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To find pressure loss

1. duct size is known.


2. flow rate is known.

S.1 Compute the loss pressure for each branch of simple


Duct system shown in figure using loss coefficient
method.

Plenum
1

400cfm
50ft, 10in

200cfm
50 ft, 9in

120cfm
40 ft, 6 in
3

Solution:
For section 1-a
(i)

for plenum exit loss


a

400cfm

Plenum
1

50 ft, 10 in

C = 0.85

( from T-4 )

Vu =

Qu
400
=
= 733.385 ft/min
A u ( / 4)(10 / 12) 2

H 1- a

2
Vu
733.385
=C
= 0.85

4000
4000

For straight line 1-a ( 50 ft )

400cfm
10 in

(P )1a

P 0.09

=
L 100

0.09
50 = 0.045 in of water
100

total pressure loss for Run 1 - a = 0.045 + 0.0285 = 0.0735 in of water

section a- 2
a

280 cfm

50 ft, 9in

Vd =

Qd
280
=
= 633.79 ft/min
Ad 9 2
4 12

( )( )

Vu = 733.385 ft/min

V
=
633.79
ft/min
d

Pfit = 0.002 in of water

For straight run


280cfm
9 in

Pst =

P 0.08
=
in of water
L
100

0.08
50 = 0.04 in of water
100

total pressure loss for Run a - 2 = 0.04 + 0.002 = 0.042 in of water

Section a-3

VU

Vd
Vb

120cfm
40ft, 6 in

Vb =

Qb
120
=
= 611.154 ft/min
2
2
Ab

6
4 12

( )( )

Vb 611.154

=
=
0.833

Vu 733.385

o
(branch loss) 45 take off

(i )

C b = 0.48

2
Vu
733.385
H b = Cb
= 0.48
= 0.0161 in of water
4000
4000

(ii )

45o elbow loss


C = 0.37

( assume

=1

from T - 2 )

2
Vb
611.154
= 0.0086 in of water
H e = 0.37
= 0.37

4000
4000

(iii )

90 o elbow loss

H e = 0.0086

(iv )

in of water

Straight Run loss (40 ft )

120 cfm
6 in

(P )st

P 0.12

=
L

100

in of water

0.12
40 = 0.048 in of water
100

total pressure loss for Run a - 3 = 0.0161 + 0.0086 + 0.0086 + 0.048


= 0.0813 in of water

total pressure loss for section 1-2 is


P1- 2 = 0.0735 + 0.042 = 0.1155 in of water 0 = 28.7595 pa

Total pressure loss for section 1-3 is


P1=3 = 0.0735 + 0.0813 = 0.1548 in of water = 38.54 pa

+==========================+

Equivalent Length Method

S.2 Compute the loss pressure for each branch of simple


duct system shown in figure using Equivalent Length
approach.
Plenum
1

400cfm
50ft, 10in

200cfm
50 ft, 9in

120cfm
40 ft, 6 in
3

Section 1-a
L1a = 50 + (35) = 85 ft
400 cfm
dia : = 10 in

= 0.09 in of water/100 ft
L

0.09
P
P =
85 = 0.0765 in of water
L1-a =
100
L

Section a-2
L a -2 = 50 + ( 5 ) = 55 ft
200 cfm

dia : = 9 in

Pa -2 =

0.08
P
in of water
=

100
L

0.08
55 = 0.044 in of water
100

Section a-3
L a -3 = 40 + ( 35 ) + ( 5 ) + ( 10 ) = 90 ft
120 cfm

dia : = 6 in

Pa =3 =

P
= 0.12 in of water

0.12
90 = 0.108 in of water
100

The pressure loss for section 1 to 2 is


P1-2 = P1-a + Pa -2 = 0.0765 + 0.044 = 0.1205 in of water
= 30.00 Pa

The pressure loss for section 1 to 3 is


P1-3 = P1-a + Pa =3 = 0.0765 + 0.108 = 0.1845 in of water
= 45.9 pa

+======================+

TO FIND DUCT SIZE


Equal Friction Method
S-3 Select duct sizes for the simple duct system of shown
in figure using Equal Friction Method. The system is
for a residence. The total pressure for the duct system
is 0.12 in of water and the loss in total pressure for
each diffuser at the specified flow rate is 0.02 in of
water.

3
150cfm
10ft

Plenum

20ft

17ft
4
30ft

5
15ft
150cfm

200cfm

L e123 = 20 + 17 + 10 + (35 + 5 + 35 + 5 + 10 + 30) = 167 ft


L e124 = 20 + 17 + 30 + ( 35 + 5 + 5 + 5 + 5 + 30) = 152 ft
L e15 = 20 + 15 + ( 35 + 50 + 10 + 30) = 160 ft

Le123 is design line.

P = 0.12 - 0.02 = 0.1 in of water


0.1
P
P
=
= 0.000598 = 0.598 10 -3 in of water/ft

L 123 L design 167


cfm1 = 150 + 200 + 150 = 500 cfm

cfm 2 = 150 + 200 = 350 cfm


P
= 0.0598 in of water / 100 ft is equal for all of line.

design

cfm1 = 500 cfm


cfm2 = 350 cfm
cfm3 = 150cfm
cfm4 = 200cfm
cfm5 = 150 cfm

D1 = 11.9 in, V1 = 660 ft/min


D 2 = 10.2 in, V2 = 600 ft /min
D 3 = 7.5 in,
V3 = 490 ft/min
D 4 = 8.4 in,
V4 = 525 ft/min
D 5 = 7.5 in,
V5 = 490 ft/min

+===========================+

Balance Capacity Method

S-4 Select duct sizes for the simple duct system of shown
in figure using Balance Capacity Method. The system
is for a residence. The total pressure for the duct
system is 0.12 in of water and the loss in total pressure
for each diffuser at the specified flow rate is 0.02 in of
water.

3
150cfm
10ft

Plenum

20ft

17ft
4
30ft

5
15ft
150cfm

200cfm

L e123 = 20 + 17 + 10 + (35 + 5 + 35 + 5 + 10 + 30) = 167 ft


L e124 = 20 + 17 + 30 + ( 35 + 5 + 5 + 5 + 5 + 30) = 152 ft
L e15 = 20 + 15 + ( 35 + 50 + 10 + 30) = 160 ft

Le123 is design line.

P = 0.12 - 0.02 = 0.1 in of water


0.1
P
P
=
= 0.000598 = 0.598 10 -3 in of water/ft

L 123 L design 167


cfm1 = 150 + 200 + 150 = 500 cfm

cfm 2 = 150 + 200 = 350 cfm


P
= 0.0598 in of water / 100 ft is design line for line 1, 2,3.

L design
cfm1 = 500 cfm

D1 = 11.9 in, V1 = 660 ft/min


cfm2 = 350 cfm

D 2 = 10.2 in, V2 = 600 ft /min


cfm3 = 150cfm

D 3 = 7.5 in,
V3 = 490 ft/min
According to the theory, the pressure of all line are equal.
P3 = P4
L e3 = 10 + (35 + 5 + 10 + 30 ) = 90 ft
P
90 = 0.05038 in of water
P3 =

L
design

L e4 = 30 + (5 + 5 + 5 + 30) = 75 ft

0.0538
P
= 0.7176 10 -3 in of water = 0.07176 in of water/100 ft
=

75
L 4
P

L = 0.07176 in of water/100ft
4

cfm 4 = 200

D 4 = 8.1 in,

V4 = 560 ft/min

Section a-5
Po5 = Po4

..

equ:(1)

Poa + Pa5 = Poa + Pab + Pb4


Pa5 = Pab + Pb4

equ:(2)

L b4 = L 4 = 75 ft

L ab = L 2 = 17 + 5 = 22 ft

P
-3
Pab = P2 =
2 L 2 = 0.598 10 22 = 0.01315 in of water
L
P
3
Pb4 = P4 =
L 4 = 0.7176 10 75 = 0.0538 in of water
L 4
P5 = Pa5 = 0.0538 + 0.01315 = 0.0669 in of water
L a5 = 15 + (50 + 10 + 30) = 105 ft

P
0.0669 in of water
P
= 0.637 10 3 in of water/ft
= a5 =

105 ft
L 5 L a5
P

L = 0.0637 in of water/100 ft, cfm = 150

D5 = 7.5 in, V5 = 489 ft/min

+========================+

S-5 Design the duct system of shown in figure by using


the equal friction method. The velocity in the duct attached
to the plenum must not exceed 900 ft/min and the overall
loss in total pressure should not exceed about 0.32 in of
water. Total pressure losses for the diffusers are all equal to
0.04 in of water. The lengths shown are the total equivalent
length of each section. Use English unit.

100 ft

25 ft b
a

40ft

100cfm
7

5
45ft

250 cfm

80 ft

55 ft

100 ft

Plenum
o

95ft

100 cfm
100 ft

100cfm

250 cfm

For main duct velocity = 900 ft/min


cfm1

= 100+250+250+100+100 =800

from chart,
main duct velocity

cfm
1

D1 = 12.9 in,

V1 = 890 ft/min

P
= 0.096 in of water/100ft

L design

P
is equal for all lines.

design

From chart,
cfm2 = 250 + 250 + 100 + 100 = 700 D2 = 12.2 in,

V2 = 870 ft/min

cfm 3 = 100 + 100 + 250 = 450 D 3 = 10.4 in, V3 = 780 ft/min


cfm 4 = 100 + 250 = 350

D 4 = 9.5 in, V4 = 700 ft/min

cfm 5 = 100

D 5 = 5.9 in,

cfm 6 = 250

D 6 = 8.2 in,

cfm 7 = 100

cfm 8 = 100

cfm 9 = 250

D 7 = 5.9 in,
D 8 = 5.9 in,
D 9 = 8.2 in,

V5 = 530 ft/min
V 6 = 660 ft/min
V7 = 530 ft/min
V8 = 530 ft/min
V9 = 660 ft/min

+===========================+

S-6 Design the duct system of shown in figure by using


balance capacity method. The velocity in the duct attached
to the plenum must not exceed 900 ft/min and the overall
loss in total pressure should not exceed about 0.32 in of
water. Total pressure losses for the diffusers are all equal to
0.04 in of water. The lengths shown are the total equivalent
length of each section. Use English unit.

100 ft

25 ft b
a

40ft

3
9

100cfm
7

5
45ft

4
80 ft

55 ft

100 ft

Plenum
o

95ft

100 cfm
100 ft

100cfm

250 cfm

250 cfm

For main duct velocity = 900 ft/min


cfm1

= 100+250+250+100+100 =800

from chart,
main duct velocity

cfm
1

D1 = 12.9 in,

V1 = 890 ft/min

P
= 0.096 in of water/100ft

L design

L e12345 = 55 + 25 + 40 + 45 + 95 = 260 ft
L e12346 = 55 + 25 + 40 + 45 + 80 = 245 ft
L e1237 = 55 + 25 + 40 + 100 = 220 ft

L e129 = 55 + 25 + 100 = 180 ft


L e18 = 55 + 100 = 155 ft

Po-5 =

0.096
260 = 0.2496 in of water
100

Po-5 = Po-6
Po-d + Pd -5 = Po-d + Pd -6
0.096
P
Pd -5 =
L5 =
95 = 0.0912 in of water

100
L design

Pd -6 = Pd -5 = 0.0912 in of water
P
0.0912
P
= 1.14 10 3 in of water
= d -6 =

L6
80
L 6
P

L 100 ft = 0.114
6

cfm 6 = 250

D 6 = 8.2 in,

V6 = 690 ft/min

Po-6 = Po-7
Po-c + Pc-4-d + Pd -6 = Po-c + Pc-7
0.096
P
L4 =
45 = 0.0432 in of water.
Pc-4-d =

L
100
design

Pd -6 = P6 = 0.0912 in of water

Pc-7 = Pc-4-d + Pd -6 = 0.0432 + 0.0912 = 0.1344 in of water


P
P

= c-7
L 7 L c-7

0.1344
=
= 1.344 10 3
100

=
0.1344

7 100 ft

cfm 7 = 100

D 7 = 5.6 in,

V7 = 600 ft/min

Po-7 = Po-9
Po-b + Pb-9 = Po-b + Pb-c + Pc-7

Pb-9 = Pb-c + Pc-7


0.096
P
Pb-c =
L3 =
40 = 0.0384 in of water

L
100

design

P9 = Pb-9 = Pb-c + Pc-7 = 0.0384 + 0.1344 = 0.1728 in of water

0.1728
P
= 1.152 10 3 in of water /ft

=
150
L 9
P

L 100 ft = 0.1152
9

cfm 9 = 250

D 9 = 8.0 in,

V9 = 700 ft/min

Po-8 = Po 9

Po-a + Pa -8 = Po-a + Pa -b + Pb =9
Pa -8 = Pa -b + Pb-9
0.096
P
Pa b =
L2 =
25 = 0.024 in of water

100
L design

Pa -8 = 0.024 + 0.1728 = 0.1968 in of water

0.1968
P
= 1.968 10 3 in of water /ft
=

100
L a -8
P

L 100 ft = 0.1968 in of water/100ft


8

cfm 8 = 100

D 8 = 5.2 in,

V8 = 700 ft/min

+=========================+