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Field Computation by Moment Methods IEEE PRESS Series on Electromagnetic Waves The IEEE PRESS Series on Electromagnetic Waves consists of new titles as well as reprints and revisions of recognized classics that maintain long-term archival significance in electromagnetic waves and applications. Donald G. Dudley Editor University of Arizona Advisory Board Robert E. Collin Case Western University Akira Ishimaru University of Washington Associate Editors Electromagnetic Theory, Scattering, and Diffraction Ehud Heyman Tel-Aviv University Differential Equation Methods Andreas C. Cangellaris University of Arizona Integral Equation Methods Donald R. Wilton University of Houston Antennas, Propagation, and Microwaves David R. Jackson University of Houston Series Books Published Collin, R. E., Field Theory of Guided Waves, 2d. rev. ed., 1991 Tai, C. T., Generalized Vector and Dyadic Anatysis: Applied Mathematics in Field Theory, 1991 Elliott, R. S., Electromagnetics: History, Theory, and Applications, 1993 Harrington, R. F., Field Computation by Moment Methods, 1993 Future Series Titles Tai, C. T., Dyadic Green's Function in Electromagnetic Theory Dudley, D. G., Mathematical Foundations of Electromagnetic Theory Field Computation by Moment Methods Roger F. Harrington Syracuse University IEEE ~ PRESS Wy IEEE PRESS Series on Electromagnetic Waves Donald G. Dudley, Series Editor IEEE Antennas and Propagation Society, Sponsor The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc., New York 44> Hoes Lane, FU BOX 1951 Piscataway, NJ 08855-1331 1992 Editorial Board William Perkins, Editor in Chief K.K. Agarwal G. F, Hoffnagle A. C. Schell R. S. Blicg J.D. Irwin, L. Shaw R.C. Dorf A. Michel M. Simaan DM. Bter — E. K. Miller Y. Sunahara J.J. Farell MT J.M.F. Moura D. J. Wells K. Hess J.G. Nagle Dudley R, Kay, Executive Editor Carrie Briggs, Administrative Assisiant Karen G. Miller, Production Editor IEEE Antennas and Propagation Society, Sponsor AP-S Liaison to IEEE PRESS Robert J. Mailloux Rome Laboratory, ERI Hanscom AFB ‘This book may be puichased at a discount from the publisher when ordered in bulk quantities, For more information contact: IEEE PRESS Marketing Attn: Special Sales FO Box 1331 445 Hoes Lane Piscataway, NJ 08855-1331 Fax: (908) 981-8062 This is the IEEE edition of a book originally published by Macmillan Publishing Company, and subsequently kept in print by Krieger Publishing Company under the title Field Computation by Moment Methods © 1993 by Roger F. Harrington AIL rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced in any form, nor may it be stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form, without written permission from the publisher. Printed in the United States of America w987654321 ISBN 0-7803-1014-4 IEEE Order Number: PC0363-2 Library of Congress-Cataloging-in-Publication Data Harrington, Roger F. Figld computation by moment methods / by Roger F, Harrington, em, «iB antennas and Propagation Soviet, sponsor Originally published: Matar: Flac HI Reiger, 1968 Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 0-7803-1017 I. Physics—Data processing. 2. Flectromagnetic theary—Data processing. 3, Unitied field theory—Data processing. I. IEEE Antennas and Propagation Socicty. I. Title. QCS2.H37_ 1993 530,1'41°0285—de20 93-7060 Contents CHAPTER 1 Deterministic Problems 1 14. Introduction = 1-2, Formulation of Problems = 2 1-3. Method of Moments 5 1-4. Point Matching 9 1-5. Subsectional Bases I 1-6. Approximate Operators 14 1-7. Extended Operators 15 1-8. Variational Interpretation 18 1-9. Perturbation Solutions 19 CHAPTER 2 Elecirosiatic Fields 22 21, Operator Formulation — 22 2-2. Charged Conducting Plate 24 2-3, Conductors of Complex Shape 28 2-4, Arbitrary Excitation of Conductors 3 25. Electric Polarizability 35 2-6. Dielectric Bodies 38 CHAPTER 3 {wo-Dimensional Electromagnetic Fields a 31. Transverse Magnetic Fields 4 3-2. Conducting Cylinders, TM Case 42 3-3. Various Approximations 47 34. Transverse Electric Fields 49 3-5. Conducting Cylinders, TE Case 50 3-6. Alternative Formulation SS 3-7. Dielectric Cylinders ‘58 “ vonzents CHAPTER 4 Wire Antennas and Seatterers ez 4-1. Formulation of the Problem 62 4-2. Matrix Solution = 6 4-3, EvaluationofZm 67 4-4. Wire Antennas 68 4-5. Wire Scatterers 75 4-6. Discussion 79 APTER 5 Generalized Network Parameters 82 3-1. Conducting Bodies $2 3-2. Point-fed Antennas = 89 5-3. Conducting Scatterers 94 3-4, Aperture Antennas 95 5-5. Dielectric Bodies 97 5-6. Magnetic Bodies 99 3-7. Bodies both Magnetic and Dielectric — /0/ CHAPTER 6 Multiport Systems 107 6-1. Network Representation — /07 6-2, Loaded Antennas 10 6-3. Loaded Scatterers 1/5 6-4, Multiple Feeds and Loads = /20 6-5, Multiply Loaded Scatterers 123 CHAPTER 7 Eigenvalue Problems 126 7-1. Introduction 126 7-2. Method of Moments 127 7-3. Nonuniform Transmission Lines 132 7-4, Second-order Differential Operator 134 7-5. First-order Differential Operator 136 7-6, Extended Operators 147, CHAPTER 8 Cylindrical Waveguides 151 81. Second-order Differential Equation 151 8-2. Second-order Difference Operator 152 8-3, Moment Solutions 157 &4, Extended Operators 161 8-5. First-order Differential Equations 162 8-6. Moment Solutions 164 87. Extended Operators 166 8-8, Use of Generalized Impedances 167 CHAPTER 9 Cavity Resonators ire ‘Statement of the Problem 172 Moment Solution id 9-3. Plasma-filled Rectangular Cavity 179 9-4. Numerical Results 182 9-5. Discussion 183 CHAPTER 10 ‘Optimizaten 189 10-1, Hermitian Forms 189 10-2, Optimization Procedure 197 10-3, Antenna Gain = 194 104, Absorption Area 202 10-5, Bandwidth and Q = 204 10-6, Experimental Gain Optimization 207 Appendix A. Linear Spaces and Mapping 2/3 Appendix B. Matrix Inversion 2/8 Appendix €. Matrix Eigenvalue and Eigenvectors = 22/ Index 225 Preface Before the advent of high speed computers, it was advantageous to expend con- siderable effort to manipulate solutions analytically into a form which mini- mized the subsequent computational effort. It is now often more convenient to use methods which are analytically simple, but require large amounts of com- putation. Furthermore, many problems of practical interest can be solved only by the use of such methods. Because of the fantastic speed and storage capabili- ties of modern computers, almost any problem of linear analysis can be solved to some degree of accuracy. In fact, computer programs can be written for entire classes of problems, as, for example, wires of arbitrary shape with arbi- trary excitation and loading (Chapter 4). This monograph attempts to present a unified approach to the solution of ficld problems using computers, The methods are general, applying to fields of any type, but the examples are taken from electromagnetic theory, The material is introduced primarily by application of the theory, and the reader should not expect to find rigorous proofs and theorems. References to other literature are provided for that purpose. It is hoped that this approach will enable the reader to learn the various techniques in minimum time. Furthermore, since the details of solution vary greatly from problem to problem, only by many examples can. one gain the insight needed to treat new problems. There is an art to choosing a good solution, and this art is learned through experience. The unifying concept for this text is the method of moments. This is a very general concept, and almost any solution, analytical or numerical, can be inter- preted by it. For example, the classical eigenfunction approach corresponds to the particular choice of eigenfunctions for expansion and testing. The Rayleigh- Ritz variational method and Galerkin’s method are closely related to it, and so on. It is the author's conviction that the moment method, approached from the standpoint of function spaces and linear operators, is the best way to present the general theory. Particular cases are then interpreted within this general framework. The text is divided into two main parts, one on deterministic problems and the other on eigenvalue problems, Chapter 1 gives a discussion of the method of moments and of the various approximations that are applicable. Chapter 2 uses some of these for electrostatic problems, Chapter 3 for some two-dimensional field problems, and Chapter 4 for three-dimensional problems of wire antennas and scatterers. Chapter 5 discusses the general formulation of electromagnetic ix