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BN-DG-C01A Plant Layout - General Requirements


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BN-DG-C01A Plant Layout - General Requirements

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1. Process 2. Hazardous and Toxic Areas 3. Econom ic Considerations 4. Aesthetic Considerations 5. Access 6. Safety 7. Site Considerations 8. External Influences 9. Clearances 10. Paving 11. Elevations 12. Insulation 13. Colum ns and Drum s (Vertical/Horizontal) 14. Exchangers 15. Furnaces and Fired Equipm ent 16. Pum ps 17. Com pressors 18. Piping 19. Access to Valves and Instrum ents 20. Relief Valve System s 21. Maintenance and Equipm ent Handling

1. Process Equipment should be laid out in a sequence to suit the process flow . Fluid flow requirements, for example gravity flow systems, pump suction heads and thermosyphon system, often dictate relative elevations and provoke the need for structures. Limitations of pressure or temperature drop in transfer lines decide proximity of furnaces, reactors, etc.

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2. Hazardous and Toxic Areas Equipment items considered a possible source of hazard should preferably be grouped and located separately, if possible and economic. Examples are:

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BN-DG-C01A Plant Layout - General Requirements

Furnaces, flare stacks, or other direct fired equipment containing an open flame; rotating or mechanical equipment handling flammable or volatile liquids w hich could easily leak or spill. Equipment handling acids or other toxic materials w hich could cause damage or danger by spillage, should be grouped and contained w ithin a bunded area. 2.1 Locate Control Room s 15 meters or more from equipment w hich in operation or during maintenance can create a hazard. (If not practicable, pressurize). Ensure maximum cable run to any instrument is not more than 90 meters. 2.2 Locate Buildings Example offices, first-aid rooms, cafeterias, garages, fire station, w arehouses, gas holders and w ork-shops a minimum of 30 meters from any hazard. Unpressurised substation and sw itchrooms a minimum of 15 meters from any hazard. Definition of dangerous areas and their safety requirements shall be in accordance w ith the Institute of Petroleum Safety Codes, or w here this is not recognized, to the applicable National Code(s). Local bye-law s and Fire Office w hose requirements may be more stringent or specific than the above codes shall take precedence.

3. Econom ic Considerations Apart from process restrictions, position equipment for maximum economy of pipe-w ork and supporting steel. As compact a layout as possible w ith all equipment at grade is the first objective, consistent w ith standard clearances, construction and safety requirements. Minimize runs of alloy pipew ork and large bore pipe w ithout the introduction of expensive expansion devices. Optimize use of supporting structures in concrete or steel by duplicating their application to more than one item of equipment and ensuring that accessw ays, platforms, etc., have more than one function. Space saving can be achieved by locating equipment over the piperack. Pumps should in general be located w ith their motors underneath the main piperack.

4. Aesthetic Considerations Attention should be paid to the general appearance of the plant. An attractively laid out plant w ith equipment in straight lines is usually economical. Preference should be given to use of a single central pipew ay w ith a minimum number of side branches, w ith equipment laid out in row s on either side. Buildings, structures and groups of equipment should form neat, symmetrical, balanced layout, consistent w ith keeping pipe runs to a minimum. Tow ers and large vertical vessels w ill be arranged in row s w ith a common center line if of similar size, but line up w ith a common face if diameters vary greatly. If adjacent to a structure, common face w ill be on the structure side. Center lines of exchanger channel nozzles and center lines of pump discharge nozzles should be lined up. Piping around pumps, exchangers and similar ground-level equipment should be run at set elevations, one for northsouth and another for east-w est elevations w herever possible. (Similar for rack pipe-w ork). These elevations being to bottom of pipe or underside of shoe for insulated lines. This should also help to achieve a common elevation for off takes from pipew ays. If possible, duplicated streams should be made identical. Handed arrangements should be avoided. Follow this principle for this similar equipment sequences w ithin the process stream, for example, fractionator tow er w ith overhead condensers, reflux drum pumps and reboiler, etc., is a system w hich could be repeated almost identically for different tow ers having a different process duty. Advantages are design and construction economy, improved maintenance and operating efficiency.

5. Access Overall plant arrangement must be review ed for constructions, operation, safety and maintenance. Consider large items of equipment or tow ers for w hich special lifting gear w ill be required. Provide adequate access to lift these into place. Large equipment positioned close to boundary limits may require erection from outside. Check to ascertain w hether sufficient space w ill be available at the construction phase. Operation and maintenance should be review ed by the eventual operating company. Give consideration to maintenance access to air fins, etc., above pipe tracks. Consider location of equipment requiring frequent attendance by operating personnel and relative position of control room to obtain shortest and most direct routes for operators w hen on routine operation.

6. Safety

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BN-DG-C01A Plant Layout - General Requirements

Provide: Sufficient clear area betw een critical or high temperature items of equipment. Clear routes for operators w ith tw o or more escape ladders or exits at extremities. Clear routes for access by fire-fighting equipment. Do not Allow : Areas classified as hazardous to overlap the plot limits or extend over railw ays w here open firebox engines are likely to be employed.

7. Site Considerations Ascertain soil loading considerations and site contours before fixing final layout. Considerable variations occur in allow able soil loads throughout site areas. It may be advantageous to locate heavy equipment in the best soil loading area. Use existing contours, so that the quantity of earth movement due to cut and fill may be substantially reduced by intelligent positioning of the equipment.

8. External Influences Stacks should preferentially be located so that prevailing w inds do not blow smoke over the plant. Try not to locate the plant w here it w ill receive dust, smoke, spray or effluent from a neighboring plant. Avoid using locations polluted by continuous drift of dust, smoke, etc. If the plant is to be located in an existing refinery or factory site, line up w ith existing roads, columns, stacks. Location of external railw ays, pipew ays, cablew ays, sew ers and drains, etc., may also influence the final orientation of the plant. When railw ay facilities are required, avoid boxing in the plant by branch lines. Hazardous areas from other existing plants or equipment may extend over the plant limit. This could effectively reduce plot size and thus influence the plant layout philosophy.

9. Clearances (See Table A) Clearances betw een adjacent plants should at least equal those for primary access roads. The space betw een edge of any road and nearest equipment must not be less than 1.5 meters. Adequate road access w ith properly formed roads must be provided for know n maintenance purposes: e.g., compressor house, large machinery areas, reactors or converters w here catalyst removal and replacement must be effected. Equipment requiring infrequent maintenance such as exchanger tube bundles, tow er internals, etc., need adequate level clear space for access/removal purposes. The ground need not be specifically built up to take loads other than a surfacing of granite chips or similar, as duckboards, gratings, or other temporary material can be laid at the time w hen the plant is under maintenance.

10. Paving Within the process area minimal concrete paving should be supplied for w alkw ays interconnecting major items of equipment, platforms, stairw ays and buildings. Paving should be supplied around pumps or other machinery located in the open, underneath furnaces, and any other areas w here spillage is likely to occur during normal operation. Areas containing alkalis acids, or other chemicals or toxic materials should be paved and bunded to prevent spillage spreading. Other areas of the plant are to be graded and surfaced w ith granite chips or similar material.

11. Elevations (See Table A) All elevations refer to a nominal 100 meters. The point 100 elevation is taken as the high point of paving in the paved areas. This should be common throughout the plant. Equipment elevations referring to grade elevations of 100 meters are as show n in table A.

12. Insulation Insulation may be applied to vessel supports or stanchions of structures for fire protection purposes, thus decreasing available free space for access, siting of pipew ork, instruments or electrical equipment. In particular, note thickness of insulation of very high temperature or low temperature piping, w hich may considerably increase effective o/d of pipe to be routed. For low temperature insulation, additional clearance must be provided around control valves, instrumentation, etc. Consider additional w eight of insulation and reduced centers of supports necessary to support heavily insulated pipe.

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BN-DG-C01A Plant Layout - General Requirements

13. Colum ns and Drum s (Vertical/Horizontal) Columns are usually self-supporting w ithout external structures. Circular or segmental platforms w ith ladders are supported from the shell. Maximum allow able straight run of ladder before a break platform should not exceed 9 meters. Factors influencing column elevation are provision of gravity flow system and installation of therm-syphon reboilers. Depending on plant arrangement columns may have to be elevated to a height in excess of the normal requirements to allow for headroom clearance from low level piping off-takes. Skirt height of all columns or vessels providing suction to pumps, particularly if handling hot or boiling liquids, should be adequate for pump NPSH requirements. Provide platforms on columns for all valves 3 and above, instrument controllers and transmitters, relief valves, manholes and blinds or spades. Otherw ise, access to small valves, indicating instruments, etc., is acceptable by ladder. Platforms for access to level gauges and controllers should not be provided if underside of supporting steelw ork is less than normal headroom clearance from grade. Adjacent columns should be checked, so that platforms do not overlap. For layout, 2.0 to 2.5 meters betw een shells, depending upon insulation, should suffice. Allow 900 meters minimum clearance betw een column foundation and adjacent plinth. Provide clearance for removal of internals and attachments, and for davits at top of column if relevant. Center line of manholes w ill be 900 mm above any platform. Horizontal vessels should be located at grade, w ith longitudinal axis at right angles to the pipew ay if possible. Consider saving plot space by changing vessels from the horizontal and by combining vessels together w ith an internal head. (Subject to project approval). Size and number of access platforms on horizontal vessels shall be kept to a minimum and are not to be provided on horizontal vessels or drum w hen the top of the vessel is 2.5 meters or less from grade. Channel end of vessels provided w ith internal tubular heaters w ill face tow ards open space. Withdraw al area must to be indicated on studies, GAs and Plot Plants. Internal agitators or mixers are to be provided w ith adequate clearance for removal. Removal area must be indicated on Studies, GAs and Plot Plants.

14. Exchangers Tubular exchangers usually have standard length tubes of 2.5, 4, 5, and 6 meters. Whenever possible locate exchangers at grade to facilitate maintenance and tube w ithdraw al. Tw o or more shells forming one unit w ill be stacked, or otherw ise arranged as indicated on the exchanger specification sheet. Exchangers on dissimilar service may be stacked but never more than three high, except for fin tube type units. Horizontal clearance of at least 900 mm w ill be left betw een exchangers or exchangers and piping. Where space is limited, clearance may be reduced betw een alternate exchangers, providing sufficient space is left for maintenance and inspection access. Tube bundle removal distance w ill be minimum tube length plus 900 mm. Minimum removal distance plus 600 mm w ill be left behind the rear shell cover of floating head exchangers. Where rear shell cover is provided w ith a davit, allow clearance for full sw ing of the head. Set overhead vapor exchangers or condensers at such elevation that exchanger is self draining. Arrange outlets to a liquid hold pot or trap, so that underside of exchanger tubes is above the liquid level in the trap. Arrange exchangers so that fixed end is at the channel end. Vertical exchangers should be set to allow lifting or low ering of tube bundle. Consult Vessel Section as to feasibility of supporting vertical exchangers from associated tow ers. Space for tube or bundle w ithdraw al should be left free, exchanger channels preferably pointing tow ards access area or road. If exchanger is situated w ell w ithin the plot, leave a free area and approach for mobile lifting equipment. Preferably air fin exchangers should be located in a separate row outside the main equipment row , remote from the central pipew ay. Consider location of air fin exchangers over the central pipew ay if plot space if very limited.

15. Furnaces and Fired Equipm ent Locate at least 15 meters aw ay from other equipment w hich could be a source of spillage or leakage of gas. No pits or trenches permitted to extend under furnaces or any fired equipment and if possible to be avoided in furnace areas. Ensure ample room at firing front for operation and removal of the burners and for burner control panel if required. Bottom floor fired furnaces require adequate headroom underneath the furnace. Wall fired furnaces require an adequate platform w idth w ith escape routes at each end of the furnace. Apart from adequate platforming and access to the firing front, other structural attachments and platforming around furnaces should be kept to a minimum. Peep-holes should only be provided w here absolutely necessary. Access by means of step ladder is sufficient.

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BN-DG-C01A Plant Layout - General Requirements

Arrange heaters on common center line w herever possible. Provide unobstructed space for w ithdraw al. Operation and maintenance platforms should be w ide enough to permit a 1.0 meter clear w alkw ay. Escape ladders should be provided on large heaters. Vertical heaters are usually supplied w ith stub supporting feet, ensure draw ings show adequate supports elevated to required height. Headroom elevation from floor level to underside of heater should be 2.3 meters, to provide good firing control operation.

16. Pum ps Locate pumps close to the equipment from w hich they take suction possibly under structures or w ith motor ends under a piperack allow ing an access aisle for mobile handling equipment. Suction lines are generally larger than discharge lines, to avoid problems arising from low NPSH. End suction, top discharge is preferable for pumps taking suction directly from tanks or vessels located at grade. Pumps should be arranged in row s w ith center line of discharges on a common line. Clearances betw een pumps or pumps and piping shall be a minimum of 900 mm.

17. Com pressors Locate reciprocating compressors, anchors and restrains for pipes in the compressor system on foundations independent of any building, structure or pipe trestle. Spacing varies w ith type and duty, pay particular attention to: Withdraw al of engine and compressor pistons, cam shaft, crank shaft and lube oil cooler bundle; cylinder valve maintenance clearance w ith least possible obstruction from piping supports. Compressors are generally provided w ith a degree of shelter, i.e., a sheets building. Keep the sides up to 8 feet above grade, open and vent the ridge to allow for escape of flammable gas w hich might leak from the machines. Certain types of compressors, ow ing to the height of the mass foundation above grade level, require a mezzanine floor of the grid construction to avoid trapping any gas, for operation and maintenance.

18. Piping All piping w ithin a process area should usually be run above grade. Trenched piping to be avoided. Piperacks and supports to be of the simplest form. Piperacks may contain tw o layers of pipew ork. Avoid triple layer of pipew ays except for very short runs. Run piping external to the process area at grade on sleepers (300 mm high). (Piping at grade is cheaper but liable to interfere w ith access). Locate large bore piping as close to stanchions as possible. Lines requiring a constant fall (relief headers) can be run on cantilevers from piperack stanchions or on vertical extensions to pipe track stanchions. Run hot line requiring expansion loops on the outside edge of pipew ay to permit loops to have greatest w idth over the pipew ay and facilitate nesting. Take-off elevations from pipew ays should be at a constant elevation consistent w ith the range of pipe sizes involved. Change elevation w henever banks of pipes, either to grade or on piperacks change direction. Elevations to the underside of piperacks w ill be minimum for operation and mobile maintenance equipment and consistent w ith clearances. Open pipe trenches may be used betw een plants w here there is no risk of flammable vapors collecting. It is sometimes convenient to run open trenches alongside roadw ays. (Soil from the trench can be used to build up the road). Where a pipew ay or road changes direction, the pipe is run beneath the road. Occasionally it is permissible to run pipes in trenches to overcome a difficult piping problem. Such trenches should be concreted, drained and covered. Although trenched piping is to be avoided due to the expense and hazards associated w ith open trenches, underground buried piping is acceptable provided pipe is adequately protected and below the frostline. Sizing and arrangement of underground piping should be fixed early to ensure that installation is simultaneous w ith foundation w ork. (Many drains, sew ers and cablew ays, w hich do not require attention, are run underground below the frost-line). Leave space for draw boxes on cablew ays, anchors on underground cooling w ater pipes and manholes on sew ers. Fire mains should be located betw een the perimeter road and the plant.

19. Access to Valves and Instrum ents (See Table A) All operating valves 3 and larger are to be accessible either from grade or suitable platform w ith maximum 2.0 meters above w orking level to center of hand-w heel. Small operating valves can be reached from a ladder. Valves installed for maintenance and shutdow n purposes (other than operating) can be reached by portable ladder. Otherw ise extension spindles or suitable remote operating gear should be provided, but not on valves 1 1/ and below . The m inim um access to be provided is as show n on Table A. 2

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20. Relief Valve System s

BN-DG-C01A Plant Layout - General Requirements

Closed relief valve systems should be arranged to be self-draining and should not contain pockets w here liquids may condense and collect to provide any back pressure.

21. Maintenance and Equipm ent Handling Handling facilities are limited to the handling of w orking parts of equipment w hich require frequent or routine service and w hich are inaccessible to mobile handling facilities assumed to be available at the plant. These facilities are not designed to handle heavy parts such as bedplates of rotating machines, rotating equipment, compressors bodies, machinery frames, etc. The handling facilities provided are limited as show n on table A The design and installation of trolley beams, overhead travelling cranes and hoist trestles is based on lifting the parts to be handled and transporting or low ering them to specified maintenance areas or to grade. From these points they are expected to be removed by skids or hand trucks to other areas more suitable for maintenance. Tables A ACCESS CLEARANCES DESCRIPTION MINIMUM

Clear Headroom

Clear Width

Other Clearance

Primary Access Roads (carrying major equipment) Secondary



10.5M inside corner radius 4.5M inside corner radius -



Minor Access Roads



Yard Piping


Platform, w alkw ays, passagew ays, w orking areas, stairw ays Clearance from face of manhole Railw ays


1M w orking platforms -



Manhole centre Approx. 1M above platform -

To suit local codes

ELEVATION Open-Air Paved Area High Point of Paving 100.000M

Underside of baseplates for structural steel


Stair and ladders pads


Underside of baseplates vessel and column plinths Top of pump plinths

100.300M 100.230M



ALL 2 and

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BN-DG-C01A Plant Layout - General Requirements

2 and under X -


over 2 all all 2 and over

X X -



Accessible by portable ladder. Edge of platform access w here Clients Spec. requests. Otherw ise no access. X X X X X X X X





No access Provided. X -

No access Provided.


Reactors, Vessels and Columns.

Manhole Covers

Davits or hinges for sw inging open.

Internal requiring regular removal or servicing.

Trolley beams or davits for low ering from holes to grade.

Fixed bed reactors, catalyst change, etc.

These w ill be provided as specially specified to enable catalyst to be offloaded and loaded.

Floating Head Exchangers.

Tube Bundles.

All such exchangers are provided w ith jackbolts to break joints. It is assumed bundles w ill be handled by mobile equipment.

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BN-DG-C01A Plant Layout - General Requirements

Exchanger Heads, Channel Cover, Bonnets. No special provision.

Vertical Exchangers.

Removable Tube Bundles.

Overhead trolley beam or davit.


Any part.


Centrifugal Compressors.

Rotating parts.

Overhead trolley beams or cranes.


Relief Valves, 2 nominal bore and larger.

Hitching point or davit for low ering to grade.

Blanks, blank flanges and sw ing elbow w eighing more than 300lbs (125 kg).

Overhead hitching point or davit only w hen subject to frequent removal for maintenance.

Listing of Instrum entation Which May Assist Initial Layout Likely Devices and Probable Num ber Fitted to Various Types of Equipm ent. Devices and Design Points Affected. LIST 1) EQUIPMENT DISTILLATION TOWER DEVICES AND PROBABLE NUMBER OF ITEMS FITTED PSV (1) (Pressure Safety Valve) PIC (1) (Pressure Indicating Controller) FRC (3) (Flow Recording Controller) TR (1) (Multipoint- 6 channel) (Temperature Recorder) TI (6) (Temperature Indicator) PI (6) (Pressure Indicator) Analyser (1) (Single Stream) LG (2) (Level Gauge) LI (1) (Level Indicator) LIC (1) (Level Indicating Controller)


LG (3) (Level Gauge) LIT (1) (Level Indicating Transmitter) PI (1) (Pressure Indicator) TI (1) (Temperature Indicator) PSV (1) (Pressure Safety Valve) PIC (1) (Pressure Indicating Controller)


PI (6) (Pressure Indicator) TI (6) (Temperature Indicator) PSV (1) (Pressure Safety Valve) TR (1) (Multipoint- 50 Channels) (Temperature Recorder) FIC (2) (Flow Indicating Controller) LIC (1) (Level Indicating Controller) Analyser (1) PIC (1) (Pressure Indicating Controller) TIC (1) (Temperature Indicating Controller)

LIST 1) EQUIPMENT COMPRESSOR (Axial flow ) DEVICES AND PROBABLE NUMBER OF ITEMS FITTED PI (4) (Pressure Indicator) DPC (1) (Differential Pressure Controller) PIC (1) (Pressure Indicating Controller)

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BN-DG-C01A Plant Layout - General Requirements

PIC (1) (Pressure Indicating Controller) FR (1) (Flow Recorder) TI (1) (Multipoint- 12 channel)(Temperature Indicator) Vibration (2) NRV (Damped to prevent reverse flow ) Programmer and Logic System (1) Shutdow n System (1) PI (4) (Pressure Indicator) FRC (1) (Flow Recording Controller) TI (4) (Temperature Indicator) Shutdow n Valve (1) TRC (1) (Temperature Recording Controller) TI (6) (Temperature Indicator) PI (2) (Pressure Indicator) LG (1) (Level Gauge) PSV (Pressure Safety Valve) FRC (4) (Flow Recording Controller) TRC (Temperature Recording Controller) PIC (Pressure Indicating Controller) Flame Detector (2) Local Panel PI (12) (Pressure Indicator)




LIST 1) EQUIPMENT FURNACES (contd) DEVICES AND PROBABLE NUMBER OF ITEMS FITTED TI (6) (Temperature Indicator) Multi-channel Temperature (1) O2 Analyser (1) (Only where BFW or steam is circulating) pH Analyser (1) Conductivity LG (3) (Level Gauge) LIC (1) (Level Indicating Controller) PSV (3) (Pressure Safety Valve) PCV (3) (Pressure Control Valve)

In-line instrument elements:- Flow Elements (Orifice, Plates, Venturi, Turbine, P/D, etc.). Control Valves (Globe, Butterfly, Ball, etc.). Relief Valves. Thermow ells. LIST 2) DEVICE (FLOW) Fe 1 Pipe Section w ith sensing element Pitot Tube Orifice/Nozzle/Venturi Flange rating/size/overall length/orientation TYPE DESIGN POINTS AFFECTED

Fe 2 Fe 3

Location/straight length connection size & type Location/straight lengths/orientation Flange size and rating. Position, size type of instr. tappings Size/end connections/orientation straight lengths Orientation/straight lengths/Flange rating/ connections/ insertion face to face Orientation/straight lengths/Flange rating/ face to face/insertion Consult Instrument Department Vertical only/Flow upw ards only. Orientation of connections, sizes and type.

Fe 4 Fe 5

Elbow Target Meter Transmitter

Fe 6 Fe 7 Fe 8

Vortex Meter Hot Wire Variable Area Meter

Fe 9

Magnetic Flow meter

Overall length/size/connections/vertical or horizontal/no straight lengths. Straight length/w ith or w ithout pipe section/ usually horizontal end connection and size. (Common to use upstream filter and sometimes degassing). Orientation one w ay only/w eight/no straight lengths. Connecting

Fe 10

Turbine Meter

Fe 11

Positive Displacement

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Fe 11

Positive Displacement

BN-DG-C01A Plant Layout - General Requirements

Orientation one w ay only/w eight/no straight lengths. Connecting as per vendor literature. Consult Instrument Department Consult Instrument Department Consult Instrument Department Consult Instrument Department Mostly Civil Engineering. Spool piece = face to face end connections.

Fe 12 Fe 13 Fe 14 Fe 15 Fe 16 Fe 17

Sonic Flow meter Weight Rate Radio Active Photo Electric Channels and Flumes Vane Type

LIST 2) DEVICE TEMP TE 1 TE 2 Thermocouple Resistance Bulb Location/Increase in pipe dia/elbow s, connection size and type. TYPE DESIGN POINTS AFFECTED


Filled System Thermistor Radiation Location of w indow /heat protection.

Photo Electrical/Colour

Location of instrument and w indow .

Diverse Methods including SG and density

Usually w ith by-pass line to drain on back to process - only occasionally in line - some- times co-axial spool piece. Face to face/Flanges.

LEVEL MEASUREMENT An Probe PROXIMITY SWITCH Capacitance Conductivity Fero magnetic) Magnetic) Inductive) Similar to temperature Te 1. Sometimes co-axial in spool piece. Non intrusive Location and mounting a) Non-instrusive b) Instrusive, type Te 1.

PRESSURE Differential Pressure Bourdon Tubes Capsules Strain Gauge Small tapping/location/connections/ size and type


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BN-DG-C01A Plant Layout - General Requirements

Vertical only - nozzle spacing/connections

Vertical only - nozzle spacing critical/connections

Consult Instrument Department. Consult Instrument Department. Consult Instrument Department.

Strobe Tachiometer

VALVES PV, FV, TV, etc PVC Operation-electrical hydraulic -pneumatic -self operated Nominal body size is determined by flow criteria. Face to face/connection sizes - flange rating often 300lbs minimum as a standard. Axis of movement of topw orks must be vertical-all other orientation prohibited. Face to face dimensions do not alw ays conform to BS.

SAFETY VALVES PSV Spring opposed pressure Free or closed venting. Multiple valve relief. Gauge valves w ith single operation of changeover - single isolation valves prohibited - minimum nozzle size laid dow n in the codes. Some inlet/outlet flange combinations are excluded in standard manufacture depending on application.

GENERAL NOTE: Instrusive elements and/or spool type installation may call for flow line size due to change due to forces on w etted parts, erosion, noise, deposition of solids in cavities or viscosity.

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