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Class 08: Outline

Hour 1:
Last Time: Conductors
Expt. 3: Faraday Ice Pail
Hour 2:
Capacitors & Dielectrics

P8- 1
Last Time:
Conductors

P8- 2
Conductors in Equilibrium
Conductors are equipotential objects:
1) E = 0 inside
2) Net charge inside is 0
3) E perpendicular to surface
4) Excess charge on surface
E =σ
ε0

P8- 3
Conductors as Shields

P8- 4
Hollow Conductors
Charge placed INSIDE induces
balancing charge INSIDE

+ +
- - +
+ -
-
- - +
+q
+ -- - - -
+ +
P8- 5
Hollow Conductors
Charge placed OUTSIDE induces
charge separation on OUTSIDE

+q -
- +
-
- E=0
+
+
P8- 6
PRS Setup

O2
I2 What happens
O1 if we put Q in
I1 the center?

P8- 7
PRS Questions:
Point Charge
Inside Conductor

P8- 8
Demonstration:
Conductive Shielding

P8- 9
Visualization: Inductive
Charging

http://ocw.mit.edu/ans7870/8/8.02T/f04/visualizatio
ns/electrostatics/40-chargebyinduction/40-
chargebyinduction.html
P8- 10
Experiment 3:
Faraday Ice Pail

P8- 11
Last Time:
Capacitors

P8- 12
Capacitors: Store Electric Energy

Q
C=
∆V

To calculate: Parallel Plate Capacitor:


1) Put on arbitrary ±Q
ε0 A
2) Calculate E C=
3) Calculate ∆V d P8-
Batteries &
Elementary Circuits

P8- 14
Ideal Battery

Fixes potential difference between its terminals


Sources as much charge as necessary to do so

Think: Makes a mountain


P8- 15
Batteries in Series

∆V1 ∆V2

Net voltage change is ∆V = ∆V1 + ∆V2

Think: Two Mountains Stacked


P8- 16
Batteries in Parallel

Net voltage still ∆V


Don’t do this!

P8- 17
Capacitors in Parallel

P8- 18
Capacitors in Parallel
Same potential!

Q1 Q2
C1 = , C2 =
∆V ∆V

P8- 19
Equivalent Capacitance

Q = Q1 + Q2 = C1∆ V + C2 ∆ V
= ( C1 + C2 ) ∆ V

Q
Ceq = = C1 + C2
∆V

P8- 20
Capacitors in Series

Different Voltages Now


What about Q?

P8- 21
Capacitors in Series

P8- 22
Equivalent Capacitance
Q Q
∆ V1 = , ∆ V2 =
C1 C2

∆ V = ∆ V1 + ∆ V2
(voltage adds in series)

Q Q Q
∆V = = +
Ceq C1 C2

1 1 1
= +
Ceq C1 C2
P8- 23
PRS Question:
Capacitors in Series and Parallel

P8- 24
Dielectrics

P8- 25
Demonstration:
Dielectric in Capacitor

P8- 26
Dielectrics
A dielectric is a non-conductor or insulator
Examples: rubber, glass, waxed paper

When placed in a charged capacitor, the


dielectric reduces the potential difference
between the two plates

HOW???
P8- 27
Molecular View of Dielectrics
Polar Dielectrics :
Dielectrics with permanent electric dipole moments
Example: Water

P8- 28
Molecular View of Dielectrics
Non-Polar Dielectrics
Dielectrics with induced electric dipole moments
Example: CH4

P8- 29
Dielectric in Capacitor

Potential difference decreases because


dielectric polarization decreases Electric Field!
P8- 30
Gauss’s Law for Dielectrics

Upon inserting dielectric, a charge density σ’ is


induced at its surface
G G qinside (σ − σ ') A E=
σ −σ '
∫∫ E ⋅ dA = EA =
w
S
ε0
=
ε0 ε0

What is σ’? P8- 31


Dielectric Constant κ
Dielectric weakens original field by a factor κ
σ − σ ' E0 σ ⎛ 1⎞
E= ≡ = ⇒ σ ' = σ ⎜1 − ⎟
ε0 κ κε 0 ⎝ κ⎠

Gauss’s Law with dielectrics: Dielectric constants


G G q free Vacuum 1.0

∫∫ κ ⋅ = inside Paper 3.7


E dA
S
ε 0
Pyrex Glass 5.6
Water 80
P8- 32
Dielectric in a Capacitor
Q0= constant after battery is disconnected

V0
Upon inserting a dielectric: V =
κ
Q Q0 Q0
C= = =κ = κ C0
V V0 / κ V0
P8- 33
Dielectric in a Capacitor
V0 = constant when battery remains connected

Q Q0
C = = κ C0 = κ
V V0
Upon inserting a dielectric: Q = κ Q0
P8- 34
PRS Questions:
Dielectric in a Capacitor

P8- 35
Group: Partially Filled Capacitor

What is the capacitance of this capacitor?

P8- 36