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2009 Cement Specifications AASHTO M240 & ASTM C595 Portland-Limestone Cement An Option to Improve Sustainability

2009 Cement Specifications

AASHTO M240 & ASTM C595 Portland-Limestone Cement

An Option to Improve Sustainability

John Melander Portland Cement Association Presented at Spring 2012 NCC/TTCC Meeting

Objectives  What is portland-limestone cement  Performance  Environmental  Concrete  Changes to
Objectives  What is portland-limestone cement  Performance  Environmental  Concrete  Changes to

Objectives

What is portland-limestone cement

Performance

Environmental

Concrete

Changes to the Specifications

Portland-Limestone Cement  What is a PLC?  Type IL cement  5% to 15%
Portland-Limestone Cement  What is a PLC?  Type IL cement  5% to 15%

Portland-Limestone Cement

What is a PLC?

Type IL cement

5% to 15% limestone in ASTM C595/AASHTO M240

Ternary cements

Why the proposal?

Option to implement proven technology to obtain desired performance and improve sustainability of concrete

Historical Use of Limestone in Cements  1965 Heidelberger produces 20% limestone cement in Germany
Historical Use of Limestone in Cements  1965 Heidelberger produces 20% limestone cement in Germany

Historical Use of Limestone in Cements

1965 Heidelberger produces 20% limestone cement in Germany for specialty applications (Schmidt 1992)

1979 French Cement Standards allows limestone additions.

1983 CSA A5 allows 5% in Type 10 (now GU) cement

1990, 15+/-5% limestone blended cements being used in Germany

1992, in UK, BS 7583 allows up to 20% in Limestone Cement

2000 EN 197-1 allows 5% MAC (Typ. Limestone) in all 27 common cements, as was commonly practiced in various European cement standards prior to that.

2000 EN 197-1 creates CEM II/A-L (6-20%) and CEM II/B-L (21-35%)

2004 ASTM C 150 allows 5% in Types I-V

2006 CSA A3001 allows 5% in other Types than GU

2007 AASHTO M85 allows 5% in Types I-V

2008 CSA A3001 includes PLC containing 5%-15% limestone

European Cements 100 1.7 2.1 1.8 2.1 2.2 6.1 3.4 1.5 1.9 2.9 1.8 5
European Cements 100 1.7 2.1 1.8 2.1 2.2 6.1 3.4 1.5 1.9 2.9 1.8 5
European Cements
100
1.7
2.1
1.8
2.1
2.2
6.1
3.4
1.5
1.9
2.9
1.8
5
5.7
3.2
5.0
9.5
5.4
90
4.0
6.5
5.5
5.1
5.6
5.6
4.8
80
12.5
14.5
9.6
14.3
16.8
16.8
70
24.0
60
18.9
24.6
24.5
15.0
31.4
50
5.4
6.2
7.0
5.7
3.7
6.9
2.9
2.7
40
2.1
4.8
1.2
5.4
7.4
4.2
6.8
5.9
1.4
4.5
30
20
35.4
34.2
33.7
32.1
31.6
27.5
10
0
Cement Types in Europe (%)

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

0 Cement Types in Europe (%) 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 Others CEM V -

OthersCEM V - Composite Cement CEM IV - Pozzolanic CEM III - Blast furnace slag

CEM V - Composite CementOthers CEM IV - Pozzolanic CEM III - Blast furnace slag CEM II - Portland-composite CEM

CEM IV - PozzolanicOthers CEM V - Composite Cement CEM III - Blast furnace slag CEM II - Portland-composite

CEM III - Blast furnace slagOthers CEM V - Composite Cement CEM IV - Pozzolanic CEM II - Portland-composite CEM II

CEM II - Portland-compositeCement CEM IV - Pozzolanic CEM III - Blast furnace slag CEM II - Portland-limestone CEM

CEM II - Portland-limestoneCEM III - Blast furnace slag CEM II - Portland-composite CEM II - Portland-fly ash CEM

CEM II - Portland-fly ashslag CEM II - Portland-composite CEM II - Portland-limestone CEM II - Portland-pozzolana CEM II -

CEM II - Portland-pozzolanaCEM II - Portland-composite CEM II - Portland-limestone CEM II - Portland-fly ash CEM II -

CEM II - Portland-slagII - Portland-composite CEM II - Portland-limestone CEM II - Portland-fly ash CEM II - Portland-pozzolana

CEM I - PortlandCEM II - Portland-limestone CEM II - Portland-fly ash CEM II - Portland-pozzolana CEM II -

Cembureau data

Why: Environmental Benefits   10% 15% Energy Reduction* Fuel (million BTU) Electricity (kWh) 443,000
Why: Environmental Benefits   10% 15% Energy Reduction* Fuel (million BTU) Electricity (kWh) 443,000

Why: Environmental Benefits

 

10%

15%

Energy Reduction* Fuel (million BTU) Electricity (kWh)

443,000

664,000

6,970,000

10,440,000

* Per million tons cement

Fuel (million BTU) Electricity (kWh) 443,000 664,000 6,970,000 10,440,000 * Per million tons cement
Why: Environmental Benefits 10% 15% Emissions Reduction* SO 2 (lb) NO X (lb) CO (lb)
Why: Environmental Benefits 10% 15% Emissions Reduction* SO 2 (lb) NO X (lb) CO (lb)

Why: Environmental Benefits

10%

15%

Emissions Reduction* SO 2 (lb) NO X (lb) CO (lb) CO 2 (ton)

Total hydrocarbon, THC (lb)

581,000

580,000

104,000

189,000

14,300

870,000

870,000

155,000

283,000

21,400

* Per million tons cement

How Limestone Works: Why 15%? Matschei et al. 2008
How Limestone Works: Why 15%? Matschei et al. 2008

How Limestone Works: Why 15%?

How Limestone Works: Why 15%? Matschei et al. 2008

Matschei et al. 2008

How Limestone Works  Particle packing  Improved particle size distribution  Nucleation  Surfaces

How Limestone Works

Particle packing Improved particle size distribution

Nucleation

Surfaces for precipitation

Chemical reactions

Only a small amount, but…

size distribution  Nucleation  Surfaces for precipitation  Chemical reactions  Only a small amount,
size distribution  Nucleation  Surfaces for precipitation  Chemical reactions  Only a small amount,
How Limestone Works  Particle packing  Improved particle size distribution  Nucleation  Surfaces
How Limestone Works  Particle packing  Improved particle size distribution  Nucleation  Surfaces

How Limestone Works

Particle packing

How Limestone Works  Particle packing  Improved particle size distribution  Nucleation  Surfaces for

Improved particle size distribution

Nucleation

Surfaces for precipitation

Chemical reactions

Only a small amount, but…

How Limestone Works  Particle packing  Improved particle size distribution  Nucleation  Surfaces

How Limestone Works

How Limestone Works  Particle packing  Improved particle size distribution  Nucleation  Surfaces for

Particle packing Improved particle size distribution

Nucleation

Surfaces for precipitation

Chemical reactions

Only a small amount, but…

size distribution  Nucleation  Surfaces for precipitation  Chemical reactions  Only a small amount,
Concrete Performance

Concrete Performance

Concrete Performance
Concrete Performance
Concrete Performance
AASHTO M240 & ASTM C595 Requirements  Type IL —Portland-limestone blended cement  Example: Type
AASHTO M240 & ASTM C595 Requirements  Type IL —Portland-limestone blended cement  Example: Type

AASHTO M240 & ASTM C595 Requirements

Type IL—Portland-limestone blended cement

Example: Type IL(10) = 10% limestone

Type IT—Ternary blended cement with limestone

Example 1: Type IT(L10)(P10) = 10% limestone and 10% pozzolan

Example 2: Type IT(S15)(L10) = 15% slag and 10% limestone

AASHTO M240 & ASTM C595 Requirements  Same physical requirement as existing C595/M240 cement types
AASHTO M240 & ASTM C595 Requirements  Same physical requirement as existing C595/M240 cement types

AASHTO M240 & ASTM C595 Requirements

Same physical requirement as existing C595/M240 cement types

Chemical requirements – sulfate content, LOI

Sulfate resistance – no MS or HS in initial ballot

Limestone quality – CaCO 3 , MBI, TOC

2009 Cement Specs Update   IS (<70), IT(P<S<70), IP, IS (< 70) (MS), IS (<

2009 Cement Specs Update

 

IS (<70),

IT(P<S<70),

IP,

IS (< 70) (MS),

IS (< 70) (HS),

IT(P<S<70)(MS)

IT(P<S<70)(HS)

IS(70),

IT(P≥S) IL

IT(L<S<70),

IT(P>L),

IP(MS),

IT(P≥S)(MS)

IP (HS), IT(P≥S)(HS)

IT(S70)

IT(L≥S),

IT(L≥P)

Fineness

 

C

C

C

C

Autoclave

exp, max,

%

0.80

0.80

0.80

0.80

Autoclave

 

contr, max

 

0.20

0.20

0.20

0.20

%

Vicat test:

 

minutes, not less than hours, not more than

45

45

45

45

7

7

7

7

Air content of mortar,

 

12

12

12

12

volume

%

of mortar,   12 12 12 12 volume % IP(LH), IL(LH), IT(P ≥ S)(LH) IT(L<S<70)(LH)

IP(LH), IL(LH), IT(PS)(LH)

IT(L<S<70)(LH)

IT(P>L)(LH)

IT(L≥S)(LH)

IT(L≥P)(LH)

C

0.80

0.20

45

7

12

2009 Cement Specs Update IS (<70),       IT(P<S<70), IP, IT(P≥S) IL

2009 Cement Specs Update

IS (<70),

     

IT(P<S<70),

IP,

IT(P≥S)

IL

IT(L<S<70),

IT(P>L),

IS (< 70) (MS),

IT(P<S<70)(MS)

IP(MS),

IT(P≥S)(MS)

IS (< 70) (HS),

IT(P<S<70)(HS)

IP (HS), IT(P≥S)(HS)

IS(70),

IT(S70)

IT(L≥S),

IT(L≥P)

13.0

11.0

11.0

 

(1890)

(1600)

(1600)

 

20.0

18.0

18.0

5.0

(2900)

(2610)

(2610)

(720)

25.0

25.0

25.0

11.0

(3620)

(3620)

(3620)

(1600)

290

290

290

 

(70)

(70)

(70)

 

330

330

330

 

(80)

(80)

(80)

 

Compressive strength, min., MPa (psi):

3

days

7

days

28 days

Heat of Hydration, max., kJ/kg (cal/g):

7 days

28 days

days Heat of Hydration, max., kJ/kg (cal/g): 7 days 28 days IP(LH), IL(LH), IT(P ≥ S)(LH)

IP(LH), IL(LH), IT(PS)(LH)

IT(L<S<70)(LH),

IT(P>L)(LH)

IT(L≥S)(LH)

IT(L≥P)(LH)

11.0

(1600)

21.0

(3050)

250

(60)

290

(70)

2009 Cement Specs Update IS (<70), IT(P<S<70), IP, IT(P≥S) IL IT(L<S<70), IT(P>L), IT(L≥S),

2009 Cement Specs Update

2009 Cement Specs Update IS (<70), IT(P<S<70), IP, IT(P≥S) IL IT(L<S<70), IT(P>L), IT(L≥S),

IS (<70),

IT(P<S<70),

IP,

IT(P≥S)

IL

IT(L<S<70),

IT(P>L),

IT(L≥S),

IT(L≥P)

IS (< 70) (MS),

IT(P<S<70)(MS)

IP(MS),

IT(P≥S)(MS)

IS (< 70) (HS),

IT(P<S<70)(HS)

IP (HS), IT(P≥S)(HS)

IS(70),

IT(S70)

IP (HS), IT(P≥S )(HS) IS( ≥ 70), IT(S ≥ 70) Water req. max % Drying shrinkage,

Water req.

max %

Drying

shrinkage,

max, %

Mortar expansion, max, %:

max % Drying shrinkage, max, % Mortar expansion, max, %: 14 days 8 weeks 0.020 0.020
max % Drying shrinkage, max, % Mortar expansion, max, %: 14 days 8 weeks 0.020 0.020

14 days

8 weeks

shrinkage, max, % Mortar expansion, max, %: 14 days 8 weeks 0.020 0.020 0.020 0.020 0.060

0.020

0.020

0.020

0.020

expansion, max, %: 14 days 8 weeks 0.020 0.020 0.020 0.020 0.060 0.060 0.060 0.060 Sulfate

0.060

0.060

0.060

0.060

days 8 weeks 0.020 0.020 0.020 0.020 0.060 0.060 0.060 0.060 Sulfate resistance, expansion, max, %:

Sulfate resistance, expansion, max, %:

at 180 d

0.060 0.060 Sulfate resistance, expansion, max, %: at 180 d 0.10 0.05 IP(LH), IL(LH), IT(P ≥

0.10

0.05

Sulfate resistance, expansion, max, %: at 180 d 0.10 0.05 IP(LH), IL(LH), IT(P ≥ S)(LH) IT(L<S<70)(L

IP(LH), IL(LH), IT(PS)(LH)

IT(L<S<70)(L

H),

IT(P>L)(LH)

IT(L≥S)(LH)

IT(L≥P)(LH)

64

0.15

0.020

0.060

Chemical Requirements for Blended Cements Cement Type IS(< 70), IT(P<S<70), IS( ≥ 70), IT(S ≥
Chemical Requirements for Blended Cements Cement Type IS(< 70), IT(P<S<70), IS( ≥ 70), IT(S ≥

Chemical Requirements for Blended Cements

Cement Type

IS(< 70),

IT(P<S<70),

IS(70),

IT(S70)

IP,

IT(PS),

IL

IT(L≥S),

IT(L<S<70)

IT(P>L)

IT(L≥P)

MgO, max, %

.

.

.

.

.

.

6.0

.

.

.

SO 3 , max, %

3.0

 

4.0

 

4.0

3.0

S 2- , max, %

2.0

 

2.0

   

.

.

.

Insol. res. max, % C

1.0

 

1.0

   

.

.

.

LOI, max, %

3.0

D

4.0

D

5.0

D

10.0

C Insol res max does not apply to ternary blended cements.

D For ternary blended cements with limestone LOI max = 10%.

Requirements for Limestone for Use in Blended Cements   Test Method Limit CaCO 3 content
Requirements for Limestone for Use in Blended Cements   Test Method Limit CaCO 3 content

Requirements for Limestone for Use in Blended Cements

 

Test Method

Limit

CaCO 3 content

C114/T105

Min. 70%

Methylene blue index

See Annex A2

Max. 1.2 g/100g

Total organic carbon

See Annex A3

Max. 0.5%

Summary  Portland-limestone cements  Type IL and Type IT cements  Blended cements with
Summary  Portland-limestone cements  Type IL and Type IT cements  Blended cements with

Summary

Portland-limestone cements

Type IL and Type IT cements

Blended cements with 5% to 15% limestone

Good history of performance

An option for greener concrete

 Blended cements with 5% to 15% limestone  Good history of performance  An option
Portland Limestone Blended Cement in ASTM Thank C595 you! and AASHTO M240 Presented to ASTM
Portland Limestone Blended Cement in ASTM Thank C595 you! and AASHTO M240 Presented to ASTM

Portland Limestone Blended Cement in

ASTM Thank C595 you! and AASHTO M240

Presented to ASTM C01.10 December 2010