper tie s of ref le xiv it y, sym metr y, tr an si ti vit y ), con jugac y
par ti tion s a g roup i nto equi val ence cla ss es .

Con jugac y ha s the g raph :

f
------------------------->
| ^
| |
e| |ded
| |
| |
V------------------------>
de
T he Pr incip le of Co mjugac y appl ies i n dif fer ent f or ms i n
dif fer ent f iel ds and as "b ypas s" (the name and not ion of
Canad ian mathema tic ian, Z . A. Mel zak) pr ovide s perha ps the
mos t powerful mean s we ha ve for inventi on and in for ma tion
resear ch.

A ppl ied to matr ices and vector s , it deter mines the


eigen value s and eign vector s of a gi ven vector . T hese ar e
"fi xpoint s" of the vecto r : conjuga tion appli ed to them res ult s
in no change . T he resu ltant ma tri x ha s al l zer o entr ies e xcept
for the dia gonal , so tha t the " deter minant" of the ma trix is
eas il y calcu la ted.
W hen the vector r epr esents a wave function in quant ics , th is
resu lt s in pr oba bi li tie s for the meas ur es of the wave vector ,
pr oviding the pri mar y r esul t i n quantic s.

You may kno w Me lz ak taught us i n hi s book th st HOM OL OGY


IS A SPE CIAL CA SE OF BY PASS i n the f or m in the for m of the
theor y of pr opor tions ; in t he for m of kennings i n Ang lo -Sax on
liter atur e; etc.

You kn ow you " fle sh out" thi s ans atz :

• extensi vel y desc ribe by pas se s in the tool -mak ing and
sur viv al tact ic s of ani mal s and hom in ids ;
• use HOMO LOGY to TRA NSF ORM THE SE EXT RIN SIC
BY PAS SES INT O IN TERI OR BY PASSES ;
• sho w ho w thi s pr oce ss de velops it s the pur est f or m in
LOGI CO -M ATH EMA TI CS;
• find homol ogie s betw een non-s ci entif ic bypa ss es and
sc ient ific one s.

You kn ow tha t, in Cha p. Nine , the ted ium of di rectl y


calcu la ting a har monic mean i s br t he Bypa ss of computi ng
the r ec ipr ocal s of the numer s (in ver ses !) , and tr an sf or ms thi s
to a rith metic mean of rec ipr ocals , then tr ans for ming the
ans wer obta ined into it s r ec ipr ocal (in ver se) a s the har monic
mean an swer.

You how you a ls o lear ned in Cha p. 9 th at the ted ium of a


geometr ic m ean is B ypas sed by tr an sf or ming the number s
in to the ir logar ith ms (in ver se s!) , so lv e b y ari thmet ic m ean
method , then tak e ant il og ( in ver se) of the ans wer a s the
geometr ic m ean.

Another "c la ss ic" By pas s is i n the anc ient " Came l Pr oble m" .

An Ar abic man is ri ding a ca mel acr os s a deser t expanse ,


when he encounter s a no vel sight. T hr ee young A rabic m en
ar e fier cel y ar guing , s ur rounded by 17 came ls . D ism ounting ,
the s tr anger was tol d the pr oble m. T he ir father had died ,
le aving (as the ir onl y r ea l i nher itance) the se 17 ca mel s. N ow,
the e ldes t son was to recei ve ha lf of the came ls ; the second
son , one-th ir d of the came ls ; the younge st son , one-n inth of
the ca mel s. P roblem : ho w cou ld the y thus div ide the 17
camel s?

T he str anger adjo ined hi s camel to the col lect ion, mak ing i t
18 came ls . T hen, the str anger appor tioned 9 (= 1/2(18))
camel s to the e lde st son ; 6 (= 1/3(18)) came ls to the 2nd son;
2 (= 1/9(18)) came ls to the youngest son. H avi ng s ol ved the
pr oblem and a ssua ged the ir ar gument, the s tr anger mounted
hi s own came l and rode aw ay.

You kn ow tha t thi s pr ob lem (extending the quantit y to obtain


a s ol uti on, then r etu r ning to t he or igi nal quanti ty) has i ts
counter par t in a v ast su bject of m athem atic s -- linear
pr og ramm ing - - and tha t an algor ith m f or one of it s pr ob lem
ty pes changed hi stor y.

After Wor ld War II, Be r lin was an "i sland" sur rounded b y the
So viet -domi na ted Eas t G er many , and Be r lin was also
par ti tioned in to W est and Ea st Be r lin . In 1948 , the So viet s
tr ied to for ce A mer ican, B ri ti sh and F renc h for ces out of
Be r lin by bloc kading la nd route s t o the se ctor s eac h of thes e
po wer s occupied . T hi s Ber lin Blo ckade was thw ar ted (unti l it s
aban donment in Sept ., 1949) by a mas siv e a ir litt of f ood , fuel ,
and other su ppl ies needed by Be r liner s. T he succes s of th is
ai r lift , wi th a limi ted number of a ir cr aft, was pr imar il y due to
car eful plann ing u si ng a ma thema tical too l, linear
pr og ramm ing , finding so lut ion s t o i ts pr oblem s by mean s of a
sim ple x a lgor ithm de veloped by an Amer ican ma the ma tician ,
Geor ge D antz ig .

T he ma thema tical pur po se of linear pr og ramm ing i s to f ind a


sub set of number s fr om a pr escr ibed s et of number s w hic h
MA XIMIZES or MINIMI ZES a g iv en pol ynom ial (a lge br aic) for m .
A repr esent ati ve ca se is kno wn as " T he Di et Pr oble m": ho w to
pr escr ibe a d iet whic h wi ll MAXIMIZE NOUR ISH MEN T whi le
MINIMI ZIN G CO ST . In the Be r lin Bl oc kade ca se, a giant flight
plan sh ould MA XIMIZE TH E SU PPL Y LOAD F LOWN whil e
MINIMI ZIN G the a ir cr aft and per sonnel in vol ved . Typ ical l y,
constr aints on the pr oblem ar e f or mu la ted as a se t of
pol ynomi al in equal iti es , whi ch g raph a s a s ector in an n-
di mens iona l r e gion , wher e n i s t he number of con str aint s .
Dant zig 's s imp le x algo rith m iter ativ ely "w hitt les " the
rel ation sh ip do wn to a so lut ion .

After the succe ss of Dant zig 's wor k became kno wn to the
ma thema tical w or ld and so me of the gene ral pub lic , it
became kno wn th at a So vi et m athem ati cian , Leonid
Kantor ovi ch (1912 -86), had ea r lier obtained thes e r esul ts . Bu t
Kanto ri vi ch's math w as ignor ed , after being cr it ici zed ,
because it s eemed in confl ict wi th Marxi st dogma .

As in the Leontief ca se , m ath was used w ith su cces s. And,


again, the la ck of publ ici ty f or s uc h method s left the publ ic
ignor ant tha t ma th w as of any po li tica l use , and students
wer e lef t w ithout su ppor t.

BY PAS S can (as wi th any pr oceSs ) GR AP H the s ta ge s of a


MATHEMA TICAL DE RIV ATIO N , ma ing it ea si er to under stand
and lear n, a s in the fol lo wi ng impor tant DERIV ATIO N.

BYPASS TO Q UADR ATIC FO RM ULA

need this be monic ax2+bx+c=0


------------------------->
remove | ^result:
leading| |x2
constant| |+ (b/a)x
| |+ c/a (1)
| |
V------------------------>
divide equation by "a"
Need for m w ith liter als on other side fr om " x" ter ms. S tar t
wi th m onic for m, (1), and ad jus t.

x2 + (b/a)x + c/a = 0
------------------------->
literals | ^result:
in term| |x2
"c/a"| |+ (b/a)x =
| |- c/a (2)
| |
V------------------------>
subtract "c/a" from both sides
Need linear equa tion fr om quadr atic. star t with model of
perf ect squar e for m.

(x + k)2 = x2 + 2kx + k2 = 0
-----------------------
linear| ^transform (1) to
term | |(x+b/2a)2 +
is | |(b/a)x +
"k"| |b2/4a2
| |= 0 (3)
V------------------------>
"2k" matches "b/a" in (2)
(3) dif fer s fr om (2) b y ext ra ter m. Star t wi th (2) and ad jus t to
(3),

(x+b/2a)2+(b/a)x+b2/4a2=0
-----------------------
extra| ^(x + b/2a)2=
term is| |b2/4a2
"(b/2a)2"| |- c/a (4)
| |
| |
V--------------------->
add term
Left-s ide of (4) is squar e-r oota ble , but r ight -s ide need s
common denomin ator . S tar t wi th (4) and adju st .

(x+b/2a)2+(b/a)x+b2/4a2=0
-----------------------
least| ^(x + b/2a)2=
common| |(b2-4ac)/4a2
deniminator| |(5)
is| |
2
"4a "| |
V--------------------->
convert to common denominator
Can obtain a l inear for m by tak ing squar e root of both sides .
Star t with (5) and ad jus t.

(x + b/2a)2=(b2-4ac)/4a2
-----------------------
becomes| ^x + b/2a
linear| |= ±(√b2-4ac)/2a
by| |(6)
square-| |
rooting| |
V--------------------->
perform square-root
Want quadr atic f or mu la on ri ght=s ide .

x + b/2a = ±(√b2-4ac)/2a
-----------------------
trans- | ^x = - b/2a
form | |±(√b2-4ac)/2a
| |standard form
| |(7)
| |
V--------------------->
subract b/2a from both sides
T hu s, gener al quadr ati c equa tion con ver ted t o quadr atic
for ma la by se ven B YPASSE S.
You unde rstand the se BY GRA MS: B ypas s Di ag ram s;
Humanizing Hominid
--------------------->
Hominid| Z. A. Melzak ^Hominid
develops| says "Hominid |becomes
external| may have become |Human
Bypasses| human by interior-|thru
(such as| izing bypassing" |Bypassing
some of | |
those | |
below) | |
V-------------------->
Interiorizes Bypassing
_________________________________________________________________
____________
How to GLIDE along
--------------------->
From | ^Restore
upright| |stable
stable| BIPEDAL |position
position| WALKING |on outstretched
fall | |leg
forward| |
V-------------------->
extend (say) left leg
(digitized gliding)
_________________________________________________________________
____________

"fork" at dangerous site to dig marrow from bones


--------------------->
take| ^Use fork
likely| TOOL MAKING |to dig marrow
bone or| |from bones
stone| |in safety
"home"| |of cave
with marrow bones V-------------------->
shape marrow "fork"
_________________________________________________________________
______________

Water for bed-ridden kinfolk


--------------------->
Take| ^Empty into
shell or| |mouth of
pot to| |suppliant
stream| |
V-------------------->
Carry to suppliant
_________________________________________________________________
_____________-

Need food or goods at another site (Transport


and Storage
---------------------> form two
large classes
Pack| ^Empty of
Bypasses)
into| |out for
"bag"| |use
V-------------------->
Transport to site
_________________________________________________________________
____________
Sharing thoughts another
--------------------->
Transform| LANGUAGE AS ^Heard words
thoughts | BYPASS |transformed
into words| |into thoughts
| |in hearer
V-------------------->
Speak words
_________________________________________________________________
____________

Measuring inaccessible object


--------------------->
Measure| ^
shadow (b)| |Proportion:
cast by| |a:b::x:c or
shadow-stick| |a/b = x/c
of known| |hence,
length (a):| |x = ac/b
tangent of| |
shadow-triangle| |(Erastothenes estimated
/|a | | the diameter of the
/_| | | Earth by a similar
b V--------------------> Bypass)
Measure shadow cast at
same time by object
(say, pyramid) /|
another tangent / |x
/__|
c
_________________________________________________________________
______________
(Arab riding camel in de-
Solve problem with insu- sert sees 3 Arab brothers
ficient structure quarreling, amid 17
---------------------> camels. Seems their father
Puts| ^Re- willed elder 1/2 camels;
his| |claims 2nd, 1/3 camels; youngest
camel| |his 1/9 camels. Division pro-
with| |camel vokes quarrel. Stranger
other| |& de- adjoins his camel to
camels| |parts theirs. Assigns elder 1/2
| | (18) = 9 camels; 2nd, 1/3
| | (18) = 6 camels; youngest,
V--------------------> 1/9(18) = 2 camels. 9 + 6
Apportions camels + 2 = 17. Stranger re-
claims his camel, departs.
_________________________________________________________________
____________

Reach up or work at high places


--------------------->
Put| ^Climb down
ladder| |ladder &
in place| |remove it
| |
V-------------------->
Accomplish Task
_________________________________________________________________
_____________
Flee across guarded space
--------------------->
Dig| ^Emerge As in the
film, "The
tunnel| |from Great
Escape"
out of| |tunnel
sight of| |beyond
guards| |guardsight
V-------------------->
Flee underground out sight
_________________________________________________________________
_______________
Walk on broken leg
--------------------->
Splint| ^When leg
broken| |heals,
leg| |remove
| |splint
V-------------------->
Walk on splint-supported leg
_________________________________________________________________
_______________
Eat meat/fish/vegetables procured raw
--------------------->
Put in| ^Eat
cooker| |food
| |
V-------------------->
Soften "food" for mastication
_________________________________________________________________
_______________
Dye Easter egg, leaving undyed portion
--------------------->
Rub| ^Remove (Similar
for batik
"undyed"| |wax dyeing)
with wax| |
| |
| |
V-------------------->
Immerse egg in dye
_________________________________________________________________
______________
You know that the BYPASS of CLIMBING STAIRS shows the link
between CAUSATION and TELEOLOGY:
the increase of risers is CAUSAL; the decrease of distance from
top is TELEOLOGICAL.

You know a Bypass can beome an ANTITONE just by collapsing.

You know this about AMPLIFICATION:

• From the verb "amplify" derives the substantive,


"ampliative", jargon in
• the philosophical theory of logic.

• "Ampliative": A given reasoning process can increase the
knowledge
• already possessed.

• But this is believed to be impossible in STANDARD LOGIC,
which
• REVEALS "ONLY WHAT IS THERE". STANDARD LOGIC is also
MONOTONIC -- REMAINING
• THE SAME OR INCREASING ONLY WHEN NEW TRUTHS ARE ADJOINED
-- from outside. ONLY
• A NONMONOTONIC MEASURE WHICH INCREASES AND DECREASES CAN
GUIDE US IN
• DECISIONS. Logicians say that such a CORRECTIVE is
impossible.

• CIVILIZATION DERIVES FROM AT LEAST TWO (CORRECTIVE)
AMPLIATIVE PROCESSES:


o TRADING BETWEEN HUMANS STARTED TO "SHOW A PROFIT". The
CALVINIST
o outmanuevering of THE ROMAN CATHOLIC BAN ON "USURY"
ACCUMULATED OUR PRESENT
o ECONOMIC SOCIETY.
o
o CRUDE PREHISTORIC DEVICES PROGRESSED INTO MECHANICS. By
o definition, A MACHINE is a PROCESS WHICH MAGNIFIES
OR AMPLIFIES ITS INPUT.
o Examples:
o
o

 A LEVER TRADES-OFF LENGTH FOR LOAD: Place the


FULCRUM (balancer) of
 the LEVER so PART ON FORCE-ARM is 3 TIMES THE
LENGTH ON LOAD-ARM, and you
 can RAISE 3 TIMES AS MUCH FOR GIVEN FORCE. A
LEVER IS AMPLIATIVE.

 A PULLEY TRADES-OFF ROPE-LENGTH FOR LOAD: A PULLEY
SYSTEM WITH 3
 ROPE-LENGTHS ACTING ON THE LOAD RAISES 3 TIMES
THE LOAD FOR GIVEN FORCE. A
 PULLEY IS AMPLIATIVE. So are other MACHINES
(wheel-and-axle, inclined
 plane, screw, etc.). So also ELECTRINES
(computers, radios, TV sets,
 tape and CD players, etc.).

You know that a Bypass can be transformed into an


amplification by TRANSFORMING INPUT

OF A MACHINE OR PROCESS INTO ITS OUTPUT.

A MACHINE IS A DEVICE ACTING UPON INPUT FORCE OR TORQUE


(ROTATIONAL
"FORCE") BY ANTITONICALLY AMPLIFYING IT INTO OUTPUT FORCE OR
TORQUE

You know the linking between ANTITONE, BYPASS, AMPLIFICATION


can be formulated as an acronym,

AMANBY" AM(PLIFY)AN(TITONE)BY(PASS).
CH AP TER FIT HTE EN : WH AT IS A MA CHIN E? A N EL ECT RINE ? A
LOGIN E?
You kn ow tha t, r e gar ding a "co mputing ma chine" , you' ve
hear d people sa y, "I don 't s ee ho w a mac hine can do th at. "
And you r ea li ze a mer e m ac hi ne can't do our comput ing .

You may kno w th at you co mpute with electr on ics . T ha t


electr on ics i s electr ic ity contr oll ed, in i ts flo w, by electr ic ity ,
not b y a m ec hanica l de vi ce . Also tha t , m os t of the t ime , it
doesn 't compute ,

So thi s tel ls you tha t you compute w ith an electr ine .

You may kno w th at a ma chine is a de vice w ho se m otion


tr ans for ms under the tr ans for ma tion la w , for mul ated b y
Ga li leo (1564-1642) .

Es sentia ll y, thi s sa ys the mot ion of a ma chine is af fected by


the m otion of i ts bac kg round , a s the ca se of a bo at s peeded
by the water flo wing i ts way, but slo wed b y a cur rent
oppos ite to i ts mot ion. S im ila r l y, with tai lw ind s or head winds
for plane s.

You may kno w th at electr on ics i s the f lo w of e lectr ici ty under


contr ol of electr tici ty , not by me chanica l device s,

T his te ll s y ou th at an elect rine is an electr on ics de vice whic h


is not af fected by mot ion of it s ba ckg round . You m ay kno w
tha t it s tr an sf or mati on l aw is the Lor entz- Ei ns tein
Trans for ma tion Law .

You then kno w th at a computer is an elect rine .

You may kno w th at another m isu se of "ma chine" occur s in


speak ing of a " Turi ng Ma chine" , whi ch A lan Tur ing (1912 -
1954) concei ved pr ior to t he fir st computer . You kno w t ha t
thi s is not a device . You may kno w t ha t a " Turi ng ma chine " i s
descr ibed entir el y in te r ms of langua ge. So it i s a l ogi ne,
fr om the Greek wor d "l ogos " for "di scour se".
CH AP TER SI XTEE N: WH Y IS K IS SIN G TH E S EC RET OF
CAL CUL US AN D TH E SE CRE T O F TH E WH EEL ?
You kn ow tha t the la bel "ca lcul us " i s mi slead ing. T hat it
deri ves fr om the Gr eek for "pe bble " or "stone ". (T hat, in
medi cal jar gon , a gal lstone or k idne ys tone is a calcu lu s.)
T ha t i t deri ved ma the ma tical connota tion fr om the method by
whic h illiter ate Gr eek shepher ds in ventor iedthe ir sheep flo ck.
W hen eac h sheep went out of the ga te of the fold to go to be
her de d to pa stur e, the shepher d put a pe bble as tok en in a
pouc h k eep a t hi s wai st . W hen her ding ea ch sheep bac k
thr ough the ga te of the fold , the shepher d r emo ved a pe bble
fr om h is pouc h.

You kn ow the f ollo wing demons tr ation der iv es fr om the l es son


taught to Isaac N ewton (1643-1747) by hi s ma thema tics
pr of es so r, I saac B ar row (1630-1677) , a t C ambr idge U ni ver si ty.

Br iefl y, y ou kno w th at B ar row sho wed New ton the


sign ificance of A GEO MET RIC (not t rigonomet ric !) SEC AN T OF
A CU RVE TRA NSF ORMI NG I NT O A TANGE NT TO TH E C URVE.

You kn ow tha t the SEC AN T (in ri sing up a se mi -c ir cle ar ced


up war ds) touc he s the cur ve tw ice: on the " left " and in
another po int on the "r ight" of the se mi cir cle . You kn ow tha t
the L EFT P OI NT ri ses RI GH TW AR D on the ar c, w hil e the
RIG HT P OI NT ri ses LEFT WA RD on the ar c, so th at t he po ints
(Ant itonica ll y! as in an y LIMIT P ROC ESS) MO VE T OWAR D
EA CH OTHE R.

You kn ow tha t, W hen SE CA NT BE CO MES TAN GEN T a t top of


ar c, these POIN TS UNIT E I N A SIN GLE POIN T. Ma the ma tician s
cal l thi s po int an "o scul ation" (fr om La tin , for'k is sing "), so
the T ANGE NT JU ST KI SSES THE CUR VE .

YOU kn ow tha t th is r isi ng en g r aph s w ha t is i nvolv ed in


ME ASU RIN G SP EED .

You kn ow you can thi nk of the "left point " a s the P OS ITIO N
OF A PAR TICLE (or auto mobi le) a t " the be ginn ing of
meas ur ement" ; and the "r ight point " a s PO SITIO N AT A LATER
TIME . T he DIS TANC E T RA VER SED DURI NG t he TIM E I NTE RVAL
(LEN GT H DI VIDED BY TIME) IS T HE A VE RA GE SPEE D O F
PARTICL E (car) . B ut TH E I NS TANT ANE OU S SP EED IS DE SIRE D.
You kn ow TH AT IS R EP RESE NT ED BY T HE " KIS SIN G POI NT ".

You kn ow you can st ate thi s a lge br aica ll y:

• DE NO TE INITI AL POSITI ON A S x 1 ;
• TE RMIN AL PO IN T A S x 2 ;
• TH E DIS TANC E I NTE RVAL AS ∆x = x 2 - x 1 ;
• sim ila r l y, THE TIME INTE RVAL A S ∆t = t 2 - t 1 ;
• the R ATI O A S ∆x/∆t = (x 2 - x 1 )/(t 2 - t 1 ).

T his ha s been for mal iz ed a s the DIFFER EN TIA TIO N PP ROCE SS


AS THE TIME INTE RVAL G OES TO ZE RO: LIM (∆t -> 0) ∆x/∆t =
D t x, REPR ESE NTI NG T HE TANG EN T PO IN T ("k is sing poin t") b y
"the deri va ti ve of x w ith respect to t". T hUS , the LIMIT
PR OCES S, for example , TR AN SFO RMS AVERA GE SP EED IN TO
IN STAN TANE OUS SPEE D.

You kn ow tha t Bar row al so taught N ewton ho w to ME ASU RE


TH E AR EA UND ER A CURVE, l eading to the i nte g ral ca lculu s
in another "ki ssing" pr oces s.

You kn ow tha t "bar g raphs " can be bu il t fto m the bas e up to


the top of the se mi cir cle . Ineac h ba r, the lef t po int ri se s
up war d abo ve the ar c, whi le the r ight poin t of t he bar
descend s down to the ar c. You kno w tha t, as the bar s ar e
decr eased in wi dth, the lef t and righ t po ints of eac h bar ar e
mo ving *ant iton ical l y) to war d eac h other . You kno w tha t,
when eac h bar tr an sf or ms into a line se gment, ju st touc ing
the ar c, the se se gment s fi ll in onl y the ar ea ubder the ar c,
and the tota l s um of the ir le ngths is, in the limi t, a mea sur e
of the ar ea under t he sem icir cle and repr esent s the i nte g ral
calcu lus .

You kn ow tha t, if st udents wer e taught thi s, for mul ated s o


long ago by I saac Bar row, they w ould rea li ze tha t the y kn ow
the e ss enti al s of the calcu lus , but did kno w th at the y kno w
these kno wable s.

An y "nor ma l" teen- ager can under stand the st rate gy of the
dif fer ent ial calcu lus and the s tr ate gy of the in te g ral calcu lus .
But the har d par t i s lear ning al l the deta il s of the tact ic s of
eac h s ub ject so the se can be ca lcul ated i n appli ca tions to
so lv e u seful pr oble ms .

You kn ow why ki ssi ng i s the s ecr et of the wheel, but you


don't kn ow tha t you knew unt il you ar e told .

To be gin , Y ou can ima gine a wheel resti ng on a s urf ace . Y ou


can th ink of the w hee l a s a s ta ck of c ir cle s, eac h wheel ju st
ki ssi ng the su rf ace i n one po int per c ir cle.

You kn ow tha t a w hee l or an y m ater ia l ob ject mo ving acr os s a


su rf ace i nvok es fr ict ion . Bu t y ou kno w th at ea ch cir cle
in vok es mi ni mal fr icti on , whic h i s why the w hee l pr ovide s the
mos t ef fic ient pr opul si on of a veh ic le .

You now kn ow thi s is w hy ki ssi ng i s the s ecr et of the w hee l .


CH AP TER SEVE NT EEN : WHA T IS T-M ATH ? O-M ATH ?
You kn ow tha t st andar d se t theor y deal s onl y w ith wha t ma y
be ca lled "t-s et s" : se ts con str ainted onl y in ty pe (k ind), not in
or der (de g ree) -- in f act , pr ecluding or der .

You kn ow these ar e P rotoT ype s of t- mathem atic s .

You al so kn ow tha t, for se ts of f ac tor s of number s, thi s


appli es onl y to number s w hic h ar e la be led "s quar e-fr ee" . s uc h
as 30 = 2 ·3·5 , contain ing ea ch pr ime factor onl y once . You
kn ow tha t the se can be ca ll ed " t-nu mber s" .

You kn ow tha t, to encompa ss Na tur al Nu mber o r Inte g ral


Ar ithme tic , thi s mu st be e xtended to o-nu mber s , suc h as 12 =
2·2 ·3·5 , whic h contain s tw o tok en s of pri me f ac tor 2.

You kn ow tha t thes e ar e Ptoto Types of o-ma thema tic s.

sYou kno w t ha t, i n the 1960 's , the " mu lti se t" concept
de veloped as a hybr id , ma pp ing s et elements i nto in te ger s.
But the o-s et nonh ybrid l y extends the st anda r d for ma li sm .

You kn ow tha t the moti vation f or m ult iset s was the need , in
computer pr og ramm ing, to sym bol ise mul tip le tok ens of an
oper ation or oper an d, T hi s is de scr ibed on pp . 411 -12 of T he
Ar t of C omputer Pr og ram ming , V. 2 , by Dona ld Knuth .

Standar d sta tement l og ic i s t- logic , constr ainted to type onl y.


You kn ow thi s can be eas il y lear ned b y as signi ng alpa betic
le tter s to the oper ations and oper an ds of t-l og ic, and
dec lari ng r ule s for the " wf f" or wel l- for med for mula ,
compar able to the wel l- for med sen tence in a uni ver sa l
langua ge.

You kn ow tha t st ate ment l ogi c concer ns on l y ass er ti ons


whic h, potentia ll y can be deter mined as tr ue or fal se .

You kn ow tha t the combin ator s of t-lo gic ar e:

1. conjunct ion ( "and"),


2. di sj uncti on ("or") ,
3. condit ional ( "if _, then _) ,
4. bicond iti onal ("If _ and onl y i f _ "),
5. ne ga tion ("not _") .

You see tha t the fir st four ar e binar y , th at i s, oper ate on t wo


sim ple or compound ass er ti ons at a ti me , while the fifth is
unar y , tha t is, oper ates on a s ing le simp le or compound
as ser tion at a ti me .

You use the v owels , A, E, I, O, U, to denote thes e oper ator s :


"A " f or " and", " E" for "equ iva lence or b icondi tiona l" , "I" for
"condi tiona l" , "O " for "or" , and " U" f or " ne ga tion" ("undoe s").
You use the con sonants denote the oper and ss of sim ple or
noncompound pos it iv e s ta tements , th at i s, w ithout
NE GATIO N.

You kn ow you can use , for thi s, Pol is h pr ef ix not ation (as
in tr oduce d by Jan Lukas iew icz (1878-1956) Y ou kno w th at a
hand ca lcul ator u se s "r ever se or postf ix Pol is h": put in the
number s and then the oper ator .

You kn ow you can be gin w ith th is D EFINI TIO N:

1. Read left to right . S cope of oper ator is a llo wed nu mber of


oper an ds f ol lo wing it .
2. W hate ver i s denoted by a con sonant is a t- wf f .
3. W hate ver i s denoted by A , E , I, O , fol lo wed by tw o t- wf f 's ,
is a t- wf f .
4. W hate ver i s denoted by U follo wed b y a t-wf f is a t- wf f .

You kn ow thi s mu st be co mpleted via clos ur e r ule : No thing is


a t-wf f unle ss des igna ted by r ule s 1- 4.

You kn ow tha t he def ini tiona l r ul es giv en for t -l og ic can be


eas il y demon str ated for modus ponent s (a .k.a . va li di ty of
as ser ting the pr ecedent ), the mos t famous of log ical pr oof
r ules .
You as si gn P, Q be tw o sta tements , th at i s, dec lar ativ e
sen tences ca pable of v erif ica tion as tr ue or fals e .

1. "If P, then Q" denote s the cond itiona l , "If sta tement P i s
so , then st ate ment Q is so ". In Pol is h P refix , t hi s is (w ith
"I" for CON DITI ON AL) : IPQ .
2. "(If P, then Q) and P " denote s thi s cond itiona l as ser tion
conjuncted ("anded") w ith the st atement tha t P is s o ; or
AIP QP .
3. "If ((If P, then Q) and P) , then Q " denote s th at the
pr emi se , "(If P, then Q) and P ", i mp li es its consequent ,
"then Q" i s so ; or . You kno w tha t T he standar d way of
PR OOF is to CHE CK on pa per, whi ch i nvolv es
UND ERLI NIN G TH E t-W FFS, s paci ng the ter ms, for
con venience .

IAIP QPR ⇒ I A I P Q P Q (by RULE TW O on C ONS ONANTS) .

IAIP QPR ⇒ I A I P Q P Q ⇒ I A I P Q P Q (b y RULE THR EE ON


I)

IAIP QPR ⇒ I A I P Q P Q ⇒ I A I P Q P Q ⇒ I A I P Q P Q (by


RULE THR EE on A)

IAIP QPR ⇒ I A I P Q P Q ⇒ I A I P Q P Q ⇒ I A I P Q P Q ⇒
IAIP QP Q (b y R ULE TH RE E on I)

Hence , IAIP QP Q = IAI PQ PQ . QE D.

On pa per , y ou kno w y ou can o mi t the cha in of st eps abo ve


by UNDE RLINI NG an UND ERLI NE , but you can't eas il y
sho w tha t by the computer .

You kn ow the a bo ve can be e xtended to o-l og ic b y


adjo ini ng one mor e opr tati on, aug for de g ree .

then y ou kno w the oper ation s:

1. conjunct ion ( "and"),


2. di sj uncti on ("or") ,
3. condit ional ( "if _, then _) ,
4. bicond iti onal ("If _ and onl y i f _ "),
5. aug ("augment of tok ena ge").
6. ne ga tion ("not _") .

You kn ow to e xtend the DEFINITI ON :

7. Read left to right . S cope of oper ator is a llo wed


number of oper ands fol lo wing it.
8. W hate ver i s denoted by a con sonant is an o-wf f .
9. W hate ver i s denoted by A , E , I, O , fol lo wed by tw o o-
wf f 's, is an o-wf f .
10. W hate ver i s denoted by Y fol lo wed by an o-wf f i s an
o-wf f .
11. W hate ver i s denoted by U follo wed b y an o-wf f is an
o-wf f .
12. nothing is a o-wf f un les s i t is de sign ated b y Rule s
ONE to FIVE .

You kn ow you can demons tr ate o-l og ic v ia o-wf f of


independent deci si ons : pi ck, stor e, ne ither , both.

Giv en O O B C Y B (ne ither):

o O O B C Y B by R ul e T wo on Cons onants
o O O B C Y B by R ul e F our . (p ic k, Y )
o O O B C Y B by R ul e T hr ee. (s tor e, O)
o O O B C Y B by R ul e T hr ee

It i s an o -wf f . (both, O)
CHA PT ER EIG HT EEN : WHAT IS PH IL OS OP HY ? (an "ON TOLOGY
GA ME "?)
You WE B-l ear n the w or d "ph il osoph y" ha s the pr efix sp el led
"phi " because it s or igin , and th at of sim ilar pr efi xes , is in the
Gr eek alpha bet , w hic h is dif fer ent fr om the La tin alpha bet on
whic h mu ch of our Engli sh langua ge i s based -- des cending
fr om R oman cu ltur e. T hat thr ee letter pr efix , "phi ", or igi na te s
fr om a single l ette r, " phi ", in the Greek alpha bet -- wr itten
thus : j. Bu t y ou kno w th at, in " phy sics ", "phi " i s wr itten as
"phy ".

You al so lear n tha t the pr efix "p sy " in "p sycholog y" is spe ll ed
wi th a single G reek l ette r, " ps i" , wr itten thu s: y.

You bel ie ve th is shou ld be taught in ever y e lementar y sc hool


and repea ted la ter on.

You lear n tha t the wor d "phi lo sophy " is att ributed to the
ancient Gr eek ma thema tic ian and phi lo sopher , Py tha gor as,
who liv ed ar ound the per iod 580 to 500 BC . T hat t he wor d
"phi lo soph y" means " Lo ve of W isdom" fr om the G reek " phi lo"
for "lo ve" and " soph ia" for "w is dom" .

You kn ow thi s evok es the quest ion as to the m eaning of


"W isdom ". You 'v e hear d of the epi g ram, 'I disa ppr ove of wha t
you s ay, but I wi ll def end to the dea th y our r ight to sa y it ",
incor rect l y a ttr ibuted to the Frenc h ph ilo sopher , Volta ir e
(1694-1778).

You can as soc ia te th at to ler ance wi th W isdom, w hile seeking


per ception of an act of TOLER AN T EMP ATHY .

You lear ned of at leas t one act of W is dom , enacted by a


neighbo r, in vol ving tw o other ty pes of Lo ve. One is Er ot ic
Lo ve. Bu t the other has a la bel who se spok en so und
conf ounds tw o d is ti nct t ype s of Lo ve. O ne l abel is " phi li al ",
wr itten thus and meaning "fr iendsh ip lo ve". N ot to be
confused wi th "f il ial ", wr itten thu s, and meaning "lo ve for a
son ", an of fspring . Agai n, a di st incti on betw een the Greek and
La tin a lpha bets and l angua ges . So t hi s W isdom Act
di st ingu ishe s Er otuc Lo ve fr om Friend shi p Lo ve.

By pas sing langua ge f or act ion, th is neighbo r, Al, sa id hi s


for mer ne ighbor , F red , w as often agit ated a bout the beha vi or
of hi s daughter and her bo yfriend . "W hy do they act lik e
tha t?" Af ter hear ing F red descr ibe thi s st range beha vi or, and
think ing for day s about it , A l expla ined h is under standing to
Fred. "i t i sn' t r ea ll y str ange , but ver y common . As so often,
the m an g iv es phi li al love to get er oti c l ove, and the w oman
gi ves er ot ic l ove to get ph il ia l lo ve. " Af ter da ys of r umin ating
on th is , F red s ai d he no w under stood . Fur ther mor e, he had
explained thi s to the couple and the y now under stood .

WIS DOM HAP PE NED ! An Act of T OLE RA NT EMP ATH Y e mbr aced
them al l.

You kn ow it i s w ell to r umin ate long on the es sence of


WIS DOM , perha ps as T OLE RAN T EMP ATHY, and ho w to
recogniz e th is. O r perha ps to for mu la te another defin iti on.

You lear n thi s s ubj ect condot s wi th a bes t-s el ling book and a
popular singer and co mposer of popu lar s ong s, C ar ly Si mon .
You kn ow the book is" T he Stor y of Phi lo sophy ", b y W il l
Dur ant , pub li shed in 1926,

YOU kn ow tha t Ca r ly is the g rand da ughter of Ric har d L.


Si mon who , wi th M. Lincoln Sc hu ste r, f ounded the pr est igiou s
publ is hing fi r m of Si mon and S chus ter , one of the four lar ge st
publ is her s in the Eng lis h l angua ge. But the fir m be gan almo st
as a jok e.

You lear n tha t, bac k in the 1920's , the se t wo wer e young


fana tics of cr os s- wor d puzz le s. B ut t hey couldn 't find enough
of them , so the y hir ed other s to wri te m or e, for med a
publ is hing fi r m, and publ is hed the fir st cr os s-w or d puz zle
book. And thei r fr iends r id iculed th is . So they s ear ched for
another book to pub li sh .
You lear n tha t the y hear d of a W ill Dur ant who was l ectur ing
to w or king men on phi lo sophy a t P resb yter ian La bor Temple ,
in lo wer Manha ttan .

You lear n tha t some of the lectur es had been pub li shed by
Juli us Halde man in " Li ttle Blue Book s" , eac h book de voted to
a s ing le phi los opher . And you lear n tha t the se "Li ttl e B lue
Book s" nota bl y attr acted reader s fr om T he Inter nationa l
Wor ker s of the Wor ld, a.k.a . IWW . a. k.a . "W ob bl ies ". You kno w
tha t st udents s houl d be taught of the i mpor tant r ole the y
pla yed in ea r ly 20th centur y A mer ica. You lear n t ha t
W ik ipedia , onl ine, w rite s tha t, in 1923 , the y had perha ps
100,000 member s, and m ight com mand suppor t of 300,000
mor e. You lear n the y thought an y go ver nment shou ld be
modeled as one big Union , in the st yle of the med ie va l
jour ne yman wor ker s.

You lear n tha t the se Wobblie s jou r ney ed fr om far m to far m,


doing sho r t- ter m job s, car r ying thes e "L it tle Blue Books ",
eac h f itt ing to a sh ir t po cket, to read at night ar ound a camp
fir e.

You lear n tha t Simon and S chus ter hir ed Dur ant to wr ite "T he
Stor y of Phi lo soph y" , whic h they pub li shed in 1926 .

You lear n tha t the resu lt was a sen sa tion , se ll ing mor e than
any nonfict ion book had e ver sol d; mot iv ating T he Ne w Y or k
Ti mes t o cr ea te its B es ts el ler Li st .

You lear n tha t mathema tic ian Eri c T emp le B el l wr ote "Men of
Ma the ma tics " for them; T homas C raven wr ote "Men of Ar t";
Ber nar d J af fe wr ote " Cr ucib les , T he Hist or y of c hemi st r y";
etc.

And you l ear n tha t W ill Dur ant and hi s wi fe, A ri el , went on to
wr ite the e le ven v olu me to me, "T He Stor y of Civ iliz ation" .

You wonder , of the long list in W ikiped ia, ho w many


phi los opher s rel ate the ir phi lo sophie s to the a bo ve def ini tion
of Ph il osoph y, and . i f not, the sign ificance of thei r de vi ati on
fr om i t.

Or h ave they , fol lo wi ng the lead of Socr ates and P la to , tur ned
Phi lo soph y i nto an " Onto log y Game" , tr ying to explic ate
Rea li ty or "w hat reall y ma tter s".

You lear n tha t Socr ate s reacted to the contempor ar y


"Soph is ts " who tr aveled fr om to wn to to wn , teac hing rhetor ic
for a f ee to thos e s eeking to se ttl e an ar gument or a cour t
case . T ha t the ir fla g rant st yle invok ed the pejor ativ e ter m
"s ophi str y" .

You lear n tha t Kenneth Bu r ke (1897-1993) . kno wn a s leader of


"T he New Rhetor ic" , became aw ar e of th is decades ago and
wr ote s ever al book s a bout thi s "game ", although not la be ling
it thu s.

W ik ipedia sa ys, "Bu r ke felt tha t the st udy of rhe toric wou ld
help human being s under stand 'w hat i s in vol ved when w e sa y
wha t people ar e doing and w hy they ar e doing it ." B ur ke
cal led su ch anal ys is ' dr ama tis m' and be lie ved th at s uc h an
appr oac h to langua ge anal ys is and use could help us
under stand t he ba si s of conf lict , the vir tue s and danger s of
cooper ation , and the oppor tunit ie s of identf ica tion and
consub stant ial it y. ....

"Bu r ke def ined the rhetori cal function of langua ge as 'a


sym bol ic means of i nduc ing cooper ati on i n being s t ha t by
na tur e respond to s ymbo ls .' He defined 'man ' a s 'the sym bol
us ing , m aking , and mis -us ing ani mal , in ventor of the ne ga ti ve,
separ ated fr om hi s na tur al cond iti on by in st r uments of hi s
own mak ing, goaded b y the s pi ri t of hier ar chy, and rotten
wi th per fection ." For B ur ke, s ome of the mo st sign ificant
pr oblem s in human beha vio r r esul ted fr om in st ances of
sym bol s us ing human be ings r ather than human being s u si ng
sym bol s.
"In B ur ke' s phi lo sophy , soc ia l inter act ion and commun ica tion
shou ld be under stood in ter ms of a pentad , whic h i nc lude s
act, scene, agent, agenc y, and pur po se . H e pr oposed tha t
mos t soc ial i nter act ion and commun ica tion can be
appr oac hed as a for m of dr ama whose outcomes ar e
deter mined b y rati os betw een the se fi ve pentad ic e lement s.
T his ha s become kno wn a s the ' dr ama tis ti c pentad' . T he
pentad is g rounded in h is dr am ati st ic method , w hic h see s the
rel ation sh ip betw een lif e and the ater as liter al rather than
meta phorica l: f or B ur ke, a ll the wor ld r ea ll y is a s ta ge . B ur ke
pur sued l iter ar y cr it ici sm not as a for mal ist ic enter pri se but
rather as an enter pri se wi th sign ificant soc io logica l i mpact ;
he s aw liter atur e as ' equip ment f or l iving ', of fering folk
wi sdo m and common sen se to people and thu s gu idi ng the
way they l ived thei r l ives.

"Another key concept for Bur ke is the ter mini stic scr een -- a
se t of symbo ls tha t becomes a kind of s cr een or grid of
in tel li gib il ity thr ough whic h the wor ld mak es s ens e to us.
[Onto log y!] Her e Bu r ke of fers rhe torica l theori st s and cr it ic s
a w ay of under stand ing the rel ation sh ip betw een langua ge
and ideolog y. Langua ge, Bu r ke thought, doe sn't sim pl y
'r ef lect' real it y; i t al so help s se lect real it y as w ell as def lect
real it y.

"In h is book Langu age a s Sy mbo li c A ction (1966), Bur ke


defined humankind as a 's ymbo l u si ng an ima l' (p . 3). T his
defin iti on, he ar gued, mean s tha t 'r ea li ty ' has actua ll y ' been
bui lt up f or u s thr ough noth ing but our sym bol syste m' (p . 5) .
W ithout our enc ycloped ias , atlas es , and other ass or ted
ref er ence guide s, we wou ld kn ow lit tle about the wor ld th at
lie s bey ond our im med ia te se nse experience . W ha t we ca ll
'r ea li ty ', B ur ke s ta ted, is actua ll y a 'c lutter of s ymbo ls a bout
the pa st comb ined with wha te ver thing s we kno w ma inl y
thr ough ma ps, ma gaz ine s, new spa per s, and the l ike a bout the
pr esent . . . a cons tr uct of our sym bol syste ms ' (p . 5) . C ol le ge
st udents wandering fr om clas s to cla ss , fr om Eng lis h
liter atur e to soc io log y to b io log y to ca lcul us , encounter a
new r ea li ty eac h time they enter a clas sr oo m; the cour ses
listed in a uni ver sity 's ca ta logue 'ar e in ef fect but so many
dif fer ent t er minolog ies ' (p . 5) . It s tand s t o r ea son then tha t
people who cons ider them se lv es to be Chr is ti an, and who
in ter nal iz e th at rel igi on's s ymbo l syste m, in ha bit a r ea li ty
tha t is d if fer ent fr om the one of pr actic ing Bud dhi st s, or
Jews , or Mu sl ims . T he s ame wou ld hold tr ue for people who
bel ie ve in the tenets of fr ee mar ket ca pita li sm or socia li sm,
Freudian p sychoanal ysi s o r J ungian depth p sycho log y, as well
as myst ici sm or m ater ial ism . Eac h be lief syste m ha s it s own
voca bular y to de scr ibe ho w t he wor ld w or ks and w ha t th ings
mean, thu s pr esent ing it s adher ents with a s pecif ic real it y."

You lear n tha t Bu r ke's co mpla int s agains t ph il osopher s w as


tha t eac h tr ied to get al l real it y do wn on pa per , usua ll y in
ter ms of a par ticu lar mot iv e, as i f no other moti ve ma tter ed ,
As an ins tance, a ph il osopher expla ined "e ver yth ing" in ter ms
of "the en vir onment " and talk s about the en vir onment as if it
is al iv e and can act as " an agent" .

You lear n tha t his " rhetori cal books " w er e

• Phi lo soph y of Liter ar y For m (1939)


• A Gr ammar of Mot iv es (1945)
• A Rhetor ic of Mot iv es (1950)
• T he Rhetor ic of Relig ion (1961)
• Langu age a s Sy mbo li c A ction (1966)
• Dr ama ti sm and De vel opment (1972)
• Es say s Towar d a Sy mbol ic of Mot iv es (2006)

Ho w did the so me of the noted phi los opher s de vi ate fr om


"phi lo soph y a s lo ve of w isdom "?

• Her ac litu s (535-475B C): exis tence con si st ening of


pri mar y m ater ial a gent s, suc h as f ir e and water
• Par menide s of El ea (ea r l y 5 th centur yB C): In oppo si tion
to H er ac litus , rep laced the kn owledge of s en se
exp er ience w ith reason ing about tr uth
• Zeno of El ea (490-430 BC) used reductio ad a bsur dum
ar guments to con st r uct pr ado xes th at see med to deny
exis tence of m oti on and other s ens or y e xperience s
• Socr ate s (469 -399BC) : quest for eter na l ver it ies
• Pl ato (428-347): the eter na l v eri tie s in s ome "hea venl y"
real m
• Ar is tot le (388 -327): phi lo sophy as al l kn owledge
• Chr ys ippu s of Stoa (280-207B C): mo st famou s of Sto ics ,
who bel iv ed i t is vir tuous to reconci le one's w il l to
na tur e; i n 20th centur y, C hri sippus 'contr ibuti ons to
pr opos it ional lo gic wer e fnal l y a ppr eci ated, inc luding hi s
bi va lenc y of st ate ments as be ing onl y t r ue and fal se
• Rene ´ De scar te s (1596-1650): "I think , ther ef or e I am"
• Franc is Bacon (1561-1626): "Baconian" scien tif ic
"method "
• Ba r uc h S pino za (1632-1677): "A ll th ings i n na tur e pr ocee d
fr om cer tain neces si ty and wi th the ut mos t per fection ."
• Volta ir e (1694-1778) :V olta ir e's f ocus was the idea of a
uni ver se based on r ea son and a r espect for na tur e.
• Jea n-J acques Rou ss eau (1712-1778) : F ocus on
sub ject iv it y and intr ospecti on.
• Immanue l K ant (1724-1804): Rea son w ithout experience i s
ill us or y, but e xper ience is s ubj ecti ve un les ssub sumed
under pur e reason .
• G. W. He gel (1770-1831): Hist or y as T hes is, Ant ithe si s,
Sy nthes is.
• Ar thur Schopenhau er (1788-1860): T he Wor ld as W ill and
Idea
• He rber t S pencer (1820-1903) : E volu tion as the
pr og res siv e de velopment of the ph ys ical wor ld, bi olog ical
or ganis ms , the human mi nd, and human cul tur e and
soc iet ies .
• W il lia m J ames (1842 -1910): H is " pr agma ti c" theor y of
tr uth appl ied D arw inian ideas in ph il osoph y, m akin
sur viv al the tes t of in tel lectua l a s wel l as biolog ical
fitne ss .
• Friedr ic h Nie tz sc he (1844-1900): Nih il ism , the bel ief th at
nothing has an y im por tance and tha t lif e lac ks pur pose .
• Geor ge S aunde rs P eir ce (1859-1914) : T heor y of S ign s
unif yi ng O nto log y and Ep is temo log y and A xio log y.
• Henr i Ber gson (1859-1941) : T hought i s a str eam of
consc ious nes s whi ch intel lect dis tor ts b y fr aming in to
concepts .
• Joh n Dew ey (1859-1952) : " Pr agma tis m" as
Inst r umenta li sm : e xperi menta tion ( soc ial , cul tur al,
tec hno logica l, ph ilo soph ical) could be u sed as a
rel ati vel y har d-and-f ast arb iter of tr uth.
• Al fr ed Nor th W hitehead (1861 -1947): Counter ing the
tr adit iona l ph il osph y tha t "r ea li ty i s t im ele ss ", W.' s
Pr oces s Ph il osoph y Pr oces s phi lo sophy (or On tolog y of
Becom ing) i denti fie s meta phy si cal r ea li ty with change
and dynam is m.
• Benedetto Cr oce (1866 -1952): T he root of r ea li ty i s
im manent exis tence in concr ete exp er ience, so C roce
place s aesthet ic s at the f ounda ti on of h is phi los ophy .
• Geor ge S antay ana (1863 -1952): N atur al is t m eta phy si cs in
whic h human cognit ion, cu ltur al pr actice s, and so cia l
in st itut ion s h ave evol ved s o as to har mon iz e with the
condit ions pr esent in the ir en vi ronment.
• Ber tr and Russ el l (1872-1970) : Sought cer tain ty in
Ma the ma tics a s other s do in rel igion . But real iz ed th at
thi s cer ta inty i s onl y tau tolog ical (h is ter m), and an y
atte mpt to war d real it y ri sk ed contr adict ion (h is te r m) ,
so ga ve up Ma thema tics and Phi lo soph y,
CHA PT ER NI NET EEN : WHAT IS MA THE MA TICS ?
On li ne W ikiped ia sa ys , " Ma the ma tics i s t he stud y of quantit y,
st r uctur e, s pace , c hange, and rela ted topic s of pa tter n and
for m. Ma the ma tician s se ek out pa tter ns whether f ound in
number s, space , na tur al sc ience , computer s, ima ginar y
abstr act ions , or el sew her e. Ma the ma tician s for mul ate new
conjectur es and es ta bl is h the ir tr uth by rigor ou s deduction
fr om a ppr opri atel y chos en ax iom s and defin it ions ." ( You
lear ned war ning s about axio ms i n Cha pter T wo.)

You real iz e th at t hi s expli ca tion onl y ta lks a bout m athem ati cs


fr om the out si de; a per son s til l mu st lear n ho w to do
ma thema tics ; and , a mong man y other ob jecti ons , it doe s not
sho w you t ha t you kno w so me m athem atic s, as is done in
"Ba rbie Do ll M ath" , in A ppendix C .

You real iz e th at a judic ious w ay to an swer a quest ion su ch a s


thi s cha pter' s ti tl e i s to f or thri ghtl y attemp t an ans wer t o the
quest ion and face the r eact ions to your ans wer. Y ou rea li ze
thi s is a WI N- WIN str ate gy. If other s accept y ou r an swer , y ou
WIN . If s ome one cor rect s your ans wer, you a ls o W in, becau se
your bas ic pur pose is to le ar n.

You lear n tha t the liter atur e sho ws thr ee F OU NDATI ON S FO R


MA THEMA TICS :

• AXI OMA TIC -- deri ving fr om T hale s of Mi letus (c .624-


547BC) , exempl ifi ed in E uc li d's Element s of G eometr y .
• GE NE RA TI VE -- deri ving fr om the pupi l of T hale s,
Py tha gor as (580?- 490? BC) .
• GROU P- TH EO RE TIC -- deri ving fr om G er man
ma thema tici an, Fel ix Klei n (1849 -1925).

You real iz e the se ar e especia ll y usefu l in TH E TACTIC S O F


MA THEMA TICS . You r ea li ze th at the gener atve me thod, sho ws
ho w a co mpr ehensi ve CU RR ICUL UM can be de veloped whic h
fulf il ls wha t the g rea t Henr i Poincaré (1854-1912) m ay ha ve
meant by say ing , "Ma thema tics ha s been ar ithmet ized. " .
And you s ee ho w the gener ati ve dr aw s upon TH E WAY WE
LEA RN LA NG UAGE AND R EA DIN G , hence , U NIFIES "T HE
TH RE E R 'S " (w her e the AX IO MA TIC bifur ca te s them) , and ma y
gi ve an advan ta ge to g ir ls and w omen , s ince the y ar e often
super ior to bo ys and men in langua ge .

But you may not be sa ti sf ied wi th the se FO UN DATIO NS ,


because they f ail

• to connect wi th invoca tiv e educa tional i deas - - as in


"Afr ican V io let " Educ ation ", cha ll enging the s r udent to
di sco ver the"r oot s" (or igin s) and "f lo wer" (ad vanced
de velopment) of a concept "sta lk" (s uc h a s number)
• to dea l wi th " Ma th as P atter ns -i n- Patter ns- in -. .." and the
need of human s to feel tha t T HEI R LI VES FIT A PATT ERN ;
• to dea l wi th y ou r aw ar enes s tha t (in e ver y endea vor !) w e
ar e "TACTICS RI CH & STR ATE GY PO OR" ;
• to dea l wi th the FO RM ALIC r ole of Ma thema tics i n the
se mio tic hi er archy (wi thin the "theor y of sign s") , to
pr ovide a su bs ystem of s yntact ics (w ithout expli cit
ref er ence) to spec ify s tr ing s of sign s whic h you may
connect with pr oto-m athem atic s in da il y lif e and i n
inher itance fr om y ou r ance stor s;
• espec ial l y, to deal with the ob ser vation of Canad ian
ma thema tici an, Z. A. Me lz ak, tha t H OMINI D M AY HA VE
BE CO ME HUM AN BY INT ER NALIZIN G TH E BY PASS
ST RA TE GY (tur ning a dif ficu lt or i mpo ssi ble pr oble m i nto
a pr ob lem homin id or human kno ws ho w to sol ve ).

You may , ther ef or e, tent ati vel y, D ECL AR E MATH EMA TIC S IS
FO RMALI CAL Y PATTER NE D S TRA TEG Y..

Br iefl y, M ATH EMA TI CS

• be gins with HUM AN S TRA TEGI ES;


• US ES FO RM ALIC C ONS TR AINT S (upon for ms) TO YIEL D
PATT ER NS ;
• HE NC E, TR AN SFO RMS FO RMALIZ ED PATTER NS INT O WI N-
WIN T OO LS (if uncontested , W IN ; if cor rected, WI N,
because PU RP OS E IS TO L EAR N) ;
• PATT ER NS TE STABLE BY T HE FI GU RE& GR OUN D
ST RA TE GY wher ein the F OR MALIC CON ST RAI NT pr ovides
a G ROUND a gain st whi ch the FI GU RE of ST RA TE Gy
"s tands out " i n the g iv en PATTER N.

Br iefl y: MATH = BY PAS S + ST RA TE GY + FO RMALI CS +


PATT ER NS + W IN WIN + FI GU RE& GR OUND , so tha t MATH ⇒
LIFE .

You lear n tha t ph ysIc is t Eugene W igner wr ote a pa per on " T he


Unr ea sona ble Ef fecti venes s of Ma thema tics i n the N atur al
Sci ences" . And tha t mathema tic ian R . W . H am ming , in sp ir ed
by W igne r, wr ote an ar tic le. " T he Unr ea sona ble Ef fecr iv ene ss
of Ma thema tics ", omi tti ng ref er ence to "the na tur al sc ience" ,
Ha mm ing s ay s, "T he fundamenta l role of inva riance
[emphas iz ed i n thi s book] i s str essed by W igner . It i s ba si c t o
muc h of mathema tic s as w ell as t o s ci ence. It w as the l ac k of
in var iance of N ewton 's equa tion s (the need f or an abso lute
fr ame of r ef er ence for vel ocit ie s) t ha t dr ove Lor entz ,
Fi tzger ald , Poincar e, and Ein ste in to t he specia l theor y of
rel ati vit y." Also , "W hen we f ound tha t s cal ar s did not wor k f or
for ces , we in vented a new ma the ma tics , vector s. A nd go ing
fur ther w e ha ve in vented ten sor s. "

You can tr y to e xpla in thi s ef fecti venes s via the ancient but
no w obscur ed pa tter n of H OMO LOGy. A HOMO LOGY ha s the
for mat, " A: B ::C :D" , read as " A is to B (r el ates to B) as ( ': :') C
is to D" . You kn ow it e xpl ica tes suc h ele mentar y for mal is ms
as 2:4: :3 :6 , th at i s, 2/4 = 3/6 , with so lidus ( /) rep lacing the
colon and equa li ty rep lacing the doub le co lon. (You kno w thi s
ter m is s ti ll used i n bio log y to contr ast wi th "analog y" . B ut
it s usa ge in m athem ati cs is ob scur ed b y being tak en over for
advanced sub ject s, s o may be una vai la bl e to the cogit ation s
of W igner and H am ming . You read, in W ik ipedia : "In
evolut ionar y b iol og y, homo log y ref er s to any s imi lari ty
betw een char acter is tic s tha t is due to t heir shar ed ance str y."
In ref er ence to th is ad vanced u se of homo log y, W ikiped ia
sa ys: "In m athem atic s (espec ial l y alge br aic topo log y and
abstr act alge br a) , homo log y, ... , i s a cer ta in gener al
pr ocedur e to a ss oci ate a s equence of a be lian g roup s or
module s wi th a g iv en ma thema tical ob ject su ch a s a
topolog ical s pace or a g roup ."

You may e xpla in thus : Ma th is ef fect iv e when Sy ntax and


Rea li ty ar e homo logous . T hu s, g iv en syn tactic s A, B and
obser va ble s C , D, then A:B ::C :D . Syntact ic components rela te
in the kind of pa tter n w her in ob ser va ble s rela te.

If thi s r ela tion exis ts , then these obser va ble s for m, as


descr ibed in Cha p, T hr ee, an Indica to r w ith the as soc ia ted
syntact ic s and the S IG NAL of the m anual contr ol of an
Ob ser va ble conjo ined w ith the lingu iti c contr ol of the s yntax
cr ea tes S cience .

You can then "r un thi s up the f la gpole to s ee who salu tes it. "

You real iz e th at t he Frenc h ph il osopher and m athem ati cian ,


René De scar te s (1596-1650), us ed an ind ica to r to cr ea te
anal ytic geometr y , whic h you encounter ed in g raphs . T hat
ind ica to r i s: [geometr ic point , number coor dina te] . T he
"geometr ic point " i s idea li zar tion of a sp ati al po si tion , whic h
is onl y va guel y per ceiv ed . Its repr esenta tion b y a number
explic ates i t defin it iv el y. You note t ha t 1s t and 2nd
components , her e, ar e fr om dif fer ent l angua ges , respect iv el y,
geometr ic l angua ge and ar ithme tic or alge br aic l angua ge .

You kn ow how to rehea rse or mot iv ate students v ia or al and


wor d o r rhetor ica l f or ms of the homo log y to induce thei r
ingenu ity . S OC IALL Y: we can guide ST UD EN TS to par se out a
homolog y - - be ginning wi th one self and one' s experience - -
and comp lete it b y a s eem ing l y compar able role in s itua tion
wi th a sc hool ma te or neighbor . T hus , Bett y real iz es th at her
new bang s pr een her the way th at Pu r lie 's cor nr ows pr een
her . ( Bett y: bangs :: Pur li e:cor nr ows ) O r st ar t wi th the "si de"
of the OTHE R, and t r y to find so meth ing compar able wi th
SELF . T hu s, w hen J im my t rie s to under stand ho w J uani to felt
when school ma te s cal led hi m a "Sp ic" , Ji mm y remember s ho w
he f elt when schoo lma tes s cal led hi m " a ba star d"
(Ji mmy :ba star d::J uanito :s pi c).

You lear n, in Cha p. Twenty -T hr ee, th at ho molog y sho ws us e


of fr action s, or ratio s, to expl ica te dif fer ent do main s of
exis tence on thi s ear th . T ha t th is deri ves fr om a ne glected
"s cience " w rit ten up long ago by G al ileo Ga li lei (1564-1642) .

You lear n, onl ine, th at H . H. Pattee rai ses the ques tion about
'T he Ph ys ics of S ym bol s: Br idging the Epi st emi c C ut" , w ri ting
of "the gener al epi ste mic pr oble m: ho w to bri dge the
separ ation betw een the obser ver and the ob ser ved , the
contr ol ler and the contr ol led, the kno wer and the kno wn, and
even the mi nd and the br ain. T hi s notori ous epi ste mic cut has
mot iv ated phi los ophica l di spute s f or m illennia , es pecia ll y the
pr oblem of con sciou sne ss th at onl y r ecentl y has be gun to be
tr ea ted as po ss ib l y an empi rica ll y decida ble pr ob lem (e .g. ,
Shear , 1997; Tayl or, 1999). My s econd que st ion w as whether
bridg ing the ep is tem ic cut cou ld e ven be ad dr es sed in ter ms
of phy sica l l aw s. "

In Cha p. Twelv e, you ar e concer ned tha t the rhetor ical


langua ge of muc h ma th pr ovok es COG NITIVE DIS SO NAN CE
wi th nonm ath langua ge. But the SY MBO LIC langua ge of m ath
usua ll y cons tr ain s t hi s.

You lear n tha t the em inent m athem ati cal -lo gic ian, H ask ell
Cur r y (in hi s Founda tions of M athem atica l Logic ), s ays (p . 8) ,
"T her e ar e t wo mai n t ype s of opin ions i n re gar d to the na tur e
of ma thema tic s. W e sh al l cal l these conten si vis m and
for ma li sm. " You lear n tha t for mal ism (H il ber t is the mai n
spok esman for thi s vie wpoint) re gar ds MATH AS A " GA ME "
FO RMALIZ ED OR TAKI NG S HA PE BECA US E O F RULE S. Tak e
aw ay the r ul es of C hec ker s or C He ss and w ha t is l eft?
No thing tw o people can a g ree on; noth ing s o tha t two peop le
wi ll feel the y ar e " talk ing about the s ame th ing" . B ut you
kn ow thi s not so w ith your FO RMALI C C ONC EPTI ON O F
MA THEMA TICS , for CO NTE NSIVIS M a ppar entl y m eans tha t
RULE S H AVE BE EN AP PLIED TO " SO MET HIN G" : T AKE AWA Y
TH E RULE S, and T HE RE 'S STILL "S OME THI NG " PE OPLE CA N
AGREE ON.

FO RMALI C R ULES AP PLY TO PATTER NS . TAK E AWAY TH E


RULE S, AND P EO PLE CA N STILL AGREE ON " SEEI NG " TH E
SA ME R ESI DU E P ATTE RN !

You real iz e th at t hi s mean s th at PR OTO- MA TH W AS ALWAYS


TH ER E - - A S LONG AS H UMA NS OR HOMI NID S S EN SE D
PATT ER NS , EVE N AS B AS IC AS PER CEP TIO NS AN D "THI NK S" .
SO, WE 'RE ALL PR OTO- ED UC ATE D I N M ATH EMA TI CS. A ND
TH IS I S H OW WE C AN HE LP C HIL DRE N!

You WE B-l ear tha t chil dr en can be taught ari tmet ic oper ation s
by flo wchar ts. T ha t Ad di tion can be perf or med by T he
Counter Trans fer A lgori thm , the way compter s w er e
pr og rammed for th is :

• tr ans fer count s fr om one counter s tor age to another ;


• when fir st counter i s empty , the count i n the s econd i s
thei r s um :

T ha t a flo wchar t d ia g ram s an A lgor ith m or a pr ocess . T hs t


the flo wchar t for thi s ad di tion oper ation is:
\=======/
\START/
\ /
\_/
|
|
_____|_____
|Setup 1st|
|AND 2nd |
| ADDEND |
| BASKETS |
-----------
|
|
/ \
/ IS\---------YES----
>-----/\
/ 2nd \
/ \
/ADDEND \
/STOP\
------->-------/ BASKET \-->---NO-----
------
^ \ EMPTY? / |
| \ / |
| \ / |
| \ / |
| \ / |
| . |
^ | V
| v |
| | |
| _______|__________ |
| |TRANSFER 1 COUNT- | |
| |ABLE FROM ADDEND | |
------<-----|BASKET 2 TO ADDEND|---<---
| BASKET 1 |
--------------------
You ind ica te an e xamp le: 4 + 7 = 3 + 10 = 2 + 9 = 1 + 10 = 0 +
11 = 11

You kn ow tha t AN AN TIT ONI C D IA GRAM (Cha p. F our teen) FITS


TH IS A LGORIT HM :

^ |
| |
MAXTONE: | | MINTONE: DECREASING
INCREASING TRANSFERS| | REMAINDERS IN
| | ADDEND BASKET 2
| V
And chi ldr en can be taught <S UB TRA CTIO N< i>b y T he
Sta ir step Algor ithm :

• one chil d s tand s on a st air step as MI NU EN D


• a s econd c hi ld st ands on a lo wer sr air step as
SU BT RA HE ND
• they de scend i n uni son o r i n cadenc e
• when SU BT RA HE ND c hil d is at bottom , the nu mber of
ri ser s to MI NU EN D chil d i s t he DIFF ERE NC E

T he flo wchar t f or th is Sta ir step Alf or ith m i s


\=======/
\START/
\ /
\_/
|
V
________|_____________
|MINUED CHILD on STEP|
|SUBTRAHEND CHILD on |
|LOWER STEP |
|____________________|
|
V
|
/ \
_______________________
/ \->--------Y-----|REPORT ZERO
DIFFERENCE|--->---/\
/ ARE \
----------------------- / \
/ THEY \ /\ / \
--->--/ on SAME \-->---N-----/IS\
/ STOP \
^ \ STEP? / /SUB-\
--------
| \ / /TRAHND\
| \ / /CHILD AT\
| \ / / BOTTOM? \
| | -------------
| | /
| v /
| | /
| | /
| ____|_________v____
| |EACH DESCENDS ONE |
-----<|STEP, IN UNISON |
--------------------
You ind ica te an e xamp le: 11 - 4 = 10 - 3 = 9 - 2 = 8 - 1 = 7 - 0
=7
A child can alw ays tr an sf or m a sub tr action into one s he/he
under stand s.

You remenber th at s ta ir step m odel of the AN TIT ONE w as


noted i n Cha p. F our teen .

You real iz e th at c hi ldr en can be t aught mu lt ip lic ati on b y T he


Table -of-C olu mns -& -R OWS Algor ithm

T he oper ation of mu lt ip lic ati on i s for mu la ted as :a · b = c .


De scri ption :

• mak e a colu mn of a dots


• mak e b copie s of th is
• count number of dot s as P ROD UC T

You kn ow how to FL OWCH AR T TH E TABL E M UL TIPLI CA TIO N


AL GO RIT HM
\=========/
\ START /
\ /
\ /
\_/
|
v
|
----------------------------------------
|[LEFT MULTIPLIER] X [RIGHT MULTIPLIER]|
|______________________________________|
|
v
___________|_______________
|CONSTRUCT COLUMN OF LEFT |
|MULTIPLIER COUNTABLES |
------------------------
|
v
__________|___________
|MAKE COPY OF LEFT |
------------->|MULTIPLIER-COLUMN |
| |BESIDE 1ST COLUMN |
| ----------------------
| |
| V
^ |
| /\
| / \
| /DOES\
| /NUMBER\
| /OF COL- \
| /UMNS EQUAL\ _____________
_______________
----<---NO--------\RIGHT MUL-/--->----YES---|COUNT TABLE|----
>---|PRINT PRODUCT|
\TIPLIER?/ -------------
---------------
\ /
|
\ /
v
\ /
|
\/
/ \

/ \

/STOP \

-------
You can DI VIDE WIT HO UT R EM AIN DER , sa y, 12 ÷ 4 B Y "ROW-
TO-T AB LE AL GO RIT HM "

1. For DI VIDE ND of T WEL VE, y ou con str uct A ROW OF


TW EL VE COU NTABLE S:

* * * * * * * * * * * *

2. Giv en DI VISO R of FO UR , y ou RE DIST RIB UTE TH E T WEL VE


CO UNTABLES in C OL UMN S OF EQ UAL C OUNT AB LES ,

1. st ar ti ng w ith FIRS T C OL UMN of F OU R (r emo ving FO UR


fr om O RI GI NAL ROW) :
2. * * * * * * * * *
3. *
4. *
*
5. T hen SE CO ND COL UMN of F OU R (r emo ving FO UR fr om
OR IGI NAL R OW):
6. * * * * * *
7. * *
8. * *
* *

9. T hen THI RD COL UMN of F OU R (find ing th is le aves


ZE RO R EM AIN DER in R OW):
10. * * *
11. * * *
12. * * *
* * *

2. You then COUN T COL UM NS : TH RE E - - S O PRIN TS 12 ÷ 4 =


3.

You kn ow how to Di vide , wi th R ema inder , sa y, 14 ÷ 4

1. For DI VIDE ND of F OU RTEEE N, you con st r uct a ROW OF


FO UR TE EN COU NTABLE S:

* * * * * * * * * * * * * *

2. Giv en DI VISO R oF F OU R, y ou R EDIS TRIB UTE thes e i nto


COL UM NS OF E QU AL CO UNTABLES ,

1. st ar ti ng w ith FIRS T C OL UMN of F OU R (r emo ving FO UR


fr om R OW):
2. * * * * * * * * * * *
3. *
4. *
*

5. T hen SE CO ND COL UMN of F OU R (r emo ving FO UR fr om


ROW):
6. * * * * * * * *
7. * *
8. * *
* *

9. T hen THI RD COL UMN of F OU R (r emo ving t hi s le aves


remainder of T WO in ROW) :
10. * * * * *
11. * * *
12. * * *
* * *

2. You CO UNT COL UMN S: THR EE COL UM NS , wi th


RE MAIN DE R O F TW O COU NTABLE S.
3. You PRI NT 14 ÷ 4 = 3, R = 2.

You di vi de other DI VIDE ND S s imi lar ly.


You gi ve an EX AMPLE OF H OW T O PE RFO RM DIVSI ON ( W/ O
RE MAIN DE R) BY TABLE -A LGOR ITH M. In the F LOWCHAR T, you
LOOP (r epea ting so me co mmand) UNTIL a "Yes " AN SW ER
al lo ws ST OP PIN G.

Be lo w, you do tha t by ST AGE S, repr esenting PASSA GE fr om


one SUB ST AGE to another b y an A RROW. A nd we' ll do a s imp le
pr oblem to avoid extr a wor k.

HOW you P ERF OR M 12 ÷ 4 = 3 .

STAR T ⇒ C ONS TR UC T ROW OF COU NTABLE S E QU AL TO


DIVI DEN D (12) ⇒

* * * * * * * * * * * *
RE MO VE FO R C OL UMN N UMB ER OF COUN TABL ES E QU AL TO
DIVIS OR (4) ⇒
* * * * * * * * *
*
*
*
IS D IVID EN D- ROW EMPT Y? ⇒ NO ⇒ RE MO VE FO R COL UM N
NUM BER OF C OUNT AB LES EQ UAL T O DIVIS OR (4) ⇒
* * * * * *
* *
* *
* *
IS D IVID EN D- ROW EMPT Y? ⇒ NO ⇒ RE MO VE FO R COL UM N
NUM BER OF C OUNT AB LES EQ UAL T O DIVIS OR (4) ⇒
* * *
* * *
* * *
* * *
IS D IVID EN D- ROW EMPT Y? ⇒ YE S ⇒ PRI NT NUMBE R O F
COL UM NS AS Q UOTIE NT ⇒ ST OP.
You kn ow tha t, in Cha p. Two, i t is noted tha t extens ion is
uni va lent , th at i s, a ref er ence with onl y one ref er ent , wher eas
in tens ion i s mul ti va lent , a ref er ence ha s man y r efer ents . You
kn ow tha t it is ques tiona ble as t o ho w m uc h attent ion i s
gi ven to the se d is ti ncti ons . Perha ps pr ototyp ical i s the
appa rent ignor ing tha t the i nten si onal it y (r ef er ri ng via a
pr oxy desc ript ion) a llo ws axio ms to per mit both standar d and
nonstandar d r ef er ent s.

You real iz e th at t hi s appar ent ignor ance r esul ts i n a


mul ti va lenc y wi thin ar ithmet ic .

You real iz e the oper ati ons of ar ithme tic ar e un iv alent ,


otherwi se its applic ati on would pr ovok e wi despr ead
di sa g reement . But you lear n tha t, with in ar ith metic , is a
<SU BARIT HM ETIC< i> -- pecu li ar ly kno wn as " the a lge br a of
factor s -- whic h i s mul ti va lent .

T ha t the pr imar y oper ation s of factor theor y ar e lea st


common mul ti ple (LCM) and g rea te st com mon div isor (GC D) .
You real iz e th at both ar e mu lt iv al ent .

T hu s, LCM(3 ,2) = LCM(3,6) , but GC D(6 ,10) = GC D(6 ,10) =


GC D(14 ,27) = 2. You kno w th is i mp li es , for example , tha t
LCM(7, 2) = LCM(7, x) ha s an i nfin ite number of so lu tion s,
namel y, a ll m ul tip les of 2.

You kn ow thi s sa ys tha t par tia l or der ings s uc h as factor and


inc lus ion ar e not well -def ined in the way ad di tion and
mul ti pl ica tion ar e, tha t i s, a + b = a + c i f, and onl y if , b = c.
Si mi la r ly, for p > 0 , p · q = p · r i f, and onl y if , q = r. Repe ating ,
the LCM and GCD oper ator s ar e not w ell -def ined . As
counter examp les : LCM(2, 3) = 6 and LCM(2, 6) = 6, hence,
LCM(2, 3) = LCM(2, 6) , but, ob vious l y, 3 ≠ 6 . Sim il ar l y, GC D
(30, 60) = 30 and GC D(30 , 90) = 30 , hence, GC D(30 , 60) =
GC D(30 , 90) , but 60 ≠ 90 .

You real iz e th at t hi s al lo ws a "fr ee" for ma li sm of ar ithmet ic


cons is ti ng of "fr ee na tur als or fr eena ts" and " fr ee in te ge rs or
frin te ger s.

You real iz e th is may be over look ed as a resul t of o ver looking


the v al ua ble resour ce of ind ica to r ta bles (number ver sion s of
tr uth ta ble s of sta tement log ic) . You se e th at, i n the ca se of
factor s of 30 - 2 · 3 · 6, with pos sibl e occur rence s f or eac h
pri me (a bsent, pr esent: 0, 1 ), t hi s yie lds 2<S UP3< sup> = 8
independent pos si bi li ti es , so t he indic ator s for occur rence of
it s pr ime s can be as si gned a s the b inar y not ati on fr om zer o to
se ven , respect iv el y:

0 0 0
0 0 1
0 1 0
1 0 0
1 0 1
1 0 0
1 0 1
1 1 0
1 1 1
T he ind ica to r f or a compos ite number is one w hen al l it s
factor s ar e pr esent on th at r ow, otherw is e zer o.

T hen you f ind t he follo wing ind ica tor ta ble. You note th at, i f
i(x) denotes ta bula r i ndic ator of a rela tor , then i( LCM(a , b)) =
MA X(i(a) , i (b)) and i(G CD(a , b)) = MI N(i (a), i(b)) . T hen, you
find :

TABLE 1

1 2 3 5 6 10 15 30
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 1 0 1 1 1
0 0 1 0 1 0 1 1
0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1
0 1 0 0 1 1 0 1
0 1 0 1 1 1 1 1
0 1 1 0 1 1 1 1
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
(1) (4) (4) (4) (6) (6) (6) (7)

You note a bal lot can be as signed t o count the nu mber s of


ine s in eac h colu mn. T his
is sho wn at ba se of eac h co lumn . ( you not ice no bal lot for 2,
3, 5
count s. ) Y ou note al so
the d is tr ibuti on of t he ba llo t o ver the ranks of th is T able:

1, 3, 3 ,, 1 -- a fam il iar
bino mia l pa tter n

Si nce the sub sys tem of ar ithme tic is mu lt iv alen t , you kno w
tha t th is i mp li es th at t he
ind ica to r ta ble can be extended to compr ehend al l ba llot s,
one to se ven, by acqur ing
factor s wi th bal lot s tw o, thr ee , and fi ve. (You see th is a s a
nonstandar d comp let ion
compar able to the st andar d comple tion tha t shif ts fr om
rati onal to real number s.)
You
find a "r ati onale" for th is i n another t ype of comp let ion.

Emu la ting a B ASIS pl oy in s et -theor et ic topo log y, you f ind to


the A TOMI C (P RIME) BASIS ,
{2, 3, 5} ,
you ad joi n MI N (1) for the bas is
{1, 2, 3 , 5} . You then find tha t
LCM. appl ied to
thi s extended bas is yie lds :

LCM{1, 2, 3, 5} = {1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 10, 15, 30}.


You find al l the f ac tor s of 30 ar e obtained
mer el y fr om oper ator LCM ! But wha t abo ut oper ator GC D?
Comp let ion i nvok es th is oper ator .

For ca lcul ating LCM , GC D of factor s, you as sign al ter na tiv e


la be ls ,
respect iv el y, MA X(),
MIN() appl ied to the ir as soc ia ted ind ica tor s. B ut,
for con venient la be ling of an IN DICA TOR (TABL E 2 , belo w),
you
use suc h for ms as 2V3 for
thei r LCM and 2 ^ 3 , for thei r GCD ; etc .

From T able 1 , you f ind tha t MIN( i(2), i(3)) = 0 , 0, 0, 0 , 0, 0, 1 ,


1,
tha t is, 2^3
has ba llot 2. Si mi la r ly, 2^5 ha s bal lot
2: MI N(i(2) , i(5)) = 0, 0 , 0, 0, 0 , 1,
0, 1. Also 3^5: MIN( i(3) , i (5)) = 0, 0, 0 , 1, 0, 0 , 0, 1.

W hat a bout LCD's of thes e new l y obta ined e lement s? You f ind
tha t
MA X(MIN(2 , 3) , MIN(2 , 5)) =
i((2^ 3)V(2^5)) = 0 , 0, 0, 0, 0 ,
1, 1, 1 , for B=3 . And
MA X(MIN(2 , 3) , MIN(3 , 5)) =
i((2^3)V(2^5)) = 0, 0, 0 , 1, 0, 0 , 1, 1,
for B = 3 . And MA X(MIN(2 , 5) , MIN(3 , 5)) =
i((2^5)V(3^5)) = 0, 0, 0 , 1, 0, 1 , 0, 1 f or
B = 3.

You now ha ve bal lot s 1, 2, 3 , 4, 6, 7 . W ha t of


B = 5 ? You recoup thi s, and
al so a " new" ele ment w ith B = 4.

You appl y dual it y to t he resul ts in t he pr evious par ag raph-but-


one to find
MIN(M AX(2 , 3) ,
MA X(2, 5)) = i((2 v3)^(2v5)) =
i(6^10) = 0, 0 , 0, 1, 1 , 1, 1, 1 , for
B = 5.
MIN(M AX(2 , 3) , MA X(3, 5)) =
i((2 v3)^(3v5)) = i(6^15)
= 0 , 0, 1, 1 , 0, 1, 1 , 1, for
B = 5.
MIN(M AX(2 , 5) , MA X(3, 5)) = i((2 v5)^(3V5)) = i (10^15)
= 0 , 1, 0, 1 , 0, 1, 1 , 1, for
B = 5.

You find one mor e resu lt : MIN(M AX(2 , 3) , MA X(2, 5), MA X(3,
5)) = i((2V3)
^(2V5)^(3v5))
= i (6^(10V15)) = 0, 0, 0 , 1, 0, 1 , 1, 1, f or
B = 4 . You
note th at thi s resu lt is d if fer ent fr om tha t for 2v 3v5 .
You denote, for
For compr ess ion , (2^3)v(2^5) ≡ x;
(2^3)v(3^5) &eqi v; Y;
(2 ^5) v(3^5) &eqi v; Z . You decide to la be l the oper ands of the
comple ted oper ator s
as "subdom inants ". You then find the se r esu lts .

TAB LE 2: SU BD OMIN AN TS OF 30 (ADJ OIN ED WIT H 6


INDIC ATOR)

2^3 2^5 3^5 X Y Z 6^10 6^15 10^15


6^10^15 6
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0
0 1
0 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 1
1 1
0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0
0 1
0 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 1
1 1
1 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 1
1 1
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
1 1
(2) (2) (2) (3) (3) (3) (5) (5) (5)
(4) (6) (BALLOT)
10 ^ 15 is
the e xcept ion) of T able 2 ar e
factor s or subdo minant s of 6.
You note Table 2
has ranks 1, 2, 3, 4 , 5, 6, 7 , so tha t r ank v al ue of an e lement
is
it s ba llo t v al ue, whi ch i s
not the ca se i n Table 1. You note al so
tha t the di str ibut ion of ele ments over the se r ank ings is
1, 3, 3 , 4, 3, 3 , 1, clea r ly not
a b inom ial pa tter n. You find
no a lgori thm in the liter atur e to deter mine the number of
subdo minant s of the factor s of n.

you kno w tha t, in a book on


in for ma tion retrie val ( G. Sa lton , Autom atic Inf or ma tion
Or gan iza tion and R etr ie va l ,
McGr aw -H ill, 1968), y ou f ind
the H as se d ia g ram of st andar d factor s of 30 as " descr ipt ion
se t" and the Ha sse dia g ram of
the f or mer wi th s ubdom inants ad joi ned as "r equest space".

You note resemb lance of the se resu lt s to w ha t i s la beled , in


the l iter atur e, a "fr ee"
st r uctur e, s uc h as a fr ee a lge br a . You then la bel the Na tur al
Nu mber s thus e xtended as
"fr eena ts" ("fr ee n atur al s") and the Inte ger s as "fri nte ger s"
("fr ee inte ge rs") , i n the
sen se of the ma thema tici an is fr ee to u se al l oper ator s of a
syste m to comp lete it .

You kn ow the e xi stence of "T he Fundamenta l T heor em of


Ar ithme tic " w hic h st ate s t ha t "a
number can be f actor ed in to a pr oduct of pri me number s i n
onl y one way (e xcept f or or der of
list ing). " D o the abo ve r esul ts v iol ate it ? You kno w thi s not so
if the i mp li ci t pr oper ty
of tota l or der ing of pr oduct is made expl ici t i n tha t ca vea t
"e xcept f or or der ing".

You lear n tha t mathema tic s is a pri mar y r esour ce in cr ea ting


mi liar y commun ica tion code s to
outmaneuv er an enem y, or to decode enem y codes . You lear n
tha t an anc ient examp le of thi s
a " g raves ide rid dle" of a f amous anc ient G reek
ma thema tici an,

T he Gr eek (pos si bl y a H el len iz ed Ba byl onian)


ma thema tici an, Di ophantus of A le xandria (c ir ca 200/214 -
284/298 A .D.)
, ha s been ca lled "T he F ather of A lg ebr a". But , as s ome one
sa id about another sub ject, " Al ge br a ha s many f ather s". al-
Khw ar iz mi (c ited in another f il e) cou ld be cal led "T he Is la mic
Father of Al ge br a", s o we'l l cal l Diophantu s " T he Gr eek
Father of Al ge br a". W e al so cr edit Diophantu s w ith a va st
fie ld of Ma the ma tics , whi ch ha s found g rea t appli ca tion i n
Phy sic s, f or e xamp le, in C r ystal log raphy -- a s we'l l se e be lo w.

We kno w l itt le a bout the l ife of Diophantus , except f or an


Al ge br aic Rid dle quoted i n T he Gr eek Antho log y .
To cite T he En cycloped ia B ri ttanica , "G reek ANT HO LOG IA
HE LL ENI KE, al so cal led PALA TI NE ANT HO LOGY, a col lect ion
of Gr eek ep ig ram s, s ongs , ep ita phs , and rhetor ical e xer ci se s
tha t inc ludes about 3 ,700 s hor t poem s, m os tl y w ri tten i n
ele giac couplet s. Some of the poems w er e w ri tten a s ear ly as
the 7th centur y B C , other s a s la te a s AD 1000 .. ..T he liter ar y
va lue of the Antho log y lie s in the di st inct ion and char m of
perha ps one-s ixth of the w ho le. For the rest, i t pr eser ves a
good dea l th at i s of hi st orica l in ter est ; it i llu str ates the
continu it y of Gr eek lit er atur e f or a lmo st 2,000 year s, because
the l ates t i nc lu si ons in i t ar e, in l angua ge, st yle , and fee li ng,
not too dif fer ent fr om t he ear li es t inc lu si ons . T he Antholog y
al so had a per sis tent and cons ider able inf luence on la ter
liter atur e."

Some of the pas sa ges i n T he Gr eek Antho log y read l ik e


epita ph s on g rave s tone s , as in the fol lo wing :

"Ye c hil dr en of the o x, ho w wr ong of y ou to ki ll Her monax,


the s tr ayi ng ba by bo y. T he poor c hi ld, i n the i nnocence of h is
hear t, w ent to y ou th inking you wer e bees , and y ou pr oved
wor se than viper s. In stead of gi vi ng h im a daint y feas t you
dr ove y our mur der ous sti ngs i nto hi m, bitter bees , contr ar y in
na tur e to y ou r s weet gifts ."

(T he g rave cita tion s of T he Gr eek Antho log y in sp ir ed t he


Ame rican long poem, Spoon Ri ver An tholog y , by Edgar Lee
Mas ter s.)

T he pas sa ge a bout Di ophantus pr esent s (in tr an sl ati on) a


Rid dle about the phase s of hi s lif e:

God g ranted hi m to be a bo y for a s ixth par t of hi s lif e, and


ad ding a tw elf th par t to thi s, He clothed hi s cheek s wi th
do wn; He lit h im the light of wedlo ck after a s eventh par t,
and fiv e year s after hi s mar ria ge H e g ranted h im a son . Al as !
la te- bor ne wr et ched chil d; after atta in ing the mea sur e of half
hi s father's l ife, chi ll Fate took hi m. A fter con sol ing hi s grief
by th is s ci ence of number s for four year s he ended hi s lif e .

Let

• x D EN OTE the age at dea th of D iophantus ;



• 1/6x D EN OTE b oyhood ;

• 1/12x D EN OTE y ou th;

• 1/7x DE NO TE ba tc he lorhood end ing i n mar ria ge;

• 5 y ear s after ma r ria ge , a son w as bor n;

• le t 1/2x + 4 D EN OTE per iod fr om f ir st fatherhood to
Di ophantus ' de ath.

• T hen we ha ve: 1/6 x + 1/12 x + 1/7x + 5 + 1 /2x + 4 = x.

In sol ving , t he leas t co mmon denom ina tor of these number s


(6, 12, 7, 2) is 12 x 7 = 84 . T hen ,

• 1/6(84) = 14 y ear s (b oyhood) ;



• 1/12(84) = 7 y ear s ( you th);

• 1/7(84) = 12 y ear s (b atc he lorhood to mar ria ge);

• 5 y ear s after ma r ria ge a s on ; s on liv ed ha lf of f ather' s
lif e, 1/2(84) = 42;

• 4 y ear s la ter , dea th of Diophantu s (a ppar entl y b y
su ic ide).
CH EC KI NG (bac k to ARI THM ETIC !): 14 + 7 + 12 + 5 + 42 + 4 =
21 + 17 + 46 = 38 + 46 = 84 . A NSWE R: 84 year s of l ife .

Ma the ma tician s today s tud y a vas t and often d if ficul t f iel d of


MA THEMA TICS kno wn as
"D iophant ine A nal ysis" . T he la tter wor d can be mi slead ing,
since ma thema tici ans often u se
"anal ys is" f or " Dif fer ent ial and Inte g ral Cal culu s" , "O r dinar y
and Par tial Dif fer entia l
Equa tions ", and other fie lds r equ iri ng cont inuous too ls , su ch
as "li mit pr oces se s" . But thi s
" Di ophantine " s ubj ect dea ls w ith "the di scr ete " or
"di scont inuou s" , s o is an extensi on of
NUM AL GE BRA .

DIO PH AN TIN E EQ UATI ON S: Let f(x 1 , x 2 , ... , x n ) be a pol ynom ial


in x 1 , x 2 , ..., x n w ith INTE GE R C OE FFICIEN TS . It is D iophant ine
IF SOL UTIO NS MU ST BE I NTE GR AL.

Linear Examp le: 4x 1 + 6x 2 = 24 . A so lut ion is x 1 = 3, x 2 = 2 .


(F or a LINE AR EQ UATIO N, a 1 x 1 + a 2 x 2 + . .. + a n x n = b, to be
IN TEG RALL Y SOL VABL E, b m us t B E DIVISI BLE B Y gcd(a 1 , a 2 ,
... , a n ) -- as y ou f ind i n the a bo ve e xamp le, wher ein gcd(4, 6) =
2 d iv ides 12.
(L inear D iophantine equa ti ons ha ve been usefu l i n model ing
chem ical cr ys tal s.)

Cond ition s ha ve been f ound for SOL VABILIT Y of h igher de g ree


Di ophantine equa tions

In 1912 , the g rea t G er man ma thema tic ian, Da vi d H ilber t (1862 -


1943), ga ve a L is t of Pr ob lem s to be Sol ved -- one
of whi ch w as A GE NE RAL SOL UTI ON F OR DI OP HA NTI NE
EQ UATIO NS . Ev entua ll y, i t was PROVE N TH AT
NO SU CH GE NE RAL SOL UTIO N CA N EXI ST!

RE tur ning to the s ubj ect of mi litar t cod ing of m es sa ge s, and


appli ca tiom of ma thema tic s
to t hi s sub ject .
You WE B-l ear n tha t
coding was ori gina ll y appli ed to component s of langua ge unt il
the i ntr oduct ion of (nume rica l)
cyphering in anc ient ti mes i n many countr ies . T ha t an
im potant ad vance i n dec ypering was made in
"Med ie va l t im es ". Sa ys W ik ipedia , "It was pr oba bl y rel ig ious l y
mot iv ated te xtual anal ysis of
the Q ur 'an whic h l ed to t he inventi on of t he fr equenc y
anal ysis tec hn ique for br eaking
monoalpha bet ic s ubs ti tuti on cipher s by
Of recent t ime s, W iki pedia sa ys, "U nti l the 1970s , secur e
cr yp tog raphy was lar gel y the pr eser ve of
go ver nment s. T wo event s h ave since br ought it squar el y in to
the pub li c doma in: the cr ea tion of
a pub lic encr yption standar d (DE S); and the in venti on of
publ ic- key cr yp tog raphy ." See W iki pedia
for eplana tio of " DES " and "pub lic key encr ipti on". W ikiped ia
sa ys cr yp tog rapher no w rel y upon
the R SA (acr ony m of it s thr ee in ventor s) a lgori thm .T he RS A
algor ith m i nvolv es thr ee steps :
key gener ation , encr ypt ion , and decr ypt ion ..
RS A i nvolv es a pub li c k ey and a pr iv ate key. T he pub lic key
can be kn own to e ver yone and i s
used for encr yp ting me ssa ge s. Mes sa ges encr ypted w ith the
publ ic key can onl y be decr ypted u si ng
the pr iva te key." T he k eys f or the RSA algor ith m ar e
gener ated the fol lo wing w ay:

• Choo se t wo di st inct pri me nu mber s, p and


• q
• [their pr oduct i s a " se mip ri me; no m ethod no w kno w can
factor the s em ipr ime of two
• many -d ig it number s]

• Compute n = pq
• as the modu lus [Cha p. F iv e] for both the publ ic and
pri va te k eys

• Compute [Eu ler' s] totien t: ϕ(n) = (p-1)(q-1)


• Choo se an in te ger e s uc h tha t
• 1< e<
• ϕ(n)e and ϕ(n) ar e copri me
• (G CD=1) , then e i s relea sed a s the pub li c k ey e xponent

• Deter mine d (u si ng m odular ari thmet ic) w hic h sa ti sf ie s
the
• cong r uence rel ation de ≡ 1 ( mod{ ϕ(n)},
• and use d as t he pr iv ate key

T he Condot of Gr ammar -Ma the ma tics ha s receiv ed sp ecia l


attent ion fr om pr oponent s of const r ucti vis m to
replace nonst r ucti vism (pr oof by contr ad iction)
in math- log ic, nota bl y in in tui tion is ti c (a .k.a .
const r ucti ve, M ar ti n-Löf ) ty pe t heor y, a
log ical s ystem -se t theor y bas ed on the pr inc iple s
of ma thema tica l con st r ucti vis m, intr oduced
by Per Mar tin- Löf , a Sw ed is h m athem ati cian and ph il osophe r,
in 1972. Intu iti oni st ic type theor y [ TT] i s based on a
spec ifi c i somor ph is m betw een pr opos it ions and ty pes : a
pr opos it ion i s ident ified with the t ype of its pr oofs.
T his i dent ific ation is u sual ly ca ll ed the
Cur r y– Ho war d isomo r phi sm , orig ina ll y for mu la ted for
pr opos it ional lo gic and s impl y ty ped l ambda calcu lus .
Type T heor y e xtend s th is ident ifi ca tion to
pr edica te logic by
in tr oducing dependent type s contain value s. [or der !] T T
in ter nal iz es the in ter pr eta tion of in tuit ion is tic logic
pr oposed by Br ouw er, He yt ing , and Kolmogor ov, the so
cal led BH K inter pr eta tion .

T he ty pes of T T p la y a simi la r r ole i n se t theor y


but funct ions def ina ble i n TT ar e a lw ay s computa ble .

T he Cur r y– Ho war d cor respondence: two s eem ing ly- unr ela ted
fam il ie s of for mal is ms, pr oo f system s and m odel s of
computa tion ar e str uc tur all y the s ame type of object .
T hu s, a pr oof is a pr og ram, the for mula it pr oves is a
ty pe f or the pr og ram .

Mos t i nf or mal ly, th is s ta tes th at t he retur n ty pe of a funct ion


(i .e. , the ty pe of va lues r etur ned by a function) is analogou s
to a logica l theor em, subjec t to hy pothese s cor respond ing t o
the
ty pes of the ar gument v al ues pa ss ed to the function ; and the
pr og ram to compute tha t funct ion i s analogou s to a pr oo f of
tha t
theor em.

T his s et s a f or m of lo gic pr og ramm ing on a ri gor ous


founda tion: pr oofs can be repr esented as pr og rams , and
espec ial ly a s la mbda te r ms , or pr oofs can be r un .
T he cor respondence ha s been the st ar ting po int of a l ar ge
spect r um of new resear ch after it s disco ver y, lead ing i n
par ti cular to a new cla ss of for ma l syste ms de signed to act
both a s a pr oof ca lculu s and a s a t yped functiona l
pr og ramm ing
langua ge. T his inc ludes Mar tin- Löf's i ntu iti oni st ic ty pe
theor y and Coquand's C alcu lus of Con str uct ion s, t wo
calcu li i n whic h pr oofs ar e r e gular ob jects of the discour se
and in w hic h one can st ate pr oper tie s of pr oofs the sa me w ay
as
of any pr og ram . T his fie ld of resear ch is usual ly r ef er red
to a s moder n ty pe theor y -- "moder n" to dis tingu is h fr om
Ber tr and Russ el l' s ea r ly tw ent ieth -centur y t ype theor y to
avoid the R us sel l Par ado x.
TY PES inc lude

• tuple s of rea l number s



• mi xed na tur al s and r ea ls

• nul l, un it , Bool ean, al lo wing ne ga tion

• uni ver se for eac h t ype
CHA PT ER` TW EN TY : WH AT IS SCIE NC E?
You real iz e th at t he teac hing in our sc hool s about SCI EN CE ,
and the publ ic unde rstanding of i t, suf fer s fr om the f act th at
no s ci enti st or phi lo sopher of sc ience has made an attempt to
dec lar e a clear one-s entence def ini tion of the sub ject . One
consequence i s the c lai m b y "T he Sc hoo l of Soc ial
Con str uct ivi sm" tha t A NY M ATH EMA TI CAL SY STEM IS JU ST A
SO CIAL CON ST RUCTI ON -- compar able to liter ar y cri ti ci sm .

You kn ow then th at a cor rect iv e of th is i s to dar e to


commun ica te su ch a defin it ion and hope f or r esponse s.

You bel ie ve th at a f ea si ble for mul ati on i s: S CIEN CE con si st s


of the four sta ge s:

• explana tion
• meas ur ement (a s in Cha p. Nineteen)
• pr edict ion
• retr odict ion

You kn ow tha t pr edict ion concer ns wha t can be confir med


about futur e e vent s, w her ea s r etr od iction concer ns w ha t can
be conf ir med about pas t e vent s. (As e xamp le, W ik iped ia c ite s
anomalou s perihe li on of planet Mer cur y, di sco ver ed in
ninetenth centur y, retr odic ted by E in ste in' s Gener al
Rela ti vit y.)

You ar gue tha t the def ini tion di spo se s of man y


counter ar gument s. T ha t the m easur ement r equ ir ement
el im ina tes ar guments of -- no e xperi mental mea sur ement s
ther e. And thi s def init ion el im ina tes "Cr ea tion S cience" ,
whic h of fer s expla tion, but none of t he other requir ement s of
the a bo ve defini tion .

You kn ow sc ient is ts m ay pr ovok e s ome people because thei r


"pos it ivi st" as se r tion s ar e a s empha tic as tho se a sser ted
about rel ig ion. T he his tori an, Jacque s B arzun , descr ibed
as ser tion s of so me sc ient is ts a s being as f an atica l as an y i n
rel igi on. T ho se who wou ld ag ree w ith thi s j udgment may s ee
sc ience as compet ing w ith relig ion, e specia ll y on the m atter
of evol tion , al though ther e ar e sc ient it st s who do not at a ll
think of s ci ence in t hi s way.

T he ST RA TE GY OF S CIE NC E can be for mul ated i n one


sen tence via concept s of I NDI CA TOR and SI GN AL . An
IN DICA TOR is an OR DE RE D P AIR OF SI GN S: the fir st is highl y
obser va ble but of lo w in for mation content (la bel led "hi lo ");
the s econd i s lo w in ob ser va bil it y but high in inf or mati on
content ( la bel led " loh i") . INS TANC E: [f ever, i nf ect ion].

A SIG NAL is AN IN DICA TOR UND ER M AN UAL AND LI NG UIS TIC


CO NTR OL . Giv en I NDIC ATOR: [lightn ing , e lectr ici ty] . Put
elect ric it y under manua l contr ol of te le g r aph k ey, and
tele g raph k ey under lingu is tic contr ol of Mor se Code , and you
ha ve a SIG NAL. [ ligh tning , e lectr ici ty ] - > [tele g raph key,
Mor se Code] .

ST RA TE GY OF S CIE NC E: SE EK INDICA TOR S TO TR AN SFO RM


INT O SIG NALS<

You kn ow tha t when th is per specti ve i s exam ined i n ter ms of


the d iv ision s of Meta langua ge , a s explic ated i n Cha p. F ou r,
wi th the subdi vi ons of ONT OL OG Y, EPISTEM OL OG Y,
AXI OL OG Y, a ca vea t needs be enter ed . You kno w i t is not
kn own tha t EPI STEM OL OG Y has become ONT OL OG y. T ha t "the
sc ient ific pictur e" is Real it y, You r eme mber , in Cha p. Fi vE , on
pa tter ns and pa tter ning , the s ta tement of Alber t Ein ste in th at
". .. ti me and s pace ar e mode s i n whic h we th ink and
condit ions i n whic h we l ive." You kno w thi s s hi fts aw ay fr om
ONT OL OG y to EPISTEM OL OG Y and A XI OL OG Y. You kno w one
ca veat i s we do not kno w th at a dif fer ent hy pothes is could
im pl y the s ame confir med pr ed iction or pr edict ions a s the
hypothe si s a sc ience is espous ing , c lai ming to be "on the
ri ght tr ac k" .

You kn ow tha t thi s doe s not viti ate the u se s of sc ience ,


mer el y quest ion s t he langua ge it s omet ime s us es . You kn ow,
therf or e, th at sc ient ific la ngua ge sh ift s fr om the su bjunct iv e
mood of spee ch to the de clar ati ve mood of spee ch. From
"Suppo se i t wer e so" to "It is so ".

You WE B-l ear n tha t man y sc ient is ts u se a ter m fr om the


Ge r man l angua ge tak ing th is per specti ve. T he te r m is
"ans atz" , f or " onse t", a kind of " st ar ti ng po int" . Y ou kno w
so me one has compar ed it s usa ge to the " Madi son Avenue"
ter m about an adv er tis ing slogon : "Let' s r un it up the fla g
pole and s ee who sa lute s it ."

You kn ow, then , tha t thi s is a sh ift to the AXI OL OG ICAL -- th at


onl y a fana tic wou ld quest ion the v al ue of s ci ence i n making s
it s contr ibuti ons to our c iv iliz ation.

You ar e fam il iar w ith the ter m, "bl ac k bo x:, i n di scu ss ing
sc ient ific specul ati on.

|------------------|
Known Input| |Known Output
---------->| Unknown Interior |------------>
|(mechanics? math?)|
|__________________|
As sho wn , y ou KNOW the I NP UT and O UTP UT of the bla ckbo x,
but kno w noth ing abo ut wha t ha ppen s i ns ide the bla ck bo x to
tr ans for m INP UT to OUT PU T . T hi s is co ver ed b y specu la tion :

• Some , su ch a s the f amous Bri ti sh phy si ci st , Lor d Kel vi n


(1824-1907), in fer red me chanica l device s in the bla ckbo x
tr ans for mi ng I NP UT to O UTP UT ;
• so me, suc h as h is fr iend and fello w Scot sman , W illiam
Cl er k Maxw el l (1831-1874), wr ite ma thema tical equa tion s
to " connect" I NP UT to OUT PU T.

Maxw el l' s famou s equa ti ons of e lectr ici ty and ma gneti sm did
muc h moc h mor e:

• united el ectric it y and ma gnet is m and opt ics ;


• ar ti cul ated a spect r um of osci lla tion s of the
electr oma gn et ic f iel d ;
• thi s spectr um i nc luded not onl y the l ight spect r um but
pr edicted radio waves, detected after M axw ell 's dea th b y
He inr ic h He r tz (1857-1894) .

W hen Kelv in fir st hear d about H er tz' s wor k, he denounced i t


as a hoax, whi ch inti mi da ted mos t phy si ci st s fr om
in vest iga ting it , unt il Ita li an ph ys ic ist , Gu il le r mo Mar coni
(1874-1937), br oadcast acr os s the At lanti c. To the end of hi s
lif e, Kelv in sai d he didn 't under stand ho w r ad io w or ks --
appa rentl y because he w asn't pr ovided w ith me chanica l
de vi ces to acti va te i t.

At so me le vel, s ci enti st s usual l y r esor t to a "b lac kbo x" .

In ph ys ica l sc ience , the atom was once a bl ac kbo x to explai n


chem ical r eact ions . Pr og ress i n "qui ck & penetr ating"
photog raphy pr ovi ded ob ser va bles w hic h so me accept as
atom s, plac ing t hem out side the bo x. A tom ic con st ituent s,
su ch a s electr on s, pr oton s, neutr on s w er e blac kbo xes, but
col li der photo s sho w events i nter pr eted as "bouncer s" o r
"e xplo si ons " of these , perha ps plac ing the m out si de t he bo x.
But quar k cont ituent s of pr otons , neutr ons , me sons , ar e a t
so me per specti ve s til l b lac kbo x.

El ectr odynam ic s was "r id" of " inf ini tie s" by a blac kbo x f il led
wi th Feynman d ia g ram s of pr olonged inter act ion .

Bi olog y once had a bla ckbo x of ce ll s . T hen of cel lul ar


const ituent s . DNA i s out of the bo x (concr et ion). But bio log y
continue s to h ave a b lac kbo x of evolut ionar y e vent s of the
pas t ( il la tion) -- and s imil ar pr oblem s confr ont geolog y.

C . S. Peir ce (w hose sem iot ics i s outl ined in Cha p. T hr ee)


taught u s about thr ee d is ti nction s, t wo of whi ch ar e ci ted in
thi s cha pter' s ti tl e, cr it ical to epi ste molog y (" stud y of wha t
we kno w") :
• concr etion s : dir ectl y obser va ble (su ch a s a par ticu lar
tr ee );
• abstr act ions : for mu la ted clas se s of concr et ions
• ill ation s , fr om La tin "to in fer"

Ber tr and Russ el l said , "W hene ver po ss ib le , log ical con str uct s
ar e to be s ub st ituted for inf er red ent iti es ." T he "good ies " in
bla ckbo x ar e inf er red enti tie s . T he best logica l cons tr uct s
ar e mathem atica l equa ti ons . W hen they l ink I NP UT to
OUT PU T, we ar e s atisf ied.

In Se mio tice s , Peir ce taught us the Indica tor . Si gnal , Icon,


sym bol , whic h pr ovide us wi th Str ate gie s for Sci ence and
Educa tion. ISIS : I(ndica tor) S(ignal) I(con) S(ymbo l). An
ind ica to r ha s the t wotup l s tr uctur e, for "O" denot ing
obser va bi li ty and "I" denoting . in for ma tion

<Hi O-Low I, Low O-Hi I>


as in

<pink litmus paper, acid in test tube>


A signa l i s an indic ator under ph ys ica l and lingui st ic contr ol :

<Hi O-Low I, Low O-Hi I>⇒<phys.-ling. control>


as in:

<lightning, electricity>⇒<telegraph key, Morse Code>


In pa st ti mes , fever was cla ss if ied as a di sea se . La ter , it was
real iz ed to be a highl y obser va ble sym ptom of an under lyi ng
if ection . So , medi cal sc ience pr og ressed fr om so lel y
al le via tor s of fever (e.g , cold compr esse s) to conjo in th is
wi th a lle vi ator s of in fection -- the g rea te st pr og ress w as fr om
use of pen ici ll in i n tw entieth centur y. T hus :

<fever, infection>⇒<penicillin, doctor's care>


In the Sci ence of Opt ics , Ibn a l- Ha ytha m (kno wn i n as
Al hacen or Alhaz en i n Wester n Eur ope) 965 -1040, is r e gar ded
by man y as the "f ather of moder n optic s" (W ik ipedia) , due to
hi s for mul ation of geomet rica l optic s . He de veloped the be st
optica l de vi ce of t ha t ti me, the Camer a Ob scur a , In one for m,
a bo x wi th a per atur es on oppos ite side s al lo ws light r ays to
pas s thr ough the bo x onto a pa per scr een for mini ng a color ed
ups ide ima ge accur ate i n per spect iv e meas ur ements of the
pr e-i ma ge. T hi s then f or med an opt ical i ndic ator :

<Camera Obscura, light ray>


In the 18th centur y, a mir ror was used to inver t the ima ge to
the per specti ve of the pr e-im age. T his m oti va ted t he
de velopment of photog raphy , when chem ical s wer e
di sco ver ed whic h "f ix ed" the ima ge , inaugur ating t he signal
sta ge .

<Camera Obscura, light ray>⇒<photochemicals, photographer


settings>
In che mi str y , the 9th centur y c hemi st , Jabi r i bn Ha yyan
(kn own as "Ge ber " i n Eur ope), cons ider ed b y many
(W iki pedia) to be "the father of c hemi st r y", b y intr oduc ing a
syste ma tic, e xperi mental la bor ator y resear ch. He invented
the be st chem ica l of those time s, t he alemb ic , a chem ical
st ill composed of t wu retor ts (g la ss s pher ical vessel s w ith
long do wn-po inting nec k) connected by a tube; placed over
the f ir e, l iquid s can be separ ated . W ith thi s, he ana l yzed
many c hemi cal su bs tances , co mposed la pidarie s (gems tones) ,
di st ingu ished betw een alkal is and ac ids , and manuf actur ed
hundr eds of medi cina l dr ugs . T hi s then f or med a che mica l
ind ica to r :

<alembic, substances>
T he Russi an c hemi st , Dmi tri Mende lee v (1834-1907), in 1869 ,
de veloped the per iod ic ta ble of chem ical elements to
explic ate recur ring ("per iodic ") tr end s in the pr oper tie s of
the e lement s . T his i naugur ated the i>s igna l s ta ge .

<alembic, substances>⇒<good lab research, period. table>


In Me chanic s , ar is es the Ho molog y. ma ss: mec han ics ::
elect ric char ge: el ectric it y. Mas s is r esi stance to
acceler ation and is pr opor tional to weight . T his i s im pl ici t in
Ne wton's Law s of Mot ion for Mec han ics . T he y s ta te:

1. Law of Iner tia : ever y bod y w il l per si st in i ts st ate of r est


or un if or m m otion un les s acted upon by a For ce .
2. For ce equals m as s time s acceler ation.
3. For ever y act ion ther e i s an equal and oppo si te r eact ion.

T he ancient sc ale pr ovides a mec han ical indic ator

<scale, masses>
Ne wtonian Laws then pr ovide f or the signa l sta ge :

<scale, masses>⇒<mechanical measurements, Newtonian Laws>


T he concept of " Ant itone" , intr oduced i n Cha pter One , and
di scu ss ed i n Cha pter F our teen , e xpl ica tes sc ient if ic
pr oces ses .

An anti tone coor dina tes an i ncr ea sing or dering -- Maxtone -


wi th a decr eas ing or der ing (M intone) s o tha t a bound on one
or dering coo r dinantl y i nduces a bound on the other or dering .

Cl imbi ng sta ir s is ant iton ic: the number of ri ser s ascended is


MA XT ONE ; di stance fr om the top is MI NT ONE . Sim il ar l y,
find ing a so ck in a dr awer or f il e i n a f ile ca binet . (Sci ma th in
your dai l y life.

T he Ma the ma tical Pr otot ype is the hyperbo li c equa tion :

xy = 1
A Pr otot ype of Mec han ics is the mac hine : a de vice act ing
upon input f or ce or input tor que (r ota tiona l f or ce) by
anti tonica ll y ampl yi fing it i nto output f or ce or tor que .

One of the bas ic mac hine , kno wn as the l ever anti tonica ll y
"tr ade s of f length for input f or ce". (A bo y sitt ing on l ong ar m
of a teeter- totter can ba lance an adult on the shor t end of the
teeter- totter le ver.)
T he Law of the Le ver is:

Load arm • load force = effort arm • effort force.


Si mi la r ly wi th another ba si c ma chine kno wn as the pul le y ,
whic h ant itonica ll y "tr ade s of f ropelength for in put f or ce" .

Al l m ac hine s anti tonica ll y "mak e so me k ind of tr adeo f f".

Mec han ics :

Loader•loadforce=amplified-efforter•effortforce
An ancient Pr otot ype is the f ix ed vibr ating st ri ng , attri buted
to P ytha go ras (bor n betw een 580 and 572 BC , died betw een
500 and 490 BC ). T he MI NT ONE i s length of st ri ng vibr ati ng .
T he MA XT ONE is pitc h of s ound .

T he anti tone is imp li cit in pr oce ss s of m oder n ph ys ic s, su ch


as quant ics . whic h un ified opti cs and m ec han ics .

T he bas ic equa ti on of opt ic s i s νλ = c, whic h i s anti tonic . A


pri mar y equa tion of me chanic s i s im pl ic itl y anti tonic : T = K +
P, wher e T is tota l ener gy ; K is kinet ic ener gy ; P i s potentia l
ener gy . Let T = log S; K = log J; P = log O. T hen, T = K + P ⇔
log S = l og J + log O ⇔ S = J O, another anti tonic for m. T he
obser va ble , momentu m , can be der iv ed fr om kineti c ener gy , K
= 1 /2(mv 2 ): p = m (2K) 1 /2 = m(2(T - P)) 1/2 . T he ob ser va ble,
wavelength , λ, can be der iv ed fr om the opt ical equa tion . T he
mi xtur e of the opt ical and mec han ical anti tones resu lt s in the
Pl anc k- Ein ste in Law : E = hν, recast anti tonica ll y a s Eλ = c h,
And the (a lr eady anti tonic ) de B rog lie Law is pλ = h.

T he above was discu ssed in Cha pter One about using


Di men si onal Al ge br a to der iv e phy sica l l aw s. B ut these wer e
al l kno wn. You no w see ho w to use Dim ens iona l A lg ebr a to
deri ve Law s ne ver bef or e seen. Can the y r ea ll y be Law s of
Phy sic s? Yes, becau se Law s of Ph ys ics ar e u sed to der iv e
them . T hey ar e im pl ic it in the Laws fr om whi ch the y ar e
deri ved .

Giv en Opt ics Law , νλ = c, its components ha ve the follo wing


di mens ion s : [λ] = [L] ; [ ν] = [T -1 ]; [c] = [L T -1 ]. Als o, [E] = [ML 2 T -2 ];
[p] = [ML T -1 ]. From Opt ics Law , new l aw s:

1. Eν = [ Eν] = [ML
2
T -3 ]
2. Eνλ = [E νλ] = [ML T ]
3 -3

3. pν = [p ν] = [ML T ]
-2

4. pνλ = [p νλ] = [ML T ].


2 -2

T he rele vant que st ion i s, " W il l the y be of an y use to the


phy si ci st and the eng ineer? " T her e i s at lea st a tw o-f old
ans wer t o th at quer y: ( i)If one o r mor e of the new ones
mi ni mi zes the w or k of pr esent ones , tha t's useful . (2)I f
any one new one ask a que st ion not ask ed by t he old one s
-- one w hic h induce s a new per spect iv e on ph ys ic s -- then
it i s usefu l.

A sym ptom of pub lic ignor ance of muc h sc ience , and


sym ptoma tic of the fai lur e of scien ti st s to cor rect th is
mi suse of ter mino log y, is the pr evalent la be ll ing of a
hea ting de vice as a "r adi ator" , spok en of as hea ting
house s, s chool s, s tor es, etc .

T he de vi ce i s not a radia tor , but a con vector .

Sci enti st s for mul ate thr ee modes of tr ansm it ting hea t:
conduction , con vect ion, r ad ia tion .

T he mode of conduction i s by immed ia te contact , as with


a fr yi ng pan on the lighted je t of a ga s s to ve.

T he mode of con vection acti va tes when a ir or water in


momentar y contact w ith a hea ti ng de vice , car rie s aw ay
so me of the hea t w ith it s m otion . (T ha t's w ha t the al le ged
radia tor i s doing : con vect ing he at v ia air cir rents .)
T he mode of hea t tr ans mi ssi on th at cor rectl y i s radia tion
use s an electr oma gnetic med ium , sim ilar to light , but of a
dif fer ent fr equenc y . T ha t mi sla bel led de vice i n house s,
sc hool s, st or es , etc. , is defin ite l y not an e lectr oma gnetic
tr ans mi tter - - in stead , a con vector .
CH AP TER TWEN TY-O NE: W HAT IS REC UR SIO N?
W ik ipedia sa ys, "R ecur sion, i n ma the ma tics and computer
sc ience , i s a me thod of def ining function s in whi ch the
function being defined is appl ied w ith in it s own def init ion .
T he ter m is a ls o u sed mor e gener al l y to des cribe a pr ocess of
repea ti ng ob jects i n a self -s imi lar w ay. F or in stance , when
the s urf ace s of tw o m ir ror s ar e almo st par all el wi th eac h
other t he ne sted i ma ge s tha t occur ar e a f or m of inf in ite
recur si on. "

You kn ow Recur sion because you ha ve seen the mir ror


recur ss ion .

W ik ipedia gi ves another "e ver y day " i ns tance of recur si on : "If
an unkno wn wor d is seen i n a book , the reader can mak e a
note of the cur rent pa ge number and put the note on a s tac k
[sa y, notepa per] (w hic h is empt y so far) . T he reader can then
look the new w or d up and , whi le r ead ing on the s ub ject, m ay
find yet another unkno wn w or d. T he pa ge number of thi s w or d
is al so wr itten do wn and put on top of the s tac k. At some
point an ar tic le i s read tha t doe s not requ ir e an y e xplan ation .
T he reader then retur ns to the pr eviou s pa ge number and
continue s reading fr om ther e. T hi s is r epea ted, sequent ia ll y
remo ving the top mos t note fr om t he stac k. Fina ll y, t he reader
retur ns to the orig ina l book . T hi s is a recur siv e appr oac h."

W ik i a ga in: "A recur rence r ela tion is an equa ti on th at r ela tes


la ter ter ms in the sequence to ea r lier ter ms ." (You real iz e
BI NARY SE AR CH. i llus tr ated i m Cha pter Fi ve i s recur si ve .)

You real iz e R ecur sion is im pl ic it in the "be ga ts " of the Fifth


Cha pter of Gene si s i n T he Bi ble . Adam be ga t S eth; Seth be ga t
Enos ; Eno s be ga t Ca inan ; C ainan be ga t Maha leel ; Mahalee l
be ga t Jar ed ; Jar ed be ga t Enoc h; E noc h be ga t Methu saleh

Tak e B( _) a s the be ga t-function . T hu s, B( Adam) = Seth ;


B(Seth) = Eno s, or B (B(Adam)) = E nos . T hen ,
B(B( B(B(B(B( B(Adam)))))) ) = Methu sal eh , the 7th gener ation
be ga t fr om Adam .

You real iz e the be ga t-funct ion e mul ates A RIT HME TIC' s
succe ss or- function , wher ein S( _) , wher e S(n) = n + 1, th at i s,
the s ucce sso r of number n is number n and one m or e . T hus ,
S(0) = 1; S(1) = 2 , or (embed ded) S( S(0) ) = 2 . T hu s,
S(S(S(S(S(S(S(0))))))) = 7 . T he se venth succes sor of z er o i s
se ven , ju st as M ethusa leh is the s eventh be ga t of A dam .

You real iz e th at, w hene ver y ou put sen tences in side


sen tences you ar e RE CU RSI NG.. You W EB -l ear n t ha t MIT
ma thema tical l ingui st Noa m C hom sk y hy pothes iz ed th at
humans gener ate langua ge r ecur siv el y, rebutt ing beha vior al
ps ychol ogi st B . S . Sk inner' s cla im tha t human s lear n langua ge
by tria l- and-er ror ass oci ation s . Chom sk y sho wed t ha t
as soc ia tion is m i s modeled pr ob abil is ti cal ly by mul ti ple -or der
Mar kho v c hain s . A c ho sen wor d dete r mi nes the pr oba bi li ti es
of the wor ds th at f ol lo w . Mathema tica l p sycholog is t Geor ge
Mi ller found t ha t (gi ven a chos en w or d), "on the aver age" ,
four option s exis t for the g ramma tica l c ate gor y of the next
wor d . In a fir st -or der M ar kho v cha in , a chi ld mu st le ar n 4 · 4 =
4 2 = 16 ass oci ati ons (f our conte xt s ti mes f ou r ne xt w or ds) .
For a second -or der cha in (deter min ing "od ds" on the ne xt t wo
wor ds), 4 · 4 · 4 = 4 3 = 64 ass oci ati ons ; etc. As conte xt
incr ea ses , the number of lea r ned as soc ia tion s Q UAD RUPLE S.

Con side r a gain tha t s entence of the ta lk y l itt le g ir l) :


"Dor oth y, w ho met the W icked W itc h of the Wes t i n Munc hkin
Land wher e her wi cked w it ch s ister was ki ll ed, liquida ted her
wi th a pai l of w ater ." Sub ject and pr edic ate of "Dor oth y
liqu ida ted her w ith a pai l of water " ar e separ ated by an
eighteen -w or d clause -- i nvok ing an eighteenth -or der Ma r kho v
chai n of 4 18 = 68 ,719,476 ,736 ass oci ati ons s. Lear ning to
speak su ch a sentence b y Ski nner's tria l- and-er ror mode l
requir es nea r ly 69 bil li on ass oci ati ons . T he chi ld sh ould liv e
so long!
You kn ow recu rsion by t he compound inter est your money
accr ues i n a s avi ngs account in a bank by compound in ter est .
Your sa ving s account g rows by recur sion.

T he W ik ipedia expli ca tion s ho ws th at t he Recur sion function


feeds bac k in to i tse lf . B ut it mu st not do s o refle xi vel y f or
thi s in vok es cir cu lar log ic and wi ll br eakdo wn a ca lcul ator or
computer .

You kn ow tha t Recur sion u ses s tep s as s imp le to follo w as


fol lo wi ng a food r ec ipe and rese mble s the recu rsion in
langua ge (a bo ve), in ser ting se ntence into s entence :

• st ar ti ng w ith a funct ion, S( -) - - kn own as "T he Succe ss or


Function" -- w ith a functand n - - kn own as "a na tur al
number" -- so t ha t you h ave S(n)
• you kno w thi s pr oceeds by outputt ing a functand, S(n) =
n+1
• after w hic h the functand becomes a recu rsi ve funct ion,
S(n+1) = (n+1) +1
• fol lo wed by nonr ef le xiv e repeti tion S((n+1)+1 ) =
((n+1 )+1)+1
• fol lo wed by nonr ef le xiv e repeti tion S(((n+1) +1)) =
(((n+ 1)+1)+1)+ 1
• etc.

You al so kn ow thi s sequence mu st ha ve a spec ifi ed be ginn ing

• whic h you as sign the pr oper name 0 (" zer o")


• so the Succes sor funct ion output s a functand, S(0) = 0+1
• after w hic h the functand becomes a recu rsi ve funct ion,
S(0+1) = (0+1) +1
• fol lo wed by nonr ef le xiv e repeti tion S((0+1)+1 ) =
((0+1 )+1)+1
• fol lo wed by nonr ef le xiv e repeti tion S(((0+1) +1)) =
(((0+ 1)+1)+1)+ 1
• etc.
You al so kn ow tha t the other output s can be gi ven pr oper
names , so y ou ha ve:

• S(0) = 0+1 = 1
• S(1) = 1+1 = 2
• S(2) = 2+1 = 3
• etc.

Tou le ar n th at, i n computer sc ience . a pr oblem is s ubdi vided


in to sma ll er pr ob lem s of the sa me t ype (pa tter ns in pa tter ns)
and recur sion is appl ied to sol ving the s ubpr oble ms . T his i s
dyna mic pr og ramm ing , de veloped i n the 1950 's by
ma thema tici an, Ric har d B el lm an (1920-84) , O ne pur pose was
to min im iz e co st s of De fense Depar tments pr ojects
contr acted to cor por ation s .

T he Be ll man E qua ti on per for ms recur si on on a "po li cy


function" , whic h is dis counted, for the t im e de lay , in the
manner of bus ine ss dec is ion s . (W iki : "D iscount Yi el d =
Char ge" t o D ela y Payment for 1 year/ De bt Lia bibi li ty.")

Be ll man' s Pr incip le of opti mal it y st ate s tha t (W ik i) " if the


pol ic y function is opt ima l for the i nfin ite su mm ation , then i t
mus t be the case tha t - - w ha te ver the in it ia l st ate and [f inal]
deci si on ar e -- the remain ing [sub]deci si ons m us t con sti tute
an opt ima l pol ic y wi th r e gar d to the s ta te r esul ti ng fr om tha t
fir st deci si on (a s e xpr es sed by the Be ll man equa tion) ."

You lear n tha t a pr oces s used , for so me pur po ses , to replace


Recur si on is Iter ation . Bo th r epea t (loop) a par t of an
Al gori thm wher ein the l ogi cal st r uctu r i s con stant but the
da ta changes . In Recur sion , a loop is r un for a spec ifi ed
number of ti mes ( spec ified number of repeti tion s). In
Iter ati on , a kno wn v al ue or gues sed va lue of the des ir ed
computi on is r un a s in it ial v al ue" ; i n loop ing (r epea ting) , the
computa tiona l r esul t of fir st r un replace s the ini tia l va lue ;
etc. ; unti l pr og ram mer i s sa ti sf ied wi th output and end s the
it er ation .
RE CU RSIV E A RIT HME TIC
0

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20
CO UNT B Y KE YB OARD DOWN A RROW
AD D: C T FIRST ADD EN D; THE N, CT SE CO ND A DD EN D; L EVEL
IS S UM
SB TR CT : C T MIN UE D DOWN; CT SU BT RH EN D UP ; LE VEL IS
DIFFER EN CE
ML TPL Y: C T MU LTIPLIC AN D A S OF TEN A S MU LTIPLIER ; LVL IS
PR ODU CT
DIVI DE: H OW M AN Y DIVIS OR -U PS T O REA CH ZER O LEV EL?
EX PN TIA TIO N: CT BAS E A S OF TEN A S EXP ON EN T; L VL IS
AN SW ER
LGRTHM :
RT X TR CTN :

We can define Cor ecur sion a s a reduct iv e bifur ca ting

pr oce ss . And link Rcur sion and Cor ecur sion .

T he ar guments , pr o and con, anent reduct ioni sm in s ci ence

is rhetori cal . But exp er imenta l confir mati on se nds a


paricu lar reduction fr om r hetoric to sc ience .
U nconfi r med
reduction tr ea ted as ANS ATZ is no longer rhetor ic.
CH AP TER TWEN TY-T WO: W HAT IS A MA TH EMA TIC AL G RP?
In Cha p. 12, on "Cogn iti ve Di ssonance" , it 's explained tha t
ma thema tici ans in vok e unin tended ref er ences by na ming a
new te chnica l ter m by an "e ver yda y" ter m, su bl im ina ll y
mi xing di spar ate ref er ent s. H er ein th is i s avoided by
renaming tho se encounter ed. T he Number Sy stem s ha ve been
uniquel y renamed.

As sho wn above, t he impor tant concept of g roup ha s been


renamed " Gr p", to pr ec lude r ef er ence , s ay, to a g roup of dogs
in a sho w,

T hen we ha ve a pr a gm atic expla iner : [G r p] ⇒[Gr oup]

You kn ow tha t you wi ll, her ein, con str uct oper ations and thei r
in ver ses . T hese ar e the es sen tia ls of a G r p.

You kn ow a G r p compr is es an oper ation and i ts oper and s and


can be in for ma tiv el y def ined i n four s ta ge s:

1. you r ea li ze a g r po id is a s ystem clo sed under an


oper ation . as when a Nt r l Nu mber ad ded to a Nt r l N umber
equal s a N tr l Number .
2. you l ear n a S emi g r p is ass oci ati ve Gr po id , a s in the
as soc ia tiv e pr oper ty of Nt r l Nu mber s under ad dit ion : a +
(b + c) = (a + b) + c.
3. you l ear n a Mno id is a Sem ig r p with a favor ed e lement ,
the G r p "Ident ity ", her ein Dnt y, s uc h tha t its oper ation
wi th an y ele ment l ea ves th at e lement unc hanged - - t he
ad dit iv e Dnt y is zer o: n + 0 = n, and the mul ti pl ica tiv e
Dnt y is the unit : n · 1 = n
4. you l ear n a G r p is a Mnoid suc h tha t eac h ele ment ha s it s
Nvr s w her eby the e lement oper ati onall y compo sed w ith
it s Nvr s equal s the G r p Dn ty

You lear n tha t, in N tg rs, y ou can const r uct an ad dit iv e Gr p


conser vi ng a ll ad diti ve pr oper tie s and can con st r uct an
mul ti pl ica tiv e M No id con ser ving al l mu lt ipl ic ati ve pr oper tie s.
Suc h a s tr uctur e i s a "Ri ng", her ein a Rng .

T he Rtn l Nu mber s al so for a , ul ti pl ica tiv e G r p. T his double


Gr p i s kn own as a "Fie ld" , her ein a Fld.

You kn ow tha t chil dr en can be taught the G r p concept via


"the cr eeping ba by g roup". You kno w cr eep ing is on hands
and feet , bel l y of f the f loor , (Cr aw ling scr apes t he be ll y.) Y ou
real iz e th at the G r p oper ands ar e cr eeps and the G r p
oper ation is conca ten ation , one cr eep f ol llo wed b y another
cr eep:

• you l ear n tha t cr eep conca ten ation for ms a Gr poid


• you l ear n cr eeping is as soc ia ti ve, so y iel ds a Sem ig r p
• you r ea li ze a long pause in cr eep ing (d if ficult with
pr atf all) is the Gr p D nty , tr an sf or ming the cr eep Sem ig r p
in to a cr eep Mno id
• you r ea li ze th at the Nver s cr eep pr ovi des Gr p Nvr s f or
eac h cr eep , tr ans for ming the cr eep Mno id into a cr eep
Gr p

(You kno w t ha t, p rior to ma ster ing the Mvr s cr eep , a ba by


cr eeps in to a cul -de -sac and y ells to be rescued . You kno w
tha t, after m as tering the Nv er s cr eep -- w atc h out ! -- the ba by
wi ll be "e ver yw her e" .) M athema tic s in T he Ba by Wor ld!

You lear n tha t the Sw is s cogn iti ve ps ycholog is t, Jean P ia get


(1896-1980), wr ote abo ut the cr eep ing G r p, but did not use it
to t eac h m athem ati cs .
CH AP TER TWEN TY-T HR EE : W HAT IS M EAS UR E T HE OR Y?
Yoi W EB lear n tha t, unti l found ing of T he N ationa l B ur eau of
Standar ds , ther e pr evai led wha t you m ay ca ll " T he Ri ght to
Measur e". T his meant tha t any s tor ek eeper cou ld s ay w ha t
was a ga ll on of mi lk , a pec k of pot atoes , a y ar d of cloth , etc.
T he onl y k ind of mea sur es whi ch w er e not open to the
st or ek eeper' s FIA T wer e dig ita l measur es deri ving fr om
counting -- say, a do zen e ggs .

You WE Blear n tha t T he N ationa l B ur eau of S tandar ds w as


es ta bli shed in 1970 , on a p lan ad apted fr om th at s ketc hed by
Char le s Saunder s Peir ce (our g rea tes t 19th centur y logic ian -
ma thema tici an, our g rea te st phi lo sopher a lthough incor rect l y
as soc ia ted wi th "the pr agma tic phi lo sophy "). B ut P eir ce was
ne ver g iv en of ficia l cr edit . Toda y it i s cal led T he N ationa l
Inst itute of S tandar ds and Technolog y .

You WE Blear n tha t the se metr ologi st s (meas ur ement-


sc ient is ts ) , as wi th ph ys ic s and eng ineering pr of es sor s in the
uni ver sit ies , ig nor e the inte g rit y of "T he T heor y of
Measur ement Sca le s" , as ini ti ated i n 1940 by H ar var d
ps ychophy sic is t, S . S. Ste vens .

You lear n tha t a Ste ven s' meas ur ement s ca le i s defined i n


ter ms of tha t mathem atica l tr ans for ma tion le aving the s ca le
in var iant (thu s, per muta tions f or a ty pe-s cal e ); and a ls o
defined by clear list ing of the "per mis sib le st atis ti cs " of a
gi ven mea sur ement sc ale (thus , the aver age f or type s i s the
mode , or mo st fr equent -- not the ar ithme tic mean , since "you
can't ad d apples and or anges" , except as ite ms of t he fr uit
ty pe).

You kn ow an example of s ta ti st ica l abuse i n "the bel l cur ve"


of IQ T es t S cor es . Can tw o people sa id to ha ve IQ s of 60 eac h
accompl is h al l a per son said to be of iQ 120?

T he list of the se sca les , in t he Table be lo w, lead s of f w ith a


di st inct ion S te vens did not mak e of a nom ina l m easur e .
Rea son : cri tica l thing s and event s shou ld be uniquel y named
-- pos tul ati ng "T he F ir st Law of Mea sur ement : LET ALL YOUR
NAM ES BE UNIV OC AL! "

If you read thr ough T he R epor t of the Pr es ident ia l


Com mi ssi on O n the S pace-Shutt le Cha llenger Disas ter (1986) ,
the r epor t to Cong ress abo ut the Chal lenger D isa ster of 1981
-- whi ch k il led 8 a str onaut s and a sc hool teac her -- you 'l l see
why. Betw een t he lines , you d is co ver tha t the good
meas ur ements of engineer s wer e WAST ED when the dec is ion -
maki ng (a s to tak e-o f f) was k ic ked up sta ir s to be
di scombob il ated by the buz z-w or ds of mana ger s and
beaucr at. For e xamp le, inf or mati on at one point star ts out,
"A ll jo int s ar e leak c he cked to a 200 ps ig sta bil iz ation
pr es sur e, fr ee of contami na tion i n the s ea l ar ea and mee t O -
ri ng squeez e requir ements ." B ut th is appa rentl y was
tr ans la ted as " T he fr eni sl aw i s ri gbik and the mome rath s
outg rabe." And note tha t in ves tig ating comm it tee me mber and
Nobe l phy si ci st , Ric har d Feyman , di sco ver ed th at those O-
ri ngs , when dunk ed in ice-w ater , wou ld not pa ss tho se
"s queez e requir ements ", whic h had been conducted a t higher
temper atur es - - and cou ld allo w gas to es ca pe and explode !
(T he one engineer among the f inal dec is ion -mak er s was
or der ed to " Tak e of f your engineer' s hel met and vote with us
for tak e-of f !")

T he PO INT : STAN DARD S S ET UP FO R FE DE RAL ENF OR CEME NT


RE MAIN S UB JECT TO POLI TICAL WR AN GLI NG. But so me one
them TR AN SLA TE AS M EAS UR EME NTS ! Trans for m FIA T into
ME ASU REM EN T and nay -s ayer s can be put in the company of
T he Roman C atho li c C hur ch tr yi ng t o mak e Ga li leo say th at
the ear th doe s not mo ve ar ound the su n.

TH E MO RE TH AT NOR MS AR E SU PP OR TED BY MEA SU REM EN T


TH E MO RE SE CU RE TH EY A RE !
(I'v e long had an in ter est th is , ha ving been a m ember of T he
Ame rican As soci ati on of Q ual it y Con tr ol Engi neer s , and
ha ving taught qual it y contr ol engineer ing m any time s. )

TABLE OF MEASUREMENT SCALES (after S. S. Stevens)


TRANSFORMATION ALLOWABLE
SCALE EXAMPLES
GROUP STATISTICS
Nominal Identity Mode(s) Proper names; technical terms
Taxonomy of plants and
Typological Permutation Mode(s)
animals; etiology of diseases
Moh mineral hardness scale;
Ordinal Isotonic Median; range IQ; Richter-Kanamori
earthquake scale
Arithmetic mean; densities;Celsius & Fahrenheit
Interval Linear
variance temperature scales
Ratio Similarity all statistics weight, length, etc.

We'r e g rowing par tia ll y deaf due to en vir on mental noi se s,


espec ial l y ar ound ai r por ts , at roc k concer nts , and due to
publ ic boombo xes . T he sa fety r ul es ar e ba sed on the decibe l
sca le , de vi sed accor ding to ins tr umenta l respon se to s ound .
Ste ven s cr ea te a sone mea sur e ( ON LIN E), based upon human
respon se to s ound, w hic h wou ld be better for us , since smal l
changes in t he dec ibel sc ale ma y be equ iva lent to lar ger
changes in t he sone s ca le. It was because of c ha ll enges to
hi s so ne scale th at S te vens cr ea ted hi s "T heor y of
Measur ement Sca le s" .

You kn ow a " measur ement pr ob lem" in w hic h these


di st inct ions become cri tica l, reso lv ing an a ppar ent par ado x.

You ar e fam il iar w ith the jar gon : " Equal s ad ded to equa ls
gi ves equa ls "; " Equal s sub tr acted fr om equals g iv es equal s" ;
"Equa ls t ime s equal s gi ves equa ls "; " Equal s di vided by equal s
gi ves equa ls ".

Cor rect for number s. But you kn ow thi s is on l y condi tiona ll y


for meas ur es , as in t he te mper atur e scale , usua ll y mea sur ed
in FAhr enheit or C enti g rade de g rees .
You kn ow tha t the fr eeezing of water is 32 ° on the Fahr enh eit
Scale and 0 ° on the Centi g rade Sca le . Y ou kno w th at the
boi li ng of water is 212 °F ; and 100 °C . H ence , y ou find th at,
betw een boi li ng and fr eezi ng, the Fahr enheit range i s (212 -
32) ° = 180 °, w hil e the Cent ig rade range is 100 °.

T hen you h ave the de g ree ratio of 180/10 = 1 .8 = 9 /5 . You can


use th is r atio to con ver t temper atur e T on the Centi g rade
Scale to T on the Fahr en he it S cale , since 9/5 TC° + 32 ° = TF °.

You can us e the in ver se ratio (5/9) to con ver t t emper atur e T
on the Fahr enhe it S cale to T on the Cent ig rade S cale , since
5/9(T - 32) ° F = T°C .

T hu s: 50 °F = 10 °C; 68 °F = 20 °C ; 86 °F =30 °C; 104 ° F = 40 °C ;


etc.

No w, y ou find why " equal s di vi ded b y equal s" fai ls her e. Since
68 °F = 20 °C , and 50 °F = 10 °C , to sa y "Equa ls d iv ided by
equal s gi ves equa ls ", would her e become "68/50 equal s 2/10 "!
Incor rect! W hat goes wr ong? Ho w can the l eft fr action, w hic h
was g rea ter than one, equa l the ri ght fr act ion, whi ch i s le ss
than one ?

You kn ow tha t the exp lana ti on der iv es fr om a T heor y of


Measur ement Sca le s of Ste ven s.

If your pr oblem invol ved a RATIO mea sur e, the "equa ls


di vi ded b y ..." would "w or k" ; ho wever, being an I NTE RVAL
MEA UR E, th is ob viou sl y doesn 't . T he LI NE ARITY , y = ax + b, is
im pl ic it in the F-to -C tr an sf or ma tion r ule . You note the
constant ter m b, whic h equal s 32 i n the F . Sca le, but 0 i n the
C . scale .

RA TI O ME ASU RE rel ates to the sim ilar it y equa ti on : y = ax ,


wi thout I NTE RVAL CO NSTAN T, b.

You kn ow tha t DIFFE REN CE S O F INT ER VAL ME ASU RE S WILL


PASS T HE R ATI O T ES T, s ince th is subtr act s out the IN TE RVAL
(LINE AR) CO NSTAN T. T hu s: ( 104 °F - 68 °F) /( 86 °F - 60 °F) = 36/36
= (40 °C - 20 °C) /(30 °C - 10 ° C) = 20 /20 = 1. QED

You kn ow tha t man y metr ical abuse s wou ld be EXPO SE D b y


im ple menting the condit ion of NO ME ASU RE WIT HO UT A
PR EDIC TIO N! A ny one clai ming to ad d I. Q . Scor es (to bu ild a
"Be ll Cur ve") would ha ve to pr edict tha t he could find tw o
"lo w" I . Q . s cor er s who , co mbined , w ould be st a "h igh"
scor er !

You kn ow tha t the excell ent, but no w, ne glected , concept --


di scu ss ed i n Cha p. N ineteen -- can teac h st udents ho w to
lear n or di sco ver. In the homolog y, Fresnel len s: con vex
len s: :st air s: r amp , the s tudent can l ear n tha t the F resnel lens
accompl is hes opt ical l y w ha t a con vex len s does i n g rea ter
di mens ion s. A con vex l ens , in a ligh t-hou se, to ma gnif y light
for a g rea t di stance , w oul d topp le o ver. T he opti mal
di mens ion s of the F resnel le ns -- due to s ci enti st A ugus t- Jean
Fresne l (1788 -1827) -- made pos si ble the ma gnicent light -
house s of the nineteenth centur y, whi ch gu ided so many s hi ps
at se a.

W her ea s t ha t the a bo ve homolog y s er ves to teac h, y ou kno w


tha t the homolog y, 1/2 = 11/? m oti va tes d is co ver y. (you kn ow
the r esemb lance of thi s la st ca se po int s to the use of
homolog y i n "mu lt ipl e c hoice tes ting ", although i t is doubtful
tha t man y teac her s or tes t- mak er s ar e aw ar e of i ts im pl ic it
pr esence .)

You kn ow tha t the homolog y can sho w use of fr act ions , or


rati os , to explic ate dif fer ent doma ins of e xis tence on t hi s
ear th . And ho w th is deri ves fr om a ne glected "s cience"
wr itten up long a go b y Ga lil eo G al ile i (1564-1642).

You kn ow tha t "T he W or ld of Mathema tic s" , edited by J ames


R. New man, contain s an a r tic le b y evolut ionar y s ta ti st ic ian,
J. S. H al dane (1892-1964) , ent it led " On Be ing the R ight Siz e" .
Ha ldane note s tha t a human f all ing fr om a n ine -st or y bu lding
wou ld h ave bones cr ushed. B ut y ou note the s ur pr isi ng
comment tha t a mous e w ould reac h a cer ta in ter minal
veloci ty and f loa t do wn, to land wi th a minor bump . W ik ipedia
explain s thi s i n ter ms of a squar e-cube la w : "T he s quar e-cube
la w (or cube-s quar e l aw) is a p rinc iple , dr awn fr om the
ma thema tics of pr opor tion , tha t is appl ied i n engineer ing and
bio mec hanic s. It w as f ir st demon str ated in 1638 in Gal il eo' s
Two N ew Sc iences . It s ta tes : W hen an ob ject unde r goes a
pr opor tiona l incr ea se i n size, i ts new v olu me i s pr opor tiona l
to t he cube of the m ul tip li er and it s new su rf ace ar ea is
pr opor tiona l to the sq uar e of the mu lt ipl ier ." You find :

v2 = v1(l2/l2)3, A2 = A1(l2/l2)2
wher e v denote s vol ume, l denote s length (f or any length
meas ur e), A denotes surf ace ar e; sub scr ipt 2 denote s new
di mens ion ; s ub scri pt 1 denotes or igi nal di mens ion , T hi s
princ ip le a pp lie s to a ll so li ds .

You kn ow tha t the squar e-cube law for the f all ing bod ies
st ate s a r atio of surf ace ar ea contacted> to ma ss acted upon
by g ravit y . You kno w tha t tj e s hi ft fr om human to mouse is a
decr ease in d imen si ons wher eby the volume mul tip li er
decr ease s " fas ter" than the s urf ace ar ea of a ir pushed aw ay
in fall ing . So t he denom ina tor her e decr ea ses " fas ter" than
the nu mer ator , so tha t the m ouse slo ws do wn in fall ing to a
cer tain ter mina l veloci ty, and floa ts the r est of the way do wn

You kn ow tha t the squar e-cube law al so im pl ie s tha t the


giant s of our le gends cnnot exis t on the ear th. T he "cube"
st ill per tain s to volume . Bu t the "squar e" per tain s to musc le-
po wer , since, as y ou kno w th is depend s upon the s quar e of
the m usc lle le gth . So , as the mul tip li er incr ea ses , the volume
(wi th ma ss) wi ll incr ea se " fas ter" than musc le t o mo ve. T he
le gendar y gi ant w ould sha tte r h is l e gs , ju st by t r ying to mo ve
one step .
You kn ow tha t the lar ge st an ima ls on ear th ar e whale s, whic h
mus t be suppor ted b y the bouy an cy of w ater . You kno w tha t
the l ar ges t of t he dinosaur s had to liv e in s wamp w ater .

Ga li leo used h is princ ipl e to es ti ma te the maxi mal he ight for


a tr ee . His es ti ma te was onl y cor rected when the se qo yah s of
Ca li for nia wer e d is co ver ed.

You kn ow tha t Ga lil eo' s "T wo New Sc iences : concer ned the
la w of f al li ng bod ies and thi s squar e-cube law whic h i s lii tl e
taught e xcept in cour se s for engineer s and bio mec hanic s.

Ha ldane noted tha t, whi le g ravi ty i s not the pr oble m to the


mous e th at is is to humans , the pr oblem of surf ace tens ionof
liqu ids i s a g rea ter pr oblem for the mous e than for the human,
A mou se, in cr aw li ng out of a pool , car ri es of f on its body an
amount of water equal to it s own w eight, A fl y fal ling into
water wou ld h ave to dr ag out man y ti mes i ts own weight . So
Ha ldane co mments t ha t a fl y, in tr yi ng to get a s ip of water
tha t a human i s i n lean ing over a clif f to p ic k a wi ld flo wer.

So you f ind the homo log y, g ravit y: human: : su rf ace ten si on:
mous e.

You kn ow tha t on the moon , a human weigh s one-n inth of


wha t she /he doe s on ear th . Y ou kno w th is in sp ir ed a sc ienth -
fict ion wri ter s to descr ibe teen-a ger s on the moon to go i nto
the l ar ge c ha mber w her e o xygen w as cr ea ted f ir the m oon-
dweller s. T her e, they cou ld j ump out and floa t do wn war d in
the b il lo wing a ir , jus t a s the mouse floa ts on ear th .
CHA PT ER TWE NT Y-FO UR :W HAT IS YOUR A GE ND A FO R
CO NST RUCTI ON O F ARI TH METIC ?

• You kn ow AN A RIT HM ETIC CO NSISTS of O PE RA TI ON S AN D


OP ER AN DS (Cha p, T hr ee), needed because :
• T he pr oblem of ted ium in da il y pr actice be gs f or
sho r tcuts .

o T he tediu m of tal l ying , shor tcut b y Nu mbering via


Recur si on.
o T he tediu m of combin ing counts , sho r tcut b y
oper ation of Ad dit ion v ia R ecur sion on N atur al
Nu mber s as oper ands .
o T he tediu m of combin ing ad dend s, shor tcut by
Mul tip li ca tion via Recur si on on ad dend s a s oper an ds.
o T he tediu m of combin ing mul tip li cands , sh or tcut by
Exponenti ati on via R ecur sion on Mu lt ipl icand s as
oper an ds.
o You real iz e th at R ecur sion al lo ws un li mi ted
sho r tcutti ng be yond Exponenta tion, but no demand
for thi s.
• You real iz e need of In ver se for eac h oper ation , becau se:
o tacti cal l y, for the Lear ning P roces s, In ver ses f or eac h
a v erif ica tion of ca lcul ation ;
o str ate gica ll y, to COMPL ETE TH E GROU P (Cha p. T wo) ,
since ari thmet ic s o va riou sl y scr amble s the
pr oces ses , you need to kno w tha t V AL UE IS
CO NSE RVED UND ER TH ES E V ARI OU S
TR AN SFO RMA TI ON S. ( You can't depend upon T he
Tooth Fair y for thi s. No r on your puri ty of hear t.)
Pr ovid ing an in ver se for any oper ati on comp lete s it s
g roup , as you lear n, yie ldi ng a Con ser vation Law .
• You lear n thi s a bout exi stence of an i nver se . A gener al
oper ation o, should ha ve a lef t-and -ri ght i nver se o' s uc h
tha t a o b = c i mp li es th at c o ' b = a and c o' a = b.
• You real iz e an in ver se exis ts i f the oper ati on i s W ELL-
DEFI NE D ("cance lla ble"), pr ovid ing f or right in ver se or
left in ver se :
o You lear n tha t, if a o b = a o x im pl ie s tha t x = b , then
oper ation o ha s a right in ver se .
o You lear n tha t, if a o b = x o b im pl ie s tha t x = a , then
oper ation o ha s a left in ver se .
o You lear n tha t, if oper ati on o is com muta tiv e, then
ri ght and left in ver se s fuse in to a single i nver se.

You lear n tha t the above pr ovides an Agenda for const r ucting
the N umber Sys tem s in th is book, together w ith the ir
Ar ithme tic s.
YOU CA N CON ST RUCT T HE N TR L (C OU NTIN G) NUM BE R
SYST EM
MO TI VATI ON : Some st udents th ink dif fer ent number system s
al lo w f or c hea ting. "W e'r e taught you can't tak e 3 fr om 2.
T hen a funn y s ign i s put i n fr ont of a 1 and it 's al lo wed. W hy
can't I put a funn y sign in fr ont of any ans wer I w is h, and it 's
okay ?"

And st udents th ink s ome ar ithmet ical r ule s ar e "w eir d" --
su ch a s the " la w of sign s" and the r ule for di vi ding a fr action
by a fr action .

T he deri va tion s in th is Book cor rect both ty pes of


mi sunde rstanding .

A ppar entl y, a que st ion s el dom cons ider ed b y teac her s is " W hy
do w e need so m any number system s ?" Ntr l Nu mber s, Nt g r s,
Rtn l Nu mber s, R l N umber s, Cm plx number s. W hy isn 't one
syste m enough ? T he an swer -- r ar el y, i f e ver, g iv en to
st udents -- be gin s wi th the ans wer to another que stion : "W hy
do w e need ari thmet ic? "

An ans wer t o th is "ari thmet ic" ques tion can be explained by


"the tediu m pr ob lem" , in it ia ting wi th the que sti on, "W hy
deter mine m anyne ss ?" (Of thing s, events , people , do ll ar s,
pi ckle s, sil ly quest ion s.) It 's ted ious to deter mine mul tip li ci ty
-- or compar e one mul tip li ci ty w ith another - - by mean s of
counting st icks or knot s i n st ri ngs or ma r ks jn the dus t, etc .

Toda y, w e use count ing of nu mber s to deter mine many nes s .


But ma thema tic ian B er tr and Rus se ll (1872-1970) said , "It
mus t ha ve tak en eon s f or hu mans to real iz e th at a br ace of
par tr idges and a couple of da ys ar e in stance s of the number
tw o." Anthr opolog is ts t el l of a people whose counting syste m
cons is ts of "O ne, two, many ".

It' s con venient to let ta ll yi ng be pr ototy pe of a ll pr e-numer ic


spec ifi ca tions of m anyne ss : ||| || || |. .. . In ter ms of wha t fol lo ws ,
we la be l thi s 0 -r ecur sion .
(Plea se note, in w ha t f ollo ws , tha t recur sion i s extensi ve ,
contr ast ing wi th the in tens ion of axio ma tics - - as in the
Peano axio ms f or i nte ge rs . For, extensi on pr esents i ts
ref er ent: one -one . But in tens ion act s ind ir ectl y thr ough a
descr ipt ion : "the set of al l ent iti es suc h tha t an y ent it y
sa ti sf ie s a s ta ted pr ed ica te" . T he pr oblem is th at thi s is often
many -one . T hu s, y ou find , on T he W eb, expli ca tion of
"nons tandar d in te ger s", eac h one g rea ter than an y st anda r d
in te ger . T hi s rese mble s "sto len i dent ity ". But the v ar ious
le vels of recur si on , be lo w, and the vector for mul ation , al l
conser ve th is exten si venes s .)

T he tediu m of tal lying is dis pel led b y the nu mber concept . We


obtain "the Nt r l number" by fir st recur sion on the number , n
(b e ginning wi th n ≡ 0) v ia " the s ucce sso r funct ion", S. T hu s,
S(n) ≡ n + 1 . ("T he succe ss or of any number is th at number
and one mor e. ") T hus , S(0) ≡ 0 + 1 ≡ 1. S(1) ≡ 1 + 1 ≡ 2 (to g iv e
thi s a la bel) ; S(2) ≡ 2 + 1 ≡ 3; etc .

But tediu m i nt r udes again in repet iti ons of number ne ss . F or


example , count ing of f thr ee finger s; then t wo finger s; then
combin ing to count of f fi ve finger s. T edi um of counts was
di spe lled by ad di tion of number s , def ined by second
recur si on: recur sion on fir st recur si on or recur sion on
counting : S(a + b) ≡ (a + b) + 1 T hu s, f or a + b = 8, S(8) ≡ 8 + 1
≡ 9, reduc ing th is to fir st recur sion .

Ho w ar e the se tw o recur sions dis tinc t? Fir st r ecur sion is a


unar y oper ati on , whic h doe sn' t i nvok e or der . Second
recur si on is a bi nar y oper ati on , invoking or der . T hi s induced
tw o for ms , deri va ble fr om fir st recur sion: com muta tiv ity of
ad dit ion : a + b = b + a and as soc ia tiv ity of ad diti on : a + (b +
c) = (a + b) + c. Plea se note tha t ass oci ati vit y is a binar y of
binar y oper ation s, equi valen t to a ter nar y oper ation , and
im pl ict l y is an n-ar y oper ation of ad di tion for any number , n.
Both commut ati vit y of ad dit ion and as soc ia tiv ity of ad diti on
can be deri ved fr om the recur si ve defin iti on of ad dition .
T he tediu m of repetit ion s a ls o ari se s fr om ad di tion , as in 3 +
3, imp li cit l y " double counting" . T his pr ob lem is sol ved b y the
oper ation of mu lt ip lic ati on def ined by t hir d recu rsion on t he
second recur si on or recur sion on ad dit ion : a • 1 ≡ 1; a • S(b) a
• b + a. T hu s, a • S(1) ≡ a • 1 + a, or a • 2 = a + a ; a • S(2) ≡ a •
2 + a, or a • 3 ≡ a + a + a; etc . T hus , the pr oble m of t hir d
recur si on become s a pr ob lem of second recur si on, whi ch i s a
pr oblem of f ir st r ecur sion . And com muta tiv ity and
as soc ia tiv ity ar ise for mul tip li ca tion , der iv able fr om t he
recur si ve defin iti on of m ul tip li ca tion .

Her e al so ar is es the di st ribut iv e l aw : a • (b + c) ≡ a • b + a • c,


whic h is der iva ble fr om the recur siv e defin it ion .

T he tediu m of repetit ion s a ls o ari se s wi th m ult ip li ca tion , as


in 3 ⋅ 3, imp li cit l y " double mul tip li ca tion" . T his pr ob lem is
so lv ed by four th recur si on on thir d recur si on: recur sion on
mul ti pl ica tion , as exponentia tion : b 0 ≡ 1 ; b S(p ) ≡ b p + 1 = b p • p .
T hu s, 3 S(0) ≡ 3 0 • 3 , or 3 1 = 1 • 3 = 3; 3 S(1 ) = 3 1 • 3 = 3 • 3 = 9, or
3 2 = 3 • 3 = 9; etc.

Ho wever, component rela tions d if fer f or th is case , fr om


pr evi ous cas es . Ad di tion and mu lt ip lic ati on ar e commut ati ve
but e xponenti ation is not . Counter example : 2 3 = 8, but 3 2 = 9.
T his f ail ur e ha s a b ig consequence, sho wn belo w.

T his e xpl ica tion suf fices for ari thmet ic, pr ovid ing it s pri mar y
oper ation s .

Sum mar y: 1s t r ecur sion yie lds count ing (number) . 2nd
recur si on yield s ad dit ion. 3r d r ecur son yie ld s mul tip li ca tion .
4th r ecur sion yie lds e xponenti ati on. T he se ar e "d if fer ent
le vels of recur si on" whic h ar e " repr esenta ble di mens iona ll y" ,
whic h aids our thi nking in der iv ing ar ithmet ic r ules i n
dif fer ent nu mber s ystem s . T hink of 1s t r ecur sion as of
"di mens ion zero" or " di mens ion of the po int repr esent ing
number" . T hink of 2nd recur sion for ad diti on as of "di mens ion
one" o r "d imen si on of the l ine or se gment or row", a s in (* * * )
+ ( * * ) = (* * * * * ) . T hink of thir d recur si on f or mu lt ip lic ati on
as of " di mens ion tw o" or "d imen si on of a grid or ta ble wi th
rows and co lumns ". C er ta intl y, the for mal is m kno wn as
"Ca r tes ian pr oduct" ( R X C , for rows and column s) cr ea tes
su ch a g rid or ta ble , and mode ls mu lt ipl ic ati on. Fina ll y, think
of 4th r ecur sion for expo nent ia tion a s of "d imen si on thr ee" ,
as in t he jar gon for number cubes , su ch a s 2 3 = 8. And the
Car te si an pr oduct , A X B can be e xtended to A X B X C. We'l l
see be lo w ho w th is he lps our th inking about ar ithmet ic r ules
in dif fer ent number syste m.

We no w an swer our fir st quest ion , " W hy so m any number


syste ms ?" A ns wer : T o pr ovide an in ver se oper ation for eac h
pri mar y oper ation . T hi s is rar el y e xpla ined .

• We cer ta inl y need inver se s for chec king our ca lcul ation .
• Another reason for ha vi ng an in ver se for eac h oper ation i s
tha t "the g roup can be comple ted" and "th is con ser ves
the s tr uctur e under tr ans for ma tion s" (s uc h a s tha t in t he
pr evi ous it em) . H er e ar e the s ta ge s f or de velopment for a
g roup :

o g roupoid for med b y conca tena tion of oper ation s : for


gi ven oper ation o, the conca tena tion of one s uc h
oper ation follo wed b y another s uc h is equ iva lent to a
single suc h oper ation .
o se mi g roup b y as soc ia tiv ity of oper ation s : o ( o o) = (o
o) o, tha t is, the as soc ia ting of oper ationa l in stance s
is ir rele vant. T hi s pr ovides f or accomp li shing any
oper ationa l demand.
o monoid with ident it y ele ment , pr ovid ing f or s ta si s i n
oper ationa l pr ocedu re and for id entif yi ng an in ver se .
T he appli ca tion of the i denti ty oper ations to a
st r uctur e le aves i t unc hanged.
o g roup co mpleted by i nver se for ever y oper and of
syste m , th at i s, an ele ment comb ined oper ationa ll y
wi th i ts in ver se is equi va lent to the id enti ty element .
o At le as t t wo benefits fr om g roup comp letion :
 T he syste m i s conser ved under g roup oper ation - -
as val ua tion i s conser ved in th at equa tion abo ve
for ar tic le- pay ment.
 Identif ica tion of the s ystem as s et of a ll
ele ments con ser ved under g roup G .

(T hu s, "Euc li dean Ge ometr y i s the s tud y of al l pr oper ties


conser ved under the Euc lidean g roup" . Agai n, "Spec ial
Rela ti vit y is the st udy of a ll pr oper ties con ser ved under the
Lor entz- Ei ns tein Gr ou p." N oth ing m or e need s to be sa id .)

So we need an in ver se for eac h oper ation . Fir st , we con side r


why we don' t ha ve an in ver se for a giv en oper ation . T hen how
to get th is oper ational inver se -- in a new number syste m .

No w, w ha t is the pr oble m a bout in ver ses ? We need an i nver se


to be total , yield ing a resul t w ith in the number system of it s
oper an ds: clo sur e . Bu t, in the fir st number syste m d is cus sed
above, Nt r l Nu mber s, cr ea ted by 1 st recur sion , we f ind
(belo w) th at all i nver ses of pr imar y ari thmet ic oper ation s ar e
onl y par tia l , yield ing so me r esul ts not in the sa me system as
the oper ands . So , the pr oce ss of -- one a t a ti me -- rendering
total an in ver se an swers t he que sti on about s o many nu mber
syste ms .

Render ing is accompl ished by for ming a 2-vector system fr om


components in a "lo wer system" su ch tha t a par tia l oper ation
can become total . T his v ector m ethod e xtends th at of
W il lia m R owan Ha mi lt on in f or mu la ting the comp le x number in
ter ms of 2-vector s of real number s, wi th a ppr opr ia te
oper ation s.

T he fina l resu lt is la be led " gener atic ar ithmet ic" as


al ter na tiv e to axio ma tic ar ith metic . T he faul t w ith
axio ma tics i s t ha t, be ing in tens ional , the ax iom s do not
uniquel y sp ecif y the i ntended s ystem . For example , onl ine you
find a s ystem of non standar d in te ger s eac h g rea ter than any
st andar d inte ger , hence, al lo wing for "ident ity t heft". S ince
gener atic s is extens ional , th is cannot ha ppen.

We f ir st stud y the d if ficul tie s and the ir cor rection , al so


se ldom discu ssed.

Ho w do w e kn ow tha t an oper ation , o, has an inver se ?


Ans wer : when it is wel l- defined ( "cancella ble") , pr ovi ding for
ri ght i nver se or lef t i nver se .

• If a o b = a o x im pl ie s tha t x = b, then oper ation o ha s a


ri ght i nver se .
• If a o b = x o b im pl ie s tha t x = a, then oper ation o ha s a
left in ver se .
• If oper ati on o is co mmuta ti ve, then righ t and left in ver se s
fuse in to a single i nver se .

No w, a + b = a + w recur siv ely i mp li es w = b, so ad diti on ha s


a r ight in ver se . And a + b = w + b recur si vel y im pl ie s tha t w =
a, so ad dit ion ha s a l eft in ver se . Bu t ad di tion is also
commut ati ve, s o the t wo in ver ses fu se into a sing le in ver se ,
sub tr action , w hic h is defined in ter ms of ad dition : p  r = w
if f p = r + w. (In p  r = w , p i s mi nuend , r i s sub tr ahe nd , w is
dif fer ence .)

No te: defin ing s ubtr act ion in t er ms of ad dit ion i s im pl ic it in


an o ld t im e m ethod of tea ching su btr action . T he st anda r d
method is "tak e aw ay" . T hu s, 5  3 = 2 i s "fi ve, tak e aw ay
thr ee, yie ld s tw o". Another me thod was "Austr ian
sub tr action" , as in ? + 3 = 5 or "W ha t number do you ad d to
tw o to obtain fiv e?" T his ena bles a chi ld to use the mor e
fam il iar oper ation of ad diti on to le ar n s ubtr act ion. (Impl ic itl y,
it pr epar es f or numer ica l a lge br a.) T hi s idea wi ll be usefu l
belo w.

Ho wever, sub tr action is defined for Nt r l N umber s i f, and onl y


if , su btr ahend is not g rea te r than mi nuend , a limi ta tion whic h
explic ates " a def ined dif fer en ce" : DD . T hi s pr ovides f or the
equi val ence r ule -- useful la ter -- for DD, of (a  b) = (c  d)
if f (a + d) = (b + c) . Also , in langua ge usefu l la ter , we say
"th is con ser ves defined dif fer ence". W it hout th is lim it ation
"N tr l Nu mber s ar e not conser ved under su btr action" . T hu s, 3
 2 = 1, a defined dif fer ence ; but, for 2  3 = w, the nu mber
w cannot recur as a Ntr l Nu mber . So, we s ay "the Nt r l N umber
syste m i s not c lo sed under s ubtr act ion", or "not conser ved
under s ubtr act ion", and is "not tota l, but par ti al ". T hus ,
sub tr action can onl y become tota l in a new , mor e
compr ehens iv e number syste m .

Al so, a · b = a · w im pl ie s w = b, so mu lt ip lic ati on ha s a right


in ver se . If a · b = w · b im pl ie s tha t w = a, then mul ti pic ation
has a left in ver se . And mul ti pl ica tion is al so com muta tiv e , so
the t wo in ver ses fu se into a sing le in ver se , di vi sion -- denoted
sym bol ical l y b y p i s di vi dend , r is div isor , w i s quotient .) T hi s
yie lds the equ iva lence r ul e f or def ined quot ients : a ÷ b = c ÷ d
if f a · d = b · c . T he inequ iv alence r ules can be der iv ed fr om
thi s.

Ho wevever, div ision is defined for Nt r l N umber s i f, and onl y if ,


the d iv iso r i s non zer o and the di vi dend is a mu lt iple of the
di vi sor , a lim it ati on e xpl ica ting "a defined quot ient" (DD ) f or
"par tial con ser vation of Nt r l N umber s, or par tial c lo sur e thi s
syste m under di vis ion". T hus , 12 ÷ 3 = 4, is a defined
quotient , but, for 10 ÷ 3 = w , the number w cannot recur as a
Nt r l Nu mber . So, the Nt r l Nu mber s ystem is not clo sed - - is
not con ser ved -- under d iv ision , and div ision can onl y be
render ed total i n a new , m or e compr ehen si ve nu mber s ystem .

No w, exponentia tion can be sho wn to be wel l- defined , h aving


both r ight and l eft in ver ses . Ho wever, as noted abo ve,
exp onent ia tion i s not com muta tiv e, so ha s tw o di st inct but
par ti al in ver se s: l ogar ithm and r oot extr action . To s ee thi s,
wr ite b e = p f or ba se b; for exp onent e; for po wer p. T hen ,
log b p = e , wher eas (p) 1/e = b . No w, f or copr ime b, e, the
number p cannot be rationa l . And . in anc ient t ime s, the
ir rati onal it y of √2 was kno wn. Hence , the N tr l N umber syste m
is not clos ed -- i s not con ser ved -- for logar ith m or root
extr act ion and eac h can become t otal on y i n a new , mor e
compr ehens iv e number syste m .

T her e is a gener al method for in ver sing . You cr ea te a new


number system fr om 2-v ector s of component s fr om the
im med ia tel y lo wer syste m . T hen the oper ationa l r ules f or the
new s ystem ar e m odeled on the defined oper an ds of the
lo wer s ystem , tha t is, tho se f or w hic h the par tia l oper ation
becomes tota l under s ome res tri ction . In the new s ystem , the
res tric tion of the lo wer s ystem by par tia li ty of an inver se is
bypa ss ed i n new ( vector) s ystem by an oper ation alr eady
total i n the lo wer syst em, s o a par tia l oper ation of the lo wer
syste m become s total i n the e xtended system , as you see in
the ne xt Cha pter .
You kn ow tha t the es sent ial s of th is Nt g r cons tr uct ion can be
ref or mu la ted in B NFA:
<etc.> :@ ...
<N tr ls >: @ 0, 1, 2 , 3, ...
<ad diti on oper ator> :@ + <ad dit ion of Nt lr s>: @ <N tl r> + <N tlr> =
<N tlr>
<subtr act ion oper ato r>: @ 
al lo wed <sub tr action oper ation> :@ <Ntl r>  < Nt lr> = <Nt lr> if f
Subtr ahend not g rea ter than Mi nuend
<mul tip li ca tion oper ator>: @ • < mult ip li ca tion>: @ <Nt lr> • < Nt lr
> = <N tlr>
<di vi sion oper ator> :@ ÷
<f or ma l di vi sion oper ati on>: @ <di vi dend> ÷ <nonz er o di vis or> =
<quotient>
<di vi sion oper ati on>: @ <Nt g r> ÷ <non zer o N tg r> = <N tg r> wi th
pos si bl e N tg rs remainder
<e xponent ia tion oper ation>: @ <N tg r bas e> <Ntg r e xpo nen t> = <Ntg r
po wer>

Logarith m and rot e xtr act ion ar e not TOTAL f or N tg rs.

You note th at ea ch BNFA tr ansf or ma tion , abo ve, is (a s


pr evi ous l y sta ted), pur el y syntacti c - -< no i> se mantic
ref er ence. You note th at, with ref er ence to langua ge , th is
remain s syn tactic pr ovided BH FA defin iens and defin iendum
may be thought of as be longing to dif fer ent l angua ges . (F or.
as pr evious l y noted, a l exicon is pur el y s yntact ic, one
langua ge i nto another , wi thout men ing or r ef er ence .) B ut i f,
no w, def inien s and def iniendum ar e r ead as ter ms i n one
langua ge, as i n your uni ver sa l l angua ge of Engli sh , then y ou
ar e no w be ing i ntr oduced to new ter minol og y (as , above,
in tr oduction to s ome pr evious l y unkno wn per son), and eac h
BN FA str ing become s a s eman tc tr an sf or mati on!

And you s ee tha t your tw o me thods of lear ning -- r em inder of


Pr oto- lear ning and BNFA con ver ge!
CH AP TER TWEN TY-SI X: YOU CAN C ONS TR UC T NT GR
ARI TH METIC
In Cha p. 12, on "Cogn iti ve Di ssonance" , it 's explained tha t
ma thema tici ans in vok e unin tended ref er ences by na ming a
new te chnica l ter m by an "e ver yda y" ter m, su bl im ina ll y
mi xing di spar ate ref er ent s. H er ein th is i s avoided by
renaming tho se encounter ed. T he Number Sy stem s ha ve been
unique ll y renamed, As sho wn above, the Inte ger s ha ve been
renamed " Nt g r s", with a pr agma tic explainer : [Nt g r s] ⇒
[Int e ger s]

YOU kn ow oper ation s ad dit ion, mu lt ip lic ati on and


exp onent ia tion ar e TOTAL in N tr l Number s; equi va lentl y, N tr l
Nu mber s clos es under these oper ations ; equi va lentl y, the
ad dit ion, mu lt ipl ic ation , expo nent ia tion of Nt r l Nu mber s is a
Nt r l Nu mber ,

YOU kn ow Oper ation s sub tr action , d iv ision . l ogar ithm , and


root e xtr action ar e not TOTAL , but P AR TIAL ("s omet ime s
car r y th r u" , constr ained) in N tr l Number s; equi va lentl y, N tr l
Nu mber s does not clos e under these oper ations ; equi va lentl y,
the d if fer ence, quotient , logar ithm , or root oper ations of Nt r l
Nu mber s do not alw ays yie ld a Nt r l Nu mber ,

So , you kno w t ha t one or mor e number s ystem s, eac h w ith an


ari thmet ic, mu st be const r ucted i n or der to render TOTAL
these PAR TIAL oper ation s. B ut y ou kno w i t is simpl er t o
total ize one oper ation a t a t ime . Hence , you be gin wi th
sub tr action , to con str uct an "e xten si on" of Nt r l Nu mber s in
whic h subtr action is TOTAL,

You kn ow you h ave an indic ator (constr ainor) in t he Ntr ls ho w


to pr oceed . In the s ubtr act ion, a - b = c, number a i s the
MIN UE ND , nu mber b is the SU BT RA HE ND , number c is the
DIFFER EN CE .
You kn ow tha t the DIFFER EN CE is a N tr l N umber if f
(constr aint) T HE S UB TR AH EN D IS N OT G RE ATE R T HA N T HE
MIN UE ND.

You kn ow thi s cons tr ain s a m in ia tur e ar ithmet ic (g rammar)


wi thin Ntr l Nu mber s in w hic h subtr act ion i s TOTAL (wi thout
tha t par ticula r con str aint) . So , you kno w s ubtr act ion i s
defined wi thin the lim it ation (the Boundar y) of abo ve.
Ho wever, you kno w th is constr aint pr ovi des a DEFI NED
DIFFER EN CE (DD) for Lear ning wha t eac h oper ation mu st be
(h ow constr ained), to conser ve DD. T hat i s, th is pr ovides a
MO DEL (g ramma r) for oper ations in a new number system in
whic h subtr action is (uncons tr ainedl y, w ith in Boundar y)
TOTAL .

You kn ow tha t the defini tion of s ubtr act ion in t er ms of


ad dit ion pr ovide s the equ iva lence r ul e - - usefu l l ater - - for DD ,
of (a  b) = (c  d) if f (constr aint) (a + d) = (b + c) .

You kn ow the gener al for m, her e, i s: DO 1 o D O 2 = D O 3 , wher e


DO denote s "defined oper and" and o denotes an in ver se
oper ation .

You pr ocee d to the se Ar thmeti c R ul es (con str aint s on


number s) .

You kn ow the l iter atur e descr ibes w ha t y ou ma y cal l "m atc h-


mi x" for mats i n linear alg ebr a in e xpl ica tion of sym metr ic
and ant is ymmetr ic bi li near pr oducts

• bi li neari ty :(aw 1 + b w 2 ,w') = a(w 1 ,w ') + b(w 2 ,w') ; and


(w,cw ' 1 + dw' 2 ) = c(w , w ' 1 ) + d(w ,w' 2 )
• anti sym metr y: (w,w') = (w' ,w) .

You read "sy mme tric " a s "m atc h", "ant is ymme tric /sk ew -
sym metr ic" as " mi x" , " bi li near pr oduct" a s "bi nar y ar ithmet ic
oper ation ". T hen you obtain the model f or d is co veri ng inver se
ari thmet ic oper ation s fr om pr mar y one s .
You kn ow the mode l is, for oper ator o and oper ands a, b, c , d

• ma tc h : [a ,b] o [c,d] = [a o c , b o d]; [c,d] o [a .b] = [c o a, d


o b] . So t he two f or ms ar e equ iva lent if in ter nal
oper ation s commute .
• mi x : [a ,b] o [c,d] = [a o d , b o c] ; [c,d] o [a .b] = [c o b, d o
a] , rever si ng 1st and 2nd components . So if [c o b, d o a]
=  [a o d , b o c] , then [c,d] o [a .b] =  ([a,b] o [c ,d]) .
Hence , anti sy mm etri c/sk ew-s ymm etri c.

YOU kn ow tha t th is m odel excel s in der iv ation of the inver se


oper ation s of subtr action and d iv ision fr om the pri mar y
oper ation s of ad dit ion and mu lt ipl ic ation on na tur al number s
to pr ovide oper ational r ule s (constr aints) for in te ger s .

You find :

• Using ma tc h f or pr imar y oper ation of ad di tion yie lds the


su m of DD : (m 1  s 1 ) + (m 2  s 2 ) = (m 1 + m 2 )  ( s 1 + s 2 ). You
ma tc h " m" with "m ", " s" w ith "s" . Examp le: (9  2) + (5 
3) = (9 + 5)  (2 + 3) = 14  5 = 9 . Chec ks: 7 + 2 = 9.
• Using mi x f or inver se of s ubtr act ion , you h ave the
dif fer ence of DD: (m 1 s 1 )  ( m 2  s 2 ) = (m 1 + s 2 )  (s 1 +
m 2 ). You m ix "m" wi th " s" in tw o w ays . Examp le : (9 -  2)
 (5  3) = (9 + 3)  (5 + 2) = 12  7 = 5. Chec ks: 7  2 =
5.

You di sco ver the m ul tip li ca tion r ule for DD b y tr ea ting


mul ti pl ica tion as an alge br aic pr oduct :

(m1s1)•(m2s2)=(m1•m2)+(m1•s2)+(m2•s1)+(s1•s2)
You kn ow thi s doesn 't fit the ma tc h-mi x p atter n, s ince i t
doesn 't h ave equal number s of m ix and m atc h . But thi s fits
the m atch-m ix pa tte r n if you read (s 1 • s 2 ) = +( s 1 • s 2 ),
yie ldi ng the des ir ed DD , with sub tr ahe nd i n the mix for ma t ,
mi nuend in the matc h for mat . You ha ve:
(m1  s1)(m1  s1) = (m1•m2) + (m1•s2) + (m2•s1) + (s1•s2)
You can chec k th is b y number s: (10  3) • (9  5) = (10 • 9 + 3
• 5)  (10 • 5 + 3 • 9) = 105  77 = 28 ; ag ree ing w ith (10  3)
• (9  5) = 7 • 4 = 28 . Chec ks.

You note be lo w the orig in of the see ming ly "w eir d" law of
sign s .)

For div isi on of DD , its lim it ati ons (sta ted abo ve) pr ovide for
defin iti on of d iv ision in ter ms of DD. Giv en (a  b) ÷ (c  d) =
(e  f) if f (a b) = (c  d) • (e  f) . T he con str aint of not
di vi di ng by zer o mean s c ≠d. T he constr aint of di vi dend be ing
mul ti ple of div isor for na tur al number and DD mean s (a  b) =
n(c  d) , hence, a ≠ b .

T hen

n(c  d)÷(c  d)=(ef).


(n1)(c  d)=(e f), e ≠ f. (cn + d) - (c + dn) = (e  f), cn
+ d ≠
c + dn.
Fina ll y, (a  b) ÷ (c  d) = (cn + d)  (c + dn) , a DD f or the
di vi sion oper ation.

For exponentia tion , you h ave b e = p, for ba se , b, for exp onent ,


e, for po wer , p, all a s DD of na tur al s , wi th tota li ty . Bu t, as
wi th n atur al s, the ir in ver se s of logar ith m, root extr act ion ar e
onl y par tia l , so mus t be vector -e xtended to total it y .

You now deri ve a new number system with total s ubtr act ion
via 2 -vector s of na tur al number component s w ith oper ational
r ules ba sed upon clo sur e f or DD. You e xchange DD f or a 2
-v ector of na tur al number component s . You se e th at a  b
becomes [a ,b] . You kno W th is induce s the oper ati onal r ules
for these 2 -vector s of na tur al s , whic h mu st adher e to the
na tur al number cons tr aint s inher ited by the ir na tur al number
components .

• Equi va lence: [a ,b] = [c,d] if f (constr aint) a + d = b + c.


T he inequ iv alence s f ol lo w fr om th is .
• Ad di tion : [a,b] + [c ,d] = [a + c, b + d] . (You note the
ma tc h f or ma t .) Si nce eac h component is a n atur al
number , it fol lo ws t ha t ad dit ion i s a tota l oper ation for 2
-v ector s of na tur als . T he com muta tiv e and a ssoci ativ e
pr oper tie s of ad di tion follo w fr om t hi s defin it ion.
• Subtr action : [a,b]  [c,d] = [a + d , b + c] . (You note the
mi x f or ma t, contr as ting wi th m atch f or ma t of ad di tion .)
Si nce eac h component is a n atur al number , it fol lo ws t ha t
sub tr action is a tota l oper ation for -v ector s , as not so f or
na tur al number s . You h ave ac hie ved your pur po se i n thi s
const r ucti on . T hi s tr ans for ms s ubtr act ion of Nt r l
Nu mber s in to ad dit ion of Nt r l Nu mber s as v ector
components -- and ad dit ion i s al lo wed !
• total Ntrl subtraction
• ------------------------->
• transforn | ^subtraction by
• to vectors | |allowed addition
• of Ntrls | |of Ntrls yields
• | |correct
• | |difference
• V------------------------>
perform operation

• Mul tip li ca tion: [a ,b] • [c,d] = [a • c + b • d, a • d + b • c] .


(You note the ma tc h f or ma t .) Si nce eac h component is a
Nt r l Nu mber , it fol lo ws t ha t mul ti pl ica tion is a total
oper ation .

T he commut ati ve and as soc ia ti ve l aw s of mu lt ipl ic ation


fol lo w fr om th is defin iti on.

• Di vision: [a ,b] ÷ [c,d] = [a ÷ c , b ÷ d] , pr ovi ded b ≠ 0, c ≠ 0


(constr aint) and fir st components ar e m ul tip les of second
components (constr aint). T hi s se cond cons tr aint mean s
di vi sion of 2 -v ector s is onl y a par tia l oper ation , as with
na tur al number s .
• T he equi val ence rela tion r educe s 2 -vector s of Nt r l
Nu mber s to t hr ee bas ic for ms :
o For a > b , a  b = c, [a , b] = [a  b, b  b] = [c, 0] .
You la bel th is a pos it iv e 2 -v ector .
o For a < b , b  a = d, [a , b] = [a  a, b  a] = [0, d] .
You la bel th is a ne ga ti ve 2 -vector .
o For a = b , [a, b] = [a  b , b  a] = [0 , 0] . You l abel
thi s the nul l 2-v ector .
• you no w abbr evia te thes e con st r ucts :
o Denote the po si ti ve 2-v ector , [c , 0] as c. (T he
+

super scri pt s ign m eans th is i s a po si ti ve number , not


a " plu s number" .)
o Denote the ne ga ti ve 2-v ector , [0 , d] as d. (T he
-

super scri pt s ign m eans th is i s a ne ga ti ve number , not


a " mi nus number ".)
o Denote the nu ll 2 -v ector , [0, 0] as 0.
o Denote the 2 -vector s of Nt r l Nu mber s a s the N tg rs , of
the gener al for m , + c, - d, 0.

As pr omi sed in a pr evi ous cha pter , you end up wi th the


st andar d nota tion f or N tg rs, usua ll y dec lar ed b y axiom s.

You now ha ve a number system in w hic h ad dit ion,


sub tr action , m ult ip li ca tion ar e total , div isi on,
exp onent ia tion ar e par ti al : the N tg rs or Nt g r l Nu mber
syste m .

In par ticul ar, you s ee tha t "tak ing 3 fr om 2" is not


"c he ating " b y "putt ing a funny sign i n fr om of 1 ". You st ill
can't perf or m tha t oper ation in the na tur al number
syste m. You can per for m tha t oper ati on in t he Ntg rs
because you con st r uct N tr l N umber component s: [2 , 0] 
[3,0] = [2 + 0 , 0 + 3] = [2, 3] = [2  2 , 3  2] = [0, 1] ,
whic h can be abbrevia ted as - 1, not " st ic king a funn y sign
in fr ont of 1". S o no chea ting occur s. T he r ules of na tur al
number s ar e not vio la ted. Ad noted a bo ve, the pr oble m
has bee B ypas sed .

And the " law of s igns " is not weir d. It fol lo ws fr om


na tur al number r ule s about defined dif fer ences and ho w
to con ser ve DD under mu lt ipl ic ation . W hen thi s is
perf or med for 2 -v ector s of N tr l Number components :

o "pos it iv e t im es po si ti ve" example : [2 , 0] •[3, 0] = [2 •


3 + 0 • 0, 2  0 + 0 • 3] = [2 • 3 , 0] = [6, 0] , a "pos it iv e
2- vec tor", a bbr evi ated a s ( + 2) · ( + 3) = ( + 6) , a po si ti ve
Nt g r.
o "pos it iv e t im es ne ga ti ve" example : [2, 0] • [0, 3] = [2 •
0 + 0 • 3, 2 • 3 + 0 • 0] = [0, 6] , a "ne ga ti ve 2 -vector ",
abbr evia ted as ( + 2) • ( - 3) = ( - 6) , a ne ga ti ve Nt g r. ( By
commut ati vit y, t he "ne ga tiv e ti me s pos it iv e" e xamp le
yie lds the same resu lt .)
o "ne ga ti ve ti mes ne ga ti ve" example : [0, 2] • 0, 3] = [0 •
0 + 2 • 3, 0 • 3 + 2 • 0] = [6, 0] , a "pos it iv e 2 -v ector" ,
abr evia ted a s ( - 2) • ( - 3) = ( + 6) , a pos it iv e inte ger .

No thing her e is w eir d. T he r ules of Nt r l N umber s, der iv ed


by recur sion, ar e mai ntained in a syste m bu il t upon Nt r l
Nu mber s.

T he Nt g r Sy stem Ar ith metic is an Ad di ti ve G r p (Cha p. 22)


a Mu lt ipl ic ati ve Lar utan , a for ma li sm kn own as a Rng
(Cha p. 22) .

You kn ow tha t the es sent ial s of th is Nt g r cons tr uct ion


can be ref or mu la ted in BNFA:
<etc.> :@ ...
<numer al s>: @ 0, 1, 2 , 3, ...
<pos it iv e Nt g r s>@ 1, 2, 3, . ..
<n e ga tiv e Ntg rs>@ -1, - 2, - 3, . ..
+ <ad di tion of Ntg rs>: @ <N tg r> + <Ntg r> = <N tg r>
<subtr act ion oper ato r>: @ 
<subtr act ion oper ation> :@ <Ntg r>  < Nt g r> = <N tg r>
<mul tip li ca tion oper ator>: @ • < mult ip li ca tion>: @ <Nt g r> •
<N tg r > = <N tg r>
<di vi sion oper ator> :@ ÷
<f or ma l di vi sion oper ati on>: @ <di vi dend> ÷ <nonz er o
di vi sor> = <quotient>
<di vi sion oper ati on>: @ <Nt g r> ÷ <non zer o N tg r> = <N tg r>
wi th po ss ible Nt g r s r emainder
<e xponent ia tion oper ation>: @ <N tg r bas e> <Ntg r e xpo nen t> =
<N tg r po wer>

Logarith m and rot e xtr act ion ar e not TOTAL f or N tg rs.

You note th at ea ch BNFA tr ansf or ma tion , abo ve, is (a s


pr evi ous l y sta ted), pur el y syntacti c - -< no i> se mantic
ref er ence. You note th at, with ref er ence to langua ge , th is
remain s syn tactic pr ovided BH FA defin iens and
defin iendum m ay be thought of as belong ing to d if fer ent
langua ges . (F or. a s pr evious l y noted , a le xicon i s pur el y
syntact ic , one la ngua ge into another , wi thout m ening or
ref er ence.) But if , no w, defin iens and defini endum ar e
read as t er ms in one l angua ge, as in y ou r un iv er sal
langua ge of Eng lis h, then you ar e no w being in tr oduced
to new ter mino log y (as , abo ve, in tr oduction to s ome
pr evi ous l y unkno wn per son) , and eac h BN FA st ri ng
becomes a se mantc tr an sf or ma tion!

And you s ee tha t your tw o me thods of lear ning -- r em inder


of Pr oto -lea r ning and B NFA con ver ge !
CH AP TER TWEN TY-S EVE N: Y OU C AN CO NST RUCT RTN L
NUMB ER ARI THM ETIC
In Cha p. 12, on "Cogn iti ve Di ssonance" , it 's explained tha t
ma thema tici ans in vok e unin tended ref er ences by na ming a
new te chnica l ter m by an "e ver yda y" ter m, su bl im ina ll y
mi xing di spar ate ref er ent s. H er ein th is i s avoided by
renaming tho se encounter ed. T he Number Sy stem s ha ve been
unique ll y renamed, As sho wn above, the R ational Number s
ha ve been r enamed "R tnl Number s", with a pr agma tic
explainer : [Rtn l N umber s] ⇒[Ra tiona l N umber s]

You now const r uct another number system fr om 2 -v ector s of


Nt g r s (a s 2-vector s of na tur al s) wi th oper ationa l r ules ba sed
upon clo sur e f or def ined quot ients , DQ. You e xchange a DQ
wi th a 2 -v ector of Nt g r component s . T hus , a ÷ b bcome s [a,
b] , pr ovi ded second component is non zer o .

You kn ow thi s in ter change induces the oper ationa l r ule s for
these 2 -vector s of Nt g r s , whic h m us t adher e to the Nt r l
Nu mber con str aints on thei r N tg r l co mponents . YOU kn ow you
ha ve:

• Equi va lence: [a ,b] = [c,d] if f a • d = b • c . T his m eans ,


wher e fir st component of a 2-vector is a mu lt iple of the
fir st ( a ÷ b = c), t ha t [a, b] = [a ÷ b, b ÷ b] = [c , 1] . T he
con ver se of thi s i s ea si ly compr ehended. You kno w t ha t
the i nequi va lences f ollo w fr om thi s equ iva lence r ela tion .
• Ad di tion : [a,b] + [c ,d] = [a + c, b + d] . (Ma tc h for mat.)
Si nce eac h component is an N tg r , it fol lo ws t ha t ad dit ion
is a total oper ation f or 2 -v ector s of N tg rs . You kno w tha t
the com muta tiv e and a ssoci ativ it y pr oper ties of ad dition
fol lo w fr om th is defin iti on .
• Subtr action : [a,b]  [c,d] = [a  c, b  d] . (Ma tc h.) Since
eac h co mponent is an Nt g r , you kno w i t follo ws tha t
sub tr action is a tota l oper ation for 2 -vector s of Nt g r s .
• Mul tip li ca tion: [a ,b] • [c,d] = [a • c , b • d] . (Ma tc h.) Since
eac h co mponent is an Nt g r , you kno w i t follo ws tha t
mul ti pl ica tion is a total oper ation f or 2 -v ector s of N tg rs .
You kn ow tha t the commut ati ve and as soc ia ti vi ty
pr oper tie s of mu lt ipl ic ation follo w fr om thi s defin it ion .
• You kn ow tha t the di vi sion r ule is der iv ed fr om def init ion
of di visi on i n ter ms of mu lt ipl ic ation . Giv en [j, k] ÷ [m , n]
= x , for nonz er o quotient . Or, b y defin it ion of di vi sion in
ter ms of mu lt ipl ic ation , [m, n] • x = [j . k] . You m ul tip l y
both s ides of t hi s equa tion b y [n, m] to obta in [n, m] • [m ,
n] x = [n , m ] • [j . k] . Perf or ming the left side oper ation,
you h ave: [n , m ] • [m , n] = [n •m, m • n] . But you hn ow
tha t, by equ iva lence , [n • m , m • n] = [1, 1] , So you find :
[1,1] •x = x - [n, m] • [ j, k] , or [j, k] ÷ [m , n] = [j , k] • [n,
m] . Bu t y ou kno w th is i s an a llo wable 2-v ector of Nt g r s,
hence you kn ow di vi sion of 2 -vector s of Nt g r s i s a tota l
oper ation .

You ha ve ac hie ved your pur po se of bypa ss ing d iv ision


fai lur e in Ntg rs by tr ans for ming i nto the al lo wable
mul ti pl ica tion oper ation betw een Ntg r component s in a
"hi gher" number s ystem of or der ed pa ir s of Ntg rs .

La te r, you rel ate thi s to the que st ion of weir dnes s of


"di visi on of fr action b y fr action" .)

• You kn ow tha t thi s d iv ision r ul e i nvok es inter es ting


for ms. [8, 2] ÷ [4, 2] = [8 , 2] • [2 , 4] = [8 • 2 , 2 • 4] = [16.
8] = [16 ÷ 8. 8 ÷ 8] = [2 , 1] , an i nte g ral "fr act ion" . (Che cks
out! Since [8, 2] = [8 ÷ 2, 2 ÷ 2] = [4 , 1] ; and [4 , 2] = [4 ÷
2, 2 ÷ 2] = [2 , 1] ; then [8 , 2] ÷ [4 , 2] = [4, 1] ÷ [2, 1] = [4,
1] • [1, 2] = [4 • 1, 1 • 2] = [4 , 2] = 4 ÷ 2, 2 ÷ 2] = [2 ,1] .)
You can us e the abo ve to se e th at [2 , 8] ÷ [2 , 4] = [1, 2] , a
for m kno wn in the liter atur e a s an " Eg ypt ian" fr action .
(W e count change via the se . T hus , a quar ter p lu s a dime
plu s a n ic kel p lus a penn y s um s to these dol lar fr action s:
1/4 + 1 /10 + 1/20 + 1/100 = 25 /100 + 20/100 + 5/100 = 1 /100
= 51 /100 = $0.51 .)
• T he equi val ence r ule for 2 -v ector s of N tg rs reduces these
to e xactl y thr ee equ iva lence clas se s :
o IN TEG RAL . 2 -v ector s , wher ein lst component i s
mul ti ple of second a s in th is e xamp le: [12 , 3] = [12 ÷
3, 3 ÷ 3] = [4 , 1] .
o EG YP TIAN F RA CTI ON . 2 -v ector s , wher ein 2nd
component i s mul tip le of fir st as i n thi s example : [3,
12] = [3 ÷ 3, 12 ÷ 3] = [1 , 4] .
o IRR ED UCIBL E N ONEG YPTI AN FRA CTI ON S. 2 -vector s ,
wher ein component s ar e copr ime (f actor s in com mon)
as in t hi s example : [2 , 3] .

You can no w abbr evia te th is by use of the sol idu s (s la sh


mar k betw een number s). T hu s, [2,3] a s 2/3 .

You, thu s, ha ve <I< Rtnl gener al> : n, 1/n. a /b , wher e a, b


ar e copr ime (no com mon factor) .

You al so now see the reason for tha t seem ing l y w eir d r ule
of di vi di ng a fr action by a fr act ion , name l y, in ver t
denomin ator fr action and mu lt ipl y it by numer ator
fr action . For the a bo ve div ision r ul e f or v ector s -- [j.k] ÷
[m, n] = [j .k] • [n, m] become s (j /k)/(m ,n) = (j /k) •(n/ m) . You
kn ow tha t no one mer el y de vis ed i t. You kno w i t is
requir ed in the Nt g r syste m to obta in a di vi sion r ule for
DQ .

You ha ve not c hea ted . Y ou ha ve b ypa ss ed the pr oble m of


di vi sion in n atur al s and in N tg rs by i ts for mu la tion in
ter ms of 2 -vector s of Nt g r s (w hi ch ar e 2 -v ector s of N tr ls :
[[a,b] , [c ,d] ), w her ein i n "nonz er o" d iv ision alw ays
"w or ks" , and you ha ve dis gui sed the m or e comp li ca ted
for ms by the so lidu s for mat .

So you h ave a Rtnl Number syste m con st r ucted for 2 -


vector s of N tg rs, wi th a ppr opri ate r ul es , and the 2 -
vector s ar e di sgu ised by t he sol idu s for mat . Bu t y ou ha ve
al so found th at the exponentia tion oper ati on, being
noncommuta ti ve, ha s t wo in ver ses i n Nt r l, N tg r, or R tnl
Nu mber s ystem s: logar ithm and r oot extr action .
You kn ow tha t a dec ima l fr action - - taking the for m of
mant is sa .c har acter is ti c - - i s one whose char acter is tic is
a po wer of ten . You kn ow tha t the char acteri st ic has an
in ter va l of dig it s whi ch r epea t end les sl y -- as in
0.33333 .. . You kn ow tha t all dec imal fr act ions can be
con ver ted to or dinar y fr action s or rationa l number s. ( T he
method s f or hand ling all po ss ib le case s can be found a t
Google(standar d ta sk s+j onhay s).)

So , the ar ith metic of dec ima l fr act ions become s, after


con ver sion to fr action s, t ha t of the ari thmeti c of
fr action s, or rational number s.

You can cons tr uct , via logar ith m , a number whic h is not
rati onal : log b a = c , for a,b copri me (no common factor s)
yie lds output c whi ch i s ir rationa l . You kno w tha t th is ,
along wi th kno wledge of the ir rational it y of the squar e
root of tw o , ind ica te s need of a number syste m i n whic h
logar ith m i s t otal and a number syste m i n whic h root
extr act ion i s total -- two m or e number syst ems .

T he Rtn l Nu mber S yste m A ri thmet ic i s an Ad dit iv e Gr p


and a Mul tip li ca tiv e Gr p , a st r uctur e kn own as a Fld
(Cha p. 22) .

Many mea sur able s , suc h as sound h ave su ch a wi de range


of va lue s tha t it is con venient to con ver t t o the smal le r
logar thmic scale , tur ning e xponenti ation in to
mul ti pl ica tion , as in the loga rith mic -dec ibel sc ale for
sound .

You kn ow you can denote the es sent ia ls of thi s rational


number const r uction in B NFA:
<etc.> :@ ...
<numer al s>; ;= 0, 1, 2 , 3, ...
<Rtn l Nu mber>: @ <Nt g r numer ator> /<<non zer o Ntg r
denomin ator>|fr act ion
lt ;ad dition oper ator> :@ + <ad dit ion of Rtn l Nu mber s >>: @
<Rtn l Nu mber> + <Rtn l Nu mber> = <Rtn l Nu mber>
<subtr act ion oper ato r>: @ 
<subtr act ion oper ation> :@ <R tnl Nu mber>  < Rtnl
Nu mber> = <Rtn l umber>
<mul tip li ca tion oper ator>: @ • < mult ip li ca tion>: @ <Rtn l
Nu mber> • <Rtn l Nu mber> = <Rtn l Nu mber>
:@ ∅
<di vi sion oper ator> :@ ÷
<f or ma l di vi sion oper ati on>: @ <di vi dend> ÷ <non zer o
di vi sor> = <quotient>
<di vi sion oper ati on>: @ <Rtn l N umber> ÷<nonz er o Rtn l
Nu mber> = <Rtn l Nu mber>
<p ower of ten>: @ <N tg r> /10 <Ntg r>
<deci mal p oin t>:@ . <d ecim al f r ac tion>; @ <Ntg r n umera to r>
/<po wer of ten>
<e xponent ia tion oper ation>: @ <Rtn l Nu mber ba se> <Rtn l
Numbe r e xpon ent>
= <Rtn l Nu mber po wer>
<logar ithm ic oper ation> :@ log <base> <e xponent> = <po wer>
<defined l ogar ithm ic oper ation> :@ log <nonz ero Rt nl b ase> <Rtn l
Nu mber e xponent> = <Rtn l Nu mber>
<defined r oot oper ation>: @ <Nt g r> <Ntg r> / <Ntg r> = <Rtnl
Nu mber>
You note th at ea ch BNFA tr ansf or ma tion , abo ve, is (a s
pr evi ous l y sta ted), pur el y syntacti c - -< no i> se mantic
ref er ence. You note th at, with ref er ence to langua ge , th is
remain s syn tactic pr ovided BH FA defin iens and
defin iendum m ay be thought of as belong ing to d if fer ent
langua ges . (F or. a s pr evious l y noted , a le xicon i s pur el y
syntact ic , one la ngua ge into another , wi thout m ening or
ref er ence.) But if , no w, defin iens and defini endum ar e
read as t er ms in one l angua ge, as in y ou r un iv er sal
langua ge of Eng lis h, then you ar e no w being in tr oduced
to new ter mino log y (as , abo ve, in tr oduction to s ome
pr evi ous l y unkno wn per son) , and eac h BN FA st ri ng
becomes a se mantc tr an sf or ma tion!

And you s ee tha t your tw o me thods of lear ning -- r em inder


of Pr oto -lea r ning and B NFA con ver ge !
CHA PT ER TWE NT Y-EIG HT : YOU CA N CON ST RUCT R L N UMB ER
ARI TH METIC
In Cha p. 12, on "Cogn iti ve Di ssonance" , it 's explained tha t
ma thema tici ans in vok e unin tended ref er ences by na ming a
new te chnica l ter m by an "e ver yda y" ter m, su bl im ina ll y
mi xing di spar ate ref er ent s. H er ein na tur athi s is avoided by
renaming tho se encounter ed. T he Number Sy stem s ha ve been
uniquel y renamed, As sho wn abo ve, the Rea l Nu mber s ha ve
been renamed "R l Nu mber s" , wi th a pr agma tic explainer : [Rl
Nu mber s] ⇒[R ea l Nu mber s]

You kn ow the need for TH E RL NUM BER SY STE M i s e xp lained


GE OM ET RICALL Y (to measur e the dia gonal of a sq uar e),
in stead of the need with in A RIT HME TIC to pr ovide an i nver se
for exp onent ia tion .

You kn ow exp onent ia tion i s not com muta tiv e, so ha s tw o


di st inct par ti al in ver se s in Ntr l, Nt g r l, Rtn l Nu mber s ystem s ,
namel y, logari thm and root extr act ion, eac h requir ing it s own
number system to become t otal .

You tur n f ir st to render ing logari thm total . (A Scot , Joh n


Na pier (1550 -1617) in vented a for m of l ogar ithm s by rela ting
ari thmet ic pr og res si ons -- suc h as 2, 4, 6, 8 , 10, ... -- with
geometr ic pr og res si ons -- suc h as 2, 4, 8, 16 , 32 , ... . T he
di sco ver y tha t ancient Ba bylon ian s p rie st s used the se
pr og res sion s s ug ges ted the y may h ave conceiv ed of
logar ith ms . T he Frenc h mathema tic ian, P ier re-S imon La place
(1749-1827), who contr ibuted s o muc h to ma thema tical
as tr onomy , cla imed tha t in vention of logari thms doub led the
lif e of m athem atica l as tr onomer s, by sim pl if yi ng the ir
calcu la tion s becau se logari thm s - - By pas s! -- tur n
mul ti pl ica tion s into ad dit ions , div isi ons i nto sub tr action s,
exp onent ia tions i nto mul tip li ca tion s .

Up to no w, our oper ation s h ave been finite . But , to dea l w ith


the rea l nu mber f or ma t , you kno w y ou'l l need a tr an sfin ite
oper ation , namel y lim it , gener all y encounter ed onl y i n
calcu lus or anal ys is. (You kno w the l abel "tr an sfin ite" mean s
tha t you can go bey ond an inf ini te f or m , and use i ts fin ite
exp ress ion to fur ther pur po se. T ha t is, it in volv es one l imi t
pr oces s fol lw ed by another one, bef or e fur ther ma th.)

You kn ow a R tnl Number has two ba si c f or ms, the fr actiona l


for m via the so lidu s , and the dec ima l e xpans ion via the
deci mal poin t .

You kn ow, f or e xamp le, tha t the number 1/3 = 0 .33333. .. . = 0. 


3, dis pla ys the fr act ional for m on the l eft, and the dec ima l
exp an sion on t he right . Y ou kno w th at the o ver line ind ica tes
tha t a number or number in ter va l is repea ted wi thout end . For
example , 1/11 = 0.09090909. .. , so can be w ri tten

1/11 = 0.09
.

T he deci mal expansi on expli ca te s both the rational number


syste m and the new system you need to con st r uct.

You kn ow tha t tw o u seful ter ms expl ica te the deci mal


exp an sion you see abo ve. You kn ow the s ube xtens ion bef or e
the dec ima l po int is la be ll ed the char acter is tic ; the
sube xten sion after the dec ima l po int is la be ll ed the mant is sa .
In the case of the expansi on of 1/3 , the c har acteri st ic i s 0.
T he mant is sa is 3.

You kn ow tha t T he deci mal expans ion of a rationa l occur s


because the repea ted par t -- the manti ssa in the example --
denotes a geometri c s er ies , th at i s, a se rie s cons tr ucted by
repea ted m ul tip li ca tion of an ini tia l number by a constant
number . You se e th is for 1/3 b y ref or mu la ting it - - not w ith
denomin ator 3 -- but one whic h i s a po wer of the dec imal
base : 1/3 = 3 /10 + 3/100 + 3/1000 + . ... = 3 /10 + 3/10 2 + 3 /10 3 +
... + 3 /10 n + . ..., wher e "n goes to inf in ity ".
You kn ow a number is R tnl if f the " end sube xtens ion" of it s
mant is sa for ms a geometr ic pr og res si on .

You kn ow tha t thi s mean s tha t an ir rati onal number in


deci mal extens ion f or m does not fit th is f or m . T his doe s not
mean t ha t it doe s not "obe y a l aw of expans ion" .

You kn ow it i s ea sy to con st r uct a number wi th lawfu l


nongeometric expans ion . Given 1/9 = 0 .1111. .. = 0.1, you can
in ser t one zer o after t he fir st one i n thi s for m; t wo zer os after
the s econd one of the for m; ...; n z er os after the nth one of
the f or m; e tc. Clear l y, thi s i s not a geometr ic s er ies ; but it
has a "l awful for m", s ince y ou can pr edict any ter m of it as
far as need be . (You kno w the la be l, " ir rati onal " s ounds a s if
it w er e a cr az y number . Bu t y ou kno w tha t i t mean s t he
number cannot be e xpr es sed as the ratio of tw o Ntg rs.)

You need to explic ate t he "secr et" of the geometr ic se rie s


and extend it for your pur pose . You can sho w tha t a
geometr ic s er ies w ith ini tia l ter m f and constant ter m c has a
su m , S, su ch th at S = f/(1 - c) - fc n + 1 /(1 - c) . You kno w tha t, if c
is a number l es s than one, then , a s it s po wer incr ease s, i ts
va lue decr ease s. A nd you kno w you can say, "in the l imi t, as
the nu mber of t er ms goes to inf ini ty ", th is ter m "goe s to
zer o". T hen , you kno w tha t the " lim it of t he sum " ha s
(antiton ic) f or m f/(1 - c) . For your s er ie s expan sion of one -
thir d you kn ow thi s mean s

(3/10)/(1-1/10)=(3/10)/(9/10)=(3/10)(10/9)=3/9=1/3,
as de sir ed .

You can, ther ef or e, repr esent a Rtn l Nu mber both in


tr ansf ini te (dec ima l e xten sion) and in fini te f or m (fr act ion).
You' ve a ls o s een tha t it i s pos si bl e to reduce the deci mal
extensi on to the fr action. B ut y ou cannot hope thi s f or the
ir rati onal number . So y ou need to v al id ate the tr an sfin ite
ir rati onal by f inding a lim it for m t o e xpl ica te an ir rationa l
se rie s and use the l imi t so obta ined as a fini te expr es si on .
YOu kno w tha t the Frenc h m athem atic ian , A ugus ti n Lou is
Cauc hy (1789-1857), pr ovided y ou with the C auc hy l imi t for
Rtn l and ir rational s er ies . For thi s, you need tw o defin it ions .

Def init ion : A M ETRI C is a nonne ga ti ve funct ion , g(x , y ),


descr ib ing the DIS TANC E (dif fer ence OF coor din ate number s)
betw een neighbor ing point s for a g iv en se t . A me tric

· sa ti sf ie s the Triangle Inequal it y : g(x, y) + g( y, z) ≥ g(x. z) ;


· and is symme tric : g(x, y) = g( y, x) .
. Def ini ti on: A CA UC HY S EQ UE NC E, {a 1 , a 1 , ...} , is a sequence
su ch th at it s met ric , d(a mn ), satisfi es :

limmin(m,n)→∞ d(amn) = 0.
W hen you see a nu mber l isted thu s, √2 = 1 .41421. .. , you kno w
can rewr ite thi s as a Cauc hy s equence of R tnl N umber s : 1,
1.4 , 1.41 , 1.414 , 1 .4142 , 1 .41421, ....

You can sho w tha t √2 i s "pi nc hed" betw een lo wer and upper
bounds as the ir dif fer ence decr ea ses :

1 < √2 < 2 -- since ( squar ed) 1 < 2 < 4


1.4 < √2 < 1 .5 - - since (squar ed) 1.96 < 2 < 2.25
1.41 < √2 < 1.42 -- since (squar ed) 1.9881 < 2 < 2 .0164
1.414 < √2 < 1.415 -- since (squar ed) 1.99941 < 2 < 2 .0022
1.4142 < √2 < 1.4143 -- since (squar ed) 1.99996 < 2 < 2 .00024
1.41421 < √2 < 1.41422 -- since (squar ed) 1.99999 < 2 <
2.00002
... ..
You note th at the (left) se quence of lo wer bounds is
incr ea si ng cont inuous ly in v al ue, w hile , cor respond ing ly, the
(right) se quence of upper bouds is decr eas ing continuou sl y in
va lue . T he real number , √2, is being "p inc hed mor e and mor e
ti ghtl y" betw een the se B OUND S. You can car r y the decima l
number out to any number of po si ti ons , equi va lentl y exten d
the C auc hy S equence to an y number of ter ms, equi val entl y
the s equence of "pin ches " t o an y number . You can i ma gi ne
tha t, "e ventual l y" or in lim it , onl y one number is des igna ted
or " pin ched" . T hi s define s the g iv en real numbe r (see
Dedek ind cut) -- her e, √2.

T he above pr oces s i s simp l y another in stance of the mo st


gener al pr oce ss , the anti tone: a one -one cor respondence
betw een an i ncr eas ing or der and a decr eas ing one (bas is of
lim it concept).

You can us e the se resu lt s to cr eate tr an sfin ite vector s


(decima l extensi ons) -- ho w man y people kno w tha t, in do ing
ari thmet ic w ith dec imal s, they ar e doing tr ansf ini te
ari thmet ic? - - a s repr esenta tion of logari thmi c number s - -
ac hie vi ng y our de sir ed in ver se . So you can, ther eby, expl ica te
the r ea l number s ystem .

T he oper ation s for the r ea l number s ystem ar e tho se fam il iar


for deci mal extens ions .

And you can tur n to f inding an in ver se for root extr action and
the need for T he comple x number s ystem .

In BNFA:
<etc.> :@ ...
<numer al s>; @ 0, 1, 2 , 3, ...
<N tr l N umber s (denoted by numer als)> ;@ 0, 1, 2, 3 , ...
<pos it iv e Nt g r s>: @ +1, +2, +3 , . ..
<n e ga tiv e Ntg rs>: @ -1 , -2, -3, ...
<Rtn l Nu mber s (denoted as ratio s of Nt g r s)> :@ 1/2, 3/7 , -5 /11,
...
ir rati onal Rl Nu mber s as dec imal fr act ions wi thout any
repea ti ng inte va l in char acter is tic

You note th at ea ch BNFA tr ansf or ma tion , abo ve, is (a s


pr evi ous l y sta ted), pur el y syntacti c - - no semant ic ref er ence .
You note th at, with ref er ence to langua ge , th is remain s
syntact ic pr ovided B HFA defin iens and def iniendu m ma y be
thought of as belong ing to d if fer ent langua ges . (F or. as
pr evi ous l y noted , a le xicon i s pur el y syntactic , one l angua ge
in to anothe r, wi thout mening or ref er ence.) BUt i f, no w,
defin iens and defini endum ar e read as t er ms in one l angua ge,
as in y our un iv er sal langua ge of Eng lish, then you ar e no w
being in tr oduced to new ter mino log y (as , abo ve, in tr oduction
to s ome pr evious l y unkn own per son), and eac h BNFA s tr ing
becomes a se mantic tr an sf or mati on!

And you s ee tha t your tw o me thods of lear ning -- r em inder of


Pr oto- lear ning and BNFA - - con ver ge !
CH AP TER TWEN TY-N IN E: YOU CAN C ONS TR UC T CM PLX
NUMB ER ARI THM ETIC
You kn ow tha t In C ha p. 12, on "Cogn it iv e Dis sonance", it 's
explained tha t mathema tic ians i nvok e un intended r ef er ence s
by nam ing a new tec hn ical ter m b y an "e ver yday " te r m,
sub li mi nal l y m ix ing di spar ate ref er ents . He rein na tur ath is is
avoided by renami ng tho se encounter ed. T he N umber Sys tem s
ha ve been un iquel y r enamed , As sho wn above, t he Co mple x
Nu mber s ha ve been r enamed "C mplx Number s", w ith a
pr a gm atic expla iner : [C mplx Number s] ⇒[Co mple x N umber s]

T he g rea t Ir is h m athem atic ian , W illiam Rowan Ha mi lton ,


(1805-65) d is lik ed t he standar d for ma t of Cmpl x N umber s :

R1 + (√-1)R2
wher e R denotes a Rl Nu mber . He sai d i t is not a s um suc h as
3 + 4.

Ha mi lton then cr eated the concept and la bel of vector ,


wr iti ng comp le x number s a s 2-v ector s of rea l number s .

In so doing , he cr ea ted the f or ma t for con str uct ing al l


st andar d Nu mber S yste ms and their Ari thmeti cs as 2 -v ector s
of a s imp ler syste m , be ginn ing w ith the Na tur al Nu mber
Sy stem and its Ar ithmet ic .

T he oper ation s for Cmp lx Nu mber s ar e:

• Equi va lence : [r 1 , r 2 ] = [r 3 , r 4 ] if f r 1 = r 3 , r 2 = r 4 . T he
inequ iv alence s can be der iv ed fr om thi s.
• Ad di tion : [r 1 , r 2 ] + [r 3 , r 4 ] = [r 1 + r 3 , r 12 , r 4 ]. (Ma tc h)
• Subtr action : [r 1 , r 2 ] - [r 3 , r 4 ] = [r 1 + r 4 , r 12 , r 3 ]. (M ix)
• Mul tip li ca tion : [r 1 , r 2 ] · [r 3 , r 4 ] = [r 1 · r 4 - r 2 · r 3 , r 1 · r 3 + r 2 ·
r 4 ].
• Di vision : [r 1 , r 2 ] ÷ [r 3 , r 4 ] = [(r 1 · r 2 + r 3 · r 4 )/ r 2 3 + r 2 4 , (r 1 · r 4 -
r 2 · r 4 )/r 2 3 + r 2 4 ] .
Pl ease note Ha mi lton' s mul ti pl ica tion r ule , whic h i mp li es i 2 =
-1 , in connection wi th so mething you may f ind on l y her e and
onl ine in Google("r edux+jonha ys "). T hat thi s pr oduct r ule is
the pr oduct r ule f or N tg rs wi th su m tu r ned to a d if fer ence .
Al so, s ome thing el se you may f ind on l y her e and in
"r edux+jonha ys ", ba sed upon the concept of "modul " (not to
be confu sed with "modu le" !), found in "Intr oduct ion to Number
T heor y" by O ystein Ore, p. 159. A modu l i s a str uctur e clo sed
under s ubtr act ion. Or e note s:

• T he Nt r l Nu mber s ar e not clo sed under s ubtr act ion .


• T he Nt g r s, Rtn ls, R ls, and C mpl x N umber s ar e c losed
under s ubtr act ion, so eac h for ms a modul . T he
ima ginar ies f or m thei r o wn m odul .

Ho wever, Or e does not note th at Cmp lx N umber s f or m a


bi modul . We can see thi s b y wri ti ng the dif fer ences in the
va riou s number system s wi th the fir st component in red ,
second in blac k .

• Subtr action of v ector s for Nt r ls : [a, b] - [c, d] = [a + d, c +


d]. Pl ease note tha t, in the dif fer ence ter m (on ri ght) , the
color s ar e mi xed .
• T he sa me i s found f or the sub tr action of Nt g r s a s vector s :
[ a , b] - [ c, d] = [a· d - b · d].
• Si mi la r r esul ts ar e found f or the sub tr action of Rtn ls as
vector s : [a, b] - [c, d] = [a · d - c · d, c 2 + d 2 ].
• Subtr action for tr ansf in ite vector s of R l Number s is be st
explained by an example : 13/10 - 9 /10 - > 1.3 - . 9 = 0.4 or
[1, 3] - [0, 9] = [0,4] , mi xing 1s t component of 1 st number
wi th 2nd component of 2nd number : not a modu l .
• Subtr action for "r ea l" par t of Cm plx vector s : [a , 0] - [ c,
0] = [a - c, 0] . P lea se note same separ ation of co lor s: a
modul , un lik e al l above cas es :
• Subtr action for "ima ginar y" par t of C mp lx v ector s : [0, b] -
[0, d] = [0, b - d]. Pl eas e note sa me s epar ation of color s
as in pr eviou s case , al so a m odul .
• Pl ease note tha t thes e t wo pr eviou s case s ha ve nothi ng
in com mon , tha t is, thei r i nter section is nu ll . Hence ,
Cmp lx vector s f or m a bimodu l .

W hat doe s thi s las t s ta tement im pl y? W e'v e seen abo ve th at


the vector c har acter of number s bu il t fr om N tr ls -- Ntg rs,
Rtn ls , R ls -- can be di sgu is ed b y pr efix sign s for Nt g r s,
so li dus f or R tnl s, deci mal nota tion for Rl s . Ho wever, the
bi modul char acter of Cmp lx Nu mber s mean s t ha t the v ector
char acter can no l onger be hid den , but r ema in s "out in the
open". And th is ha s momentou s consequences ! -- ignor ed in
mos t explic ati ons of the number syste ms : openl y u si ng the
vector for m i n Mul ti vector s or Ar ithm atic of xxxx Nu mber s.

In BNFA :
<rati o-of -pr es sur e-to- vol ume >:= <pr es sur e>/< volume >.

in BNF (but w ithout color s), a pur el y mathem atica l rati o .

<r ati o-of -thr ee-to -f our> := 3/4

You note th at ther e ar e no br ac kets on t he RI GH T. T he


br ac kets on the right in the "c hem istr y" example ar e
neces sar y becau se of ref er ence to PR ESS UR E and VOL UME by
the E ng li sh langua ge of the LEFT . If you put number s i n, you
wou ld dr op the br ac ket s, a s in th is l as t case .

You kn ow so me s imp le e xamp les of B NAF : <etc.> : ...


<numer al s>; @ 0, 1, 2 , 3, ...
<na tur al number s (denoted b y numer al s)>; @ 0, 1, 2 , 3, ...
<pos it iv e in te ge rs>: @ +1, +2, +3 , . ..
<n e ga tiv e inte ge rs>: @ -1 , -2, -3, ...
<r ati onal number s (denoted as ratio s of i nte ge rs)>: @ 1/2 , 3 /7,
-5 /11, ...
ir rati onal number s as dec ima l fr actions w ith no r epea ting
in ter va l in char acter is tic . You note th at ea ch BNFA
tr ans for ma tion , above, is (as pr evious l y s ta ted), pur el y
syntact ic -- no se mantic ref er ence . You note tha t, wi th
ref er ence to langua ge, th is r emain s syntact ic pr ovided B HFA
defin iens and defini endum m ay be thought of a s belong ing to
dif fer ent l angua ges . (F or. a s pr evious l y noted , a le xicon i s
pur el y s yntacti c, one l angua ge into anothe r, w ithout men ing
or r efer ence.) B Ut if , no w, defin iens and defin iendum ar e read
as ter ms i n one la ngua ge , a s in your uni ver sa l langua ge of
Eng lis h, then you ar e no w be ing intr oduced to new
ter minol og y (as , above, i ntr oduct ion to some pr evi ous l y
unkn own per son), and ea ch BNFA s tr ing becomes a se mantc
tr ans for ma tion !

And you s ee tha t your tw o me thods of lear ning -- r em inder of


Pr oto- lear ning and BNFA - - con ver ge !
CH AP TER 30 : T HE A RIT HME TIC OF CLIFF ORD NUMBE RS
(a.ka . M UL TIVE CT ORS, a .k. a G EOME TRIC ALGEB RA)
T he se ar e TH E ARI TH METIC S C i , i = 0, 1 , 2, ..., wher ein

• C 0 is THE RATIO NAL N UMB ER SY STEM .


• C 1 is THE REAL NUM BER SYST EM.
• C 2 is THE COM PLEX NUM BE R S YST EM.
• C i , i > 2: HYP ER COMPLE X SY STEMS

T he Ar ithme tic of Clif for d Nu mber s does the wor k of over 30


fie lds of ma the ma tics .

T he Ar ithme tic of Clif for d Nu mber s, ACN , is m os tl y i gnor ed.


(W iki pedia has a se mi -e soter ic r efer ence for it .) T he ori gina l
jour na l for col le ge ma thema tic s, T he M athema tica l Monthl y of
T he Ma the ma tical Assoc ia tion of Ame rica has ne ver, since its
fir st issue in 1895, publ ished an ar tic le on A CN . My a ttempt s
to co r rect th is h ave been rejected. Yet, as s ho wn be lo w, the
bas ic s can be der iv ed on the l evel of high sc hool alge br a .

Es sentia ll y, ACN compr ehend s:

• sca lar s ( 0-vector s), denote b y poin ts


• vector s ( 1-vector s), denoted b y dir ected line se gment s.
• bi vector s (2-v ector s) , denoted by p lane s e gments w ith
dir ected span .
• tr iv ector s ( 3-vector s), denoted b y par al lelop ipeds w ith
dir ected extens ion.
• 4-v ector s can be expli ca ted for rel ati vit y theor y.
• the u sua l oper ation s of st andar d vector theor y
supp lemented by outer pr oduct and mul ti pr oduct (a.k .a .
Cl if for d pr oduct , geo metric pr oduct ).

Bef or e examin ing the se , w e explain "h yper comp le x" and s ho w
ho w to deri ve hyper comple x s ystem s .

W il lia m R owan Ha mi lt on (1805-65) noted th at t he comp le x


number acted as an oper ator to r ot ate a vec tor . T hi s has two
unit s , the identi ty , 1 for real number s , and the "i ma ginar y"
unit , i = √-1. Ham il ton r ea li zed tha t an extensi on of th is mi ght
rota te a d ir ected p lane se gment , and be ga n tr ying to
for mu la te it as a dir ected span in te r ms of 3 un it s, i nvolv ing
another un it , j 2 = 1, but j≠ i. Af ter y ear s of fai lur e, Ha mi lton
real iz ed he mu st use four un its , 1, i, j, k, wher e k 2 =  1 , but k
≠ i, k ≠ j, la be li ng th is the qua ter nion . La te r, W ill iam Kingdon
Cl if for d (1845 -79) de veloped the octon ion w ith eight unit s ,
and it was real iz ed t ha t these "h yper comp le x number s" cou ld
be fur ther extended.

A recur si on gener ate s h yper comp le x number s :

• T he 1 -h yper comp le x number ha s the f or m: h 1 = r 1 + r 2 i,


wher e r 1 , r 2 ar e rea l nu mber s and i j i s a new unit su ch
tha t i 2 =  1 .
• T he 2 -h yper comp le x number (qua ter nion) has the for m: h 2
= c 1 + c 2 j, wher e r 1 , r 2 ar e rea l nu mber s and j ≠ i i s a new
unit su ch tha t j 2 =  1 . From the pol ynomi al for m c 1 = r 1 +
r 2 i and the pol ynomi al for m c 2 = r 3 + r 4 i, we f ind (by
sub st itut ion) : h 2 = c 1 + c 2 j = r 1 + r 2 i + r 3 j + r 4 ij, for ij = k , ji
= k, k ≠ i, k ≠ j , but k 2 = 1.
• T he 3 -h yper comp le x number ha s the f or m: h 3 = q 1 + q 2 l,
wher e l is a new un it , l ≠ i , l ≠ j, ≠ k , but l 2 =  1. From the
pol ynomi al for m q 1 = r 1 + r 2 i + r 3 j + r 4 k and the pol ynom ia l
for m q 2 = r 5 + r 6 i + r 7 j + r 8 k, we f ind (by sub st itut ion) : h 3 =
r 1 + r 2 i + r 3 j + r 4 k + r 5 l + r 6 li + r 7 lj + r 8 lk = r 1 + r 2 i+ r 3 j + r 4 k +
r 5 l + r 6 m + r 7 n + r 8 o, for new noncommuta ti ve un it s , li = m,
lj = n , lk = 0 s uc h tha t the y ar e dis ti nct fr om pr evious
unit s and ea ch squar ed equa ls ne ga ti ve one.
• In gener al , the ( n + 1 )- hyper comp le x number can be
gener ated fr om the n-hy per comple x number .

T he se h yper comp le x syste ms ar e par t of the Ari thmet ic of


Cl if for d N umber s (a .k.a . Clif for d Al ge br a, mu lt iv ector s,
geometr ic a lge br a) . T he bimodu l c har acter of the comp le x
number m eans tha t the pl oy of hid ing t he vector f or ma t of
in te ger s, rati onal s, r ea ls b y sign s can no longer wor k, and the
vector for ma t mu st no w be m anipu la ted "in the open" .
Be si des ha vi ng the us ual eqi va lence and inequ iva lence
rel ation s and oper ations of ad diti on, su btr action ,
mul ti pl ica tion , d iv ision , exponenti ati on, lo gari thm, r oot
extr act ion f or number s and (w her e rele vant) f or v ector s , ACN
has two spec ial v ector pr oduct s (outer pr oduct and
mul ti pr oduct) rel ati ng to the vector inne r pr oduct , found in
st andar d vector theor y (w hic h wi ll be char acter iz ed be lo w).
T he se t hr ee pr oducts ar e usua ll y pr sented in an " advanced"
way, but can be der iv ed on a le vel of high s choo l alg ebr a,
cum a smidgi n of t rigono metr y , as follo ws.
DE RIV ATI ON O F VE CT OR IN NE R P ROD UC T FR OM TH E LA W OF
COSI NE S
Fir st , w e need to ind ica te the rota tion oper ato r , R, def ined by
a m atr ix in cos θ, sin θ:

 cos θ - sin θ 
R ≡  
 sin θ cos θ ,
We can now st ate a pr inci ple (di st ingu ish ing sca lar s fr om
vector s ) to be i nvok ed be lo w.

Scala r-V ector Pr incip le: a sc alar is a st r uctur e in var iant for θ
= 0 (or R as the i denti ty oper ator) , wher eas a vec tor i s
in var iant w hene ver deter minant |R| = + 1.

Let u s la be l the usual pr esenta tion of a triang le as a sca lar


tr iang le to dis tingu is h w ha t a ppear s when the thr ee side s
become d ir ected , th at i s, vector s , su ch th at one side i s t he
vector su m of the other t wo side s . We la bel the la tter as a
vector tr iang le . T he sca lar tr iang le satis fie s a Law of
Co si nes . Behold ! Trans for ma tion of the sca lar tr iang le in to
the v ector tri ang le tr an sf or ms the Law of Co si nes in to the
vector inne r pr oduct . (T he st andar d pr ocedur e is to deri ve
the Law of C os ine s fr om i nner pr oduct .)

We l abel the s ca lar tri ang le s ides a s a, b, c , wi th ∠ (a,b) = θ =


C. We then ha ve the Law of Cos ine s:
c2 = a2 + b2 - 2ab cos C (1)
We no w tr an sf or m the sca lar tr iang le in to the vector tr iang le
and indic ate vector s by under scor ing . We ha ve:

c = b - a (2)
We w is h to inter pr et (2) in te r ms of (1) by tr an sf or ming the
sca lar tr iang le in to the vector tr iang le .

1. T he squar es i n (1) sug ge st squar ing in (2) .


2. But cos C = cos θ i n (1) sug ge st s mor e than a "pol ynom ial
pr oduct". We cons ider a v ector pr oduct , denoted •, as in a
• a.
3. We then ha ve (fr om equa tion (2)):
4.
c • c = (b - a) • (b - a)

Or,

c • c = b • b - a • b - b • a + a • a (3)

5. We can now ma tc h (3) to (1), tr anf or ming the Co si ne Law


in to a vector pr oduct b y:

1. We dec lar e • to be commut ati ve w ith a • b = b • a ,


and we can col lect 2(a • b) i n (3).
2. We dec lar e a • b = |a | | b| cos θ. θ = ∠(a, b) to ma tc h
cor respond ing te r ms i n (1), (3) .
3. We f ind th is vector pr oduct to be s ca lar b y T he
Scala r-v ector Pri ncip le (a bo ve), wher ein θ = 0.
2. Si nce th is i s pos si bl e f or a ll ca ses , we h ave clos ur e, and
a v ector i nner pr oduct .

W hen u • v = 0, vec tor s u, v ar e per pendicu lar , th at i s,


or thogonal , al lo wing for defin it ion of an or thogona l
vector bas is .

We no w l ear n tha t inner pr oduct i s not s uf fici ent f or our


pur pose s.
For a real vector space , an inner pr oduct , <-, -> , sa ti sf ie s four
bas ic pr oper tie s . Let u, v, w be vector s and α be a scal ar ,
then:

1. <u + v,w> = <u,w> + <v,w> .


2. <αv, w> = α<v, w> .
3. <v, w> = <w, v >
4. <v, v> ≥ 0 , being zer o onl y for v = 0. A v ector s pace
together w ith an inner pr oduct on it i s cal led an in ner
pr oduct space . T hi s defin it ion a ls o a pp lie s to an abstr act
vector sp ace over any pr oper bas is . Exa mple s ar e:

o T he real number R wher e the i nner pr oduct is <x , y > =


xy .
o T he Euc lidean Space , R n , wher e
o
o <(x1, x2, ..., xn), (y1, y2, ..., yn)> =
x1y1 + x2y2 + ... + xnyn.
Henr i Car tan (1904, -) note s tha t a po int in n-d imen si onal
Euc lidean Space can be defined as a set of nu mber s
(coodina te s), [x 1 , x 2 , ... , x n ] su ch tha t the d is tance of thi s
point , [x] to the O ri gi n, [0, 0, . .., 0] - - equi valen tl y, the se lf -
innner -pr oduct , <x , x> of vector x to 0 -- is g iv en by the
fundamental for m (p lease note pos it iv ity )

x • x = x12 + x22 + ... + xn2.


Ho wever, pseudo -Euc lidean s pace s (a s in rel ati vis ti c s pace -
ti me ) ma y requir e another pr oduct for m.
DE RIV ATI ON O F OUT ER PR ODU CT OF V EC TORS (AN D
MUL TI VECT OR S)

Two vector s ar e inter depende nt if f one is a m ul tip le


of the other : either they ar e par all el or par t of the
sa me r ay . In su ch ca se, the ir inner pr oduct i s zer o .

Giv en two independent vector s , with nonz er o inner


pr oduct , as in the follo wing case :
1. Con side r the independent vector s : a = [a 1 , a 2 , a 3 ],
b = [b 1 , b 2 , b 3 ].
2. We dec lar e a, b a ls o t o be independent of a th ir d
mul ti vector st r uctur e , tenta tiv el y denoted C.
3. Let C f or m an inner pr oduct wi th vector s a, b via
coe f fic ient s (not nece ssar il y scala r) [C 1 , C 1 , C 1 ],
yie ldi ng two homogeneous equa ti on :
4.
5. a • C = a1C1 + a2C2 + a3C3 (O.1)
b • C = b1C1 + b2C2 + b3C3 (O.2)

6. Pl ease note tha t thi s is a syste m of tw o


equa ti ons in thr ee unkn own s (the C i ), so cannot
yie ld a un ique sol ution , rather an infin ite number
of so lu tion s . Ho wever, belo w, w e sha ll mak e a
cle ver choice re ga r ding the coe f fic ient s.

We no w i nvok e the fam il iar (h igh s chool !) eli mi na tion


algor ith m a ppl ied to the unkno wn coe f ficient s to
obtain :

(a1b2 - a2b1)C1 + (a3b2 - a2b3)C3) = 0 (O.3)

(a1b2 - a2b1)C2 + (a3b1 - a1b3)C3 = 0 (O.4)

Pl ease note the com mon mu lt ip lie r i n equa ti ons (3),


(4), namel y, (a 1 b 2 - a 2 b 1 ).

T his i s an ant is ymmet ric for m , hence r equ ir es a


sym plect ic tr ans for ma tion for in var ianc y . (T his is
co ver sion i n mul iv ector liter atur e :

• rever si on , as in 12 → 21 ,
• fol lo wed by ne ga tiv e one m utip li er, or in ver si on ,
and vice v er sa .)

By de claring th is com mon ter m to be nonz er o , tha t is,


a 1 b 2 ≠ a 2 b 1 -- hence, a nonz er o deter minant f or t he
syste m - - we can sol ve (3) for C 1 , and (4) f or C 2 , both
in ter ms of C 3 :

C1 = [(a2b3 - a3b2)/(a1b2 - a2b1)]C3. {5a)

C2 = [(a3b1 - a1b3)/(a1b2 - a2b1)]C3. {5b)

We can now mak e " the c le ver c ho ice" ment ioned


above. By dec lari ng C 3 = (a 1 b 2 - a 2 b 1 ), we can
el im ina te C 3 fr om (5a), (5b). T hen we ha ve:

C1 = a2b3 - a3b2 (6a)

C2 = a3b1 - a1b3 (6b)

C3 = a1b2 - a2b1 (6c)

A for m su ch as (a 1 b 2 - a 2 b 1 ) rese mble s the s tandar d


commut ator for ma trice s or oper ator s : [A , B] = A B -
BA. In thi s, the " car ri er s" com mute ( inter change) , but
no subs crip t or inde x is invol ved. T he s ame br ac ket
for m can be wr itten as [k 1 , k<S UB .2< s ub>] = k 1 k 2 -
k 2 k 1 , wi th no "car rier " com muta tion , onl y sub scr ipt
commut ation .

But thi s doe s not matc h (a 1 b 2 - a 2 b 1 ), whic h ha s both


car ri er and su bscr ipt commu ta tion . So we e xtend the
br ac ket to accomoda te both:

[a, b]ij = (ab - ba)ij = aibj - biaj = -[b, a]ij (7)

T his extended br ac ket i s im pl ic it in Ad vanced


Ca lculu s , R. C reighton Bu ck:

• u = f(x, y) , v = g(x, y);


• du = f 1 dx + f 2 dy ; dv = g 1 dx + g 2 dy ;
• dudv =(f 1 dx + f 2 dy)(g 1 dx + g 2 dy = (f 1 g 2 - f 2 g 1 )dx dy =
[f , g] ij dx dy
because dx dx = dydy = 0 , dx = -d y under exter ior
pr oduct in B uc k (to be outer pr oduct for
mul ti vector s) .

Ma the ma tics s tudent s may a ls o f ind t ha t thi s


extend ed br ac ket is imp li cit in the ma tri x
mul ti pl ica tion r ule , in t he conte xt of the co mmuta to r .
T his f ol lo ws fr om a w ell -kno wn matr ix theor em : a ij b jk
= c ik . (T he extend ed br ac ket inhe rit s th is tr an si ti vit y .)

Phy sic s st udent ma y al so find th at the extended


br ac ket nea tl y render s the der iv ation of the
commut ator of one angu lar m omentum for m pr oduct
fr om the other tw o .

Using the extended br ac ket , we can rewr ite (6), wi th


cyclic in tent:

C1 = [a, b]23 (6'a)

C2 = [a, b]31 (6'b)

C3 = [a, b]12 (6'c)

A cri tica l ques st ion now ari se s. W hat k ind of


st r uctur e is eac h C i ? W e onl y r eqqu ir ed th at the y be
independent of vector s a, b , whic h exclude s
sca lar it y . Bu t th is al lo ws other cho ices :

1. Eac h a vector (the Gib bs -H ea vis ide cho ice).


2. Eac h a biv ector (the G ras sm ann and Cl if for d)
choi ce.
3. Eac h a h igher mul ti vector .

T he fir st choice -- eac h C i as a vector -- would al lo w


syste m c losur e on s cal ar s and vec tor s . T he other
choi ces , (2) and (3) , w ould , for the nonce, le ave
clos ur e unse ttled .
Ame rican phy si ci st -c hemi st , Jos iah W illar d Gib bs
(1839-1903) and Br it is h e lectr ical eng ineer , O liver
He avisi de (1858 -1925), made the vector cho ice ,
pr oviding the st andar d vector theor y , wi th m any
flaw s. (Mor e on thi s, belo w.)

T he second and th ir d of the c ho ice s a bo ve -- based


upon idea of W . R . H am il ton and Ge r man lingui st ,
He r mann G ras sm ann (1809-77) -- lead s to mul ti vector
clos ur e . Pl ease note! B y dua li ty , thi s inc ludes the
fir st choice , as a spec ia l ca se .

EA CH C A S A VE CT OR (1-V ECT OR)

To tr ea t a C as a vector , c, we m us t de si gna te an
or thonor ma l ba si s :

δ 1 = [1, 0, 0]
δ 2 = [0, 1, 0]
δ 3 = [0, 0, 1] (7)

(Plea se note th at so me te xt s use e i to de sign ate


bas is ele ments , but th is may l ead to confu sion wi th
the exponentia l funct ion , hence the alter na tiv e use
her e.)

Giv en the se bas is ele ments , we can w ri te:

a = a1δ 1 + a2δ 2 + a3δ 3


b = b1δ 1 + b2δ 2 + b3δ 3
c = c1δ 1 + c2δ 2 + c3δ 3 (8)

We can , of cour se, c hoo se a coor din ate s ystem su ch


tha t a 2 = a 3 = b 2 = b 3 to ha ve:

c = (a1b2 - a2b1)δ 3 = [a,b]12δ 3 = a × b = - b × a (9)


Ma the ma tic s tudent s shou ld recogniz e the oper ation
in (9) a s the f ami liar "v ec tor pr oduct" or "cr os s
pr oduct" f or an or thogonal vector , c, out of the plane
of vector s a, b.

Ho wever, thi s cho ice of C -- made by G ib bs and


He avisi de - - as a v ector out of the plane , has a g rea t
flaw : does not tr ansf or m as a vector does ! For , a s in
our Sca lar -V ector Prin ipl e a bo ve, a vector is i nva riant
under the rota tion oper ator , R, for ang le θ ≠ 0.

We c hoo se a con vent ion f or r ot ati on :


counter clo ckwi se as po si ti ve rota tion . And rever sing
a d ir ecti on tr an sf or ms a v ector into its ne ga tiv e , so
tha t v ≠ - v. But , for thi s cr os s pr oduct : - (a × b) = a × b

T he pa tc hwor k of ca ll ing thi s an "axia l vector " a s


opposed to a "po lar vector ", al ong with the
di scu ss ion of "fr ee vector s" and "f ix ed vector s",
FAILS because rota tion a ls o i nvolv es sp inor s and
rotor s . Gener ation s of st udents . for over a centur y,
ha ve been s ubj uga ted to th is confusi on. And the
clas sr oo m i s sub jected t o un si ghtl y contor tion s when
exainees attempt to per for m cor rectl y "the tw o-
finger s-and -thumb algor ith m", dur ing an examin ati on.

Fur ther mor e, th is yie lds a syst em whic h is not


mul ti pl ica tiv el y c losed , hence al lo wi ng onl y for a
vector ri ng , not a vector a lge br a , as can be a tta ined
(belo w).

EA CH C A S A BIV ECT OR (2-V EC TOR)

Al l of the pr eviou s ob ject ions to C as a vector ar e


bypa ss ed by choi ce as a biv ector , whic h remain s in
the p lane of it s component s .
T he fir st mul ti vector pr oduct we der iv ed was la be led
"i nner pr oduct" because it reduces the d imen si on of
it s oper ands -- goe s fr om 1- D to 0 -D . W e no w der iv e an
"outer pr oduct" becau se it rai ses t he dimen sion of i ts
oper an ds - - fr om 1 -D to 2-D .

We denote it b y a "w edge" sym bol , whi ch i s inf ix ed


betw een bas is vector : δ 1 ∧ δ 1 ; etc . We shal l al so
di st ingu ish biv ector s fr om vector s b y sh ift ing fr om
lo wer- to upper-ca se . So , we sh al l sh ift fr om the
vector , c of the pr eviou s sect ion for the biv ector , c,
and wr ite :

C = (a1b2 - a2b1)δ 1 ∧ δ 2 = [a,b]12δ 1 ∧ δ 2 (11)

T he geometr ic r epr esenta tion i s an or iented plane


span .

(W e pau se to def end t he con si sten cy of thi s cho ice.


We onl y requir ed "s tr uc tur e" C to be independent of
the other two v ector s . No w, i f vector u, v ar e
col li near , then u · v = 0. Bu t, clea r l y, a ∧ ( a ∧ b) = 0
and a ∧ ( a ∧ b) = 0 . So our cho ice is cons is tent .)

T he ma gnitude of the bi vector , B = a ∧ b is equ iva lent


to t he cor responding par al lelo g ram f or med by the
su m of the co mponent vector s , hence:

|B| = |a ∧ b| = |b ∧ a| = |a||b| sin θ (12)

MU LTIPR ODU CT (a .k.a . GE OM ETRI C O R CLIFF OR D


PROD UC T)

Ma the ma tics concer ns p atter ns - - pr esent ing


pa tter ns or conser vi ng pa tter ns or tr ans for ming
pa tter ns . In langua ge used pr evious l y, the p atter n of
inner pr oduct i s MATCH ; the p atter n of outer pr oduct
is MIX ; the p atter n of our new pr oduct is MATCH- MIX .
• We i ntr oduced shar p-pr oduct sim pl y to s ee it s
output .
• We d id not simpl ist ic ly ad d inner pr oduct to outer
pr oduct to obtain a new pr oduct , a s is usual l y
done in the liter atur e, often ax iom atica ll y.
• Ra ther , we cas t the vector-no mia ls i n the pa tter n
of alg ebr aic po lyno mia ls and emu la ted the la tter
pr oduct .
• We then di sco ver ed an output p atter n w hic h is
the s um of i nner and outer pr oduct .
• We ther eby di sco ver ed in for ma tion not pr esent in
the l iter atur e -- tha t th is oppo ses the pa tte r n of
homogeneit y- sym metr y to the p atter n of
heter ogeneit y- anti sym metr y .

And plea se note th at, on the l evel of high sc hool


alg ebr a (wi th a smi dgin of t rigonometr y) :

1. we der iv ed the inner pr oduct b y tr ans for mi ng a


sca lar tr iang le in to a vector tr iang le coor dina ted
wi th tr an sf or ming the Law of C os ine s in to inner
pr oduct ;
2. we der iv ed the outer pr oduct by s ol ving a s ystem
of linear equa tions obta ined b y appl ying inner
pr oduct to vector s;
3. we der iv ed outer pr oduct by obta ining the su m of
a homogeneou s-s ymm etr ic s ubpol ynom ial and a
heter ogeneo us- anti sy mm etri c s ubpol ynom ial and
as soc ia ting thi s pa tter n w ith tha t of a new
mul ti pr oduct .

We r ep lace the oper ationa l sym bol , #. No w,


mul ti pr oduct is often denoted sim pl y by
conca tena tion , but thi s ma y lead to confus ion w ith
pr oduct in nu merica l alge br a . Let' s use ⊗. T hen we
ha ve mul ti pr oduct of v ector s :
a ⊗ b = a • b + a ∧ b. (9)

Some st udents see " di mens ion -mi xing " i n


mul ti pr oduct . But we der iv ed it b y separ ating par ts of
a pol ynom ia l. You can't quar rel w ith tha t! Gras smann
found i t, la te i n lif e, as the onl y way to obtain
Ha mi lton 's qua te r nion s. H am il ton a ls o di scco ver ed i t.
But onl y Cl if for d der iv ed it , ax ioma tica ll y.

To cite a "pr ecedent" , cons ider the K ronec ker


oper ator , denoted her e by S, since the con vent ional d
lead s to confu sion with bas is ele ments . S ij = 1 if f i = j
-- homogeneous -- but zer o otherw is e, heter ogeneous
. Bu t th is oper ator oper ate s on oper ands . Cons ider a
"s uper- oper ator", w hic h oper ates on oper ator s :

µ ij = • iff i = j, but zero indicates µ ij


= ∧.

MU LTIPR ODU CT IS TH E HOM OG EN IZE R

In (9),

a ⊗ b = a • b + a∧ b,
le t a = b. Si nce δ 1 · δ 2 = 1, the inner pr oduct of (9) becomes a
• a = a 2 1 + a 2 2 + a 2 3 : the ho mogenous ter m becomes s imp lif ied .
Si nce δ 1 ∧ δ 2 = 0 , the heter ogeneous ter m of (9) is elm ina ted .
T hu s, mu lt ipr oduct i s the g rea t homogeni zer . And wha t do we
ha ve? It i s the p ytha gor ean f or m pr oviding for a metr ic, the
st r uctur e whic h ar ticul ate s a geometr y wi thin a topolog y .

Fur ther mor e, a s noted a bo ve, s ome metr ics (a s in space -ti me
rel ati vit y ) may m ix po si ti ve ( p) and ne ga ti ve ( n) ter ms in
pseudo -p ytha gor ean for ms , eas il y accomoda ted by the
mul ti pr oduct . Hence , t he mor e gener al la bel ing in the
ari thmet ic of Cl if for d N umber s : C i → C (p , n) , p + n = i , wher e p
(n) denotes the number of pos it iv e (ne ga ti ve) ter ms i n the
metr ic .
T hu s,

• the Paul i alg ebr a of quantum theor y i s la beled : C (3, 0) for


thr ee po si ti ve space -coor dina ted ter ms, zer o ne ga ti ve
ti me- coor dina ted ter ms, i n it s me tric , wi th the ba si s : [1, δ
1, δ 2, δ 3]

• the Dir ac alge br a, f or r ela ti vi sti c theor y of the electr on i s


la be lled : C (3, 1) : thr ee pos it iv e space-coor din ates , one
ne ga tiv e t ime -coor dina te ; with the ba si s : [1 , d 1 , δ 2 , δ 3 , δ 4 ].

In 1994 , ph ys ic is t, K. R. Gr eider , sho wed th at all r ela tiv istic


fie lds w ith spin s of 0, ½. 1 can be de veloped , v ia
mul ti pr oduct, wi thin the single Dir ac for ma li sm (a bo ve),
wher eas the s tandar d tr ea tment is a p atc hwor k of for mal is m .
T his i s one mor e reason for comp lain ing agains t standar d
ma thema tics , whic h a voids mu lt iv ec tor theor y , making
lear ning dif ficu lt for st udents .
MUL TIP ROD UC T IS T HE G RE AT UNIFIER

In a sen se , mul ti vector theor y i s bu il t ar ound a s ing le


mul ti vector pr oduct equa tion , (9) , and it s e xtens ion
in to 3-D , etc . . In mul ti vector calcu lus , mu lt ipr oduct
tak es the ind iv idua l oper ator s of g rad ( ∇A) , div (∇ •
A), and cu r l (∇ ∧ A) of st andar d vector calcu lus and
unif ies the m i nto a s ing le mul ti vector oper ator :∇ A =
∇ • A + ∇ ∧ A.

W her ea s, i n st andar d vector calcu lus , we can onl y


deri ve t he g rad ient of a s ca lar , the mul ti pr oduct
yie lds the g rad ient of any mu lt iv ector .

T her e is mor e unif ica tion fr om d ir ected i nte g ration


(not the undir ected in te g ration of s tandar d ca lculu s).
Giv en a vector -v alued function , f, of a vector , x, we
wr ite (noting separ abi li ty , with mul ti pr oduct as
juxta po si tion ):
fx = (f•dx + f∧dx) =

fdx + f∧dx

T he Ame rican phy si ci st , David He st enes -- author ity


on Clif for d Alge br a - - find s t ha t the i nver se of
g radient invok es the Cauc hy inte g ral f or mu la, and
has sketc hed a theor y of the d ir ected i nte g ral , both
in Riemann ian and Le be sque for m .

He stene s ar gu es t ha t "man y notion s of homo log y


theor y can mor e r ead il y be expr es sed b y dir ected
in te g rals than by the sc alar -v al ued inte g ral s of
cohomolog y theor y ... . It rema ins to be seen to wha t
de g ree homo log y theor y can be re ga r ded a s a theor y
of di rected inte g ral s" .

A ma thema tical con sequence of th is unif ica tion i s


tha t real and comple x ana l ysi s ar e unif ied, and
comple x anal ysis can be e xtended in w ays not
pos si bl e i n the standar d for m .

A consequence of thi s un ific ation in ph ys ics is th at


Maxw el l' s electr oma gnetic fie ld equa tion s -- usual l y
exp ressed in e ight or f our equa tion s -- unif y as a
single equa tion (f or a sing le pr oce ss ), via
mul ti pr oduct .

MUL TIP ROD UC T AS MU LTIF ACT OR

Pl ease note tha t we can wri te:

x12 + x22 + ... + xn2 = (x1w + x2w + ... + xnw)2 (10).

for any un it vector , w s uc h tha t w i • w i = 1 , for i = j,


zer o otherw is e.

T hen , con ver sel y , we can factor :


(x12 + x22 + ... + xn2)½ = x1w + x2w + ... + xnw (11).

In his quanta l r ela tivi stic theor y of the e lecr on , Dir ac


appli ed a ma trix for m of the f acto ring in (11) to the
Kle in- Gor don s pace- ti me f or mu la tion of Sc hr öd inger' s
equa ti on, res ult ing in disco ver y of ant im atter . But
Di rac's der iv ation tak es four pa ges , w her ea s th is can
be done by mu lt ipr oduct i n four l ines . Factor po wer !
AP PEX DIX A: M ATH EMA TI CS AN D MO I
Some reader s mi ght th ink , fr om the in tention of th is B ook,
tha t I a m a ma th ner d t r ying to t ur n other s i nto mth ner ds .
Exactl y oppos ite is the case ! As my h is tor y un fold s, y ou 'l l
lear n tha t I onl y s hi fted t o a Ma the ma tics m ajor at N ew Yor k
Un iv er si ty to esca pe fr om the Ph ysi cs ma jor for ced upon me
at Co lumb ia U ni ver si ty. In f act, as y ou'l l lear n, a mur der m ade
me a m athem atic ian . A nd be ing a par ent m ade me a teac her .

I s pent app roxi ma te l y fiv e year s, during Am erican


par ti cip ation in W WII, as a Wea ther Obser ver and Wea ther
For ec aster in the Ar my Air Co r ps . After dis char ge, I sett led i n
NYC and met the g rea t lo ve of my l ife, Es ther C ar ol ine Ode ll
(1920-2000). After suf fering a l ifet ime fr om i nf ant pol io ,
le aving her l eft le g par al yzed and ri ght foot de for med, E sther
de veloped br east cancer (w hic h had ki lled her o lder sis ter) ,
had two m as tectomi es , and d ied of meta sta tic br eas t cancer ,

On Augus t 28 , 1948 , Es ther and I w er e mar ried b y her fathe r,


T he Rever end Ed war d A. O del l, at Upper Mon tc lai r
Pr es by terian Chur ch. In Septembe r, I be ga n st udie s at
Co lumb ia U ni ver sit y -- but onl y after a has sl e whic h ensur ed 8
year s of un iv er si ty mis educa tion - - 8 year s of fear and
lo athing !

T he tr ouble be ga n tha t su mmer of 1948 , w hen I'd r ece iv ed a


new co py of m y los t d is char ge pa per s and w as j udged e li gib le
under " T he G. I . Bi ll" . Her e I was in the to wn w ith the
g rea te st jour nal is m schoo l i n the w or ld -- Co lumb ia. And ,
since I f ir st star ted reading H. G. Wel ls at 14, I had dr eamed
about become a sci ence wr iter -- whi ch w ould accommod ate
al l my other i nter ests . B ut the man who mu st sign my pa pe rs
at the VA, sa id , at fir st , I 'd h ave to m ajor in me teor olog y ,
since I'd been a w ea ther ob ser ver and f or ecaster in the
Ser vice . I ob jected th at the me teor olog ical ma jor had been
dr opped at al l New Yor k Cit y col le ges and un iv er si tie s wi th
the end of the War. Wel l, then I could ju st mo ve my wi fe and
my self to Ithaca , NY, wher e Cor ne ll U . s til l of fer ed th is m ajor !
I f ought th is uka se t hr ough se ver al le vels a t the V A and won.

T he man now sa id I'd ha ve to maj or i n the r ela ted fie ld of


phy si cs . I sho wed him my tr anscr ipt -- tha t (w ith no for mal
cour se in ma th s ince j uni or h igh sc hool) I d id not ha ve the
ma thema tical r equ ir ements f or ph ys ic s. But the man s ai d he 'd
cons ider sign ing m e f or j our na li sm onl y if I w er e tur ned do wn
for phy si cs a t Col umbia . I w ent ther e, fu ll y e xpecting to be
tur ned do wn , f or t wo reason s: too la te (c las se s wer e no w in
the s econd w eek) , and ine li gib il ity .

To my su r pri se and ter ror, I w as accepted ! M y ad vi so r, an


Eng lis h i ns tr uc tor , enr olled me in "Col le ge Alge br a" and
"Ca lcu lus I" . You hea r d me! T wo dif fer ent l evels of
ma thema tics a t the s ame ti me -- and f or a student wi thout the
pr er equis it es for the gi ven m ajor and ente ring la te! I ask ed if
my adv is or thought I could do i t. "I don 't kno w. I ha ven 't had
any math s ince t he 9th Gr ade , e ither . But you' ll j us t ha ve to
tr y."

"Can 't I tak e t rigonome tr y? I need it bad !" "It isn 't avai la ble ."
"Can 't I tak e anal yt ic geometr y? I ought to ha ve had it bef or e.
And I'l l need i t for calcu lu s. " "It' s ful l up . T hes e ar e the onl y
tw o ava ila ble cour ses I can he lp y ou enr ol l in th at h ave
any thing to do wi th your phy si cs ma jor ."

W hat I di dn't then under stand was th at t he mo ti va tion for thi s


per ver se mis educa tion der iv ed fr om uni ver sity cond it ions
whic h cou ld onl y wor sen m y pligh t. At th at t im e, Co lumb ia U.
had an age res tri ction : you cou ldn't enter Co lumb ia C ol le ge if
over 26 year s of age. N ow, I'd been the aver age a ge of the
di sc har ged v eter an (26), so e ven if I'd st ar ted tw o year s
ear lie r (the ear li es t po ss ib le ti me), I'd ha ve been ine li gib le
for Co lumb ia C ol le ge. But the y w anted to t ak e advanta ge of
so man y veter an s go ing to co lle ge under the "GI BI ll ". So a
night schoo l w ithout de g rees was tur ned in to a de g ree
sc hool , renamed " T he Sc hoo l of Gener al S tudie s" , and the
ma tter of pr er equis it es for man y maj or s was st ill up f or
g rabs .

But SG S was a se g re ga ted co lle ge wi thin Co lumb ia


Un iv er si ty. It had on l y a lim ited facul ty, and m os t of t hem had
no of fice s. You consu lted them on ca mpus par k benc hes . T he
Pr es ident of C olu mbia U., D wi ght E isenho wer , had tha t ver y
September depar ted f or E ur ope to become C ommander of the
newl y or gan iz ed NATO -- wi thout r esi gning hi s Pr esi denc y. (In
the S er vice , the y cal l thi s "go ing AWOL "!) But , bef or e go ing,
Pr es . Eis enho wer appo inted h is tori an Lou is H ac ker to be Dean
of SG S. Ha cker retur ned fr om O xf or d U ., accepted the pos t,
and went bac k to Oxf or d for the ne xt four year s! (W e f ir st saw
hi m t wo month s after g radua tion .)

T he As sistan t D ean, Jac k Arbo li no , w as and is a wonderfu l


man -- God bl es s hi m wher ever hs is! -- but hi s youth and t im e
at Co lumb ia l eft hi m l itt le clout. ( Arbol ino la ter went to
Pr inceton to cr ea te the "Ad vanced C redit Pr og ram", w hic h
figur es i n tha t de lightfu l fi lm , Stand and De li ver ! , st ar ri ng
Ed war d J ame s O lmo s. )

So why did I go ahead, under s uc h cond ition s? Because the


onl y other cho ice was no co lle ge a t al l . Es ther was the s ol e
member of her fam il y and, seem ing l y, the s ol e per son i n her
home to wn , who thought I sh ould be go ing to co lle ge. 28 -y ear-
old mar ried men don't go to col le ge! Ne ver m ind tha t I
couldn' t go bef or e. Face it ! It was too la te! T he on l y cho ice I
had was to star t Cou mbia under the se ri dicu lous cond ition s --
and bu ll my way thr ough . A nd list en, for the next four year s,
to " You'r e st ill in co lle ge ?" "W hen ar e y ou go ing to fin ish? o r
gi ve up ?"

T he Re gis tr ar's O f fice of Co lumb ia U ni ver si ty tw ice lo st all of


my reco r ds after I m atr icu la ted ther e.
I be gan ni ght c las se s in Septembe r, 1948 , w or king by day . B ut
I r ea li zed tha t th is w ould tak e t oo long. So I be gan a ful l
sc hedule for the Spri ng Se mes ter , plann ing to wor k par t-t im e,
night s or when ever.

My f ir st par t-t ime job w as f or C olu mbia , as sis ti ng i n the


Spr ing R e gi str ation . Dur ing a lu ll at my ta ble , I sa unter ed
do wn to fi le m y o wn r e gi st ati on. Si ll y me!

"You can't tak e th at c las s because you don't ha ve the pr e-


requi si te. "

"Yes , I h ave. I took th at cour se t hi s fal l."

"Impo ss ib le ! In fact , t her e is no recor d tha t you ma tricu la ted ,


le t a lone took any cour se ."

I w as s tunned . 24 cr edit hour s wer e m iss ing - - 18 whi ch I had


been allo wed to tr ans fer fr om my st udie s at Texa s
Technolog ical Ins ti tute, whi le in the Avia tion Cadet Pr og ram ,
and 6 cr edit s fr om t he Fal l. U sel es s to pr otes t. T he recor ds
wer e mi ssing . I was a Non student .

Bac k at my wor k- ta ble , m y f ello w wor ker ask ed a bout my


fal len cr es t. I e xp lained .

"W el come to the Cl ub! Ma ybe you'r e lu cky it ha ppened to you


ear ly. I'm a sen ior , and t he Re gis tr ar lo st al l my recor ds
during my T hir d Y ear . Oh, the y found the m, or I w ouldn 't be
her e -- but --. Look I' ll do your wor k for a while . Get bu sy. You
don't exp ect them to f ind your cr ed it s, do you? "

I w ander ed am id the R e gi str ation line s and ta ble s in a daz e.


But my 5 y ear s in the Ar my Air For ce tr ained me for noi se on
the br ee ze. So mew her e, I hear d sp ok en my Ar my Ser ia l
Nu mber!

I r aced to a ta ble acr os s the g ymnas iu m. A gu y w as yelling,


"H ave you lo st m y recor ds ?" "No . T he y'r e ri ght her e. But they
don't sho w Frenc h I and Histor y I. It 's Co lle ge Al ge br a and
Ca lculu s I. Ar en 't t hose you'r e cr edit s. Isn 't thi s your Ar my
Ser ial Number --" , ratt li ng i t of f.

"T hat' s my Ser ial Number" , I y elled. " And those ar e m y


cr edit s. I took those cour se s thi s Fal l! "

"O k. Ok. T ak e 'em . But wher e ar e m y cr ed its ?"

Bac k at our ta ble , my f el lo w w or ker shook hi s head. "Took me


tw o weeks to find my cr edit s! "

T he second ha ppe ning occur red at the be ginn ing of my la st


and eighth S emes ter at Co lumb ia. Just to fee l s af e, I c he cked
at the Re gi sta r Of fice t o s ee if I would be r ead y for
Gr adua tion at the end of th is pr esent Seme ster .

Gr adua tion was im pos sib le becau se t he Re gis tr ar Of fice had


no r ecor d th at I had e ver atttended Co lumb ia. 114 Cr ed it
Hour s m issi ng! I was , again, a Non student .

W hil e I sat wi th face in hand s, m utter ing, a lo vel y y oung


woman cle r k s cur ried ar ound -- AND F OU ND S OM E OF MY
CR EDIT S - - con vinc ing other s tha t I w as no phantom . Bef or e
the da y was out, a ll m y cr ed its w er e r esur rected . F or the ti me
being , I cea sed to be a No ns tudent.

I ne ver real l y relax ed a bout thi s ma tter unti l I w as able to


swit ch the tas se l on m y mo r tarboar d, sign ify ing tha t I, a long
wi th m y f ello ws, had g radua ted.

I g radua ted fr om Co lumb ia U ni ver si ty in J une, 1952, with B . S .


in Ph ys ics , but w ith an unr ecog niz ed equ iva lent maj or i n
ma thema tics and a m inor in c hemi str y. W ith m y GI-B ill
suppor t d im ini sh ing fas ter t han or igina ll y es ti ma ted , I hoped
to w or k by da y and go to s chool at ni ght a t C olu mbia in
phy si cs - - the ma jor I d id not c hoose but was for ced into b y
the V eter ans Ad min is tr ation (or for fei t G I- Bi ll su ppor t). To get
going on a Mas ter' s De g ree and to "te st the water s", I
enr ol led i n a C olu mbia su mmer cour se in " Atom ic Phy sic s" .
But per sona l m atter s i nter vened.

W if e Esther (v ict im of po li o i n inf an cy) suf fer ed her f ir st of


many br ok en l imb s. I shou ldn' t ha ve a llo wed her to go t o w or k
alone . But I w as s wamped w ith home wor k. T he damn bu s-
dri ver shou ld ha ve noti ced tha t, with her cane and par al yz ed
left le g, she needed a few mor e s econd s to get se ated. W hen
he s tar ted up t he bu s w ith her st ill on her feet , she was
thr own on her face and her ri ght le g was br ok en. T hen the
damn d ri ver w alk ed her acr os s the s tr eet on a br ok en le g and
tur ned her over to the D oor man of our A par tment Hou se. T he
ele va tor oper ator br ought her to our door al mos t h ys ter ic i n
tear s. I car ried her to a taxi and i nto a ho sp ital r oom .

He r or thoped is t of many y ear s, D r. M ather Cle veland , ca me up


wi th a no vel tr eatment whi ch he'd de veloped in the Ser vice
during Wor ld War II . T he fr actur e had not t wi sted in the bone,
so he pac ked it in ice , us ing the swel li ng i tse lf as a ca st. A s
the s wel li ng g radua ll y wor e down , t he bone hea led and no
cas t w as needed , dur ing many w eek s i n St. Luk es H os pi tal in
NYC i n the s um mer of 1952.

I r ented her a TV, to watc h the f ir st s ho wing on T V of the tw o-


par ty N ationa l Con venti ons -- the De mocr atic Con vent ion
(w hic h cho se A dla i Ste ven son), and the Republ ican
Con vent ion (w hic h chose Dwight Ein senho wer).

Meanw hi le, bac k at eac h mor ning' s "A tomic Ph ys ics ", I ask ed
Pr of . H al l ho w t he not ion of PR OBABILITY got in to quantum
theor y. (T his is one of t he mo st cr it ical aspects of t he theor y.
It pr ovok ed A lbe r t E in ste in into contr adict ion!) Pr of . Ha ll
st ar ted e xp lain ing near the end of the mor ning se ss ion, and
pr omi sed to continue the ne xt day .

Dr. Cle veland wanted to see if Esther was r ead y to stand and
ask ed me to br ing in her shoe s tha t ne xt mo r ning . H e sa id he
wanted me to put the sh oes into her hand s s o she would be
ready when he made h is r ound s. T hi s in vok ed one of many
fight s I'v e had , o ver the year s, wi th H ead Nur ses , on beha lf of
Es ther . W hen I appea red w ith the shoe s tha t mo r ning and
in si sted on putt ing the m i nto Es ther' s hands , the Head Nur se
sa id I w as v iol ating v isiting hour s and de manded I tu r n them
over to her . I pic ked up the phone and thr ea tened to phone Dr.
Cle veland , to s ay tha t the Head Nur se w oul dn't al lo w m e to
compl y wi th h is or der s.

T he Head Nur se yie lded and I comp leted my m issi on, mak ing
me -- me lodr ama tt ical l y! - - l ate f or m y mor ning clas s.

W hen I s ea ted mysel f, l ate , in the cla ss r oom , Pr of . Ha ll w as


at the blac kboar d, seem ing qu ite ner vous , ta lking in a hal ting
voice, and he was not continu ing the e xplana tion about
"pr oba bil it y in quantu m theor y" , as pr om is ed the day bef or e.
Ab r uptl y, he di sm is sed u s and depar ted . In the ha ll , s ome guy
queried , "H ey, did you hear a bout the mur der ?"

Br iefl y, w hile I was at the hosp ita l, some poor m aniac had
enter ed the of fice of T he Ph ysi cs R eview jou r nal on the 9th
Floor of Pup in (the Ph ys ics bu ild ing) . W hen an 18-y ea r-o ld
reception is t a sk ed h is bus ines s, he s hot her thr ough the
hear t and ran aw ay.

T he man ran do wn the hal l. Pr of. Hal l look ed out fr om a


clas sr oo m and the a ss ai lant shot at hi m, str iki ng the
doorfr ame be side hi m. T hen the as sa il ant ran do wn the st air s,
esca ping.

T he pol ice wer e puz zled . T he gi r l had no bo y friend s. T he


fam il y had no kn own enemie s. T he "nut" fi le of T he Ph ysi cal
Revi ew w as consu lted, conta ining se ver al le tter s fr om a man
who sa id he could pr ove th at the e lectr on d id not e xi st and
they mu st stop sa yi ng o therwi se . Usi ng an ad dr es s in one of
the l etter s, the pol ice queried hi s mothe r, w ho sa id he w as
st ay ing in a loca l hotel .
W hen encounter ed, the man adm itted hi s acti on. He had
chos en thr ee names fr om the Co lumb ia C ata log and planned
to k il l one or m or e of t hese per son s to m ak e the w or ld listen
to h is theor y! Ir onica ll y, one of the chosen name s was tha t of
Pr of . H al l and another th at of a f or mer pr of es sor of m ine ,
Pr of . Lu cy Hay ner . But th is poor demented fel lo w didn' t kno w
ho w to find them . H e recogni zed the name of T he Ph ysi cal
Revi ew (to whi ch he 'd sent hi s le tter s) on the door of an
of fice. W hen the young woman s pok e to him , he became upset
and star ted sh ooting . Subsequent evidence r esul ted i n thi s
man being sent to a m ental ins ti tution .

Pr of . H al l w as s o upse t b y thi s tha t he ne ver an swer ed my


quest ion . F our year s at C olu mbia , and the fir st ti me a Ph ys ic s
Pr of ag reed to an swer my ques tion , a demented man scar ed
hi m out of i t! I dec ided to le ave Co lumb ia f or N ew Yor k
Un iv er si ty. A nd to change fr om Ph ysi cs to Ma thema tics .

MU RD ER MA DE ME A MA THE MA TICIA N!

A VA of fic ial sai d I had the max imum al lo wance under th r G. I.


Bi ll. He sai d i t shou ld car r y fr om col le ge to g radua te schoo l,
up thr ough Mas ter' s Defr ee, and D octor ate and be yomd . But
tui tion at Co lumb ia and NYC incr ea sed s o fas t, I didn 't ha ve
enough for the fir st y ear a t NYC. So I took a job w ith an
in sur ance br ok er age , j us t of f Wal l Str eet . Ou r s on, T im othy ,
was bor n, Ma y 12, 1954, and I was no w the sole ear ner .

W hen he w as a year ol d, I t ook my fam il y to Inter A mer ican


Un iv er si ty, San Ge r mán, Puer to R ic o, to teac h ma th and
phy si cs , becau se I could get a ma id to he lp E sther w ith Tim .

In the sp ring of 1967 , I recei ved $50 ,000 for a Na ti onal


Sci ence Founda tion Wor kshop for high sc hool math t eac her s.
Ou r s on, C hri stopher was bor n tha t summer .

Two s ignif icant thi ngs ha ppene d to c hange my lif e as a


teac her . I di sco ver ed tha t st andar d teac htng of ma th w as
unneces sari l y rest ricted m a s noted in C ha p. One. And , in
pa pe rs fr om a pr eviou s Wor kshop , I lea r n about the "v ector
for mat" of W illi am Rowan H am il ton, w hic h is the bas is of thi s
Book . I recei ved an excori ating le tter fr om a NS F of fic ial f or
my teac hing about l imi ta tion s of st andar d teac hing. I became
per son s non g rata to NS F. N ot onl y request s wer e ignor ed , but
even simpl e l etter s w er e ignor ed , o ver the year s.

T hen another e vent changed m y life f or ever. In J une, 1857,


Es ther fel l over the s ide of a h il l, br eaking the f emur of her
par al yzed le g. She was in tr act ion at the l oca l ho spi tal f or
fi ve and a ha lf mon ths , then f lo wn to NYC f or t wo and a half
mor e m onths . I w as a s ing le par ent of a smal l bo y and a ba by
for se ven month s. T hi s was i n the t ime of c loth d ia per s, I 'v e
washed out tw ent y at a t im e, wr ung them out , and hung the m
on the line .

I w as tea ching a he avy schedu le. Twelv e to fifteen hour s was


nor ma l, but I w as t eac hing tw enty -t wo hour s a w eek ,
inc luding tw o Ph ys ics La bs . Somet ime s I had to t ak e my
chi ldr en to clas s, for one, tw o, thr ee , or f our hour s. T he y
wer e so good .

Weak ened b y thi s br eak , E sther br ok e one le g or theother ten


mor e t im es , and I was a sinp le par ent and nur se for shor ter
period s. I mana ged to get my M. S. in M athem atic s in 1960 ,
and star ted wor k on my Doctor ate . But the load of teac hing,
going to sc hool , and car ing f or m y fami l y was too mu ch, and,
wi th one -hundr ed-thr ee hou rs i n Ma the ma tics , I ended AB D
(al l but d is ser ta tion) , w hic h lim ited my car eer . I taught at
Fair le gh-D ic kin son in Ne w J er se y and at T he U ni ver sit y of
Maine at O rono , w her e E sther r ece iv ed a M .A . in C ompar ativ e
Li ter atur e.

La te r, I was ma thema tici cian and compute r pr og ram mer f or


T he Na val Resear ch La bor ator y in W as hi ngton, D. C., unt il m y
retir ement.

No t the st or y of a ner d.
BE CO ME A TEA CH ER!
Experi enced teac her s te ll s tudent s tha t the bes t w ay to lear n
Kno wables i s t o pr act ice teac hing them. J ust a s an actor
rehea rses but gett ing a lone and enacts the as signed r ole,
so \you can get alone and pr act ice teac hing wha t y ou'r e t r ying
to l ear n.

[plea se r epea t the se dr ama tic l ines - - y ou'r e t he STAR of thi s


-- mak e u s pr oud!] Student s, we' ll l ear n about tw o i mpor tant
ter ms: "i ntens ion" and "e xten si on", T he f ir st w or d is s pel led
"i -n-t -e - n -s -i-o -n" , not to be confu sed w ith the wor d
"i ntens ion" , whi ch ha s a "t" wher e the f ir st w or d ha s a "t ".

In Grammar Cla ss , you lea r ned the se concept s, r especti vel y,


as "connot ation " and "denota tion" of a wor d. T he i nten sion of
a w or d is connota tion ; exten sion is the wor d' s denota tion.

Student s, the ter ms "connota tion , denota ti on" ar e the la bel s


of the se i mpor tant concept s. B ut the concept s p lay i mpor tant
role s in mathema tic s and sci ence under t he la be ls "i ntens ion ,
extensi on". T hei r Pr oto Types ar e in se t theor y .

T he in tens ion f or ma t f or def ining a s et , S, by in tens ion i s S


={x|P(x)} : "s et of al l x s uc h th at pr opo si tion P(x) i s tr ue ,
wher e 'x ' ha s so me mean ing" . T his def ines a se t indir ect ly
(cr os si ng a Boundar y) , by de scri ption , as you lea r n in C ha p.
Two.

Student s. y ou can r ea li ze tha t a desr cipti on in wor ds or b y


dr awing can be one-man y -- one descr ipt ion s eem ing to f it
many per sons or it ems .

You real iz e ho w cr it ica l th is is in m athem atic s and s ci ence,


since , f or centur ie s, the mode l has been Euc lid 's " Ele ments of
Geo metr y", w ith Ax iom s whi ch mer el y de scri be the ir
ref er ents .
Student s, y ou can l ear n onl ine about the Peano A xio ms f or
Inte ger s . T he se ar e im ple mented f or the st andar d mode l of
Inte geR s , But you can al so lear n on li ne th at t hese Ax iom s fit
a non standar d mode l of inte ger s, any ony of whic h is g reater
than an y inte ger in the standar d m odel . You' ve hear d of ca se s
wher ein t he identi ty of s ome one was st olen along wi th the
per son' s Soci al Secur it y Nu mber , r esu lti ng i n g rea t financ ial
lo sses . T hi s is as if the N ons tandar d Inte ge rs ha ve s to len the
ident it y of the Standar d Mode l .

On li ne y ou als o l ear abo ut T he Banac h-T ar ski Pr ado x.


Accor ding to T he A xio ms of Euc li dean Geometr y (even as
revi sed and co mpleted by H ilbe r t) s ay y ou can cut the moon
in to fiv e piece s, put the piece s together a ga in, and pu the
moon i n your poc ket. No one kno ws ho w to do it, but
Euc lidean A xio ms say i t' s po ss ib le because of fuzz ine ss
about piec ing together .

T he se t wo extr emes -- and ther e ar e o ther s -- cas t doubt on


use of A xio ms in S ci ma th .

Si nce extens ion is a kind of oppo si te to in tens ion , you r ea li ze


it pr ec lude s these pr oble ms .

You pr eviou sl y under stood Pr otoT ype of inten sion , so can no w


under stand i ts Pr oto Type as f or mu la ted in ter ms of " set of al l
x s uc h tha t pr opo si tion P(x) i s tr ue of it " and under stand
extensi on a s se t of in stance s s o pr edica ted .

You ha ve a P rototype in s ome one co ll ecting name s on a


peti tion for a ne ighborhood tr af fiC ligh t. He re, the in tens ion
inc ludes ae extens ion .

Student s, S tanda r d Ar ithmet ic , w ith its Axi oms , allo ws


nonconst r ucti ve pr oof s . A pr oof of a theor em is not gi ven,
const r uctng w ha t the theor em descr ibe s, but cla im s to pr ove
"by contr ad iction ". T he ne ga ti ve of the thes is is as su med;
thi s rea soning is sho wn to lead to a contr adict ion ; s o double
ne ga tiv e i s i nter pr eted as po si ti ve, and cla im is made tha t
the the si s i s pr oven.

T he model w as the Euc lidean nonconst r ucti ve pr oof th at the


rati o of the s ide of a squar e to it s d ia gonal is not a fr act ion .
T his m atter appar entl y ar ose becau se of "T he Pytha gor en
T heor em" is a bout the ratio of a side of an ob long t o i ts
dia gonal . T he side and width for m a r ght tr iang le . Giv en an
oblong of le ngth f our un its , of w idth thr ee un it s. T hen 3 2 + 4 2
= 5 2 , wher e the l atter ref er s to t he ob long's s quar e.

But thi s doe sn't wor k wi th a squar e.

In Euc lid 's Element s of G eometr y appea rs a pr oof (a ppa rentl y


due to Hipp ias ) th at t he dia gonal of a un it su qar e is not a
fr action . T he cr it ical not ion, in t he pr oof , i s tha t ever y
fr action can be reduced s o tha t both numer ator and
denomin ator ar e not even number s, otherw is e t he com mon
factor of tw o can be div ided out . (Remember ! An even na tur al
number ha s the f or m, 2n , for so me n atur al number n, and it s
squar e has the for m, (2n) 2 = 4n 2 = 2(2n 2 ). Si mi la r ly, an od d
na tur al number has the for m, 2n + 1, and it s squar e has the
for m, (2n + 1) 2 = 4n 2 + 4n + 1 = 2(n 2 + n) + 1 .)

T he inco mmensur able pr oof pr oceed s a s fol lo ws :

• Con side r a/b = √2 .


• T hen a = √2b
• Squari ng both side s: a 2 2b 2 .
• T he ri ght-hand side has the for m of an even number
(twi ce some number) , mean ing t ha t the l eft -hand numbe r,
a, is an even number .
• To denote i t as an even nu mber , y ou w rite a ≡ c, for some
na tur al number c.
• T hen you h ave (2c) 2 = 4c 2 = 2b 2 .
• Di vid ing out the common factor of two , you ha ve: 2c 2 = b
2
.
• You notice tha t the left -hand s ide has the for m of an even
number (twice so me number) , meaning tha t the sq uar ed-
number on the ri ght-hand side is an even number . But we
sa w a bo ve t ha t onl y an even number has an even s quar e ,
hence, number b mu st be an even number .
• We no w h ave the r esul t t ha t, if ther e is a fr action , a/b
su ch th at a/b = √2 , then i t mu st ha ve the pecul iar for m
tha t numer ator and denom ina tor ar e both even and
cannot be reduced . T her e i s no s uc h number . T he
contr adict ion ne ga te s t he ass umpt ion th at the s quar e
root of tw o is a fr action .
• Hence , the dia gonal of a un it sq uar e is i ncommen sur able
wi th e ither of its side s .

You real iz e th at t hi s pr oblem -- " the f ir st cr is is in t he


founda tions of m athem ati cs " - - when so lv ed v ia rea l nu mber s ,
made po ss ible the d if fer entia l and in te g ral calcu lus and
moder n mec han ics whose appl ica tion render ed human s laver y
no l onger co st ef ficient . You f ind On li ne th at c hi ldr en can
lear n of th is mask ed in a st or y of a Cand y Mi se r and Ge lv es --
in Goog le("cand yfr ont+jonhay s") .

Eudo xus of C nidu s (cited above) de veloped a theor y of


pr opor tion s (in Book III of Euc lid 's Element s of G eometr y )
whic h per mitted ir rational number s s uc h as the squar e root
of tw o. T he " axio m of continu ity " of Eudo xu s i ndi ca ted tha t,
gi ven the pr opor ti on of t wo ma gnitude , you can al so gi ve tha t
mul ti ple of one as a mul lt ip le of the other , ensur ing tha t
these ma gn itudes ar e commen sur able . In par ticu lar , th is
axio m of E udo xus al lo ws the pr opor tion betw een t wo spher es
to be compar ed w ith two cub ical str uctur es er ected on the
dia meter of eac h s pher e.

T he g rea t Ger man ma themti cian , Ri char d D edekind (1845-


1916), ref or mu la ted (in 1872) the idea of Eudo xu s a s the
soca ll ed " Dedekind cut" :
• A cut s epar ate s the r ationa l nu mber s into two c las se s,
"lo wer" and " upper", s uc h tha t e ver y number of the l ower
clas s i s l es s t han ever y nu mber i n the upper clas s .
• No w, if a repr esent ati ve of the l ower cla ss can be
for mu la ted in a fr actiona l r ela tion to a pr esenta tiv e of
the opper cla ss , then the cut its elf is rational .
• Ot herwi se , the cut is i r rationa l .

Dedek ind ther eby fr eed thi s d is ti nction fr om geometr y .

For our pr esent ca se, we can as sign to the upper clas s a ll


number s whose sq uar es exceed tw o, and to the lo wer cla ss
al l number s whose sq uar e ar e l es s t han two . So, the cut i s
the s quar e r oot of t wo.

You can sho w th is b y cons ider ing, to se ven digi ts , the


appr oxima tion of the squar e root oft wo:

• (1) 2 = 1 < 2 < 2 2 = 4;


• (1.4) 2 = 1. 96 < 2 < (1.5) 2 = 2 .25 ;
• (1.41) 2 = 1. 9881 < 2 < (1.42) 2 = 2. 0264 ;
• (1.414) 2 = 1, 999396 < 2 < (1.415) 2 = 2. 002225 ;
• (1.4142) 2 = 1. 9999616 4 < 2 < (1 .4143) 2 = 2 ,00024449 ;
• (1.41421) 2 = 1. 9999899 924 < 2 < (1 .41422) 2 =
2,0000182084 ;
• (1.414213) 2 = 1. 9999984 09369 < 2 < (1 .414214 ) 2 =
2,000001237796 ;
• etc.

You notice tha t

• as you augment the a ppr oxim ati on b y one digi t,


• it s squar e a ppr oac hes clo ser to tw o,
• whi le i ts exceeder dim ini she s (antiton ical l y!) do wn
to war d t wo,
• and you (Ant iton ical l y!) appr oac h the s quar e root of t wo
as the cut.
You lear n tha t the Eudo xian theor y of pr opor tions m oti va ted
ancient Gr eek ma thema tic ians to abaudon the d is continuou s
or d is cr ete s tr uctur es of a rith metic for the continuou s
st r uctur es of geometr y to de scri be rela tions betw een
se gment s and suc h. And, s ince time was con sider ed
continuou s , it was al so se par ated fr om ar ithmet ic. You r ea li ze
thi s meant tha t concept s of dyna mica l mec han ics , su ch a s
speed , vel ocit y, acceler ation, f or ce , etc ., cou ld not be defined
in ter ms of ar ith metic .

You see tha t even T he Fundamental T heor em of A ri thmet ic i s


pr oven by tw o pr oof-b y- contr adict ion ar gument s .

T his book onl y pr oceed s con str uct iv el y (cr oss ing no
Boundar ies) .

You lear n ho w to expli ca te rel ation s, function s, oper ations :

• defin iti on of R ela tion : number of ref er ents of a ref er ence .


• gi ven R el ation ref er ence R, Rela tion s ar e c la ssi fied by
number of ref er ents coor din ated w ith R. T hu s:

o Ru ref er ents a unar y Rel ation o r a ttr ibute, as in "r ed" ;


o Ruv (uR v) r ef er ent s a b inar y R el ation, a s "ne xt to ";
o Ruvw ref er ents a ter nar y R ela tion , as in m ar ria ge
cer emony with mi ni ste r R br ide, g room
o Rela tion s ar e man y⇒ R⇒man y , as in many ob ser ve
many
o Rela tion s ar e man y⇒ R⇒ one , as in many v oter s
elect ing one of ficia l
o Rela tion s ar e one ⇒ R⇒man y, as in one per son t aking
censu s of man y people
o Rela tion s ar e one ⇒ R⇒one , a s in spous e i n
monogamous s oci ety
o T he scope (r ange ) of a Rel ation input is its Doma in
(an In side)
o T he scope of a Rela tion output is its Codoma in (an
Ins ide)
o Doma in of a R ela tion can d if fer i n type fr om
Codoma in ( Boundar y cr os sed betw een them) .
• Def init ion of Function : a R el ation tha t is man y- one or one -
one .
• Doma in of a Funct ion can dif fer in t ype fr om i ts Codoma in
(Boundar y cr ossed) , as in the In ventor y Funct ion w ho se
Doma in compri se s number s, but C odomai n compr ises
war eho use i te ms
• An Oper ation is a one-one Function whose Doma in is
sa me t ype as i ts Codoma in (no Boundar y cr oss ing)

You kn ow your const r ucti ve tool s in th is book ar e funct ions


(wi th perha ps onl y domai n B oundar y cr os si ng) and oper ation s
(no Boundar y cr os si ng) , whic h ar e e xten siona l (no cr os sing of
rele vant B oundarie s), contr ar y to the (Boundar y cr oss ing)
in tens ional Ax iom s of S tanda r d Ma them ati cs . ( Topolog y i n
Rela tion s! )
Student s, toda y we wi ll tak e up the sub ject of par ti al or der or
par or der . You kno w tha t in ter ms of " inc luded in" ,
"s ubor dina te to" , and "bu si nes s or mi lit ar y hier ar chy" .

Pl ease note tha t, in a simp le or tota l or dering , of any tw o


member s, one i s subor dina te to the other . But . a par oder , you
can ha ve t wo member s of equal rank .

Student s, the Pr oto Type of a tota l or der ing i s the s et of


counting number s. T he Pr otot ype of the par oder is, as noted
pr evi ous l y, the bu si nes s or mi litar y hi er archy. But it cou ld
al so be the factor s of nu mber s.

T his l as t st r uctur e sho ws ho w the par or der can be fur ther


de veloped . F or, a par or der s uc h tha t an y tw o menber s ha s a
MINIM AX and a MA XIMIN i s a LATTICE . T he factor s of
number s compr is es a la tt ice: its MINIM AX is LE AST CO MM ON
MU LTIPLE (L CM); it s M AXIMI N i s GR EATEST COMM ON DIVIS OR
(G CD) .
Yes. T he tota l or der ed Ar ithmet ic has a SubAr ith metic whi ch
is onl y par tia ll y or der ed . And thi s has ama zi ng con sequences!

T her e orig ina ted for Logic an explic ati on of O r deri ng , kn owm
as "tr uth ta ble s" . Giv en two independent logica l st atement s ,
A, B. (T he y ar e i ndeoent i f the condi tion of one has nothing to
so with the o ther ,) S ince the f ir st ha s tw o pos sib il it ie s (T r ue
or F alse) and s o has the second , the tr uth ta ble for thi s
st atement pa ir has four rows . Yes, the ta ble for thr ee
independent st atement s has eight r ows; th at f or f our
indepemdent st ate ments ha s sixten rows ; e tc, ; doubl ing w ith
eac h new independent st ate ment.

T he se tr uth ta bles h ave been ref or mu la ted as I NDI CATOR


TABLE S b y replac ing T RUE by ONE , FALS E b y ZE RO > T hey ar e
thus u sed i n se t theor y and i n pr ob abil it y theor y . Bu t onl y
her e do you f ind I NDI CA TOR TABLE S f or La ttice s. Ho w do we
kn ow tha t? Becau se the MI NIMA X of a lattice is la be ll ed a s
it s ZER O and i t MA XIMIN as it s ONE . So the confli cting or
ambi guous use of the se ter ms wou ld cause g rea t confu sion .
But we can appl y IN DICA TOR TAB LES to t ha t SubAr ith metic of
FACT OR S, wi th g rea t con sequences.

Ar ithme tic has pr ime number s, eac h wi th no factor except


one and it se lf . Con si der the co mplemented di st ribu ti ve
la tt ices on pri mes , 2, 3, 5. No w GCD (2, 3, 5) = 1 , LCM(2, 3) =
6, LCM(2,5) = 10 , LCM(3,5)=15, LCN(6 , 10, 15)=30 .

W hen you appl y IN DICA TOR TABL ES to the comp lemented


di st ribut iv e latt ice on f actor s of thi ty, you obtain the FREE
LATICE ON FACT ORS OF THIR TY.
T he oper ation s of ar ithmet ic ar e un iva lent , otherwi se its
appli ca tion w ould pr ovok e wides pr ead di sa g reement. Bu t,
wi thin ar ithmet ic , i s a s ubar ithmet ic -- pecul iar ly kno wn a s
"the alg ebr a of factor s" -- whi ch is m ul ti va lent.
T he pri mar y oper ations of factor theor y ar e l eas t common
mul ti ple (LCM) and g rea te st common di visor (GC D). B ut both
ar e mu lt iv alen t.

T hu s, LCM(3 ,2) = LCM(3,6) , but 2 ≠ 6.

Al so, GCD (6,10) = G CD (6,22) = G CD (6,14) = 2 . T his i mp li es , for


example , th at LCM(7, 2) = LCM(7, x) ha s an i nfin ite number of
so lut ions , name ly, al l mu lti ple s of 2.

T his i mp li es th at par tia l or dering s s uc h as factor and


inc lus ion ar e not wel l- defined i n the w ay ad diti on and
mul ti pl ica tion ar e, tha t is, a + b = a + c i f, and onl y if , b = c.
Si mi la r ly, for p > 0 , p · q = p · r i f, and onl y if , q = r. Repe ating ,
the L CM and G CD oper ator s ar e not wel l- defined .

As counter examp les : LCM(2, 3) = 6 and LCM(2, 6) = 6, hence,


LCM(2, 3) = LCM(2, 6) , but , obviou sl y, 3 ≠ 6 . Si mi la r ly, GCD
(30, 60) = 30 and GC D(30 , 90) = 30 , hence, GC D(30 , 60) =
GC D(30 , 90) , but 60 ≠ 90 .

Resu lt : T his a llo ws a " fr ee" f or mal ism of a rith metic


cons is ti ng of "fr ee na tur als or fr eena ts" and " fr ee in te ge rs or
frin te ger s .

T his m ay be over look ed as a resu lt of o ver look ing the


va lua ble res our ce of ind ica to r ta bles (number ver sion s of
tr uth ta ble s in s ta tement log ic) . In the ca se of factor s of 30 =
2 · 3 · 6, wi th po ss ib le occur rences for eac h pri me (a bsent ,
pr esent : 0, 1 ), t hi s yie lds 2 3 = 8 independent pos si bi lit ies , s o
the i ndi ca tor s f or occur rence of it s pr ime s can be as si gned
as the binar y nota tion fr om z er o t o s even, r especti vel y:

0 0 0
0 0 1
0 1 0
1 0 0
1 0 1
1 0 0
1 0 1
1 1 0
1 1 1
T he ind ica to r f or a compos ite number is one w hen al l it s
factor s ar e pr esent on th at r ow, otherw is e zer o.

T his r esul ts i n the f ol lo wing ind ica tor ta ble. Plea se note tha t,
if i(x) denotes ta bula r i ndic ator of a rela tor , then i( LCM(a , b))
= M AX( i(a), i(b)) and i(G CD(a , b)) = MI N(i (a), i(b)) . T hen, you
find :

TABLE 1

1 2 3 5 6 10 15 30
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 1 0 1 1 1
0 0 1 0 1 0 1 1
0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1
0 1 0 0 1 1 0 1
0 1 0 1 1 1 1 1
0 1 1 0 1 1 1 1
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
(1) (4) (4) (4) (6) (6) (6) (7)

A bal lot can be as signed t o count the nu mber s of


ones in eac h co lumn. T hi s is sho wn at ba se of eac h co lumn .
(You
notice no ba ll ot for 2, 3, 5
counts .) You note also dis tri bution of the bal lot over the
ranks
of th is T able:

1, 3, 3 , 1 - - a fami li ar bino mia l pa tter n

Si nce the sub sys tem of ar ithme tic is mu lt iv alen t , th is


im pl ie s tha t the ind ica tor ta ble can be extended to
compr ehend
al l bal lot s, one to se ven , by acqur ing factor s w ith ba llot s tw o,
thr ee, and f iv e. (T his i s a non standar d comple tion
compar able to the st andar d comple tion tha t shif ts fr om
rati onal to real number s.)

I f ind a "r ationa le" for thi s in another ty pe of comple tion .

Emu la ting a B ASIS pl oy in s et -theor et ic topo log y, I star t wi th


the A TOMI C (P RIME) BASIS as {2 , 3 , 5} ,
to w hic h I ad join MI N (1) for the
BASIS {1, 2, 3 , 5} . I then find
tha t LCM. appl ied to
thi s extended bas is yie lds :

LCM{1, 2, 3, 5} = {1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 10, 15, 30}.

You find al l the f ac tor s of 30 ar e


obtained mer el y fr om oper ator LCM . But
wha t about oper ator GCD ?
Comp let ion i nvok es th is oper ator .

For ca lcul ating LCM , GC D of factor s,


I a ss ign alter na tiv e la be ls ,
respect iv el y, MA X(),
MIN() appl ied to the ir as soc ia ted ind ica tor s. B ut,
for con venient la be ling of an IN DICA TOR (TABL E 2 , belo w), I
use suc h for ms as 2V3 for
thei r LCM and
2 ^ 3, for the ir
GC D; etc.

From T able 1 , we find MI N(i(2) , i(3)) =


0, 0, 0 , 0, 0, 0 , 1, 1,t ha t is, 2^3
ha s bal lot 2. Sim il ar l y,
2^5 has ba llo t 2
: MI N(i(2) , i(5)) =
0, 0, 0 , 0, 0, 1 , 0, 1. Also 3^5:
MIN( i(3), i(5)) = 0 , 0, 0, 1 , 0, 0, 0 , 1.
W hat a bout LCD's of thes e new l y
obtained ele ments ? We find tha t MA X(MIN(2 , 3) ,
MIN(2 , 5)) = i ((2^ 3) V(2^5 )) = 0, 0 , 0 , 0, 0, 1 , 1, 1,
for B=3 . And MAX
(MIN(2 , 3) , MIN(3 , 5)) = i ((2^3)V(2^5)) = 0 , 0, 0, 1 , 0, 0, 1 , 1,
for B = 3 . And
MA X(MIN(2 , 5) , MIN(3 , 5)) = i ((2^5)V(3^5)) =
0, 0, 0 , 1, 0, 1 , 0, 1 f or B = 3.

We no w h ave bal lot s 1, 2, 3 , 4, 6, 7 .


W hat of B = 5 ? We r ecoup th is, and
al so a pr eviou sl y unl is ted ter m of B = 4.

We a ppl y dua li ty to resul ts in t he pr evious par ag raph-but- one


to
find MIN(M AX(2 , 3) , MA X(2, 5)) =
i((2 v3)^(2v5)) = i(6^10) = 0 , 0, 0, 1 , 1, 1, 1 , 1, for
B = 5.

MIN(M AX(2 , 3) , MA X(3, 5)) = i((2 v3)^(3v5)) =


i(6^15) = 0, 0 , 1, 1, 0 , 1, 1, 1 , for
B = 5.

MIN(M AX(2 , 5) , MA X(3, 5)) = i((2 v5)^(3V5))


= i (10^15)= 0, 1 , 0, 1, 0 , 1, 1, 1 , f or
B = 5.

We f ind one mor e r esu lt: MI N(MA X(2, 3),


MA X(2, 5), MAX(3 , 5)) = i((2V3)^(2V5)^(3v5))
= i (6^(10V15)) = 0, 0, 0 , 1, 0, 1 , 1, 1, f or
B = 4 , di st inct fr om the other s
of the sa me ba ll ot.

For compr ess ion , we denote (2^3)v(2^5)


≡ X;
(2^3)v(3^5) &eqi v; Y;
(2 ^5) v(3^5) &eqi v; Z . Also , we la be l
the oper ands of the comp leted oper ator s as
"s ubdomi nants ". We then f ind the ta bled resu lt s.

TAB LE 2: SU BD OMIN AN TS OF 30 (ADJ OIN ED WIT H 6


INDIC ATOR)

2^3 2^5 3^5 X Y Z 6^10 6^15 10^15 6^10^15 6


0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1
0 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1
0 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1
1 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
(2) (2) (2) (3) (3) (3) (5) (5) (5) (4) (6)
(BALLOT)
10 ^ 15 is
the e xcept ion) of T able 2 ar e
factor s or subdo minant s of 6.

You note Table 2 has r ank s 1, 2, 3, 4 , 5, 6, 7


, so tha t rank va lue of an ele ment i s it s bal lot value ,
whic h is not the case in T able 1 . Pl ease note al so
tha t the di str ibut ion of ele ments over the se r ank ings is
1, 3, 3 , 4, 3, 3 , 1, clea r ly not
a b inom ial pa tter n. I find no a lgori thm in the liter atur e to
deter mine the number of subdomi nants of the factor s of
n.

Ha ving been a ler ted , I found , i n a book on in for mation


retrie val
(Ger ar d Sa lton , Autom atic Inf or ma tion O r gani za tion and
Retrie val , Mc Gr aw- Hil l, 1968), the Ha ss e d ia g ram of
st andar d factor s of 30 cited as " descr ipt ion set " and the
Ha sse
dia g ram of the ta ble of s ubdom inants c ited as
"r eques t s pace" . [W ikiped ia has an ar tic le on hi m.]
Pl ease note resemb lance of these resul ts to wha t is la be led,
in the liter atur e, a "fr ee " s tr uctur e, su ch as a fr ee
alg ebr a . I then la be l the Natur al N umber s thu s extend ed as
"fr eena ts" ("fr ee n atur al s") and the Inte ger s as "fri nte ger s"
("fr ee inte ge rs") , i n the s ens e th at the m athem atic ian is fr ee
to u se al l oper ator s of a syste m to comp lete it .

"T he Fundamenta l T heor em of Ar ithmet ic" sta tes tha t " a


number can be f actor ed in to a pr oduct of pri me number s i n
onl y
one way (e xcept for or der of list ing) ." Do the a bo ve resu lt s
vio la te it? .

We ha ve an Ar ith metic with a Fundamenta l T heor em


espou si ng
Un iv al enc y, But th is A ri thmet ic has a Subari thmeti c th at is
Mul ti va lent. A nd a key wor d in FT is "factor" , i nvok ing
the s ubar ithmet ic , w hic h can be extend ed bey ond FT,

Be lo w please find the Ha sse Di ag ram of the comple mented


di st ribute la tt ice on factor s of thi r ty and the H as se D ia g ram
of the deri ved fr ee la tice .

30
/\
/ \
/ | \
/ | \
/ | \
6 10 15
|\ / \ /|
| \ / \ / |
| \/ \/ |
| /\ /\ |
| / \ / \ |
|/ \ / \|
2 3 5
\ | /
\ | /
\ | /
\ | /
\ | /
1

30
/\
/ |\
/ | \
/ | \
/ | \
/ | \
6 10 15
/ /|\ \
/ / | \ \
/ / | \ \
| / | \ \
| / | \ \
| / | \ |
| / | \ |
6^10 6^15 10^15
/ \ |\ \
\__________
/ \ |
\________\_________ |
/ \______|
___________\_______ | |
/ | \
\| |
2 3 5
6^10^15
/ \ /|\ /\
/ \ / | \ / \
/ \ / | \ /
\
/ \ / | \ /
\
/ \ / | \ /
\
/ \ / | \ /
\
/ \/ | \/
\
(2^3)V(2^5) (2^3) V (3^5)
(2^5)v(3^5)
| \ \ / | \
/ / |
| \ \ / | \
/ / |
| \ \ / | \ /
/ |
| \ \ / | \ /
/ |
| \ \/ | \/
/ |
| \ /\ | /\
/ |
| \/ \ | / \/
|
| /\ \ | / /\
|
| / \ \ | / /
\ |
| / \ \ | / /
\ |
| ___/______\___\_______|_______/_ _/
\ |
|| / \ \ | /
\ |
|| / \___\_____|
_____/______________\__ |
||/ \ | /
\ | |
2 ^ 3 2 ^ 5
3 ^ 5
| |
|
| |
|
| |
|
| |
|
| |
|
| |
|
-------------------2 ^ 3 ^
5----------------------
|
|
1

T he above condots with find ings of the g rea t Br it is h-


Ame r ucan m athem atic ian -log ici an-ph il osophe r, A. N.
W hitehead (1861 -1947) in h is " Un iv er sal A lg ebr a", 1898.
W hitehead i nd ica ted nonidempoten cy in nu merica l alge br a xx
≠ x , x ≠ 0, but ide mpotenc y i n Bool ean Alge br a xx=x . And
ask ed if a " Un iv er sal A lg ebr a" cou ld compr ehend both
syste ms . It alead y doe s, s ince factor theor y can be
for mu la ted as a Boo lean A lge br a . T he fol lo wi ng expl ica te s
su ch a st r uctur e, renamed since "Un iv er sal Alge br a" has
acquir ed a dif er ent meaning .
Def . 1. Given s tr uctur e A = <o 1 , o 2 , o 3 , U, L> of ty pe <2 , 2 , 2, 0,
0> w ith (f or all x in A) x o 1 L = L, x o 1 U = U , x o 3 x ≠ x T hen A
is a panalge br a if f x o 2 y = x o 3 y w hene ver x o 3 y = L.
Def . 2. D = <2, 2> i s a supple mented l attice if f D i s a
di st ribut iv e latt ice ; @ is the commut ati ve, a ss oci ati ve,
wel ldefined , non idempotent oper ation gener ati ng c ha in s of
pr oper (noma tomi c) join -i r reducib le s in D.
T heor em . A factor alge br a, F n , is a pana lge br a . Pr oof : F n =
<gcd, lc m, •, n, 1>.
APPE NDI X C
TABLE OF MI NIM AX -MA XIMIN MATH EMA TIC AL S YST EMS
("B AR BIE DO LL" : M ATH C HAN GE MI MICS "C OS TU ME CH AN GE"
OF BAR BIE DOLL)
T he pr ototype of the se is factor alge br a wi thi n ar ithme tic . FA
has two pr imar y oper ation s . One is LCM ( Least Co mmon
Mul tip le ) is a Mi ni max Oper ati on , since the
"Mu lt iple " maxi mi zes it over i ts factor s , whi le the "Lea st"
mi ni mi zes al l mu lt iple s of the factor s . T he other pr imar y
oper ation , GC D ( Gr eates t C ommon Div iso r ), is a Maxi min
Oper ation , since Di visor s min im iz e o ver the Div idends , whi le
the " Gr eates t" maxi mi zes al l div isor s of t he div idend factor s .
(T he se l abel s ar e better than the s tandar d " Supr emum" and
"Infi mum" -- la be ls whic h obscur e thi s oper ational contr ast .)
TABLE OF MINIMAX-MAXIMIN MATHEMATICAL SYSTEMS
SYSTEM MINIMAX MAXIMIN OPERANDS
ARITHMETIC ARITHMETIC
LCM GCD
FACTORING FACTORS
PECKING ORDER PECKING PECKED CHICKENS
BUSINESS
BOSSING BOSSED PERSONNEL
HIERARCHY
MILITARY
ORDERING ORDERED MILITANDS
HIERARCHY
ADDITIVE COLOR RED.BLUE,GREEN
MIXED REMOVED
OPTICS LIGHT
YELLOW,
SUBTRACTTIVE
REFLECTED ABSORBED MAGENTA, CYAN
COLOR OPTICS
INKS. PAINTS
CHROMODYNAMICS
PARTICLE
CREATED ANNIHILATED QUARKS
THEORY (COLOR AS
CHARGE)
SET THEORY UNION INTERSECTION SETS
SET-THEORY
UNION INTERSECTION BASIS SETS
TOPOLOGY
ADDITION
BOOLEAN RING (SYMMETRIC MULTIPLICATION POWERSET OF SET
DIFFERENCE)
STATEMENT LOGIC DISJUNCTION CONJUNCTION STATEMENTS
PROBABILITY
UNION INTERSECTION EVENTS
THEORY
COMPUTER LOGIC
OR-GATE AND-GATE CIRCUITS
GATES
BINARY INDICANDS
INDICATOR TABLES DISJUNCTION CONJUNCTION
(1, 0)

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