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HSK HSK

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Heaton(2000:135):
The writing skills are complex and sometimes difficult to teach, requiring mastery not only of
grammatical and rhetorical devices but also conceptual and judgemental elements. The following
analysis attempts to group the many and varied skills necessary for writing good prose into five
general components or main areas.
- language use: the ability to write correct and appropriate sentences;
- mechanical skills: the ability to use correctly those conventions peculiar to the written
language e.g. punctuation, spelling;
- treatment of content: the ability to think creatively and develop thoughts, excluding all
irrelevent information;
- stylistic skills: the ability to manipulate sentences and paragraphs, and use language
effectively;
- judgement skills: the ability to write in an appropriate manner for a particular purpose
with a particular audience in mind, together with an ability to select, organise and order
relevant information.

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Hughes(1989:75)
- setting writing tasks that are properly representative of the population of tasks that
students should be able to perform;
- eliciting samples of writings that can truly represent students ability;
- ensuring that samples can be and will be scored reliably.

operations: Expression of thanks


requirements
opinions
comment
attitude
confirmation
apology
want / need
information
Eliciting information
directions
service

(text types): form


types
Letter
Announcement
Postcard
Description
Note
Narration
Forms
Comment

(topics): derived from the following general areas of use:


social interaction with native and non-native speakers of TL
dealing with official and semi-official bodies
shopping and using services
visiting places of interest and entertainment
traveling and arranging for travel
using media for information and entertainment
medical attention and health
studying for academic / occupational / social purposes

(addressees): audience in a particular situation

IELTS Academic Writing


Writing Task 1
You should spend about 20 minutes on this task
Write a report for a university lecturer describing the information
below.
Write at least 150 words.
The graph below shows the different modes of transport used to
travel to and from work in one European city in 1960, 1980 and 2000.

Writing Task 2
You should spend about 40 minutes on this task.
Present a written argument or case to an educated reader with no specialist
knowledge of the following topic.
It is inevitable that as technology develops so traditional
cultures must be lost. Technology and tradition are
incompatible - you cannot have both together.
To what extent do you agree or disagree?
You should use your own ideas, knowledge and experience and
support your arguments with examples and relevant evidence.

Write at least 250 words.


HSKTOEFL

content knowledge
discourse knowledge linguistic knowledge

guided / controlled writing


2003 1 CET6

Directions: For this part, you are allowd thirty minutes to write a
composition on the topic: It Pays to be Honest. You should write at
least 150 words according to the outline given below in Chinese:
1.
2.

30
150 words

test usefulness,
backwash

TOEFL structure and written expression


Spolsky, 1995: 327

1990 1 CET4
Directions: For this part, you are allowd thirty minutes to write a
composition about What Would Happen If There Were No Power
in three paragraphs. You are given the first sentence or part of the
first sentence of each paragraph. Your part of the composition should
be no less than 100 words, not including the words given.

What Would Happen If There Were No Power


1. Ever since early this century, electricity has become an essential part of
our modern life.
2. If there were no electric power,
3. Therefore,

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/
/holistic scoring
scoring scale

scoring rubric

TOEFL Writing Scoring Guide


6 An essay at this level

effectively addresses the writing task

is well organized and well developed

uses clearly appropriate details to support a thesis or illustrate ideas

displays consistent facility in use of language

demonstrates syntactic variety and appropriate word choice though it may have
occasional errors
5 An essay at this level

may address some parts of the task more effectively than others

is generally well organized and developed

uses details to support a thesis or illustrate an idea

displays facility in the use of language

demonstrates some syntactic variety and range of vocabulary, though it will


probably have occasional errors
4 An essay at this level

addresses the writing topic adequately but may slight parts of the task

is adequately organized and developed

uses some details to support a thesis or illustrate an idea

demonstrates adequate but possibly inconsistent facility with syntax and usage

may contain some errors that occasionally obscure meaning


3 An essay at this level may reveal one or more of the following weaknesses:

inadequate organization or development

inappropriate or insufficient details to support or illustrate generalizations

a noticeably inappropriate choice of words or word forms

an accumulation of errors in sentence structure and / or usage


2 An essay at this level is seriously flawed by one or more of the following weaknesses:

serious disorganization or underdevelopment

little or no detail, or irrelevant specifics

serious and frequent errors in sentence structure or usage

serous problems with focus


1 An essay at this level

may be incoherent

may be undeveloped

may contain severe and persistent writing errors


0 A paper is rated 0 if it contains no response, merely copies the topic, is off-topic, is written
in a foreign language, or consists of only keystroke characters.
analytic scoring


202.121.48.120/adbd030d-ea48-4452-b4ec-7d00689292f9.doc
http://wenku.baidu.com/view/2b1d985577232f60ddcca17d.html
http://wenku.baidu.com/view/69b62c30f111f18583d05a13.html
http://blog.zzedu.net.cn/user1/0113003352/archives/2013/557259
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http://www.58.com/zongjie/gongzuojihua/20110303/7918_3.html
http://bblog.cdjtedu.com:82/user1/huangying/archives/2007/3154.
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http://www.xfysx.com/teacher/jiaoyu/jiaoan/yuwen/200609/246.ht
ml
http://bbs.lbx777.com/thread-11636-1-1.html
http://www.pjypzx.com/jxyj/ShowArticle.asp?ArticleID=465
http://www.zhyww.cn/teacher/200901/17439.html

http://ningxia.guopei.teacher.com.cn/GuoPeiAdmin/TrainingActivity/TrainingAct
ivityStudentView.aspx?
TrainingActivityStudentID=7967&cfName=201012277967

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