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Completion, Workover Fluids and Salt Tables

I. Drill-In Applications Prior to entering the productive interval, the conventional drilling fluid (mud) is replaced with a secondary, Drill-In fluid. The purpose of the Drill-In fluid is to promote the drilling process, while minimizing the potential for formation damage. II. Completions The Completion Fluid is used to control wellbore pressures during operations subsequent to drilling. III. Workover (WO) Used during later remedial operations The objectives vary from pressure control to solids removal.

Completion, Workovers Fluids and Salt Tables


Objectives

a) Solids Free Brines 1) Control wellbore pressures 2) Remove cuttings or other debris 3) Protect production capacity b) Polymer 1) Remove cuttings or other debris 2) Restrict fluid loss 3) Reduce friction pressures

Wellbore Pressure Control

The completion, workover fluid and salt tables are used to balance the pressures inside the wellbore with that in the reservoir.

pH = [0.0519] x D

where: pH = Hydrostatic Head, psi/ft D = Brine Density, lbs/gal

Mixing the HE Polymers in The Lighter Brines

Dry Powders: Dissolution is rapid Proper dispersion of the polymers requires shear conditions similar to that used for other polymers (eg., Drispac, Flowzan, etc) in order to avoid lumping.

Emulsion Polymers: Getting the polymer into solution requires inverting the emulsion. Under low shear conditions, this can pose problems.

HE Polymer Emulsions

These are oil-outside phase emulsions, having droplets (micells) of water and polymer dispersed through a continuous phase of oil.

Oil

Building viscosity in brine requires inverting the emulsion, putting the water into the outside phase and allowing dispersion of the polymer into solution.

HE Polymer Emulsions
Under low shear mixing conditions in light brine, incomplete inversion may occur, resulting in; a) Lower than expected fluid viscosity. b) Soft, white mass of partially hydrated polymer separating to the fluid surface.

Solution:
a) Increase the amount of shear b) Add a surfactant c) Add the polymer to fresh water, before adding the salt.

HE Polymer Emulsions

Inversion

Shear

Surfactant Brine Composition

Mixing the HE Polymers In The Heavier Brines

Dry Powders:

Dispersion is rapid and easy Dissolution is slow, and may require: Advanced Formulating Heating

Emulsion Polymers: Tends to invert easier in the heavy brines than in the less dense fluids. That is, the emulsion is less stable in the more concentrated salt solutions. Shear Surfactant

Dissolution
In the process of dissolving, the smaller unit (ion or Polymer strand) is extracted from the larger crystal or granule by free water

Hydration
In dissolving, each and every ion takes on one or more layers of water. This water of hydration allows separation of the ions.

Ca++

In the more concentrated brine systems, much of the available water is used simply in this manner.

As the concentration of dissolved salts increases, progressively less water is available for hydrating the polymers.

Water Content in Various Brines


110% 100% 90% Water Content, Wt% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 8 10 12 Brines Density, ppg 14 16

3% KCl + HE Polymers

concentration, lb/BBl = HE 100 Powder PV = YP =

1 6 2

2 11 6

3 14 11

4 19 19

5 -

6 35 43

HE 100

Emulsion

PV = YP =

7 1

12 8

16 19

21 31

30 35

HE 100

Powder

PV = YP =

5 0

8 2

12 3

17 11

29 17

37 23

HE 100

Emulsion

PV = YP =

5 0

8 7

15 16

21 28

33 42

38 69

10 ppg NaCl + Polymer

concentration, lb/BBl = HE 100 Powder PV = YP =

1 8 1

2 13 4

3 21 4

4 28 10

5 35 21

6 40 29

7 -

HE 100

Emulsion

PV = YP =

8 2

13 6

18 13

25 19

32 28

38 43

41 61

HE 100

Powder

PV = YP =

6 -1

9 1

12 2

16 3

20 6

25 8

40 10

HE 100

Emulsion

PV = YP =

6 0

9 2

14 6

19 13

25 21

34 34

37 36

10.7# CaCl2 + Polymer

concentration, lb/BBl = HE 100 Powder PV = YP =

1 9 0

2 14 2

3 20 7

4 28 11

5 39 15

6 48 24

7 54 42

HE 100

Emulsion

PV = YP =

10 -1

14 2

21 5

25 13

38 15

47 26

56 41

HE 100

Powder

PV = YP =

7 1

10 2

14 2

17 4

22 7

27 10

34 12

HE 100

Emulsion

PV = YP =

7 1

10 3

15 6

22 11

29 20

39 28

46 47

11.5 ppg NaBr + Polymer

concentration, lb/BBl = HE 100 Powder PV = YP =

1 6 0

2 9 2

3 13 4

4 16 9

5 21 15

6 27 22

7 45 30

HE 100

Emulsion

PV = YP =

12 3

15 9

19 16

24 23

31 28

36 43

HE 100

Powder

PV = YP =

5 0

7 1

10 2

14 4

18 9

23 14

30 19

HE 100

Emulsion

PV = YP =

5 0

8 1

11 6

17 12

25 15

32 25

36 37

7 lb/BBl HE 300 (Dry) in CaCl2


Brine Density = PV = YP = 10.6 40 30 10.8 45 17 11.0 73 19 11.2 75 25 11.4 95 21 11.6 80 30

7 lb/BBl HE 300 in CaCl2


100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 10.6 10.8 11.0 11.2 11.4 11.6

Plastic Viscosity

Brine Density, ppg

13.0 ppg CaBr Brine

concentration, lb/BBl = HE 100 Powder PV = YP =

1 15 0

2 22 1

3 23 12

4 60 -3

5 141 -6

6 -

7 -

HE 100

Emulsion

PV = YP =

9 1

15 1

22 3

34 3

51 8

71 15

98 19

HE 100

Emulsion

PV = YP =

13 -1

15 0

19 1

25 2

33 4

45 8

64 10

16.0 ppg CaBr/ZnBr Brine


concentration lb/BBl 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 HE100 PV 15 26 40 59 80 112 186 Emulsion YP 0 4 7 14 20 26 4 HE300 PV 14 18 27 37 51 77 97 Emulsion YP 2 4 4 6 13 20 33

3% KCl + 6 lb/BBl HE100d


Fann 50 Data - 2500F Shear Shear Rate Stress -1 sec dyne/cm2 5.11 24 10.22 32 170.3 117 340.7 162 511.0 196

rpm 3 6 100 200 300

Viscosity cp 470 313 69 48 38

Equivalent Fann 35 Dial Reading degress 4.7 6.3 22.9 31.7 38.4

n' K' Visc = (170 sec-1) PV = YP =

0.4683 0.0221 69

23 15

Equivalent Fann 35 Reading = (Shear Stress) / 5.107

3% KCl + 6lb/BBl HE100d


200

Viscosity, cp (170 sec )

-1

150

100 1 Hr 50 1 Hr

0 75 100 150 200 250 With Stabilizer

Temperature, F

250

300

300

85

3% KCl + 7 lb/BBl HE300 (d)


100

80

Viscosity, cp (170 sec )

-1

60

40

I Hr I Hr I Hr

20

0 75 100 150 200 200 250

Temperature, F
With Stabilizer

250

300

300

85

3% KCl + 5 lb/BBl HE100 Emulsion


140

120

Viscosity, cp (170 sec )

-1

100

80

I Hr I Hr I Hr

60

40

20

0 75 100 150 200 200 250


0

250

300

300

75

Temperature, F
With Stabilizer

3% KCl + 5 lb/BBl HE300 Emulsion


120

100

Viscosity, cp (170 sec )

-1

80

60

I Hr I Hr

40 I Hr 20

0 75 100 150 200 200 250

Temperature, F
With Stabilizer

250

300

300

75

10 ppg NaCl + 6 lb/BBl HE100 Emulsion


140 120

Viscosity, cp (170 sec )

-1

100

80 1 Hr 1 Hr 40 1 Hr

60

20

85

100

150

200

200

250
0

250

300

300

85

Temperature, F
With Stabilizer

10.7 ppg CaCl2 + 7 lb/BBl HE100 Emulsion


120 100

Viscosity, cp (170 sec )

-1

80

60 1 Hr 40 1 Hr 1 Hr 20

0 75 100 150 200 200 250


0

250

300

300

77

Temperature, F
With Stabilizer

13 ppg CaBr2 + 6 lb/BBl HE100 Emulsion


200

Viscosity, cp (170 sec-1)

150

100 1 Hr 50

1 Hr

1 Hr

78

105

150

200

200

250
0

250

300

300

78

Temperature, F

16 ppg ZnBr2 + 6 lb/BBl HE100 Emulsion


200

Viscosity, cp (170 sec)

150

-1

100 1 Hr 1 Hr 50 1 Hr

0 78 110 155 200 200 250


0

250

300

300

78

Temperature, F

10# NaCl + 5 ppb HE100 (e) + 1 ppb NaHCO3

Temp = 740F RPM 3 6 101 201 301 502 pH = Viscosity cp 380 304 94 71 61 52 8

After Aging for 15 Hours at 3500F Percent Viscosity of Original cp Viscosity 299 79% 185 61% 61 64% 50 70% 47 76% 42 80% 7.7

13 ppg CaBr2 + 9 lb/BBl HE300 Emulsion


200
400

Viscosity, cp (40 sec -1)

150

300

100

200

50

100

0 0 5

Time at 350 0F, hrs

10

15

14.2 ppg CaBr2 + 6 lb/BBl HE100 Emulsion + 2.5 lb/BBl Starch + 20 lb/BBl CaCO3
120 100 80 60 40 20 0 0 5 10 15
0

Viscosity, cp (170 sec-1)

20

Time at 200 F, Hrs

5 lb/BBl HE300 Emulsion in 16 ppg ZnBr2


200

150

Viscosity, cp (170 sec-1)

100

1 Hr 50 1 Hr 1 Hr 1 Hr

80

200

200

250

250

300
0

300

350

350

80

Temperature, F

HE Polymers in Brines

Conclusions

A. The HE Polymers are effective viscosifiers for brines in Drill-in, Completions or Workover applications. B. The HE Polymers provide a number of potential benefits, including: Thermal Stability Carrying Capacity Restricted fluid invasion Friction Reduction C. The powdered forms of the HE Polymers are most applicable in the lighter brines, including KCl, NaCl, CaCl2, and NaBr. D. The HE Emulsion Polymers are applicable in all the compositions.