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Industrial
& Specialty Gas
Data Book

CONTENTS
Absolute Temperature Chart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3536
Air Pressure Drop in Pipe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
Ambient Vaporizer Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
Ammonia and Dissociated Ammonia Conversion Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Area Conversion Factors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Argon Conversion Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Carbon Dioxide Conversion Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Carbon Dioxide Cylinder Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
Carbon Monoxide Conversion Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
CGA Valve Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
Combustion Constants of Hydrocarbon Gases (Volume) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
Combustion Constants of Hydrocarbon Gases (Weight) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
Combustion Requirements of Typical Fuels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
Compressed Gas Cylinders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71-75
Densities at Various Saturation Pressures (O2, N2, Ar) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
Density Conversion Factors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Dewpoint to PPM/Percent Conversion Table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2224
DURA-LINE Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
Electric Vaporizer Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
Energy Conversion Factors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Flammability Characteristics of Common Gases and Liquids . . . . . . 2729
Flash From Saturated Pressurized Liquids Chart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
Gas Conversion Factors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
Gas Turbine Capacity Table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5758
Generic Vessel Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
Helium Conversion Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
High Pressure Aluminum Cylinder Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
High Pressure Steel Cylinder Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
How to Purge With Nitrogen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54-55
Hydrogen Conversion Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Krypton Conversion Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Length Conversion Factors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Medical Cylinder Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
Metered Gas Conversion Factors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32

CONTENTS
Methanol and Dissociated Methanol Conversion Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Minimum Safe Distance for Liquid Hydrogen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
Minimum Safe Distance for Liquid Oxygen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
Minimum Safe Distance for Liquid Petroleum Gas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
Miscellaneous Conversion Factors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Neon Conversion Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Nitrogen Refrigeration Conversion Factors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Oxygen Conversion Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Ozone Conversion Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Physical Properties (English) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
Physical Properties (Metric) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
Power Conversion Factors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Pressure Conversion Factors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Pressure, Temperature and Density Relationship Charts . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
Propylene Conversion Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Purging Efficiency Chart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
Refrigeration Conversion Factors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Refrigeration Values for Expendable Refrigerants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
SCFH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
Specific Energy Conversion Factors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Steam Table (Saturation:Pressure) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6264
Steam Table (Saturation:Temperature) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5961
Superheated Vapor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6570
Tonnage Conversion Chart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Tonnage Conversion Factors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Tube Trailer Volume Capacities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
Typical CO2 Vessel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
Typical Liquid Customer Station . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
Vapor Release Liquid Hydrogen Chart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
Velocity Conversion Factors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
VGL Parts Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
Volume Conversion Factors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Weight Conversion Factors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Xenon Conversion Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8

INTRODUCTION
This book is designed to provide a convenient source of information
for anyone who works with or studies industrial gases. It is published
by Air Liquide America, a subsidiary of Air Liquide, the worlds largest
industrial gas company. Through Air Liquide America, Air Liquide
markets tonnage and merchant gases to industrial, commercial, and
public facilities throughout North America. Air Liquide is active in more
than 60 countries around the world.
The data is based on sources using standard industry references. It is
believed to be accurate, but is recommended for use as a guideline
only. More detailed information can be obtained by contacting your
Air Liquide America representative.
Put Safety First!
In handling industrial gases or working in environments where they are
present, beware of confined spaces where there is a limited oxygen
supply. Confined spaces that may present a danger include:
Tanks on railroad cars and highway vehicles, storage tanks,
mixing tanks
Air separation cold boxes and similar insulated cavities, silos,
furnace boxes, combustion chambers, etc.
Pits and deep depressions, sewers, etc.
Reaction kettles, stills, receivers, steam drums
Acetylene generators and gas holders
In situations where atmospheric air is not provided or where breathing
equipment is not available, you should follow the Tank Procedures of
Air Liquide America or other organizations.

All data set forth herein is provided for general information only
and is based on generally accepted tests and on published data
from standard technical reference works. The accuracy or
completeness of any such information, test, or data is not
warranted in any way.

NITROGEN CONVERSION DATA

OXYGEN CONVERSION DATA

NEON CONVERSION DATA

ARGON CONVERSION DATA

HYDROGEN CONVERSION DATA

HELIUM CONVERSION DATA

XENON CONVERSION DATA

KRYPTON CONVERSION DATA

CARBON MONOXIDE CONVERSION DATA

OZONE CONVERSION DATA

10

PROPYLENE CONVERSION DATA

CARBON DIOXIDE CONVERSION DATA

11

AMMONIA AND DISSOCIATED AMMONIA CONVERSION DATA

METHANOL AND DISSOCIATED METHANOL CONVERSION DATA

12

TONNAGE CONVERSION FACTORS*

13

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

10

20

TONNAGE CONVERSION CHART

Scf/Mo (millions)

30

40

60

Tons Per Day

50

70

80

Nitrogen

90

Oxygen

100

14

VOLUME CONVERSION FACTORS

AREA CONVERSION FACTORS

15

WEIGHT CONVERSION FACTORS

LENGTH CONVERSION FACTORS

16

PRESSURE CONVERSION FACTORS

DENSITY CONVERSION FACTORS

17

SPECIFIC ENERGY CONVERSION FACTORS

ENERGY CONVERSION FACTORS

18

REFRIGERATION CONVERSION FACTORS

POWER CONVERSION FACTORS

19

NITROGEN REFRIGERATION CONVERSION FACTORS

REFRIGERATION VALUES TO +40F FOR EXPENDABLE REFRIGERANTS

20

VELOCITY CONVERSION FACTORS

21

MISCELLANEOUS CONVERSION FACTORS

22

DEWPOINT TO PPM CONVERSION TABLE

23

DEWPOINT TO PPM CONVERSION TABLE

24

DEWPOINT TO PPM CONVERSION TABLE

25

PHYSICAL PROPERTIES (ENGLISH)

26

PHYSICAL PROPERTIES (METRIC)

27

FLAMMABILITY CHARACTERISTICS OF COMMON GASES AND LIQUIDS

28

FLAMMABILITY CHARACTERISTICS OF COMMON GASES AND LIQUIDS

29

FLAMMABILITY CHARACTERISTICS OF COMMON GASES AND LIQUIDS

30

COMBUSTION CONSTANTS OF HYDROCARBON GASES (WEIGHT)

31

COMBUSTION REQUIREMENTS OF TYPICAL FUELS

COMBUSTION CONSTANTS OF HYDROCARBON GASES (VOLUME)

32

METERED GAS CONVERSION FACTORS

33

GAS CONVERSION FACTORS

AIR PRESSURE DROP IN PIPE


Air pressure drop in pounds per square inch
per 100 feet of Schedule 40 pipe
for air at 100 psig and 60F

Compressed
Air at
60F &
60F &
14.7 psia 100 psig

1/4"

3/8"

1/2"

3/4"

1
2
3
4
5

0.128
0.256
0.384
0.153
0.641

0.083
0.285
0.605
1.04
1.58

0.018
0.064
0.133
0.226
0.343

0.020
0.042
0.071
0.106

0.027

6
8
10
15
20

0.769
1.025
1.282
1.922
2.563

2.23
3.89
5.96
13.0
22.8

0.408
0.848
1.26
2.73
4.76

0.148
0.255
0.356
0.334
1.43

25
30
35
40
45

3.204
3.845
4.486
5.126
5.767

7.34
10.5
14.2
18.4
23.1

50
60
70
80
90

6.408
7.690
8.971
10.25
11.53

100
125
150
175
200

12.82
16.02
19.22
22.43
25.63

0.029
0.044
0.062
0.083
0.107

0.021
0.028
0.036

225
250
275
300
325

28.84
32.04
35.24
38.45
41.65

0.134
0.164
0.191
0.232
0.270

350
375
400
425
450

44.87
48.06
51.26
54.47
57.67

475
500
550
600
650

1"

1-1/4"

0.037
0.062
0.094
0.201
0.345

0.019
0.029
0.062
0.102

0.026

2.21
3.15
4.24
5.49
6.90

0.526
0.748
1.00
1.30
1.62

0.156
0.219
0.293
0.379
0.474

0.039
0.055
0.073
0.095
0.116

0.019
0.026
0.035
0.044
0.555

8.49
12.2
16.5
21.4
27.0

1.99
2.85
3.83
4.96
6.25

0.578
0.819
1.10
1.43
1.80

0.149
0.200
0.270
0.350
0.437

0.067
0.094
0.126
0.162
0.203

0.019
0.027
0.036
0.046
0.058

7.69
11.9
17.0
23.1
30.0

2.21
3.39
4.87
6.60
8.54

0.534
0.825
1.17
1.58
2.05

0.247
0.380
0.537
0.727
0.937

0.070
0.107
0.151
0.205
0.264

0.045
0.055
0.666
0.078
0.090

10.8
13.3
16.0
19.0
22.3

2.59
3.18
3.83
4.56
5.32

1.19
1.45
1.75
2.07
2.42

0.331
0.404
0.484
0.573
0.673

0.313
0.356
0.402
0.452
0.507

0.104
0.119
0.134
0.151
0.168

25.8
29.6
33.6
37.9

6.17
7.05
8.02
9.01
10.2

2.80
3.20
3.64
4.09
4.59

0.776
0.887
1.00
1.13
1.26

60.88
64.08
70.49
76.90
83.30

0.562
0.623
0.749
0.887
1.04

0.187
0.206
0.248
0.293
0.342

11.3
12.5
15.1
18.0
21.1

5.09
5.61
6.79
8.04
9.43

1.40
1.55
1.87
2.21
2.60

700
750
800
850
900

89.71
96.12
102.5
108.9
115.3

1.19
1.36
1.56
1.74
1.95

0.395
0.451
0.513
0.576
0.642

24.3
27.9
31.8
35.9
40.2

10.9
12.6
14.2
16.0
18.0

3.00
3.44
3.90
4.40
4.91

950
1,000
1,100
1,200
1,300

121.8
128.2
141
153.8
166.6

2.18
2.40
2.89
3.44
4.01

0.715
0.788
0.948
1.13
1.32

20.0
22.1
26.7
31.8
37.3

5.47
6.06
7.29
8.63
10.1

1,400
1,500
1,600
1,800
2,000

179.4
192.2
205.1
203.7
256.3

4.65
5.31
6.04
7.65
9.44

1.52
1.74
1.97
2.50
3.06

34

2-1/2"
0.019
0.023
3"

1-1/2"

2"

11.8
13.5
15.3
19.3
23.9

ABSOLUTE TEMPERATURE CHART

Kelvin

Celsius
C

K
373.15

100

Human Body

310.15

37

Water Freezes
Fahrenheit Zero
Celsius = Fahrenheit

273.15
255.37
233.15

0
17.78
40

Bitter Cold Weather


CO2 Sublimes

227.59
194.68

45.56
78.47

Coldest on Earth

180.38

92.77

Xenon Boils

165.04

108.11

Krypton Boils

119.81

153.34

Oxygen Boils

90.18

182.97

Argon Boils

87.28

185.87

Nitrogen Boils

77.36

195.79

Cryogenic Region

Water Boils

K =C + 273.15

C = 5/9 (F 32)

Neon Boils

27.09

246.06

Hydrogen Boils

20.27

252.88

Helium Boils

4.22

268.93

Absolute Zero

273.15

35

ABSOLUTE TEMPERATURE CHART

Fahrenheit

Rankin

212

671.67

Human Body

98.6

556.27

Water Freezes
Fahrenheit Zero
Celsius = Fahrenheit

32
0
40

491.67
459.67
419.67

Bitter Cold Weather


CO2 Sublimes

50
109.25

409.67
350.42

Coldest on Earth

135

324.67

Xenon Boils

162.59

297.08

Krypton Boils

244.01

215.66

Oxygen Boils

297.35

162.32

Argon Boils

302.57

157.10

Nitrogen Boils

320.42

139.25

Cryogenic Region

Water Boils

F = 32+(C x 9/5)

R =F + 459.67

Neon Boils

410.90

48.77

Hydrogen Boils

423.19

36.48

Helium Boils

452.08

7.59

Absolute Zero

459.67

36

37

DENSITIES AT VARIOUS SATURATION PRESSURES

PRESSURE, TEMPERATURE AND DENSITY RELATIONSHIPS


Pressure Over Liquid Oxygen, Nitrogen and Argon
Compared with Temperature at Which Liquids Boil
800

600
500

yg
Ox

Ar
go
n

Ni

tro

300

en

400
ge

Pressure PSIG

700

200
100
0
-180

-200

-220

-240

-260

-280

-300

-320

Temperature F

DensityTemperature Relationships
for Liquid Oxygen, Nitrogen and Argon

Density of Liquid Pounds Per Gallon

12
11
Ar

10

go

Ox

yge

8
7
6

Nit

rog

en

5
4
3
2
-160

-180

-200

-220

-240

-260

-280

-300

-320

-340

Temperature F
38

FLASH FROM SATURATED PRESSURIZED LIQUIDS

N2 *
70

60
O2*
50
Ar*
N2

40

O2
Ar
30

20

10

40

80

120

160

200

240

PSIG

*Flash gas as a percentage of liquid after depressurization to


atmospheric pressure.
Flash gas as a percentage of saturated pressurized liquid.
Example: Estimate how much vapor is released when 1000 gallons
of liquid nitrogen at 80 psig is withdrawn from a vessel into a
transport trailer at atmospheric pressure.
Solution: From the chart above, using the lower line with the
storage tank pressure of 80 psig, the vapor released in 18% of
the liquid discharged.

39

VAPOR RELEASE LIQUID HYDROGEN

50

45
Liquid vaporized
measured as a percent
of liquid in receiver
at 1 ATM pressure

40

35

Percent %

30

25
Liquid vaporized
measured as a percent
of liquid discharged
from storage tank

20

15

10

20

40

60

80

100

Pressure In Storage Tank PSIG

40

120

140

41

60"
55"
50"
45"
40"
35"
30"
25"
20"
15"
10"
5"

Water Capacity (volume)

Service Pressure

Nominal Weight

Dimentions

DOT Spec

22.04

liters

1345

138.9

bars

cu. in.

2015

27.8

kg.

psi

61.3

178 x 109.2

7 x 43

lbs.

cm

inches

3AA 2015

MEDICAL CYLINDER SPECIFICATIONS

Cylinder Model

4.84

295

138.9

2015

4.76

10.5

2.95

180

138.9

2015

3.39

7.5

10.6 x 42.5

4.18 x 16.75

3AA 2015

Medical B

10.6 x 65.4

4.18 x 25.75

3AA 2015

1.44

88

138.9

2015

1.89

4.18

8.4 x 33.3

3.31 x 13.125

3AA 2015

Medical B

42

60"
55"
50"
45"
40"
35"
30"
25"
20"
15"
10"
5"

50 LBS.

Water Capacity (volume)

Service Pressure

Nominal Weight

8.625 x 45.38

20 LBS.

7.75 x 23.25

3AA 1800

35.4

liters

20 LBS.

2160

cu. in.

1800

124.1

psi

38.5

bars

84.9

kg.

15 LBS.

13.77

840

124.1

1800

14.95

31.2

15 LBS.

10.55

644

124.1

1800

13.61

30

5 LBS.

17.78 x 58.115

7.0 x 22.88

3AA 1800

10 LBS.

21.908 x 115.2 19.685 x 59.0

lbs.

cm

inches

DOT Spec

Dimentions

50 LBS.

3AA 1800

Cylinder Model

CARBON DIOXIDE CYLINDER SPECIFICATIONS


10 LBS.

5 LBS.
5.73 x 14.0

3AA 1800

10 OZ.

3.62

221

124.1

1800

4.58

10.1

13.385 x 35.6

2.5 LBS.

8.11

495

124.1

1800

10.43

23

17.78 x 45.72

7.0 x 18.0

3AA 1800

2.5 LBS.

10 OZ.
1.94 x 11.88

3E 1800

1.77

108

124.1

1800

2.38

5.25

0.418

25.5

124.1

1800

1.04

2.3

9.042 x 37.135 4.928 x 30.175

3.56 x 14.62

3AA 1800

CGA VALVE SPECIFICATIONS

43

VGL PARTS DESCRIPTION

6
1

9
2

3
7

1 Gas Use Valve with Fitting


2 Liquid Valve with Fitting
3 Pressure Building Valve
4 Vent Valve with Fitting
5 Pressure Building Regulator
6 Pressure Gauge
7 Economizer
4
3
2

1 Liquid Valve
2 Economizer Regulator
3 Vent Valve
4 Burst Disc
Dura-Cyl: 400 Psig
Dura Max: 500 Psig
5 Pressure Gauge
7 Pressure Building Regulator
8 Pressure Building Valve
9 Liquid Level Gauge
10 Vacuum Casing Burst Disc
11 Gas Use Valve

44

Vaporizer
Pressure
Building
Coil

7
8
9
10

11

45

DURA-LINE SPECIFICATIONS

46

TUBE TRAILER VOLUME CAPACITIES

47

GENERIC VESSEL INFORMATION

TYPICAL LIQUID CUSTOMER STATION

Perlite Insulation
Evacuation to a
High Vacuum

Lifting
Lugs

Vapor Space: 250 psig,


Working Pressure
Liquid Product:
Argon, Nitrogen, Oxygen
Inner Tank: 9% Nickel Steel,
Aluminum, or Stainless Steel
Outer Tank,
Carbon Steel
Liquid Level and
Pressure Guages

High Pressure
Ambient Air
Vaporizer

Final Line
Regulator

Relief Valve

Gaseous Product
to Customer

Bottom Fill Valve


Trailer Fill Connection
Top Fill Valve

48

Concrete Pad

49

STEAM VAPORIZER SPECIFICATIONS

ELECTRIC VAPORIZER SPECIFICATIONS

50

MINIMUM SAFE DISTANCE FOR LIQUID PETROLEUM GAS

AMBIENT VAPORIZER SPECIFICATIONS

MINIMUM SAFE DISTANCE FOR LIQUID OXYGEN

51

MINIMUM SAFE DISTANCE FOR LIQUID HYDROGEN

52

53

Refrigeration
Unit

Concrete Pad

Liquid Level and


Pressure Guages

TYPICAL CO2 VESSEL (HORIZONTAL)

Fill
Connections

Vaporizer Return

Liquid Supply (Vaporizer)

AN AIR LIQUIDE GROUP COMPANY

BIG THREE

Inner
Steel Vessel

Vapor Supply

Insulation

Outer Fiberglass
Shell

Safety Relief Valve

TYPICAL CO2 VESSEL (VERTICAL)

5'

Liquid
Connections

7'4"

HOW TO PURGE WITH NITROGEN


Nitrogen purging is easily adapted to any process installation. Different
methods are used depending on the type and shape of the equipment
to be purged and on the location of the purging inlets and outlets.
1. Displacement Purging
This method is used for equipment with simple cross sections such as
pipelines. The volume of nitrogen required corresponds to the physical
volume of the pipe. In many pipelines, a rubber scraping piston, or
pig, is introduced and propelled through the pipe by the nitrogen
pressure to clean the line.
The nitrogen volume required to purge equipment with a simple cross
section is determined using the following formula:
V = VoP/14.7
Where:
V = Total nitrogen volume required (scf)
Vo = Water volume of pipeline (cf)
P = Absolute pressure of nitrogen in the pipeline
during purging (psia)
2. Pressurization Purging
This method is used when conditions do not permit a sweeping action
of nitrogen through the vessel. The vessel is repeatedly pressurized
and mixed with nitrogen gas and then the mixture is exhausted. The
total volume of nitrogen depends on the number of pressurizing purges
required to reduce the contaminant to an acceptable level and can be
determined by using this formula:
V = 1.2nVoP/Pa
Where:
V = Total nitrogen volume required (scf)
Vo = Water volume of pipeline (cf)
P = Absolute pressure of nitrogen in the pipeline
during purging (psia)
Pa = Absolute pressure after exhaust (psia)
n = Number of purges = (log C log Co)/(log Pa log P)
Co = Initial content of gas to be removed
C = Final content of gas to be removed

54

3. Dilution Purging
This method is used for equipment cross sections such as distillation
columns, kilns, reactors, etc. Nitrogen partially mixes with the gas to
be purged out, and then the mixture exits through an outlet located as
far as possible from the inlet. The nitrogen required to reduce a contaminate to a desired level can be found using the graph below and
the total volume of nitrogen needed can be computed from the following formula:
V = nVo
Where:
V = Total nitrogen volume required (scf)
Vo = Water volume of pipeline (cf)
n = Number of nitrogen volumes required
1

2
3
4

Initial Impurity Content, Co


Final Impurity Content, C

5
6
7
8
9
10

20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100

200

300
400
500
600
700
800
900
1000

Number of Nitrogen Volumes Required n


55

PURGING EFFICIENCY (C/Co) AS A FUNCTION OF NITROGEN VOLUME


(TANK VOLUMES) FOR VARIOUS PURGING TECHNIQUES
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2

.1
9
8
7
6
5

(C/Co)

4
3
2

.01
9
8
7
6
5
4

3
2

.001
1

10

Theoretical Tank Volumes of Nitrogen


Purging Technique:
1. Displacement
2. Dilution Pf = Pi = 14.7
3. Dilution Pi = 14.7; Pf = 29.4
4. Pressure Purge Pi = 19.7; Pf = 24.7
5. Pressure Purge Pi = 19.7; Pf = 34.7
Where Pf = pressure final
Pi = pressure initial
56

11

12

13

57

GAS TURBINE CAPACITY TABLE

58

GAS TURBINE CAPACITY TABLE (continued)

59

STEAM TABLE (SATURATION:TEMPERATURE)

60

STEAM TABLE (SATURATION:TEMPERATURE)

61

STEAM TABLE (SATURATION:TEMPERATURE)

62

STEAM TABLE (SATURATION:PRESSURE)

63

STEAM TABLE (SATURATION:PRESSURE)

64

STEAM TABLE (SATURATION:PRESSURE)

65

SUPERHEATED VAPOR

66

SUPERHEATED VAPOR

67

SUPERHEATED VAPOR

68

1.4751
0.7947

1215.7
1.4586

(476.94) s
v

600
h
(486.21) s

0.7934

1280.6
1.5084
0.6779

1270.7
1.4863

0.5873
1260.1
1.4653

0.5140

1248.8

1243.2
1.4722
0.6154

1229.8
1.4467

0.5264
1215.0
1.4216

0.4533

1198.3

v
h

(518.23) s
v

900
h
(531.98) s

v
h

1000

800

(503.10) s

700

0.7277

1289.9
1.5323

0.9463

1.5451

1255.5
1.4990

1.5131
0.8753

1310.7
1.5701

1298.6
1.5588

1265.9

0.5350

0.6089
1275.9
1.4800

1285.4
1.5000

1294.3
1.5212
0.7006

0.8177

1302.7
1.5443

1.5568
0.9729

1.0714
1306.8

1.5845
1.1893

1.5735
1.1591

1.0431
1294.3

1.3332
1314.6

620

1.3005
1302.8

600

v
h

0.8852
1223.7

550

1266.8
1.5280

1231.3
1.4919

v
h

0.9686
1261.2

1.0800

1.2155
1272.0
1.5437

0.9927

1.1231
1238.4
1.5095

550

v
500
h
(467.01) s

450
h
(456.28) s

500

SUPERHEATED VAPOR

Abs. Press.
lb/sq in
Sat. Temp.

1281.9

0.5546

1297.0

0.5733

0.6491
1305.1
1.5066

1312.9
1.5250

1299.4
1.5129

0.6294
1209.9
1.4938

1.5449
0.7433

0.8639
1320.3

1327.4
1.5667

1.5787
1.0241

1.1259
1330.8

1334.2
1.5915

1.6054
1.2478

1.3967
1337.5

660

1.5333
0.7223

0.8411
1307.5

1315.2
1.5558

1.5680
0.9988

1.0989
1318.9

1322.6
1.5810

1.5951
1.2188

1.3652
1326.2

640

700

1.5303
0.6084

1.5187
0.5912
1325.3

0.6863
1332.1

0.6680
1318.8

1311.4

1338.6
1.5476

1.5665
0.7833

0.9077
1345.0

1351.1
1.5875

1.5991
1.0732

1.1783
1354.0

1357.0
1.6115

1.6250
1.3044

1.4584
1359.9

1325.9
1.5366

1.5559
0.7635

0.8860
1332.8

1339.3
1.5773

1.5890
1.0489

1.1523
1342.5

1345.7
1.6016

1.6153
1.2763

1.4278
1348.8

680

1389.2

1.5814
0.6878

0.7716
1393.9

1398.6
1.5972

1.6147
0.8763

1.0108
1403.2

1407.7
1.6343

1.6452
1.1899

1.3038
1409.9

1412.1
1.6571

1.6699
1.4405

1.6074
1414.3

800

900

1448.2

1.6257
0.7604

0.8506
1451.8

1455.4
1.6407

1.6573
0.9633

1.1082
1459.0

1462.5
1.6762

1.6868
1.3013

1.4241
1464.3

1466.0
1.6982

1.7108
1.5715

1.7516
1467.7

TemperatureDegrees Fahrenheit
1000

1505.1

1.6656
0.8294

0.9262
1508.1

1511.0
1.6801

1.6963
1.0470

1.2024
1513.9

1516.7
1.7147

1.7250
1.4096

1.5414
1518.2

1519.6
1.7363

1.7486
1.6996

1.8928
1521.0

1617.3

1.7371
0.9615

1.0714
1619.3

1621.4
1.7510

1.7666
1.2088

1.3853
1623.5

1625.5
1.7846

1.7946
1.6208

1.7706
1626.6

1627.6
1.8056

1.8177
1.9504

2.170
1628.6

1200

1400

1730.0

1.8009
1.0893

1.2124
1731.6

1733.2
1.8146

1.8299
1.3662

1.5641
1734.8

1736.3
1.8476

1.8575
1.8279

1.9957
1737.1

1737.9
1.8683

1.8803
2.197

2.443
1738.7

1600

1845.0

1.8595
1.2146

1.3509
1846.3

1847.5
1.8729

1.8881
1.5214

1.7405
1848.8

1850.0
1.9056

1.9155
2.033

2.219
1850.6

1851.3
1.9262

1.9381
2.442

2.714
1851.9

69

v
h

2500 h
(668.13) s

v
h

v
h

3000

(695.36) s

v
h

(635.82) s
v

2000

(621.03) s

1800

550

1600 h
(604.90) s

(587.10) s
v

1400

v
1200 h
(567.22) s

1100 h
(556.31) s

500

SUPERHEATED VAPOR

Abs. Press.
lb/sq in
Sat. Temp.

620

640

660

680

700

800

900

Temperature Degrees Fahrenheit


1000

1200

1400

1600

1.4425
0.4222

1.4583
0.4410

1.4728
0.4586
1.4862
0.4752
1.4989
0.4909
1.5535
0.5617
1.5995
0.6250
1.6405
0.6843
1.7130
0.7967
1.7775
0.9046

1.8363
1.0101

1.3639

1.4079
0.2936

1.4258
0.3112
1.4419
0.3271
1.4567
0.3417
1.5177
0.4034
1.5666
0.4553
1.6093
0.5027

1.6836
0.5906

1.7489
0.6738

1.8083
0.7545

1.3638
0.2161
1.3855
0.2337
1.4044
0.2489
1.4765
0.3074

1.5301
0.3532

1.5752
0.3935

1.6520
0.4668

1.7185
0.5352

1.7786
0.6011

1.2687

1.4127
0.1760

1.4772
0.2159

1.5273
0.2476

1.6088
0.3018

1.6775
0.3505

1.7389
0.3966

1060.7
1267.2
1365.0
1441.8
1574.3
1698.0
1819.9
1.1966
1.3690
1.4439
1.4984
1.5837
1.6540
1.7163

1.3073
0.0984

0.1484
0.1686
0.2294
0.2710
0.3061
0.3678
0.4244
0.4784
1132.3
1176.8
1303.6
1387.8
1458.4
1585.3
1706.1
1826.2

1184.9
1214.8
1240.0
1335.5
1409.2
1474.5
1596.1
1714.1
1832.5
.2945
1.3300
1.3564
1.3783
1.4576
1.5139
1.5603
1.6384
1.7055
1.7660

1145.6

1.3377
0.1936

0.2407
0.2597
0.2760
0.2907
0.3502
0.3986
0.4421
0.5218
0.5968
0.6693
1185.1
1214.0
1238.5
1260.3
1347.2
1417.4
1480.8
1600.4
1717.3
1835.0

1187.8
1215.2
1238.7
1259.6
1278.7
1358.4
1425.3
1487.0
1604.6
1720.5
1837.5
1.3489
1.3741
1.3952
1.4137
1.4303
1.4964
1.5476
1.5914
1.6669
1.7328
1.7926

1.3877
0.2733

0.3174
0.3390
0.3580
0.3753
0.3912
0.4062
0.4714
0.5281
0.5805
0.6789
0.7727
0.8640
1193.0
1218.4
1240.4
1260.3
1278.5
1295.5
1369.1
1433.1
1493.2
1608.9
1723.7
1840.0

1223.5
1243.9
1262.4
1279.6
1295.7
1311.0
1379.3
1440.7
1499.2
1613.1
1726.9
1842.5
1.4052
1.4243
1.4413
1.4568
1.4710
1.4843
1.5409
1.5879
1.6293
1.7025
1.7672
1.8263

1.4251
0.4016

0.4532
0.4738
0.4929
0.5110
0.5281
0.5445
0.6191
0.6866
0.7503
0.8716
0.9885
1.1031
1236.7
1255.3
1272.4
1288.5
1303.7
1318.3
1384.3
1444.5
1502.2
1615.2
1728.4
1843.8

600

70

550

500

SUPERHEATED VAPOR

Abs. Press.
lb/sq in
Sat. Temp.
v
3206.2 h
(705.40) s
v
3500 h
s
v
4000 h
s
v
4500 h
s
v
5000 h
s
v
5500 h
s

600

620

640

660

680

0.0306
780.5
0.9515
0.0287
763.8
0.9347
0.0276
753.5
0.9235
0.0268
746.4
0.9152
0.0262
741.3
0.9090

700

1600
0.3703
1817.2
1.7080
0.3381
1813.6
1.6968
0.2943
1807.2
1.6795
0.2602
1800.9
1.6640
0.2329
1794.5
1.6499
0.2106
1788.1
1.6369

1400
0.3267
1694.6
1.6452
0.2977
1689.8
1.6336
0.2581
1681.7
1.6154
0.2273
1673.5
1.5990
0.2027
1665.3
1.5839
0.1825
1657.0
1.5699

1200
0.2806
1569.8
1.5742
0.2546
1563.3
1.5615
0.2192
1552.1
1.5417
0.1917
1540.8
1.5235
0.1696
1529.5
1.5066
0.1516
1518.2
1.4908

1000
0.2288
1434.7
1.4874
0.2058
1424.5
1.4723
0.1743
1406.8
1.4482
0.1500
1388.4
1.4253
0.1303
1369.5
1.4034
0.1143
1349.3
1.3821

900
0.1981
1355.2
1.4309
0.1762
1340.7
1.4127
0.1462
1314.4
1.3827
0.1226
1286.5
1.3529
0.1036
1265.5
1.3231
0.0880
1224.1
1.2930

800
0.1583
1250.5
1.3508
0.1364
1224.9
1.3241
0.1052
1174.8
1.2757
0.0798
1113.9
1.2204
0.0593
1047.1
1.1622
0.0463
985.0
1.1093

Temperature Degrees Fahrenheit

71

49

2990

cu. in.

44L

44

2685

44

112

51

2685

44

133

51

238

211

6740

2265

5976

2015

44H

2607

44

189

51

10

335

9487

3500

65"
60"
55"
50"
45"
40"
35"
30"
25"
20"
15"
10"
5"

49

44L

44

44H

44HH

16

* Ideal Gas at STP


** Non-returnable cylinder. Price of cylinder included in the price of the gas.
Note: LBX is an LB cylinder with a CGA valve other than 170 or 180

143

lbs.

liters

55

Internal Water Volume

inches

Height w/o Valve

9.25

Tare Weight w/ Valve

inches

285

cu. ft.

Outside Diameter

8071

liters

Approximate Capacity*

2400

psig

Service Pressure

Cylinder Size

49

COMPRESSED GAS CYLINDERS

High Pressure Mild Steel

976

2383

63

32.5

77

2181

16

16
2015

42.9

303

51

10

494

13990

6000

44HH

1**

427

28

18.5

6.25

33

934.6

2015

LB**

183

11

16.75

4.25

14

396.5

2015

1"

LBX**

60

0.98

7.25

4.2

5.2

147

2200

LB"

Med E

27

0.44

3.5

12

1.9

53.8

1800

27

0.44

4.5

12

1.9

53.8

1800

LBX"

275

4.5

14

26

20

566

2015

Med E

72

COMPRESSED GAS CYLINDERS

15

125

7628

cu. in.

65"
60"
55"
50"
45"
40"
35"
30"
25"
20"
15"
10"
5"

125

110

* Ideal Gas at STP


** Acetylene Cylinder with acetone
*** Non-returnable cylinder

159

lbs.

liters

Internal Water Volume

54.5

Tare Weight w/ Valve

inches

144

cu. ft.

inches

4076

liters

Approximate Capacity*

Height w/o Valve

480

Service Pressure

Outside Diameter

125

psig

Cylinder Size

Low Pressure Cylinders

420

70

70**

6712

110

73

45

4271

70

187

43..5

12

11894

1982

15

250

70**

260

110

55

55

3356

55

56

51

10

39.6

1121

300

22 LP

1342

22

21

18

12

13

368

240

22 UP

1342

22

14

21

12

13

368

240

732

12

16

17

200

240

11 LP

22 LP AL

22 LP AL

11 LP

732

12

11

16

10

200

240

11 LP AL

11 LP AL

71

1.16

2.5

12

0.7

20

240

4D***

4D***

73

COMPRESSED GAS CYLINDERS

30AL

1800

cu. in.

60"
55"
50"
45"
40"
35"
30"
25"
20"
15"
10"
5"

16 AL

29.4

liters

Internal Water Volume

* Ideal Gas at STP


** Resale Cylinder Only

48.5

lbs.

47.9

Tare Weight w/ Valve

inches

Height w/o Valve

144

cu. ft.

4088

liters

Approximate Capacity*

inches

2015

Service Pressure

Outside Diameter

30 AL

psig

Cylinder Size

High Pressure Aluminum

840

15.7

31

33

7 AL

360

6.6

15.6

15.6

6.9

33

83

7.25

934.6

2350

7 AL
2216

2216

16 AL

244

3.9

9.7

17.1

5.2

21

595

3 AL**

2216

3 AL**

80

1.3

4.8

9.3

4.4

6.9

195

2216

1 AL**

1 AL**

74

60"
55"
50"
45"
40"
35"
30"
25"
20"
15"
10"
5"

(volume)

413.7

bars

37.4

3600 psi

liters

2285

6000

kg.

psi

267

121.1

lbs.

cu. in.

6000 psi

Water Capacity

Service Pressure

Nominal Weight

9.28x51

9.31x51

3AA 3600

400 cf

300 cf

250 cf

220 cf

3AA 2400 3AA 2265 3AA 2015

10.51x56 9.27x55 9.04x51 8.99x51

3AA 2400

150 cf
7x46.25

3AA 2015

125 cf
7x43

3AA 2265

110 cf

80 cf

55 cf
40 cf

20 cf

7x43

7x32.38 7x22.88
7x18

5.27x14

3AA 2015 3AA 2015 3AA 2015 3AA 2015 3AA 2015

400 cf

43.3

2640

248.2

3600

81.6

180

300 cf

64.9

3960

165.5

2400

86.2

190

250 cf

48.4

2980

165.5

2400

61.2

135

220 cf

43.3

2640

156.2

2265

52.2

115

150 cf

43.3

2640

138.9

2015

51.7

114

125 cf

27.2

1660

138.9

2015

26.76

59

110 cf

22.0

1345

156.2

2265

24.94

55

80 cf

22

1345

138.9

2015

24.94

55

55 cf

16.1

985

30

20 cf

10.6

644

138.9

2015

13.61

40 cf

138.9

2015

19.05

42

8.1

495

138.9

2015

10.43

23

3.6

221

138.9

2015

4.58

10.1

cm 23.5x129.5 23.6x129.5 26.7x142.2 23.5x139.7 23x129.5 22.8x129.5 17.8x117.5 17.8x109.2 17.8x109.2 17.8x82.2 17.8x58.1 17.8x45.7 13.4x35.6

inches

3AA 6000

DOT Spec

Dimentions

6000 psi

Cylinder Model

3600 psi

COMPRESSED GAS CYLINDERS

High Pressure Steel

75

COMPRESSED GAS CYLINDERS

60"
55"
50"
45"
40"
35"
30"
25"
20"
15"
10"
5"

AL-150

Water Capacity (volume)

Service Pressure

Nominal Weight

8 x 48

AL-88

30

liters

139

1831

bars

cu. in.

2015

23

psi

50

kg.

AL-33

22 x 122

lbs.

cm

inches

DOT Spec

Dimentions

AL-150

3AL 2015

Cylinder Model

High Pressure Aluminum

AL-88

16

976

153

2216

15

32

18 x 84

7 x 33

3AL 2216

AL-33

366

153

2216

16

18 x 41

7 x 16

3AL 2216

76

Supersonic
Regime

Subsonic
Regime

Nozzle
Diameter

18 t

N2

29 t

51

32

0.89

P>0.89

45

40

O2

29

25

1.25

0.050

0.75

N2

O2

0.54

(mm)

Pressure
Bar

0.040

(inch)

N2

56 t

99

88

78

O2

1.75

0.070

O2

N2

73 t

130

115

101

0.080

N2

93 t

164

145

128

O2

2.25

0.090

t = P+1 for N2 and t = 0.9x(P+1) for O2

N2

41 t

73

65

57

O2

1.5

0.060

N2

115 t

202

179

158

O2

2.5

0.100

N2

139 t

245

217

192

O2

2.75

0.110

SCFH assist gas flow rates through a circular nozzle aperture (1 SCFH = 0.47 L/min 1 bar = 14.7 psi)

O2

N2

165 t

292

258

228

0.120

77

Period

Ca

Rb

Sr

Ra

226.03

Fr

(223)

Ba

137.33
88

Cs

87.62
56

132.91
87

85.468
55

40.08
38

39.098
37

Mg

24.305
20

Na

22.990
19

Be

9.0122
12

Li

6.941
11

2
IIA
1.0094
s-block

Actinide Series

Lanthanide Series

Rare Earth Elements

Ti

180.95
105

Ta

92.906
73

Nb

50.942
41

23

5
VB

183.85
106

95.94
74

Mo

51.996
42

Cr

24

6
VIB

186.21
107

Re

(98)
75

Tc

54.938
43

Mn

25

7
VIIB

190.2
108

Os

101.07
76

Ru

55.847
44

Fe

26

192.22
109

Ir

102.91
77

Rh

58.933
45

Co

27

9
VIIIB

Ni

195.08
110

Pt

106.42
78

Pd

58.69
46

28

10

Th

232.04

Ac

227.03

Ce

140.12
90

La

138.91
89

Pr

231.04

Pa

140.91
91

238.03

144.24
92

Nd

60

(262)

237.05

Np

(145)
93

Pm

61

Metals

(265)

62

(266)

63

(267)

Sm

(244)

Pu

150.36
94

Eu

(243)

Am

151.96
95

Gd
Cm

157.25
96

(247)

200.59

Hg

112.41
80

Cd

65.39
48

Zn

30

12
IIB

204.38

Ti

114,82
81

In

69.72
49

Ga

26.982
31

Ai

10.81
13

13
IIIA

207.2

Pb

118.71
82

Sn

72.59
50

Ge

28.086
32

Si

12.011
14

14
IVA

208.98

Bi

121.75
83

Sb

74.922
51

As

30.974
33

14.007
15

(209)

Po

127.60
84

Te

78.96
52

Se

32.06
34

15.999
16

15
16
VA
VIA
p-block

Non-Metals

(247)

Bk

158.93
97

Tb

65

(251)

Cf

162.50
98

Dy

66

(252)

Es

164.93
99

Ho

67

(257)

Fm

167.26
100

Er

68

(258)

Md

168.93
101

Tm

69

(Mass Numbers in Parentheses are


from the most stable of common isotopes.)

f-block

59

(263)

64

58

(262)

196.97

Au

107.87
79

Ag

63.546
47

Cu

29

11
IB

57

(261)

Unq Unp Unh Uns Uno Une Uun

178.49
104

Hf

91.224
72

Zr

47.88
40

22

4
IVB

s-block
Transition Metals

Atomic #
Symbol
Atomic Mass

PERIODIC TABLE OF THE ELEMENTS

d-block

to 103

89

to 71

88.906
57

44.956
39

Sc

21

3
IIIB

s-block
1
New Designation
IA
Original Designation

He

Ne

10

(222)

Rn

131.29
86

Xe

83.80
54

Kr

39.948
36

Ar

20.179
18

Solid

(259)

No

173.04
102

(260)

Lr

174.97
103

Lu

71

Gas

Liquid

Yb

70

4.00260

Phases

(210)

At

126.91
85

79.904
53

Br

35.453
35

Cl

18.998
17

17
VIIA

s-block
18
VIIIA

NOTES

78