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_Geolibros_

AGI
DATA
SHEETS
FOR GEOLOGY IN THE FIELO,
LABORATORY, ANO OFFICE
Third Edition
Compled by
J.T. Dutro, Jr.
R.V. Detrch
R. M. Foose
AMERICAN
GEOLOGICAL
INSTITUTE
Copyright @ 1965, 1982, 1989 by the American Geologieal Institute
4220 King SI., Alexandria. VA 22302-1507
AII nghts reserved, No part 01 this publication may be reproduced, storad in a retrieval
syslem, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electron,e, meehanieal, photoco
pying, reeording or otherwise, wthout prior wrtten permssion 01 he publisher,
Llbrary 01 Congress Cataloging in Publlcation Data
Maln entry under title:
AGI data sheets: for geology in the feld, laboratory, and office, Compiled by J,T, Dulro.
Jr., RY. Dietrieh, R,M. Foose. 3rd ed, p. cm
Includas selselad, unehanged AGI data sheets from 1956-1964 se!' 1982 edi
tlon, as well as rey, and new sheets.
Bblography: p,
ISBN 0-922152.01-2
1, Geology-Handbooks, manuals, etc, 1. Dulro, J. Thomas, Jr" 1923-, 11.
Dietrieh, Richard Vineent, 1924-, 111. Foose, Richard Martn, 1915 IV American
Geologieal Institule,
QE52,A36 1989
550-dc20
89-32854
CIP
Design and produClon by Melody Oakes. Mark Sehmidl, Bambi Satzer, Julie De Alley,
and Martn Communealons, Ine,
Primed on Allantlc Ledger Graentone by United Book Press, Inc,
Frst Editon, 1965
Sacond Edition, 1982
Third Edition, 1989
Printed n the U.SA
The Data Sheet series of Ihe American Geological Inslilule was conceived by
Robert C. Slephenson, a former execulive director 01 AG!' In February of 1956,
the tirsl Data Sheet, "Geologic Map Symbols 1," was published in the "Geo
logical Newsletter" ot AG!'
In July ot 1957, Joseph L GiIIson, then presidenl ot AGI, appointed a Data
Sheet Commiltee wilh Richard M. Foose as chairman. The committee was
given the responsibility of developing a series of Data Sheets to be pub<ished
and dislributed by AG!' During Ihe period 1957-1964, Ihe Foose-chaired com
millee was responsible for the preparation and publication 01 47 sheels.
In 1978, in response 10 comments about lhe sheets as well as to continuing
demand for them, the AGI Publications Commillee recommended tha! a new
subcommittee be formed and charged with reviewing the exiSling sheets and
developing a new sel 01 Data Sheets. The lollowing suboommillee prepared
the second edilion: Richard V. Dietrich (chairman), Central Michigan UniverSity;
J. Thomas Dutro, Jr.. United Slates Geological Survey; and Richard M. Foose,
Amhersl College.
The second edifion consisting 01 61 AGI Data Sheets. included selecled
sheels unchanged lrom Ihe 1956-1964 sel, sheets Ihat combined andior updated
information given on sheels 0\ Ihe original set, and new sheets. The soticitation
and collection 01 materials included in the second edil ion were greatly aided by
Thomas F. Ralter, Jr. (former director 01 publications ot AGI) and his able assis
tant director, Nancy P. Dutro. The production 01 the second edition was under
Ihe direction ot Galen McKibben wtth the assislance 01 Carolyn V. Ormes.
This third edillon, likewise. conlains some sheets unchanged Irom the lirst
two versions, but many are updated and revised, and new sheets are added.
The sheets represent the gracious and treety given efforts 01 the named
aUlhors and compilers and 01 several unnamed reviewers, as well as 01 the sub
committee members. The third edition was produced by Julia Jackson, director ot
publicalons, with the capable assistance 01 associale editor Margaret Oosterman.
Additional sheets will be prepared lor future publication and distribution.
Users are encouraged to submit suggestions lor other sheels 10r consideration
by the subcommittee.
December 1989
AGI Subcommittee on Data Sheets
J. Thomas Dutro, Jr. (chairman), Uniled Slates Geological Survey
Richard M. Foose, Amhersl College
Richard V. Dietrich, Central Michigan University
Contents
Prelare
i
Major Geochronologlc and Chronoslratgraphic Unts 1.1
Precambrian TIme Scale 1.3
Geamagnetic Polarity Time Scala 1.5
Lale Cenazaic Polarity Time Scale 1.7
Standards for General Purpose Geologic Maps 2,1
Geolog1c Map Symbols 3.1
Geologic Symbols 3.4
Fault Symbols 3.7
Symbols lar Fluvial Nonmanne Sequences 4.1
U.S. Public Land Survey Grd 5,1
Sladia Tables 6.1
Trigonometric Formulas and Functions 7.1
Natural Functions 7.2
Correction for D,p 8.1
Dip, Deplh, and Thickness of Inclinad Strata S.2
Conversion 01 Slope Angles 9.1
Contour Spacing Irom Slope Angles 9,2
Critera tor Determining Top and Bo!tom 01 Beds 10.1
Folds
11,1
Joinls and Faults 12.1
Mineral Hardness 13.1
Speelllc Gravity 13.2
Macroscopie Identilication 01 Common Roek-forming Silicales 14.1
Dala Pertaining lo Importan! Nonsilicale Minerals 15.t
Separation Characteristics al Minerals 16.1
Gem Materials 17.1
Gemstone Durability lS,1
Gemstone Misnomers IS,2
Cryslal Syslems 19.1
Bravais Lattices 19.2
Structural Classification 01 Sllicate Minerals 20,1
Field Classilicalion for tgneous Rocks .. 21.1
Aphanites 21.2
Textures 01 Igneous Rocks 22.1
Comparison Chart for Eslimating Percentage Campo sitian 23.1
tgneous Masses 24.1
Pyroclastic Sedimenls and Rocks 25,1
Characteristics 01 Falloul Tephra-Subaerial 26.1
Subaqueous 26.2
Volcanoes-Morphologic Types 27.1
Exptosivity Versus Eruplion InteNal 27,2
Graph lar Delerminlng lhe Size of Sedimentary Particles 28,1
light Partlcles 28.2
Grain-size Scales 29.1
Sieves for Detalled Size Analysis 29.3
Companson Chart for Eslimating Roundness and Sphericity 30.1
Descriptive Terms for Megascopic Appearances of Rock and
Particle Surfaces 31.1
Names for Sedimentary Rocks 32.1
Contents
Names for Llmestones
331
Classirlcation of Limestones According to Depostional Texture 33.2
Descriptiva Classification 01 Metamorphlc Rocks 34.1
Metamorphlc Facies 35,1
Pressure Temperatura Diagram 354
Concept and Classilication 01 SOlls 36.t
Soil Horizon Designations
36.2
American Soil Taxonomy 36.3
Checklist for Field Descriptlon 01 Soils 37.1
GUlde lor Textural Classilicatlon 37.2
Unified Soil Classifieatlon System
38.1
Soil Plaslicity Chart
38.2
Outline for Environmental Impact Stafements
39.1
Checklist lor a Mine Report 40.1
Investigalion 01 Seismle Intensity
41.1
Selsmic Effects List
4L2
Modifled Mercalli Seismic Intensify Scale
4L4
Geologic Study 01 Earthquake Effects
42.1
Checklist lor Earthquake Effeets
43.1
MaJor Public Sources 01 Geologlealln1orma\lon
44.1
International Geological Surveys
44.7
State and Provincial Geologieal Maps 45.1
Geologicai Highway Maps 45.4
Map and Aenal Photograph Coverage al the Unlted States 46.1
Bibliographies, Indexes, and Abstraets 47.1
Classllications 01 Llbrary Holdings 48,1
Powers 01 Ten 491
Electromagnetic Spectrum
501
Measurement Conversions-English to Metric
51.1
Metnc to English
513
Gemological Welghts and Measures 52.1
Hydraulic Conversion Data
53.1
Energy Conversion Tables
54.1
Glossary 01 Statistical Terms Used In Geology
55.1
Period,e Table al the Elements
56.1
Abundance 01 Elements
57.1
Abundance 01 Elements In Sedimentary Rocks
Crustal Abundance
Chemical Analyses 01 Common Rock Rocks
59.1
Sedimentary and Metamorphlc Rocks 59,4
Gravimetric Conversion Factors
60.1
Geophysical Data
61.1
IUGS Rocks
62.1
Volean ie Rocks
62.3
Optical Determlnations
63.1
An,Conlent 01 Plagiociase Feldspars
64.1
Calculabon 01 lor Short Form 01 Barth Katanorm
65.1
Rules lor Short Form al CIPW Norm
65.3
Data for Norm Calculalion
65.5
Sample Calculation al Short Form of Barth Katanorm 657
Sample Calculatlon 01 Short Form 01 CIPW Norm 65.8
vi
C o n t e n t s ~ ~ ~ ~
Majar Fassil Groups Used for Datlng and Correlatlon 0
1
Phanerozoie Sir ata in North Amenca
Geologlc Distnbution 01 Lile Forms
Physical Propert1es of Recent Manne Sediments
Identilication 01 Mlnerais by Slaimng-Carbonates. Gypsum.
and An hyd rita 69.t
Feldspar 69.3
Projectlon Nels-Eoual Area 70.1
Equal Wulff Not 10.2
ACF. and AFM Diagrams 71.1
Phase Equlhbna Diagrams lor Mineralogy and Petrology 72.1
Solutlons 01 Earthquakes 73.1
Momenl and Momant Magnilude 74.1
Calculaling Ihe Richter Magnitude 01 a Local EarthquaKe 751
Applcation of GeophySlcal Melhods 76.1
Geophyslcal Wel! Logglng Technlques 77.1
Use 01 Mohr's Circle in Geology 781
Physical Properties 01 Building Stones 791
Planats and Large Saleliiles 80.1
Oceans and Major Seas 81.1
Cantinanls and Larga Islands 81.2
Impacl Craters 82.1
Pnneipal Mounlalns Peaks 01 the World 83.1
Notable Valeanoes of the World 84.1
Notable Voleanic 84.3
Largo Rlvers 01 Ihe 85.1
Large Rivers 01 North America 85.2
Earthquakes 86.1
Proofreader Symbols 87.1
Preparing and Presenllng a Sllde Talk 88.1
Stale Boards and Offices Regulatng the Practlce 01 Geology 89.1
Inde,
vii
AGI DATA SHEET 2.1
Standardsfor General Purpose Map_s__.._.__.__
U.S. Geological Survey, Revised Carlographlc Technical Slandards, 1978
A general pIJrpose geologic rlap porlrays the dstrlbullon and strcture of Earth
matena
1
s in tnalr trlJe relattons to the configuration of the Eanh's sUffaca. Alt10ugh the
map shows +ea!ures at or rear lhe SJrface, the relal10nshlps porlrayed mak;e it passlbie
to draw reasonabie ,nferences t19 depth. An acceplable general pUf"
pose geologic map should mee! the
i The map st';ould be on a base tha'! l1eets National Map Accuracy Standards. A
topograph:c base except 0(1 srnallscale maps or 'n areas of such
low tha: Ihe conlours does 1'101 geologlc lnterpretalon
Ttle completad map should be
AII symbo!s on :he map shou!d l1her
m the ma:eriaL T1e sources 01 geo!oglc data should be tor
all parts tlle map, contacts 'nferred from geophyslcaL photogeologlc, or
remote sens'ng data should be idenflfled and exp!alned
A!I g80!oglcally signlflcant Uflts mappab:e at the scale shou!d be shown, aM
geolog,c features sholJld be deplcted uniformly tr-roughout tlle afea 01 t'ie map.
4 Mines, quarnes. wells. anO drill holes shou:d be shown j poss'ble al
he map
Geo1oglc Interpretat,ons snould be Inlernally cons:slent and plausible. Re!a
tlOns oi cartacts af geo:ogic umts ta opography shou!d be conslstent with racK
atlltudes. strallgraphy, and slructure showr on the iT'ap and Ir cross sectlons.
Should be adequa1ely portrayed structJral
should be 'ndlcated wherever practica!. shou!d be
mcludeo If needeo for c!arity. and these shou!d be consistent with re!ahons
deplcted on the map
SLr!IClal unlts Sl10uld be d st'ngUlshed and where poss.ble, s<JbdlVlded on the
basls 0
1
andor litho!ogy. tha map meelS al: cnter,a
but Ihls termed a bedrocK geolog1c map. It t fPeets I11S cr,teflon,
but does not the bedrock umts, tI shoJld be a sJrf!c:al geologic
map In sorne cases, more Iran one map may be requlfed :0 prov de adeQuate
genera Durpose coverage of an area.
Faults :hat display mappable oHset ot stratlgraphlc or iltholog:c umts or
dlsp'ay eVldence ot recent :novement or are of some other specla!
cance. sr.ould be rnapped and classltlsd as lo type reverse.
stnke-sllp). ano P arid dlreC!lon 01 relatlve be S'lown wher
ever possble.
In usage or be
9.
AGI
AGI DATA SHEET 1.1
Major Geochronologic and Chronostratigraphic Units
U.S.G.S. Geologic Names Committee, 1980 edltlon
Age eStim ares , of
boundanes ln
Subdl\llSIOnS 10 use by th e U S Geologlcal Su/vev
!and lheH rnap sy mbotsl
mllhon yea rs Imy )
f-------+- 0010
117 ))1
CenOlOlC
Fra or
tr athem
f-----+--------I-14 1l3161
I[nl
38 134 381
f-------+- 55 154 551
f-----+----'------1--------!-63 '63 661
1m fpo, hol
Uope
r
Selles
Phaneru/nll
Fo n ar
Meso lQl [
Fr:: or
erel aceu us
:)' ' KI
1959/1 -

:135 1411 -
Eonolhem
1\\71
11001 151-
1-------1--------------+-"'140 -
PaleOl GIC
t ro r
Era >- em
f----------------+-410 14054 15:
1---------- ----+- 500 1495 5'01-
(ambrlan DI ',(1
570 -
ProterolOlC I----------------+_ BOO
-
Fo nor Pr Dler olO lc V IVl'
Fon orh em l el
1.600 -
X IXI \
---------------------- ---- -f- !.50C
Arr.hean
Eonur
Eonolherr'
IAI
OIOeS! knowro '0' " ,n U S -f- 3,fiOO
435 '4354401
1 Ranges retlect uncertaln!les af ISOIOp lC[lnd b10str all graptll c age " gnments Age 01boundanes not cl osely br(1cket ed by
eXlst lng dat a shown by -- Decay constan!!', and Isowpe rat __-> ernployed are clted In SI81ger and Jager 11977)
Rocks older than 570 m y also ca! led Precambrl an (pe). a [lme term w l hout spec tl,c rank
Time ter ms wltnou! spec1hc r8nk.
Note
The 1983 edition by the U.S.G.S. Geologic Names Committee is essentially unchanged Irom
this version , except lor incorporating the Precambrian Time Scale 01 Harrison and Peterman
(see Data Sheet 1.3).
AGI OS-td -B9
AGI DATA SHEET 1.2
REFERENCES
Other geologlc time scales. Including internationally accepted epoch and
terms, and detalls on boundanes, geochronalogy, and corre!atons can be
in 1he following publicaVans.
AAPG. 1978: Studles in Geology 6.388 p.
Berggren. WA. 1972: Le/haia. v. 5. n 2. p 195-215.
Evernden, J.F.. Savage, DE, Curtis, GH. and James. GT, 1964: Am. J. SeL. v.
262, p. 145198.
Gao/. Soc London, J., v. 120S. 1964. 458 P
Harland, WB.. and others. 1982. A Geo/agie Time Seale. Cambridge University
Press. Cambridge. 131 p.
Lambert RS, 1971: Geol. Soco London. SpeClal Publications 3. Part 1. p. 931.
Monning. M., 1989: Eplsodes, V. '2. no. 1, p. 3-5. chan
Palmer, A.R . 1983: Geo!ogy. v. 11, p. 503504.
Odln, G.8., ed.. 1982. Numarieal Dating n Slratlgraphy. John Wiley and Sons,
New York, 2 valumes. 1040 p
Od,n, G.S , 1982: Episades. V. 1982, n. 3, p. 39.
StelgBr. R.H., and Jager. E. 1977 Earth Planot. Sel. Le/!' v. 36. P 359-362.
U.S. Geologic Names Committee. '983. U.s.G.S. Bu!!. 1537-A, p. Al-M.
Age eslimales fo' the Phanerozolc are by GA. Izett, MA Lanphere. M.E
MacLachlan, CW. Naeser, J.D. ObraaoVich. Z.E. Peterman, M. Rubln, T W. Stern,
and R.E. Zarlman at the request 01 the Geologlc Names Commlltee. Age
estimates lor the Precambnan are by the Inte'national Un'on 01 Geological Sel
mees Working Group on the Precambrian lar the United Stales and Mexlco. J.E
Harrison, chairman {sea Data Sheet 1 3).
AGI DATA SHEET 1.3
Precambrian Time Scale
Jack E. Harrison and E. Peterman, U.S, Geotogical SUfvey
EON ERA
500

1000
U
5
N
O
1500 a:
W
1
O
a:
a..
2000
!/)
a:
<t
w
>
-
Z
2500
O
:i
...J
i
z
3000
<t
W
:x:
u
a:
<t
3500
LATE
PROTEROZOIC
MIDDLE
PROTE ROZOIC

EARLY
PROTEROZOIC
LATE ARCHEAN
MIDDLE
ARCHEAN
EARLY ARCHEAN
900
1600
2500
3000
3400
'-- --/ --n8CO?}- ....... -- "
4000 I
, ________. _____
Source J.E. Harrison and Z.E. Peterrnan, 1982, North Ameflcar
graphc Nomenclalure Report of GeochOnO'T'etr'ic Un:ts
cambrian TIme: AAPG Bu/L v 66. p,
ThlS time Bcale for lhe Precambrlan IS reeommended lor use by 1M Interna
honal Unlon 01 Geologloal Selenees (IUGS) Worklng Group on the Preeambnan for
Ihe Unlted Stales and MeXICO and by the Canadlan and Unlted Slates groups
preparing reports on the Precambrian. The scale conforms in time Intervals wlth
those recommended for the ProteroZOle by Ihe IUGS Subeommlss,on on
Precambrian Stratlgraphy {Slms. 1979) and suggesls subdlv!Blons lor lhe Archean,
whleh has nol yal besn dlvided by Ihe Subcomm!ssion,
a
Am
lime scale for lte Pre
v 9L no 6. p 377-38;)
Jartes. H.L.,
deClslcrs by the Sul,como"ss'on
n?vlCw and a report on reC8'lt
Precambriar Res .. v 7. "le
AGI DATA SHEET 1.4
Formal names for eaos and eras are shown on the diagram. Subdivision of
eras into periods may bacome appropriate as new and geologic
data for North Amenea accumua18. The term is an Informal designa
tion lar rocks older than 3800 m.y.
These recommendations do not raqulre abandoning terms such as Penokean
or Helikean, which are meaninglul in some Such terms can be related to
the Precambnan time scale by delining their spans in years and by notln9
whether they dlrectly correspond wilh one 01 Ihe standard time units or whelher
they ove'lap standard boundanes. Similarly, delinln9 and namlng local geochrono
metrie units based on the spacial needs 01 an area is encouraged, provid.ng that
such units are expressed In terms of and are referenced lo the standard
uMs 01 the time scale Such local terms should not be extended
beyond the local a'eas where they geologic applicabilily because such exten
sions could Vltlate benelits 01 a standard time scale and introduce ambiguity in
communication.
References
Norlh Amar-can Cr1mISsIOr' on
3, p. 193204
Slms, P.K .. 1979, Preca'llbria1 s;.Jbdlv!oed Geollmes, v. 24, no. 12, p. 15.
AGI DATA SHEET 1.5
GEOMAGNETIC POLARITY TIME SCALE
During periods marked in black, the Earth's north and south magnetic poles con
formed to those al present, and during periods in while, the poles were reversed; num
bers and lelters identify magnetic intel"lals and reversals recorded by systematlcally
orlented magnetization 01 mineral grains in seafloor lava and mapped as magnetic linea
tions (alter LaBrecque and olhers, 1977; Lanphere and Jones, 1973; Larson and Hilde,
1975; and Van Hinle, 1976),
Om,y,
()uat!mary
Pliocene
4
4A
5
~ .
10
5A
Miocene
20
eA ,

B
H
30
Oligocene
10
,,'
8-
!
~
c:
tU
" 12
. ~
1
40
'7
la
'9
a
2C
Eocene
50
23
24
la::
25
Paleocene
26
. ~
60
Maestrichlian
-70
ReferenC8$
La Brecque, J,L" Kent, DV., and Cande, S,C" 1977, revised magneUc polarity time scale lar Late
Cralaceous and Cenezoic time: Geology, v, 5, p, 330-335,
Lanphere, MA and Jones, D,L" 1973, Cralaceous lime scale from North America: Am, Assoc,
Petroleum GeoL Sludies in GeoL, no, 6, p, 259-266,
Lamon, R,L, and H,lde, T,W,C, 1975, A revised time scale 01 magnetic reversals lor lhe Early Cre
taceous and Late Jurassic: Jou'- Geophys, Res" v, 80, p, 2586-2594,
Van Hinte, J.E., 1976a, A Jurassic time $cale: Amar. Assoc. Petroleum Geologists Bull., v. 60,
p,489-497
Van Hinte, J.E" 1976b. A Cretaceous time sca!e: Amar, AS$oc. Petroleum Geologisls Bull., v. 60.
p.498-516,
--
AGI DATA SHEET 1.6
Maestrichtian
'"
o
"
.. Campanian
l
11
(.)
1
'"
....
80
90
Cenomanian
100
Alblan
en
Apilan
o
..
"
:\l
11
Barremian
(.)
'"
~
Hauterlvian
Valanglnlan
130
Berrlaslan
u
.;
Tlthonl::r
'" I
~
Kimmeridgian
..
Qi
...1
Oxfordian
- - - - - - ~ ~ . -
.;
'"
'"
Callovian
E
..,
:::1
~ ~
..
iS
:2 Bathonian
:::t
160
140
150
110
120
AGI DATA SHEET 1.7
LATE CENOZOIC POLARITY TIME SCALE
Jaramillo
tJ)
w
I
~
Reference
Mankinen, EA and Dalrymple. G.B., 1979, Revised geomagnetic polarity time scale lor the inter
val 0-5 m.y.S.P.: Jour. Geophys. Res., v. 84. p. 615-626.
AGI DATA SHEET 3.1
revised by D.M. Kinney
This data sheet lisIs map symbols commonly used on geologic maps published by the
U.S. Geological Survey.
BEDDlNG

Strlke and dp 01 beds
Slrlke 01 vertical beds
Generalized slrike and dip ot
crumpled.
plicated,crenulated,OT un
dulatlng beds
Horiz.ontal beds

Strike and dip of beds where
top 01 beds can be
dstinguished; used only In
areas of overtumed
d
5
./'"\ 50
Strlke an dip 01 bedS and
plunge 01 slickensides
Approximate strike and dip
Strlke and dip 01 overturned
beds
Apparenl dip
FOLlATION ANO ClEAVAGE*
Alternatlve symbols 10r other planar elements

Strike and dip 01 lolalion Strike and dip of cleavage Strike of vertical 'olation
Stfike of vertical cleavage
+
Horizontal foliation Horizontal cleavage
/1/1 ) )
JOINTS

+
Strike and dp of jomt Strike of vertical ]oint Horizontal joint

Slrikes and dlps 01 mulliple systems
"Tne map explanation should always speclly the kind 01 cleavage mapped
_Geolibros_
AGI DATA SHEET 3.2
Double llneation
/20
Strike and dip 01 beds
ShOWU1g hOrizontal hneatin
Vertical tOliation, showmg
plunge of Imeation
'30
1
25
15
Strike aod dip 01 beds,
ShowlOg rake of Ilneation
CONTACTS
Concealed contact
FOLDS

Anticline, showing
crestHne and pi unge
Syncline, sllowing erestllne
and plunge
+
Verileal Hneation
25
1/
Strike and dip 01 beds aod
plunge o' Imeation

Strlke aod dip 01
fOlfaMn showing
hotjzonial lineatlon
Vertical beds, show1ng
hOrizontal lineation

60
Stnke aM dlp of foliation
showmg ra\\e Di hneation
Approxlmale contact
50

Cor'llacl, showing dip
-------_... .... _------
Qvertumed anticline, show
ng ofaxial surtace,
d ip of Itmbs, and ptunge
Overtumed syncHne, show
mg !tace 01 axial surlace
and dip uf limbs
/
Honzontal lineation

60
SHike and dip of foHation
aod plunge Oi !loeaton
40/
90
Vertical beds, showmg
plunge of !mealion
Vertical fOliation, showing
horizontal Imeation
Generahzed suike of falded
beds or folJation, showlng
p,unge of tetd axes
nferre contact
90
I
Vertical coniact

40
Mino' anUclme, showing
plunge

Minor syncline, showmg
plunge
AGI DATA SHEET 3.3
FOLOS (continued)
--v- --\--
...\
Approximate axes Inferred axes
Ooubtful axes, dotted Horizontal fold axes
where concealed

40
Fold
FAULTS

Fault, showing dip Vertical tault
..... -------
Inlerred tault Concealed lault

Normal fault. Fault, showing relative
down movement


low-angle reverse Normal lault, showing
T. upper plate bearing and pi unge 01
relative movement 01
downthrown block

Reverse tault, showing
bearing and plunge 01
relative movement of
downthrown block iD)
-?

Concealed axes
+
Dome
Approximate tault
- ---?........ .
Ooubtful where
u
Lineament
....... "
..
Fault zone or shear zone. Fault breccia
showing dip
See Data Sheets 3.7 and 3.8 lar addtional jault symbols.
AGI DATA SHEET 3.4
CROSS SECTlONS
High angle faulls
~
normal faul! vertical laul! reverse faul!
Low angle faulls
~
~
overthrust under!hrust
- ~
T ~
Fault, showing relalve Kllppe Fenster or window
lateral movement
A, away Irom observer
T, toward observer
OIL AND GAS WELLS
011

well
011 well, wlth show 01 gas
011 and gas well
*
Gas well. wlth show 01 oil
Gas well
*
o
Well locatlon
-<r
Dry hole
-9
Dry hole, with show 01 o!
Dry Show 01 011
gas
V
Dry hale, wilh show 01 gas
Shut in well
t
Abandoned oil well
11
Abandoned oi! well, wth
show 01 gas
Abandoned o!
*
and gas well
wilh
Abandoned gas well
AGI DATA SHEET 3.5
SURFACE OPENINGS
lARGESCAlE MAPS
Vertical shaft
Portal and open cut
*
c::J
Large open pit, quarry,
or glory hole
SMALlSCAlE MAPS

Vertical shaft
-!
Trench
Inclined shaft
Trench

Inclined shaft
x
Prospect pi!
x

Portal 01 tunnel or adit
Small prospect pit or open cut
Dump
Portal 01 tunnel or adit
"X'
Mine, quarry, glory hole,
or large open pit
Sand, gravel, or clay plt
:. ::. " 1#
Vein, showing dip H ghgracr. 01. Altered wall rock, showlng
intensily 01 alteration
.: :
.'o?/ . ' . . ",
----... ---- -;r, o.
Stringers or veinlets
, . .
01 mineralizatlon
o
b
Lowgrade mineralization Vertical drlll hole
-.... II
Vein 01 highgrade
mi neralized rock
50/
Inclined drill hole,
showing bearing, inclination,
and position 01 bottom 01 hola
Veln 01 lowgrada
mineralized rock
AGI DATA SHEET 3.6
UNDERGROUND WORKINGS
(horizontal line denotes waterlilled)
Shaft at surlace Shalt going above and below levels Bottom 01 shaft
v
v
~
v
:::;
V
~
v
V
~
v
Spacing 01
chevrons can be
used to indicate
steepness
01 workings
Inclined workings
(chevrons point down)
Stopes
Foot 01 raise or winze
Raise or winze
extending through level
Head 01 raise or winze
Ore chute
Cross sections
Stoped above
~
400
Elevation 01 rool
00000
0000000
Lagging or cribbing along
drift
Stoped below
375
Elevation 01 Iloor
-----1----
- - _ . ~ - - - - -
Caved or otherwise
inaccessible workings
_.'-.-
. ~ - ~ - -
Filled workings
Use standard geological symbols lor rock types, laults, 101ds, contacts, joints, lineations,
attitudes. etc.
AGI DATA SHEET 3.7
Fault .,Vlmg'Ol5
by Mason L. HiII, consulting geologist
INTRODUCTlON: The following fault symbols are designad to remove the ambiguity
resulting Irom lailure 01 traditional symbols to distinguish between fault slip and fault
sepBrBlion. Where a linear geologic element is displaced, the actual relative movement
(slip) can be determined (e.g., displaced Intersection of dike and bed). Generally,
however, where a tabular geologic element is displaced, only apparent relative move
ment (separation) can be determined. Thus, for example, these symbols provide for Ihe
importanl distinction between normal lault (only separation known) and normal slip
lault (slip known). Reler to 'Dual Classilicatlon 01 Faults,' Mason L. Hill (1959), A.A.P.G.
Bull., V. 43, p. 217-21.
GENERAL SYMBOLS
?--
.... -l' ..
Fault trace, lor maps and sectons
Approxlmately located trace, for maps and sections
Conjectural trace, for maps and sectlons
Concealed map trace; conjectural ( .. ? ..)
Dip direction; amount ( . . . J ~ ) . approximate amount
(-.U.5__l, conjectural directon L ..L1-..J.
SLIP SYMBOLS FOR MAPS
(Add direction and amount 01 dip. direction 01 relative slip, and slip plunge where known.)

111 65
735
Thrust slip laul!. Sawteeth on relatively overthrusl block; laull
dips < 45"
Reverse slip laul!. Reclangles on relalively elevated hanging
wall block; laun dlps > 45'. Dlp dlreclion Is illustraled
Rightlateral slip faul!. Arrows show relative movement 01
block opposite Ihe observer
Leftlaleral Slip laul!. Fault dip and slip plunge are illuslrated.
1I dip-slip and strlkeslip componenls are nearly equal, Ihe
name reverse lelllaleral slip laul! Is appropriale
Nole: 1riangles, reclangles, and barbs may be shown as appropriale and convenienl along Ihe map
trace 01 the laun. However, none 01 these symbols should be used on maps unless some evidence
of al least the approximate orientation 01 slip ia obtained.
AGI DATA SHEET 3.8
SLIP SYMBOLS FOR SECTIONS
Thrus! slip laul!. Arrow shows principal relative movement
component; lault dlps < 45'
Reverse slip laul!. Fault dlps >45'
Normal slip lault
RlghHateral slp fault. Principal relativa movement component
01 blOCk toward observer lB shown by the lelter T
Lelt-Iateral slip laul!. Leller A (away) and arrow (downward)
show relatlve movement components. If these components are
nearly equal, the name normal left-Ialeral slip lault Is used
Note: Single barb arrows and let!ers (T and Al may be shown on elther slde 01 the sec!lon trace 01
the faull, as approprlate and convenien!. However, none 01 these symbols should be used on sec
tlons 1I only separatlon Is determined.
SEPARATION SYMBOLS FOR MAPS
(Add dlrectlon and amount 01 dlp, il and where known)
Dip separation-apparent relative movement In lault dip;
D, downthrown or U, upthrown. Normal lault has dip toward
downthrown block; reverse lault has >45' dip toward up
thrown block (illustrated); thrust laull has < 45' dlp loward
D +65
overthrown block
Strike separation apparent relativa movement In laul! strike
01 block opposlta the observer. R, rlght-Iateral lault; L, lel!
lateral lault
Dip and slrlke separatlons nearly equal. (A normal left-Iateral
lault Is IlIustrated)
Note: Letters Indlca!lng separation may be shown as approprlale and convenlent on elthar sida 01
the lault Irace. The symbOls (+) and (-) may be subslituled lor U and D bul none represents any
componeni 01 slip. Separatlon symbols ara nol needed lor sectlons, and are only occaalonally
necessary tor mapa because the dlsplacement 01 labular g9OIoglc units Is usually obvlous.

known. Only those symbols used on a particular geologlc illustratlon need be shown In Ihe legend.
Sea Data Sheet 3.3 tor addltonal tault symbols.
AGI DATA SHEET 4.1
Symbols for Fluvial Nonmarine Sequences
Tor H. Nllsen, San Carlos, Ca!lfornla
Brecci a
IOOQoJ Co nglamerate,
O O O clast-supported
IIII:JIIIA Conglomerate,
matrix- supported
1_ - 1 Rip-up clasts,
- shale or mudstone
13 Rip-up clasts,
(0) 0) sandstone
1< '-.: ': <1Sandstone, massive
Sandstone

Sandstone,
trough cross- st ratified
Sandstone
tabular cross-stratified
Sandstone, contorted
cross-stratification
Sandstone,
ripple-marked
1:-%1Sandstone,
convoluted- Ia minated
""' 1Sandst one,
parallel-Iaminated
I:=., Siltstone
Mudstone o r shale
Carbonate
illID Pal eosol
lBCarbonate concreti ons
Burrow, invertebrote
Burrow, vertebrate
Root cast
Tree stump, in place
Tree stump, clast
Plant fossil
Vertebrate fossil
Invertebrate fossi l
Mudcracks
:;) 0 Raindrop imprints
:;:;
.1 Flute cast
Load cast
/ Paleocurrent azimuth
////
//// Poin t bar sequence
/ Finng-upward cycle
Coarsenng-upwa rd
cyc le
"Gt-OS-td-82
AGI DATA SHEET 5.1
U.S. Public Land Grid
compilad by Andrew J. Mozola, Wayne Slale University
Townships are numbered north and south 01 the base line, and east and west 01 the prin
cipal merldian. Each township Is a six mile square that Is further subdivided into thirty
sections. The sections are numbered consecutively Irom
Townsh,p .J NtNfh
Rahglf2 Wut 36 S4 mI
BASE UNE
t

Specialland survey systems are used in Ihe original thirteen states and in Texas, Louisiana, and
Kentucky, among others. Details about these systems can be obtained Irom the geological
surveys 01 the respective states. The Universal Transverse Mercator (military) grid. shown on mos!
topographic maps, is explained in Thompson (1979). Some helplul references:
Haney, D.C., 1979, Carter Coordinate and Topographic Index Map 01 Kentucky: Kentueky Geol.
Survey, Series XI, scale 1 :1,000,000.
Newton, M.B., Jr., 1972, Atlas 01 Louisiana, a gulde lor students: Louisiana State Univ. School 01
Geosciences Mise. Publ. 72-1.
Sewell, G., and Rogers, M.B., 1973, The History 01 Texas Public Lands: Texas General Land Olfice,
Austin, Texas, 53 p.
Thompson, M.M., 1979, Maps lor America: U.S. Geol. Survey Spec. Publ. 265 p.
neno"
E eno"",, CORNER
1/4poSI 80 rods IlOchatns
I
NIV 1/4 "f .. I
40 ACRES
I
I
20A
'" w
'C!::


o
ro
..
c::

1;)
'"
'" w
i3
<1
o
ro
I
I
I
....

::;1
N:E t-
40 ACRES
/320 tel
1/4 posl
AGI DATA SHEET 5.2
'"
::; o,,",,/4pOSI :
A secton of land is one mile square contaning 640 acres. In the followng dagram,
PT. A = CTR., SW'I., SW1f4 , NW'/4, of SECo 24, T 1 S, R 2 E
PT. B = CTR., NEv4, NE'I., NEI/., of SECo 24, T 1 S, R 2 E
Secton 24
-.. ....,
: .. ' + i!O chatnS
(AS'f orll:l wEST 1/4 UN!:
- ,'-'
tenft!r 01 seclfon, \ l' I /
,,\\\\
,'""" N
t
--w-SEt
E
SWir
160 ACRES
I
/// S
1
1
1, I 1\ 1\\
SECTION CCRNER
1/4 sI ..
40 clloms -2640 feel- /60 rods
SECT'ON
Measurements
One Link = 7.92 Inches; 100 Links One ChalO
One Roo = 16.5 feel; 25 Links
Ooe Chain '" 66 fee!; 100 Links; 4 Rods
80 Chains = 5280 fee!; One Mile; 320 Rods
One Acre = 43560 square fee!; 160 square rods
A Side 01 a Square Acre = 208.71 feel
One Arpen! = 2.9127 chains; 192.24 fee!, orO.848398 of an acre
NOTE: In some places, iotswere added to the north tier 01 sections in a
Irregularitles in surveys (irregular are common in the
stream courses where
to the later
reverse of that In the
subdiviSlons (Isd).
AGI DATA SHEET 6.1
Stadia Tables
compiled by R. L. Threet, San Diego State College
COMPUTATION OF VERTICAL DISTANCE
Multlply the stadia table value (factor), for the measured vertical angle, by the full stadia
Intercept on 8 plumb rod.
AGI DATA SHEET 6.2
40
4l
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
31.69
31.71
31. 74
31.76
31.78
31.80
31.83
31.85
31.87
31.89
31.92
31.94
31.96
31.98
32.01
32.03
32.05
32.08
32.10
82.12
0.33
This r modero, inlernal focusing
ordinary work wilh older, external facusing instrumenl$. For grealer precio
sion with exlernol focusing inslruments, add (1 fool X sine vertical <Ingle) lo
tolal computed vertical dislonce.
AGI DATA SHEET 7.1
Trigonometric Formulas and Functi_o_n_s__________
Compiled by R. V. Dietrlch, esnlral Michigan Unlversily
On both diagrams and in the equations, lowercase Greek lellers designale angles and upper
case Roman letters designale sides
RIGHT TRIANGLES
Therefare: sin 't cos (Y =!:l
e
tan and cot (y =E:l
A
etc,
And:A=Csina =Blann Also: sin u = cos ; tan u = cot iJ ; etc,
B=C cos {f =A c o l , ~ Furthermore: C' = A' + B'
=_B_
And: !l + :3 = 90
!l cos ( ~
OBLIOUE TRIANGLES
A
sin , ~
etc,
A tabulation 01 numerical values 01 the lunctions is on the reverse side 01 this sheet. Values
lar fractions 01 angle5-e,g,. the sine lar 256' (= 25'/'oO)-may be calculated by interpola
lan, More extensive tables are given in several mathemalics (trigonometry) and surveying book5
and are available on appropriately keyed calculators,
-------
AGI DATA SHEET 7.2
NATURAL FUNCTIONS
Sine Tan. Cosine Cotan.
O 0.0000 00000 1.0000 Infin. 90
0.0175 0.0175 0.9998 57.2900 89
0.0349 0.0349 0.9994 28.6363 88
0.0523 0.0524 0.9986 19.0811 87
0.0698 0.0699 0.9976 14.3007 86
0.0872 0.0875 0.9962 11.4301 85
0.1045 0.1051 0.9945 9.5144 84
0.1219 0.1228 0.9925 8.1443 83
0.1392 0.1405 0.9903 7.1154 82
0.1564 0.1584 0.9877 6.3138 81
10 0.1737 0.1763 0.9848 5.6713 80
11 0.1908 0.1944 0.9816 5.1446 79
12 0.2079 0.2126 0.9781 4.7046 78
13 0.2250 0.2309 0.9744 4.3315 77
14 0.2419 0.2493 0.9703 4.0108 76
15 0.2588 0.2679 0.9659 3.7321 75
16 0.2756 0.2867 0.9613 3.4874 74
17 02924 0.3057 0.9563 3.2709 73
18 0.3090 0.3249 0.9511 3.0777 72
19 0.3256 0.3443 09455 2.9042 71
20 0.3420 0.3640 0.9397 2.7475 70
21 0.3584 0.3839 0.9336 2.6051 69
22 0.3746 0.4040 0.9272 2.4751 68
23 0.3907 0.4245 09205 2.3559 67
24 0,4067 0.4452 0.9135 2.2460 66
25 0.4226 04663 0.9063 2.1445 65
26 0.4384 0.4877 0.8988 2.0503 64
27 0,4540 05095 08910 1.9626 63
28 0,4695 0.5317 0.8830 1.8807 62
29 0.4848 05543 0.8746 1.8041 61
30 0.5000 05774 08660 1.7321 60
31 0.5150 06009 0.8572 1.6643 59
32 0.5299 0.6249 0.8480 1.6003 58
33 0.5446 0.6494 0.8387 1.5399 57
34 0.5592 0.6745 0.8290 1.4826 56
35 0.5736 0.7002 0.8192 1.4281 55
36 05878 0.7265 0.8090 1.3764 54
37 06018 0.7536 0.7986 1.3270 53
38 0.6157 0.7813 0.7880 1.2799 52
39 0.6293 0.8098 0.7771 1.2349 51
40 0.6428 0,8391 0.7660 1,1918 50
41 0.6560 0,8693 0.7547 1.1504 49
42 0.6691 0.9004 0.7431 1.1106 48
43 0.6820 09325 0.7314 1.0724 47
44 06947 0,9657 0.7193 1.0355 46
45 0.7071 1.0000 0.7071 1.0000 45
Cosine Cotan. Sine
Tan.
AGI DATA SHEET 8.1
Correction for Dip
AnQle between strikc and direction of sect ion
' u 11
el i p ,
&0
IAngleofl
70
65 60 ' SS ' SO ' 45
10U
40' I 24' 1 3' S'! b' 41' I 8 13' 7 41 '
7" 6'
75 '
1
19 51 '1 9'
1S
14 47 '114
0
31' 14 ' 3' 113 ' 3), 1 13' 34' 112'
2b'
11 '
36' 10' 4'
20
1;) ' 43' 19"
53 '
lo
15' ! 17, 30' ! 16"
36'
1S'
35 '
14 '
25 '
23, 1
18
,
25' 24 4&' 24 15' 123039' 22 55' 1 22" 0' 120 54' 19 39' 18 15'
30 i 29 ' 37' 29' 9' ,28 29' 27 37' 26 ' 34' 125 lb ' 23 SI' 22
0
12'
0
35 : 36' 34 4' 33 21' 32 " 24' 1310 13' 129 ' 50 ' 213 ' 12' 26 ' 20'
40 ! 39" 34' 139' 2' 38 15' 37 15' 36' O' 34 30' 32 ' 44' : 30 41'
45 44 " 34, 144 l ' 43 13' 142' 11" 140 54' 39 19' 37 27' ! 3s' 16 '
SO"
,
49 3
4
' 49 l' 48 14'
I
4]" 12'145 0 54 ' 44 17' , 42 23' 40 7'
1
SS " [ 54' 35' : 5
4
' 4' 53 ' 19, ' 52 18' 51 3' 49 29' 147 35'145 17'
60 ' 1590 37' i s9' 8' 15
3
' 26' )57' 30'156 19"54 ' 49'153 0 0"50 46'
65 164040' : 64 " 14' 63 36'162046'161 0 42,160 21' 58 40,1560 36'
70 69 " 43' , 69 " 21' 49' 7,1167 0 12' 66 8' 64 35' 62 46'
75 ' 174 ' 47' : 74 30'174' s,ln, 32' 72' 4c ' \71 53' 70 43' 69 14'
i
79
0 0 o
00 51' !79 39' 1
7
,9 22' 178059' , 713 29' In51' n 2' 76' O'
35 ' i
64
, 56 ' ;134 ' SO' 1'4 41' 84" 29' ' 1:4 14' E3 54' &3 29' 82 57'
,"9 lob 59 ' lob ' So ' l!3bo 56' 88 54' E!S" 51' 813 47' 88 42' b!3 35'
;,Ilqlt> t)f l r.nql e be tltoleen strike and dir ection of sect i on
Tu il dipl 40 i 35 " 30' 1 25 1 20' ISO lO " 5' 1 1
10 28' , S' 46' 5" 2: 140 15' 3 2/' 2" 37' 1 45" o' 53' 1 o' 10'
15 1 46' ' 44' r 30' 6" 28 ' 5' 14 ' 3 33' 2" 40 ,1 1 20'10 16'
2lJ 13 lo,i 11 " 40 ' 10 1
9
'1 o' 45' 7" 6' 5 23 ' 3' 37, 1 1 49 '1 O" 22 '
25 1;6 1,1' 14 5h' 13 " 7' 11 9' 3' 6' 53' 4" 37 ' 2 20' O' 2b'
30 20 21' ,10 16 ' 6' 13 ' 43 ' 11 ' 10, 1 hO 30 ' 5"44' 2 53' o' 35 '
1 I
35 112'- 14' 21' 53' 19 " l b' , 16 28 ' : 10 16' 6" 56' 3' 30' [' o' 42'
40' 28 20' 25' 42' 22 " 45' 1 31 ,! 16" 0' 112 " 15' : o' 17' 1 4 11' O" 50'
45 ' 133'7' :'4 '1 29 SO' 26' 33, 1
22
55' ; 18" 53' 114 ' 30' 19" 51'14 ' 59 '11 0 O'
SO 27 ' 34 21' 30 ' 47,126 ' 44, 122 11' 1170 9' 11 41' S 56' l' 11' 1
55 42 33 ' 39 20' 35 32'13 1' 7'126" 2' 20' 17 ' 113 0 SS': 7' 6' l' 26, 1
f o T4 0 4' 47' 140 54', 36 o 14 ' 130 ' 29' 24 ' 8' 16 ' 44 ' o 3S' 1 1 44'
-5 1st! 2' : 50 53"46 11' , 36 ' IS' 2' [20' 25' 10 35' 1 2" 9'
i '
70 f.O 73 " 57 36 ' 57, 14':1 16';43 ' 13' ; 35 25' 25 ' 30' 13' 2b'12 ' 45'
7S i 7 22 ' 164 5e ' ' 4 57' 37 ' 1S1" 55' 44 1' ' 32 o 57' 11:: ' l ' 3o 44'
(JO : 74 40' 75' 34' 67 " 21,1 f2 43' SS " 44' 44 " 33' 26 " Is'lso 31'
05 b2 15' 01 20' 5' 7'0 ' 19 ,1 7s ' 71 ' 20 ' 63 ' 15' 44 54' 11 ' 17'
89 'bb" 27' ' 8'0 15 ,ISb' O' 7 38,I
J7
, S' b6 9' 84 IS' 78' 41,144" 1
This table has been adapted 'ram Appendix 1, p, 128 in A.R, Dwerryhauae's Ge%gica/ and
Topographica/ Maps, pUblished by Messrs, Edward Arnold, Landan , Adaptation ia reprlnted !ram
F,H, Lahee's Fie/d Ge%gy, McGrawHiII Baok Ca,
AGI,DS,65
AGI DATA SHEET 8.2
OIP, OEPTH, ANO THICKNESS OF INCLlNEO STRATA
Th i ckness Di p
l
1. 75
2 3.49
3 5.23
4
6.98
SO
8.72
6 10.45
12.
19 7
.;O
13 92
9 15 64
la"
17. 36
11
I:J .00
12
20.79
13 2250
14 24.19
15 25.88
16 27.56
17 29.24
Depth
175
3.49
5.24
6.99
8.75
1051
12.28
14.05
1584
17.63
19.44
21.26
23.09
2493
2679
28.67
3057
Di p
31
0
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
40
41
0
42
0
43
44"
45
46
47
Th i ckness
51.50
52.99
54.46
55.92
5736
58.78
60.lti
61.57
62.93
64.28
65.61
66.91
68.20
69.47
70.71
Depth
60.09
62.49
64.94
67.115
70.02
]2.65
75 36
78.13
80.98
83 91
86.93
90.04
93.25
96.57
100.00
7193
1103.55
73.14 107.24
Dip 1ThCkneSS Depth
61 "
62"
63
64
65
0
66
67
0
68
0
,0
70
]1"
]20
73
74
75
76
n
5746 180.40
88.29 188.07
09 10 196.26
89.88
205.03
90.63 214.45
91.35 224.60
92.05
23559
92. ]2
24751
93.36 260 51
93 97 27475
94.55 290.42
9').11
307 n
95.63 327.09
96.13 348.74
96 59 37321
97.03 401.00
97.44 433.15
18 30.90 32.49
19
32.56 34.43
20 34. ;:0
3640
21
3584
3839
22 40.40 3746
23
39.07 42.45
24 40.67
4452
42.26 25 46.63
26<>
43.84 40. n
2]'
45.40
50.95
28 46.95
53 17
40.48 29
55.43
50.00 57.74
30
46
49
50
51 e
52
53 o
54
55
0
56
5r
50"
60
74.31
75.47
76.60
n.71
78.80
79.86
80.90
81 .92
62.90
8387
b4.80
86.60
111.06
115.04
119.18
123.49
127.99
132.70
13764
142 81
14b 26
153.99
160.03
166.43
17321
78
79
80
0
81
82
03"
b4
:0
86
5r
8C
09
0
97.81 470.46
98.16 514.46
98.48 567.13
98.1] 631.3
99.03 711.54
99.25 814.43
99.45 951.44
99.62 14301
99.76 1I .07
99.66 ::lOe.l1
99.94 128
1
.63
15
)0
By permission from Fleld Geology, 5th Ed, by F.H. Lahee. Copyright (1952) McGrawHIII Book Co.
AGI DATA SHEET 9.1
Convtnsiion o,
Conversion from per cent grade lo vertical angles in degrees and minutes o, are
per cent vertical per cent
per cen t vertica I per cent vertical
grade ang 1e grade angle grade ang le grade angle
26 1 1434' 0035' 51 2701'
76 3714'
27 06 52
27 28 2 01 09
37 36 77
28
15 39 53 27 56
01 44
3
78
37 57
29 16 10 54 28 22
4 02 18
38 18 79
30 1642
55 28 49
02 52 5
80
38 39
31
17 13
56
29 15
6 03 26
81
39 00
32 17 44
57 29 41
04 00
7
82
39 21
33 18 16
58 30 07
8 04 35
83 39 41
34 18 46
59 30 33
05 09 9
84 40 01
60
30 58
19 17 35
10 05 43
40 22 85
61
31 23
36 19 48 11 06 17
86 40 42
62
31 48
20 18 37 12 06 51 41 02 87
63 32 13
38 20 48
88 41 21
13 07 24
64
32 37
21 18 39
14 07 58 41 40 89
65
33 02
40 21 48
08 32 15 90 41 59
66
33 26
41 22 18
16
9
1 09 05 42 19
67
33 49
42 22 47
17 09 39 92 42 37
68 34 13
43 23 16 18 10 12
93 42 55
34 )6 69
19 10 45 44 23 45 94 43 14
70 34 59
20 11 19 45 24 13 95 43 32
71 35 22
21 11 51 96 43 50 46 24 42
72 35 45
44 07 97 22 12 24
47 25 11
36 08 98 44 25 73 23 12 57
48
25 39
74 36 30 44 43 24 99 13 30
25 06 49
100 36 52 45 00 75 14 02 25
50 26 34
Conversion from degrees to per eenl 01 grade
vert ca 1
per cent
ver
per cent
vertical
ang 1e
grade grade
angle
(degrees)
~ e s (degrees)
vert j cal
angl e
(deg rees)
per cent
1 1.7
14 24.9 27
5C.9
40
83.9
2 3.5 15
26,8
28 53.2
41
86.9
3 5 2
16 28.7
29 55.4
42
90.0
4 7, O 17 30.6 30
57.7
43 93.2
5 8.7
18
32.5 31 60.1 44 96.6
6 10.5
19 34.4
32 62.5
45 100.0
7
12.3
20 36.4
33 64.9
46
103.5
8 14. O 21
38.4
34
67.4 47 107.2
9
15.8 22 40.4
35 70.0
48 111.1
10 17.6
23 42.4
36
72.6 49 115.5
11 19.4
24
44.5
37 75.3 50 119.2
12 21.2
25 46.6 38 78.1
13 23.1
26 48.8 39 81.0
By permission from Field Geology, 5th Ed, by F.H. Lahee.
Copyright (1952) McGraw-Hill Book Co.
AGIOS-eS
AGI DATA SHEET 9.2
CONTOUR SPACING FROM SLOPE ANGLES
Con tour
Ft. =
1 2
5
10 20 25 50 100
i nterva 1
Slope or dip
angl e in degrees
Contour spacing in feet on the ground
1 57.3
104.6 286.4
573
1046 1432 2864
5729
2 28.6 56.3 143.2 286 563 716 1432 2864
3
19.1 38.2 95.4 191 382 477 954 1908
4 14.3 28.6 71.5 143 286
357 715 1430
5
11.4 22.9 57.1 114 229 285
571
1143
6 9.5 19.0 47.5 95 190 237 475 951
7
8.1 16.3 40.7 81 163 203 407 814
8 7.1 14.2
35.5 71 142 177 355 711
9
6.3 12.6 31.5 63 126
157 315 631
10 5.6 11.3 28.3
57
113 141 283 567
11 5.1 10.3 25.7
1
51 103 128
257 514
12 4.7 9.4 23.5 i 47 94 117 235 470
13 4.3 8.7 21.6 43 87
108 216 433
14 4.0 8. O 20.0 40 80 100 200 401
15 3.7 7.5 18.6
37 75 93
186
373
16
3.5 7.0 17.4
35 70 87 174 349
17 3.3 6.5 16.3 33
66 81 163 327
18 3.1 6.2 15.4 31 62
77
154 308
19 2.9 5.8 14.5 29 58 72 145 290.
20 2.7 5.5 13.7 27 55
68
137 270
21 2.6 5.2 13. O 26
52 65 130 260
22 2.5 4.9 12.3 25 49 62 123 247
23 2.3 4.7 11.7 23 47 59
117 235
24 2.2 4.5 11.2 22 45 56 112 225
25 2.1 4.3 10.7 21 43 53 107 214
26 2.0 4.1 10.2 20 41 51 102 204
27 2.0 3.9 9.8 20
39 49 98 196
28
I
1.9 3.8 9.4 19 37 47 94
188
29 1.8 3.6 9.0 18 36 45 90
180
30 1.7 3.5
8.6 17 35 43 86 173
31
I
1.7 3.3 8.3 16
33
41 83
166
32 1.6 3.2 8.0 16 32 40 80 160
33
1.5 3.1 7.7 15 31 38 77
154
34
I
1.5 3.0 7.4 15 30 37 74 148
35
1.4 2.9 7.1 14
29 35 71 143
36
1.4 2.8 6.9 14 28 34 69 138
37
1.3 2.7 6.6 13 27 33
66 133
38 1.3 2.6 6.4 13 26 32 64 128
39
1.2 2.5 6.1 12 25 31 61 123
40 1.2 2.4
5.9 12 24 30 59 119
41 1.1 2.3 5.7
11 23 29 57
115
42 1.1 2.2 5.5 11 22 28
55
111
43 1.1 2.1
5.3
11 21 27 53
107
44 1.0 2.0 5.1 10 20 26 51 103
45 1.0 2.0 5.0 10 20 25 50 100
To Ilnd the contour spacing lor a slope or dip angle 01 24 degrees. with a contour interval 01
20 ft. locate line 24 in the left column and number 20 on the top line. At the intersection 01 these
two lines, read the proper value lar the contour spacing, which is 45 ft. One may interpolate
lar values between those shown on the data sr,eet. Far instance, a contour spacing 01 96 It lalls
mldway between 27 and 28 degrees In the left column; hence. the slope angle is 27 1/2
degrees. Far converslon to meters. 1 It =0.3048 meter
AGI DATA SHEET 10.1
Criteria 'or Determining Top and Bottom O, Beds.
by Siemon W. Muller, Stanlord Unlversity
PHYSICAL
Traclng 01 beds or recognltion 01 a known normal sequence. The top and bottom 01 ver
tical or sleeply inclined beds may be delermined by Iracing to or correlating with the
known normal (upright) sequence (A) in the area where these strata are either only gent
Iy lolded (at B) or not at all delormed (at A).
Scouring or channeling. Scouring or chan
neling 01 strata with subsequent filling 01
the channels will truncate the underlying
strata. The concave sides 01 channels will
generally point upward. The edges 01 beds
truncated by erosion (unconlormity) are
toward the original topo
Conglomerates. Basal and intralormational
conglomerates may contain pebbles and
boulders which can be recognized as hav
ing been derived Irom the beds below.
Solution surfaces. Irregular solution sur
laces may lorm along the top 01 limestone
beds or other relatively soluble rocks.
Graded bedding. In sediments with graded
bedding, the texture will grade lrom coarse
below to line above. This olten does not
hold true in currentbedded deposits.
Graded bedding may be present under
various current, including turbidity current,
conditions. However, it should be borne in
mind that under these conditions a grada
-:0. '0 -"00

...X:


tion in texture may be Irom coarse to line as well as Irom line to coarse. As origlnally de-

rent bedding" which is produced by "resorting and redistribution 01 material. "
Crossbeddlng.ln crossbedding one set 01
layers or laminae are truncated by overly
ing layers, but away Irom this contact the
layers sweep along a concave curve to a
conlormable contact with the underlying
layers. The concave si de 01 crossbedding
generally points toward the original upper
side. Individual crossbedded laminae may
showa downward gradatlon in texture
Irom coarse to line.
_Geolibros_
---
AGI DATA SHEET 10.2
Mud cracks. Mud cracks generally
decrease in width downward and may be
IlIled with material which composes the
overlying beds.
Rlpple marks. In symmetrical ripple marks
the crests (tops) are sharper than the
troughs. Occasionally minor crests may be
present in troughs.
Sole marks. Small, wave or tongue-like
penetrations 01 a coarse clastlc material
Irom aboye into a liner clastic material
below along minor surlace irregularities on
a bedding plane. Some 01 these marks are
explained by delormation or Ilow 01 uncon
solidated (and diluted or watersaturated)
sediments by gravity' sliding along a
primary incline 01 a bedding plane and
possibly triggered by earthquakes. These
shale), but are rarely (il ever?) lormed at the contact 01 clay overlying sand.
leatures tend to develop along a contact 01 sand (now sandstone) overlying a clay (now
Fracture cleavage. In the upright section 01
lolded rocks, the Iracture cleavage is
generally steeper than the beddlng (a), but
when the beds are overturned the reverse
is true (b) .
Curved fracture cleavage. Curved Iracture
cleavage may be observed in delormed
beds where individual beds have a percep
tibie gradation 01 texture Irom coarse
below to line aboye (graded bedding). On
the side with coarser texture (bottom) the
angle between the Iracture and the bed
ding will be larger or more obtuse than on
the side with the liner texture (top or lace
01 the bed). The convex side 01 the curo
vature 01 the Iracture cleavage will bow out
toward the original top 01 the bed.
......
!
. ." .....
o ~ : ~ .... ......
, ~ - ~ .
Pebble dents. When the matrix is bulged
around an imbedded pebble on one side
only, this side is the original bottom (a). Ap
parent denting 01 laminated sediments
aboye and below an embedded pebble may
result lrom the subsequent compaction or
compression 01 sediments (b).
b
Reference
Shroek, R.R. , 1948 Sequence in Layered Rocks. MeGraw-Hill Baak Ca, Ine ,
New Yark-Taranta-Landan, 507p ., 397 figs.
AGI DATA SHEET 10.3
PALEONTOLOGICAL
Bryozoa. Shells 01 invertebrate organisms
or other solid objects Iying with their
longer axes in the plana 01 stratilication
may be encrusted by bryozoans on the up
per slde.
Brachlopods. Crania-like brachiopods oc
cur cemented on other shells or on sub-
strate with their convexo conical val ves ' .
pointing
Pelecypods. a)Shellsol Schizothaerus(fer
tiary) and Pholadomya (Mesozoic) are not
uncommonly lound in their original buried
position, "standing on end" with their
posterior (siphonal) end pointlng upward.
b) Rudists and rudist-like aberrant pele
cypods are occasionally lound in their
original upright position with the Iree valve
at the topo
c) Disjointed or spread-out open val ves
01 convex pelecypods are generally
brought to rest by wave action or by cur
rents with their convex side up. Exceptions
to this rule are not uncommon. Observa
tions based on a single shell or only a lew
shells are not completely reliable.
d) Inequivalved pelecypods il buried
alive will have their more convex valve
pOint downward.
e) Shells 01 marine organisms or other
solid objects on the substrate may be en
crusted on their Iree, uppar surlace with
cemented lorms such as oysters, barna
cles, or other sessile organisms.
I I
Worm Iralls. Worm trails and trails 01 prob
lematical organisms generally leave
grooves on the face of the bed. Worms
grubbing near the surlace 01 the subslrale
will leave raised, flaltened ridges wilh a
barely perceplible groove in Ihe middle,
presumably due lo the "caving" 01 Ihe
grubblng "Iunnel" afler the organism
passed Ihrough Ihe lunnel.
f -
AGI DATA SHEET 10.4
PHYSICAL CRITERIA FOR IGNEOUS ROCKS
Laya flows. Tops 01 interbedded lava Ilows
generally are more vesicular. In lavas
which contaln branching tubules the direc
lhoe
n

original top 01 the lava Ilow.
A more or less perceptible contact meta
morphlsm (brickrOO burned soil) may be
present In the rocks below the bottom 01
Ihe lava flow, but no metamorphism and a
depositional contact will mark the top 01
the lava Ilow.
Crestsof wrinkles The crests or tops 01
wrinkles on the surfaces 01 lava are genero
ally smoother and more broadly curvOO
than the spaces between the wrinkles.

al Upper surfaces 01 pllows are moder
ately or gently convex and relatively
smooth.
b) Bottoms 01 pillows commonly have
cusps pointing down Into Ihe inlerspaces
between the underlying pillows.
cl Pillows are generally more vesicular
near the top than near the bottom.
d) Smallscale columnar joinling may be
more or less well deyeloped around the up
per periphery. Columnar jolnting Is poorly
developed or is altogether absent on the
bottom side 01 the pillow.
e) Pillows exlruded upon unconsoli
dated sediments are likely lo ruffle and
crumple these underlying sediments and
may have enough heat to bake these con
lorted sediments.
1) The top 01 the plllow lava Ilow general
Iy shows no heal ellect on the overlying
sOOlments. The "pillowy" surlace 01 the
flow is gradually ellaced or leveled by the


: 7":
_
Gastropods. In vermetids and similar
wormgaslropods Ihe linal leeding tube (as
well as scars 01 early stages) generally
points upward duri ng Ihe lile 01 the animal.
Corals. Solitary corals cemented to the
substrate are normally oriented with their
narrow end down, widening (and branch
may be preserved in Iheir
original position wlth their calyxes point

cling to Ihe side or even the bottom 01 a
protruding edge and haye Iheir calyxes
pOint downward.
Colonial corals (and calcareous algae) 01
biscuit or bun shape normally grow and
become buried wlth their convex side up.
Echlnolds. Sea urchins when lound in
large numbers are commonly oriented with
Ilat ventral (oral) side down and convex doro
sal side up.
overlylng sediments, which tend to 1111 the depressed area more rapidly.
AGI DATA SHEET 11.1
Richard M. Foose, Amherst College
Folds in rocks 01 the Earlh's crust are created in response lo various lorces
thal resull in compressive, tensile, and shearing stresses. Various components 01
lolds may be measured by geologisls, providing an opportunity to "reconstruct"
the nature, causes, and physical attitude 01 both the stresses and Ihe lorces.
For example, each lold has Iwo limbs and an "imaginary" plane Ihat bisecls the
angle made by Ihe Iwo limbs (Ihe axial plane, or AP). By measuring them, Ihe
geologisl may "map" and describe the lold.
Anticline and syncline are general lerms that describe lolds. An anticline is
generally convex upwards, and its core contains the straligraphically older rocks.
A syncline is generally concave upwards, and its core contains the stratigraphi
cally younger rocks. Figure 1 (Al shows a syncline in the center and an anticline
on either side.
Antilorm (limbs close upwards) and synlorm (Iimbs close downwards)
describe lolds in slrala lor which the slratigraphic sequence is unknown.
Folds may be classifed by differenl syslems. The most important lollow:
Geometrical (descriptive). This is mosl commonly used.
Morphological. Based on large-scale shape 01 lolds, mainly at depth.
Mechanical (kinemalic). Based upon mechanisms that occur in the rocks
when folding occurs.
Teclonic. Based upon Ihe localion and posilion 01 folds in the continental tec
tonic framework.
Wnt
Figure 1, Some varieties 01 lolds. AP, axial plane. (A) Symmetrical (upright) lolds.
(B) Asymmetrical folds, (C) Overturned lolds (overfolds), (O) Recumbent lolds.
Geometrical (Figure 1 l. Based on appearance 01 lolds in cross-sectional view.
1, Symmetrical lold. Limbs dip the same. AP is vertical.
2, Asymmetrical lold. Limbs dip at different angles. AP is inclined,
3. Overturned fold. Limbs dip in same direction but nol same amount. AP is
inclined,
4. Recumbent lold, AP is nearly horizontal.
5. Isoclinal fold (Figure 2). Limbs are parallel. AP may have any orientation.
6. Chevron fold (Figure 3). Lmbs make sharp, V-shaped junclure al cres!
and trough ollold.
7, Box fold (Figure 3). Limbs make box-like shape.
AGI-DS-rmf-69
AGI DATA SHEET 11.2
8. Monocline (Figure 4). Single limb dips in one direction but with differing
amount 01 dip.
9. Structural terrace (Figure 4). Single limb nearly Ilat , bounded by two
monoclines.
10. Homocline. A homocline is a monocline in which the dip is constant or at
least without signilicant variation in amount.
11 . Fan lold (Figure 5). Crest and trough l iare out at AP.
12. Open lold (Figure 6) . During the lolding there has been no "1Iowage,"
even in soft , incompetent beds.
13. Closed (tight) lold (Figure 6). During the lolding there has been
"llowage," and the incompetent beds thicken and thin.
B'ci:::

e
Figure 2. Isoclinal lolds. AP, axial planes. (A) Vertical isoclinal lolds. (B) Inclined
isoclinal lolds. (C) Recumbent isoclinal lolds.
Figure 3. Some varieties 01 lolds. AP, axial plane. (A) Chevron lold. (B) Box lold.
A B
Figure 4. Monocline and terrace. (A) Monocline. (B) Structural terrace.
"
\ (--' ;
B
Figure 5. Some varieties 01 lolds. AP, axial plane. (A) Fan lold. (B) Kink bands.
A Iracture may separate the kink band Irom the rest 01 beds.
AGI DATA SHEET 11.3
A
Figure 6. Open and closed lolds. (A) Open lolds. (B) Closed lolds.
Morphologlcal. Based on changes in lold shape with depth.
1. Similar lold (Figure 7) . Folds that do not increase in size upwards or
downwards but maintain a similar shape. Individual beds in these lolds
thicken at their cresl and Ihin on Iheir limbs.
2. Concenlric (parallel or competenl) lold (Figure 7) . A fold in which Ihe
thickness 01 all beds remains conslant wilh depth, resulting in individual
lolds thal increase or decrease in size upwards and downwards.
3. Disharmonic fold (Figure 8) . Folds in which the individual beds Ihicken
or thin indiscriminalely and not in harmony with each other.
4. Supratenuous (compaction) fold (Figure 9) . A fold in which the individual
beds are thinner above a central fulcrum-such as an irregularity in the
basement-and thicken away Irom the lulcrum.
B
Figure 7. Types ollolding. (A) Similar folding. (B) Concentric lolding.
_Geolibros_
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vvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvv!

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AGI DATA SHEET 11.5
Meehanical (kinematie). Based on Ihe mechanisms by whieh aelual lolding
oeeu,s and s also relatad to daplh in Ihe erusl.
1. Flexural-slip loldlng (Figure 10). The individual beds slip pasl one anolber,
oulward Irom synclinal (trough) axes and inward !oward anlichnal (cresl)
axes
2. Shear (slip) lolds (Figure 11). These lolds resul! Irom differential shear
along many Iraclures (cleavage), ereating anticlinal and synclinal shapes
without aelual lolding 01 individual beds. Typically, Ihese lolds oeeur at
greater depth than those 01 Ilexural slip.
3. Flow lolds (Fgure 12). These lolds are produeed at great depth and
result Irom extreme Ilowage 01 rock beds, partieularly in soft, incompetent
rocks, lke shale or limeslone.
A B
Figure 10. Cross seelions IIustrating flexura tolding. (A) Anticlna. (B) Synclina.
Figura 11. Cross seetions iIIustrating shaar foldng. Haavy blaek line, XZ, s a
beddng plane. Inclinad light Unes are fractures. (A) Belore dsplaeemenl on !,ae
tures. (B) After dsplacament. (C) Bacause 01 Iricton, beds tend to parallal lbe
fraclures. (O) Fold resulls I bed mainfans continuily.
AGI DATA SHEET 11.6
Ifa= 5 ~
d = 2.2
1'= 0.09 w
Figure 12, Bed deformed by shear or flow folding, The maximum thlekness 01
the bed is al the hinge; the lhickness is greatly reducad on the limbs
Teclonlc
1, Folds 01 the outer loreland, Because the outer loreland Is at the grealest
distance Irom the lorces al delormation, the lolds all tend to be simple,
symmetrical, open, parallel, flexural slip lolds,
2, Folds 01 the inner loreland, These lold., located closer lo Ihe forces 01
delormaton, lend lo be asymmetflc or overturned, tight, similar, and
shear or Ilowage lolds.
3, Folds 01 the disturbed belt, or core, located in the zone 01 maximum tee
tonic forces and stress, These lolds inelude very tight, isoelnal shear
and flow folds, and disharmonie folds.
References
Billings, Marland P., 1972, StructuralGeology, 3ro 00, p, 50,53,54,55,56,120,121,
124, Figures are reprintOO by permission 01 Prentice Hall, Ine" Englewood Clfls,
New Jersey,
Darton, N,H" 1940, Some struetural features of!he Northern Anthracite Coal Besin,
Pennsylvania, U,S, Geo/. Surv, Pral, Pap, 193, p, 69-61.
AGI DATA SHEET 12.1
Jolnts and Faults
Compilad by R. V. Dletrlch, Central Mlchlgan Unlverslty
JOINTS
A joint is a fracture along which there has been only separation - i.e., the
only movement has been perpendicular to the break. A group 01 essentially
parallel joints is called a jOint seto Two or more sets of joints that intersect so that it
appears !hey wera lormad as a result 01 the same group 01 stresses are callad a
jont system. Many 01 these fractures may have been healed - Le., filiad with
minerals depositad by, for example, ground water or hydrothermal solutions - and
now are veins.
In the field, the strikes and dips 01 joints are usually recorded. For reports, the
orientations 01 joints are often shown on maps andlor diagrams.
FAULTS
A lault is a fracture along which the rocks on one side 01 the break have
movad with respect to the rocks on the other side 01 the break - i.e., there has
been displacement of the blocks parallel to the Iracture. Although some fault
zones have essentially vertical or horizontal dips, most do not. Figures 1 and 2
iIIustrate typical lault orientations. For example, basad on the relative movements
01 their two blocks, normal faults (Figure 2A) are !hose whose hanging-walt blocks
have movad downward with respect to their footwall blocks. In addtion, faults with
strike-slip movements are often called right-Iateral or left-lateral - if one stands
on one block, faces the other block and sees that it has moved to the right, then it
is righHataral. The sama relation is seen Irom either block.
Figure 1. Nomenclature 01 laults. This is a normal lault wth an oblique slip - Le.,
the displacement had both strike-slip and dip-slip components. The strike-slip
displacement is such that the fault is left-Iateral.
....1
AGI DATA SHEET 12.2
1-
!:i
:::> :::>
c{
c{
1.1. 1.1.
....1
W
c{
Ul
IX:
~
W
IX:
O
>
w
Z
IX:
W
W
:::>
:::>
O
O
:::; :::;
al
al
O
O
(.)
ti
+
+

al
c{
1
1-
....1
:::>
!:i 1.1.
....1
:::>
:::> Il.
c{
:::;
1.1.
~
Ul
w
....1
..u
Ul
c{
:.::
a:
IX:
~
IX:
O ti
w
w
>
IX:
Z
(.)
al
<i.
Figure 2. Types 01 laults. Of the laults shown, C, A+C, and B+C are also left-Iateral
laults. (Modilied and redrawn after W.B. Clark and C.J. Hauge, California Division
01 Mines and Geology, Special Publicaron 39,1973.)
AGI DATA SHEET 12.3
Low-angle faults - i.e., those with dips 01 less than about 30 degrees are
usually called thrust laults. In some places, one or more parts 01 the overthrust
plates (Le., the hanging-wall block rocks) have been isolated as a result 01
erosiono Elsewhere, erosion has led to exposures of footwall block rocks tha! are
surrounded by rocks 01 the overthrust plate. The isolated masses are called
klippen (singular, klippe); the exposures 01 the lootwall rocks are callad lensters
or windows. See Figure 3.
Klippe Fenster
r::'T:'l
hi::2J
'
Footwall block rocks
Hanging-wall block rocks
Fault zone (arrows indicate relative movementsJ
Figure 3. Eroded thrust lault.
_Geolibros_
AGI DATA SHEET 13.1
Mineral Hardness and Speciflc Gravlty
R.V. Dletrlch, Central Mlchlgan Universlty
Mineral hardness, an oltan determined property, is usually dafinad as tha
rasistanca to scratching. For brittla minarais, it is a maasuramant 01 the stress
required to inijate rupture; lor ductile minerals, it is a measurement 01 plastic
deformation. The scale most widely used for measuring relative degree 01
hardness was proposed by Friedrich Mohs in 1824. It follows. with tale (1) the
soltest and diamond (10) the hardest.
Mohs' Mineral Common Objeet
Sea le for Comparison
1 tale
2 gypsum
lingernail (2.2)
3 cal cite
copper coin (3.5)
4 fluorite
5 apatite
geological hammer (5.1)
pocketknife (5.2)
window glass (5.5)
6 leldspar
7 quartz
8 topaz
9 corundum
10 diamond
Hardness is Irequently used as a diagnostic property, especially for denti
Iying the common rock-forming and ore minerals. With a little practice, one can
estmate the hardness of minerals with hardnesses up to and including 5 by
usng only a pocketknife and noting how easily it abrades the mineral. Harder
minerals scratch the knile blade or geological hammer.
Two precautions must be taken:
1. Check only Iresh (not weathered or otherwise altered) surfaces.
2. Use only single grains because granular masses can often be disag
gregated and thus appear to have been scratched.
To overcome the second difficulty, a good procedure is to try the scratch
test in both directions-that is, try scratching the steel tool with the mineral as
well as scratching the mineral with the tool. A few minerals-for example,
kyanite-have dfferent hardnesses in different crystallographic directions; this
property in itsell is a valuable diagnostic property.
Procedures have been devised for determinng hardness quantitatively.
The most widely known methods are the Brinell, Knoop. Rockwell, and Vickers
procedures. Each involves determining the elfects on a test material 01 a
plunger loaded with a tip 01 particularly shaped diamond or other hard material.
The test material bears the weight 01 the loaded plunger lor a precise length 01
time. The indentation formed is carefully measured, and calculations are made
to convert the measurements to the appropriate quantities (see, lor example,
Eisanstadt, 1971).
None 01 thesa proceduras, however, has been used widely in the study 01
minerals; probably the mos! notaworthy ara the Vickers hardnass data that ara
availabla for soma 01 the opaque minerals. Thus. the Mohs' scala ramains as
the mnaralogist's, as well as the field geologist's, standard for comparison.
Reference
Eisenstadt, M.M .. 1971. Introduction to Mechanical Properties of Materia/s. Macmillan
Publishing Co., New York.
AGI DATA SHEET 13.2
Speclflc gravlty 01 a substance is the ratio 01 its density to the density 01
water. That is, it is the number 01 times heavier or lighter that a given volume
01 a material is than an equal volume 01 water. This property serves as a sim
ply applied, nondestructive test to help identily minerals and is also uselul in
certain petrographic studies.
Several apparatuses, including simple spring balances and specially labri
cated devices, have been used to measure specilic gravity, and gemologists
and others olten use heavy liquids 01 known densities to determine the specilic
gravity 01 specimens. Good results can usually be obtained by using a typical
laboratory balance, a vessel large enough to hold water and the specimen to
be checked, and sorne wire or thread to support the specimen.
Specific gravity measurement . Figure is modified.
Four steps are required :
1. The balance with the support wire (SW) is balanced with the counter
weight (CW) at O.
2. The specimen (Sample) is placed on the support wire and weighed in airo
3. The water-containing vessel-e.g., beaker-is raised to immerse the
specimen, which is then weighed in water.
4. The appropriate values are substituted in the lollowing lormula:
weight in air
specilic gravity
weight in air - weight in water
AGI DATA SHEET 14.1
Macroscopic Identllication 01 Common Rock lorming Silicates
Compiled by Oavid B. Jorgenson; updated and revised by KwoLing Chyl,
Central Michigan University
The following table, which lists only the common silicate minerals, is in tended as a
guide to the rapid identification of these minerals in rocks. More detailed descriptions
can be found in a number 01 books, a few 01 which are listed below.
Major divisions are by color, cleavage, and hardness. "Oark-colored" and
colored" are relative terms, and sorne minerals have been classilied In both cateec:nes.

pink. light gray. orange, yellow, light green, lght blue, or a pastel color, and impart a
Ulight" color to a rock.
There are two subdlvisions based on cleavage: "Cleavage Generally Conspicuous,"
and "Cleavage Absent or Inconspicuous." A mineral that typically dsplays at least ooe
well-developed cleavage direction will be classilied as having generally consplcuous
cleavage. Sorne mineral species are listed in both cleavage categories.
Hardness is subdivided roughly on the basis 01 the hardnesses 01 common objects:
H < 3 (fingernail H ;= 2.5), 3 $ H < 5 (glass H = 5; knileblade "'-5.5), 5:5 H <7 (quartz H
7),7$ H. Sorne minerals are given in more than one 01 the hardness categorles.
References
Berry, L.G., Masan, B., and Oietrch, R.V., 1983. Minera/ogy. 2nd ed. W.H. Freeman
and Ca., San Francisco, 561 p.
Oeer, W.A., Howie, R.A., and Zussman, J., 1966. An Introduction lo the Rack Forming
Minera/s. Longman Group Ud., London, 528 p.
Oietrich, R.V., and Skinner, B.J., 1979. Rocks and Rock Minerals. John Wiley and
Sons, New York, 319 p.
Flescher, Michael, 1987. Glassary of Mineral Species, 5th ed. Mneralogical Record,
Tucson, 227 p. plus appendix.
Klein, e., and Hurlbut, C.S., Jr .. 1985. Manual of Minera/ogy, 20th ed. John Wiley and
Sons, New York, 596 p.
l. OARK COLOREO
A. Cleavage
Generally
Conspicuous Fealures Similar
H<3
'j grn Micaceous cleavage;
dark color; elaslic
folia
:&
Chlorite (Mg,Fe}3(Si,AI)4010(OH)2o(Mg,Fe)3(OH)6
Micaceous cleavage,
green color;
inelaslic folia
2.6-3.3
Epidole Ca2(AI,Fe)AI20(Si04)/Si207)(OH)
Monoclinic 10 blk
Augite (Ca.Na)(Mg.Fe,AI.Ti)(Si.AI)206
11
Monoclinic Blk, dark grn
2
ii:
~
.
G>
Diopside CaMgSi
2
0
s
I1
Monoclinic grn
Biotile is elaslic
Complete series be
Iween epidole
(AI:Fe+
3
=2:1) and
clinozoisite (3:0),
which is lighler
colorad
Melamorphic rocks
(Iound commonly with
actinolite, albite, and
chlorite in greenschists);
igneous as alteration
product.
Imperlect prismalic One 01 the end Metamorphic rocks;
cleavage al near 90'; members 01 the wilh forsterite,
stubby prismatic pyroxene group enstalite. calcite.
cryslals: light color

C>
-
e
~
en
::J:
m
m
-1
~
I.>

Mineral Name-Composltlon
Color
Luster
;,,81
e;, Hardness
ol!! Crystal System Speclflc Gravlty Olagnostlc Featunls Similar Specles Common Occurrence
)
1. OARK COLOREO
A. CleaV8ge
Generally
Consplcuous
5:sH< 7
Enstatite M92Si206
!
Bronzite (Mg,Fe)2Si206
Hypersthene (Mg, Fe)2Si206

j
Orthorhombic
Grayish, yellowish,
grnwt, olivegrn, brn
Vitreous to pearly;
Prismatic habit and
cleavage at - 90
angles; color; pearly
Complete series be
tween MgSiq3 and
FeSi03 . Enstatite may
Igneous rocks,
especially peridotites,
pyroxeniles. gabbros.
't:
9
i

bronzite: submetallic
luster
5
1
12 -6
3.2-3.6
luster on cleavage
planes
contain Irom O to

sthene, 30 lo SO"".
More Ferich specles
are not common.
basalts. Also high
grade metamorphic
rocks. Ferich
varielies lound in
melamorphic iron lor
mallons. Commonly
associated with
clinopyroxene.
Hornblende Ca2(Mg,Fe)4AI(Si 7AI )0 22(OH ,F)2
Monoclinic
Dark grn to blk
Vitreous
5-6
3.0-3.4
Prismatic habit and
cleavage at - 56
0
and
124
0
; dark color ;
crystals elongate,
sometimes librous
Augite has similar
colors but diflerent
cleavage angles.
Other amphiboles,
especially actinolite,
may resemble horno
Igneous and
metamorphic rocks.
Wldely distributed.
blende.
Actinolite Ca2(Mg,Fe)5Sia022(OH)2

J:I
:c

Monoclinic
Grn
Vitreous
Slender prisms,
prismatic cleavage
Hornblende is usually
darker colored.
Metamorphic rocks;
characterist ic 01
E
<C
5-6
3.0-3.3
(120
0
) ; green color greenschist lacies
metamorphism.
Glaucophane Na2(Mg,Fe)3AI2Sia022(OH)2
Monoclinic
Blue, lavenderblue
Vitreous
6
3.1-3.4
Color; librous habit
Partial series be

increasing Fe.
Crossite is in
Only in metamorphic
rocks. With adelle
and lawsonite it
reflects low temperature
high pressure
termediate member. metamorphism.
9

O

I
m
m
-t
:;:
w
1. DARK COLOREO
A. Cleavage
Generally
Conspicuous
i I
6

CJ !!!.
Mineral Name-Composlllon
Color

Crystal System Speclllc Gravlty Dlagnostlc Featuras Similar Specles Common Occurrence

.!! I
..8


<1:
Cummingtonite (Mg,Fe)7Sia022(OH)2
Monoclinic Light brn
Silky; fibrous

3.1-3.6
Needlelike, commonly
radiating; color
Complete series be
tween cummingtonite
(Mg>Fe) and grunerite
(Fe>Mg). Anthophyllite
and gedrite are similar
to cummingtonite.
Metamorphic rocks,
commonly with horno
blende or actinolite.
Titanite CaTiSi05
Monoclinic
Gray, brn, grn, blk, yel Luster, and wedge
Resinous shaped crystals
5-5V2
3.4-3.55
Common accessory in
igneous rocks; larger
crystals in so me
gneisses, schists,
marbles.
B. Cleavage Absent
or Inconspicuous
H<3 Chrysocolla (Cu,AI)2H2Si205(OH)4nH20
(Undefined) Grn to grn-blue
Vitreous to earthy
2-4
2.0-2.4
Color; conchoidal
fracture; low hard
ness
Dioptase appears
similar, but forms
rhombohedral
crystals
Oxidized zones of
copper deposits; with
malachite, azurite,
cuprite.

Serpentine Mg
3
Si
2
0
5
(OH)4
Monoclinic or
orthorhombic
polytypes
Variegated grn
Greasy, silky
3-5
2.5-2.6
Color, luster; fibrous
habit is common
Antigorite is the platy
variety, chrysotile is
the fibrous variety_
Solter than fibrous
amphiboles.
Occurs as alteration
of Mgsilicates,
especially olivine.
Associated with
magnetite, chromite.
5:::H<7 Olivine (Mg,Fe)2Si04
Orthorhombic
Pale yelgrn to olive- Glassy luster, con
grn choidal fracture.
Vitreous Color
6V2-7
3.27-4.37
Complete series be-

is a Ca-oearing olivine.
Mafic igneous rocks
especialiy peridotite,
gabbro, and basalt.
Associated with
pyroxenes. Common-
Iy altered to serpentine.


e
e
en
%
m
!!I
:;:
:.:.
)
a:
1. OARK COLOREO
B. Cleavage Absent
or Inconspicuous
5:SH < 7
Q.2

O!!
Mineral Name-Composlllon
Color
Luster
Hardness
Crystal System Speciflc Gravlty
Titanite CaTiSi0
5
Oiagnosllc Features
Monoclinic
Gray. brn , grn, blk, yel Luster, and wedge
Resinous shaped crystals
5-5V2
3.4-3.55
Similar Species Common Occurrence
Common accessory
in igneous rocks;
larger crystals in
some gneisses,
sChists, marbles.
el>

J:
Chondrodite (Mg,Fe)5(Si0
4
)2(F,OH)2
Monoclinic Light yel to red
Vltreous lo resmous
6-6'12
3.1-3.2
Color; occurrence in
marbles
Other members 01
the group are humite,
clinohumite, and
norbergite, which are

chondrodite.
Metamorphosed
dolomitic limestones.
Associated with
phlogopite, spinel ,
pyrrhotite, and
graphite. Commonly
altered to serpentine.


c:J
Almandine Fe3Ai2Si3012
Isometric Deepred lo
brownishred
Vilreous to resinous
6V2-7'h
3.5-4.3
Color; isometric
crystal habit; hard
ness
Mg and Mn substitute
Ireely for Fe. Mg end
member is pyrope,
Mn end member is
spessartine. Ca
bearing garnets are
grossular, andradite,
and uvarovite.
Almandine is the
most common garnet,
being widely
distributed in
metamorphic rocks;
al so as a detrital
mineral. Pyrope oc
curs in ultrabasic ig
neous rocks.
a.

e
c:J
..,
o

c
Andalusite AI
2
Si0
5
Orthorhombic
Fleshred, reddish
brn, olivegrn
Vitreous
7V2
3.16 3.20
Nearly square prism
habit ; color; hardness
Variety chiastolite
has colored carbono
aceous inclusions ar
ranQed in cruciform
deslgns. Other
AI2Si05 polymorphs
are sillimanite and
kyanite.
Metamorphic rocks,
especially argil
laceous, often found
with cordierite; can
occur with kyanite or
sillimanite.


e

U'J
::z::
m


C,n
1. DARK COLOREO
B. Cleavage Absent
or Inconspicuous
7 ~ H
f
'
oe.
Mineral Name-Composltlon
Color
Lust ...
H.rdness
Crystal System Speclflc Gravlty Olagnostlc Features
Staurolite (Fe,Mg,ln)2Alg(Si.All402210H)2
Monoclinic
Redbrn to brnblk Distinct prismatic
Resinous to vllreous hablt, often with
when fresh; dull or cruciform twins. Un
earthy when altered. twinned crystals are
7-71/2 dis1inguished from
3.65-3.75 andalusite by Iheir
obtuse prlsm shape
Similar Specles Common Occurrance
Regionally metamor
phosed AIrich rocks.
lircon lrSi0
4
Tetragonal
Brn
Adamantine
71/2
4.68
Prismatic habit; color,
luster, hardness, high
specific gravity
Tourmaline (Na,Ca)(Fe,Mg.AIILi,Mn, .. ,)(AI,Fe,Cr,Mg)S(B03)3(SiS018)(OH,F)4
Hexagonal
Beryl Be3AI2(Si6018)
Hexagonal
Blk, dark brn
Vitreous lo resinous
7-71/2
3.0-3.25
Prisma1ic habit, with
rounded, triangular
cross seclions. Color,
hardness
or lght yel Hexagonal prism
form; color
The black. Fe-bearing
variety, shorl, is most
common. Other 'lar
ielies are dravite.
elbaite, verdelite,
rubellite. indicolite.
achroite.
Varieties of gem beryl
are distinguished by
color: aquamarlne,
morganite, golden
beryl, eme raid.
e
!t
)oi
(/)
::1:
m
!!l
~
c:n
_Geolibros_
a:
11. LIGHT COLOREO
a.
A. CINvage
::lB
Generally E!::I
Consplcuous c:l1!.
H<3
Mineral Name-Composltlon
Color
Luater
Hardness
Crystal System Speclflc Gravlty Olagnostlc FNtures Similar Specle, Common Occurrence
Muscovite KA12(AIS301 O)(OH,F)2 Granltes, pegmatites,
metamorphic rocks,
Monoclinic Colorless; yel, pale Micaceous cleavage; May be confuse<!
especially schists.
brn IIght color; elastic with phlogopile or
Finei,lralned fibrous
il
Vilreous to pearly folla lepidolite; biotite ia
variety la sericite,
2-21/2 Ihe dar!< mica
common as hydrcr
2.76-2.88
thermal alterallon
product or retrograde
melamorphism. Also
forms detrltalllralns
Tale .OM(OHI_
Appl8iJrn, gray, wl Oistinguished Irom
Pearly lo greasy
clay mlnerals by lIs
1 occurrence
2.7-2.8
3:SH<S Nalroli!e Na2AI2S301Oo2 H
2
0
Orthorhomblc
Typically acicular; Other zeollles are Lining cavilies in
radiating habil similar in appearance basall; wilh other
and occurrence zeolllas. cal cite
il
Heulandite (Na,Ca)2_3AI3(AI,Si)2Si1303So12H20
wt, tan, Pseudo-orthorhombic Olher zeolites are Cavilles In basalt;
Monoclinic
or diamond-shaped similar in appearance wilh olher zeolltes

pearly on prismatic habil; one and occurrence and calcite
perfect cleavage with
pearly luster
Tabular habil; com- Olher zeollles are Gavities in basall;
Monoclinic
pearly on monly sheaflike ag- similar in appearance wilh olher zeollles
gregales; pearly and occurrence and calcite
lusler on one perfect
cleavage
):o
e

en
;;
m

..
....
:...
CI
11. LlGHT COLORED
A. Cleayage
Generally
Conspicuous
S::S:H<7
J
eL!:!
::I,gt
2::1
el!!?
Mineral Name-COmposi1lon
Color
Lusler
Hardness
Crystal System Speclflc Graylly
"Natrolite H2oColorless or wt
! I . Vitreous
= Orthorhomblc 5-5112
II
.1
';'8
;tJ
!:..
Plagiodase NaAISi30a-CaAI2sI20a
Triclinic
Micracline KAISi30a
Triclinic
Orthoclase KAISi
3
0
a
Monoclinic
Sanidine (K,Na)AISi
3
0
a
Monoclinic
Wt, gray; colorless
Vitreous to pearly
6
2.62-2.76
Wt to pale yel, rarely
red or grn
Vltreous
6
2.54-2.57
Wt, gray, flesh-red.
Vltreous to pearly
6
2.57
Colorless
Vitreous
Dlagnosllc Features
Prismatic cleavage
near 90'; commonly
shows polysynthetic
twinning that appears
as striations
Prismatic cleavage
near 90; color; hard
ness. Nearly all deep
green leldspars are
mlcrocline
(amazonstone)
Prisma!ic cleavage at
90 '; color; hardness
Distinguished wi!h
diffculty from other
Similar Specles
Complete series be
tween albite
(NaAISi30a) and anor
thite (CaAI2Si20a); in
termedia!e members
are named oligoclase,
andesine, labradori te,
by!ownite.
Polymorphous with
orthoclase from
which it is
megascopically In
distinguishable.
At high temperatures,
complete series ex
Common Occurrence
Ubiquitoua
Abundant in granites,
ayenites; gneiss;
pegmatites
Granites,
granodiorites,
syenites. Microcline
is the common
K-feldspar in
phaneritic racks.
As phenocrysts in ex
trusive igneous racks,

O
!
,.
U'J
:::I:
m
!!J
:
i
6 feldspars, but its oc ists between especially rhyolites
2.56-2.62 currence may be and trachytes.
diagnostico

_..._... __ ._. __ .. -,
parallel to POOl in the KAISi30a host. The intergrowths may be visible to the naked eye (macroperthite), visible
Perthite (K,Na)AISi 0
3 a
An inhomogeneous mixture 01 al bite lamellae in a K-feldspar host, caused by exsolution
by oplical microscope (microperthite), or detectable only by x-ray or electron microscope
a:
Mineral Name-Composltlon
11. LIGHT COLORED Color

A. Cleavage Luster
Generally Harelness
Consplcuous
ef
CI!!!. Crystal System Speclflc Gravlty Dlagnostlc Features Similar Specles Common Occurrence
Diopside CaMgsi
2
0
S
5:'SH<7
i
Bronzite (Mg.Fe)2Si20S
Hypersthene (Mg,Fe)2Si20S
}
with
ano
Metamorphic racks;
Enstatite M92Si20S
[
Q.
Amphibole
indicales relatively
high temperature of
e
metamorphism.
Q.
CI

2 Kyanite AI
2
Si0
5
Bladed habit; tabular Pol.ymorphous with Regional metamorphic
f Triclinic and ano
undum, sillimanite, ano
dalusite, or muscovlte
B. Cleavaga Absant
or Inconspicuous

5:'SH<7
_._ , ' L
e

(J)
:;:
m

...
.:"
D
c
i
5
11. LIGHT COLOREO
B. Cleavage Absent

or Inconspicuous en!!.
S"'::'H<7


7SH
Mineral Name-Composltlon

Color
Lusler

Hardness
e
e
Cryslal Syslem Speclfic Gravily Olagnostlc Features Slmlrar Specles Common Occurrence
Sodalite Nas(AISi04)6CI2
Blue; rarely wt, Color, massive habit; Silica-deficient ex-
en
Isometric
gray, grn occurrence trusive and intrusive
::I:
Vitreous igneous rocks. m
5 /2-6 Relatively rare m
'
-1
2.15-2.3
Analcime NaAISi
2
0
6
o
H
2
0
Colorless, wt, Luster; freegrowing
orange trapezohedral crystals
Vitreous
5-5
'
/2
Isometric
2.27
Similar in appearance
to leucite, but
analcime is typically
freegrowing in cavi
ties and leucite is
found embedded in
rock matrix
.....
.:o.
In cavities in basalt;
as primary consti
:...
o
tuent of some ig
neous rocks
Prehnite Ca2AI2Si3010(O
Orthohombic
H)2
Light grn to wt
Vitreous
6-6
'
/2
2.S-2.95
Color; tabular
crystalline aggre
gates in reniform
habit
Secondary mineral

zeolites, calcite.
Quartz Si0
2
Hexagonal
Colorless, wt, gray
Vitreous
7
2.65
Luster, conchoidal
fracture, hardness;
trace impurities may
produce almost any
color in quartz.
Prismatic crystals are
Many varietal names
based on grain size,
form, and color.
Chalcedony is the
common crypto
crystalline variety
Ubiquitous
common
Beryl Be3AI2(Si601S)
Hexagonal
Bluish-grn or
light-yel
Vitreous
7V2-S
2.65-2.S
Hexagonal prism
form; color
Varieties of gem beryl
are distinguished by
color; aquamarine,
morganite, golden
beryl, emerald
Granitic rocks and
pegmatites. Some
mica schists
Cordierite (Mg,Fe)2AI4Si501SonH20
Resembles quartz; Contact and regional-
Orthorhombic
Blue to bluish-gray short prismatic, Iy metamorphosed
Vitreous pseudo-hexagonal argillaceous rocks.
7-7
1
/2 twinned crystals.
2.60-2.66 Pleochroic
AGI DATA SHEET 15.1
PArt$lilninn to Imll'\nrt.''lt Minerals
Prepared by Yngvar W. Isachs&n, New York Stat& Geological Surv&y
ABBREVIATIONS: S&H, crystal system or divlslon and maximum hardness; Cleavage:
010, 110, etc.; Color: bl, blk, br, gm, or, pnk, purp, r, w, y; Luster: ad, mat, submat, res,

flame test; fus, fusibility; h, hardness; It. light; mag, magnetlc; prtg, partlng; rad, radIoac
tiva; sg, specific gravity; stl, staal; strk, straak; tab, tabular; tarn, tarnlsh; transp,
transparent; wk, waak(ly); xls, crystals.
Mineral Composition S&H S.G. Distinguishing Features
NATIVE ELEMENTS
Gold ................ Au ............................. 1 3 19_3
Sil ver ............... Ag ............................. 1 3 10.5
Copper ............ Cu ............................. 1 3 8.95
Platinum ......... Pt ..............................J 4V2 19.
Sulfur.............. S ................................ 0 2V2 2.07
Diamond ......... C ................................ ll0 3.53
Graphite .......... C ................................ H 2 2.23
met,y,malleable,sg
Ag-w,malleable,sg
met.r,malleable,sg
stlgy.sg.h

ad,h,111,111
blk to gy,greasy
SULFIDES
Argentite ......... Ag2S ......................... 12V2
Chalcocite ...... Cu2S .......................... 0 3
Bornite ............ CusFeS4.................... 1 3
Galena ............ PbS ........................... 1 2V2
Sphalerite ....... ZnS ........................... 14
Chalcopyrite ... CuFeS2 ..................... T 4
Stannite .......... Cu2FeSnS4 ............... T 4
Greenockite .... CdS ........................... H 3V2
Pyrrhotite ........ Fe1-XS ........................ H 4
Nickeline ........ NiAs .......................... H 5V2
Millerite .......... NiS ............................ R 3V2
Pentlandite ..... (Fe.Ni)9Sa .................. 1 4
Covellite ......... Cus ........................... H 2
7.4 sectile.met,dkgy,sg
5.8 sectile.Pb-gy
5.08 met,brbronze,pu rpbl tarn
7.58 100.Pb-gy,sg,h
4.1 res.110
4.3 brassy.h
4.5 stlgy to Fe-blk,fus 1 V2
4.9 y,vit
4.65 bronze,massive,mag
7.78 Cur,h
5.5 pale brass y.cap xls
5.0 bronze,1I1 prtg,nonmag
4.76
indigo-bl,0001 _
r.sg,scarlet strk,1010
r.res,010,h
l:!
y.res.010,h
Stibnite ........... Sb2S3 ........................ 0 2
Bismuthinite... BbS3 ..........................0 2
Pyrite .............. FeSz.......................... 1 6V2
Cobaltite ......... CoAsS ....................... 151/2
Marcasite ........ FeSz .......................... O 6112
Arsenopyrite... FeAsS ....................... M 6
Molybdenite ... MOS2 ......................... H 1'/2
Calaverite ....... AuTe2........................ M 3
Sylvanite ......... (Au.Ag)2Te4 ............... M 2
Smaltite .......... (Co,Ni)As3X ............... 1 6
SULFOSALTS
Polybasite ....... (Ag,CU)'6Sb2S', ........ M 3
Pyrargyrite ...... Ag3SbSJ .................... R 2112
Proustite ......... AgJAsSJ .................... R 2112
Tetrahedrite .... (Cu,Fe)12Sb4S'J ......... 1 4
Tennantite ...... (Cu,Fe)12As.S13 ......... 1 41/2
Enargite .......... CuJAsS ..................... O 3
Bournonite ..... PbCuSbS3 .................0 3
Jamesonite ..... Pb.FeSbaS14 ............. M 21/2
4.62 Pbgy,bladed,010,fus 1
6.78 Pb'gy,010,fus 1
5.02 pale brass y
6.33
Ag,w,100
4.89 pale y,"cockscomb" xls
6.22 Ag-w,cf. smaltite
4.73 Pb'gy,bl tone,0001
9.44 brass y to Agw,sg
8.16 Agw.sg,010
6.9 Ag-w,cf.arsenopyrite,Co test
6.2 short"hex"prisms,stl-gy to blk
5.85 deepr,ad,10'fl
5.57 rubyr,ad,1011
5.1 tetrahedrons,gy to blk
4.6 tetrahedrons,gyblk to blk
4.50 gyblk to Feblk
5.86 stl-gy to blk, xls
5.63 gyblk,acicular to fibrous
AGI DATA SHEET 15.2
Mineral Composltlon S&H S.G. Distlngulshlng Features
SIMPLE OXIDES
Cuprite ............ CU20 ....................... 14 6.14 r,ad,xls
Zincite ............. ZnO ......................... H 4 5.68 deepr to or-y _
Corundum ...... AhOl ....................... R 9 4.1 h,sg,prtg 0001 and 1011
Hematite ........ Fe.03 ....................... R 6 5_26 rbr to blk; r strk
IImenite .......... FeTiOJ ..................... R 6 4.76 Fe-blk,strk blk to br-r
Rutile .............. Ti02 ......................... T 61/2 4.25 ad,r to r-br to blk
Pyrolusite ....... Mn02 ....................... T 61/2 5.08 blk,blk strk
Cassiterite ...... Sn02 ........................ T 7 6.99 ad,br to blk,lt strk,sg
Anatase .......... Ti02 ......................... T 6 3.90 ad.rbr to blk,001,011
Brookite .......... Ti02 ......................... 0 6 4.20 met,ad,br to Fe-blk
Uraninite ......... U02 .......................... 16 10.63 blk,submet to dull,sg,rad
HYDROXIDES AND OXIDES CONTAINING HYDROXOL
Brucite ............ Mg(OH)2.................. H21/2 2.40 0001,pearly,w,gy,lt-grn
Boehmite ........ AIO(OH) .................. O 3.1 010,in bauxite
Gibbsite .......... AI(OH)3 .................... M31/2 2.42 001,pearly,in bauxite
"Psilomelane"BaMnMnaO,s(OH)14O 6 4.72 blk,submet,strk br-blk
MULTIPLE OXIDES
Diaspore ......... HAI02 ...................... 0 7 3.5 010,bladed,h,in bauxite
Goethite .......... HFeO ...................... 051/2 4.29 y-br to dkbr,strk ybr
Spinel... ........... MgAbO ................... 18 4.0 h,octahedrons,vit
Magnetite ....... Fe(Fe02)2................. 1 61/2 5.18 Fe-blk,blk strk,mg
Franklinite ...... Zn(Fe02)2 ................. 161/2 5.22 Fe-blk,dk-br strk,wk mag
Chromite ......... FeCr20 .................... 1 51/2 4.8 submet,strk dk-br,Feblk
Chrysoberyl. ... BeAI20 .................... 0 81/2 3.85 h,grn,br,y
Columbite ....... (Fe,Mn)(Nb,Ta)20s ... 0 6 5.25 Feblk,strk submet
HAllDES
Halite .............. NaCI ........................ 12
Sylvite ............. KCI. .......................... 12
Cerargyrite ..... AgCI ........................ 1 21/2
Fluorite ........... CaF2 ........................ 14
Carnallite ........ KMgCb6H20 ......... 0 21/2
Cryolite ........... NalAIFa ................... M 21/2
2.17 100,salty taste
1.99 100,bitter taste
5.56 sectile, waxlike
3.18 111,cubes,h
1.60 deliq,no el
2.98 vil to greasy,"cubic" prtg
CARBONATES
Calcite ............ CaC03 ..................... R 3
Magnesite ...... MgC03 .................... R 4
Siderite .......... FeC03 ..................... R 4
Rhodochrosite MnC03 .................. R 4
Smithsonite... ZnC03 ..................... R 41/2
Aragonite ....... CaC03 ..................... 0 4
Witherite ........ BaC03 ..................... 0 31/2
Strontianite ....SrC03 ...................... 031/2
Cerussite ....... PbC03 ..................... 031/2
Dolomite ........ CaMg(C03)2 ............ R 4
Ankerite ........ Ca(Fe,Mg,Mn)(C03)2 R 4
Malachite ....... Cu2(C03)(OH)2 ......... M 4
Azurite ............ CU3(C03).(OH)2. ...... M 4
2.71 tet
3.02 w,wasslve or 1011,sg,h
3.97 1010,ItJo dk-br,sg
3.70 pnk,1010,h
4.44 eff in cid HCI,h,sg
2.95 columnar xls,h,sg
4.29 sg,eff in cid HCI
3.78 sg,eff in cid HCI, Sr flm
6.57 sg,ad,h
2.86 curved rhombic xls,HCI test
3.02 like dolomite but ybr to br
4.07 brt-grn,eff in cid HCI
3.78 azurebl,eff in cid HCI
AGI DATA SHEET 15.3
Mineral Composltln S&H S.G. Olstlnguishing Futuras
NITRATES ANO BORATES
Nitratite......... NaN03 ............................ R 2
Niter ............... KN03 .............................. 0 2
Kernite ........... Na2B.Os(OH)2 .3H20..... M 2112
Borax ............. Na2B.05(OH) SH20 ..... M 2112
Ulexite ........... NaCaBsOs(OH).5H2o..Tr 21/2
Colemanite .... Ca2BsO,1.5H20 .............. M 41/2
Boracite ......... Mg3B70,3CI .................... 0 7
1
/2
2.27 10T1,cool taste,deliq
2.11 011,cool taste,non-deliq
1.91 001,100,splintery cl,sg
1.72 100,sweet alk taste,xls
1.96 "cottonballs",h,tasteless
2.43 010,exfoliates if heated
3.1 h,isometric xls
SULFATES
Barite ............. BaSO ............................. O 3112
Celestite ........ SrSO .............................. 03112
Anglesite ....... PbSO .............................. O :
Anhydrite ....... CaSO .............................. O 31/2
Gypsum ......... CaSO 2H20 .................. M 2
Chalcanthite .. CuSO 5H20 ................. .Tr 2112
Melanterite .... FeSO. 7H20 .................. M 2
Epsomite ....... MgSO.7H20 ................. 0 2112
Antlerite ......... Cu3(SO.)(OH) ................. 03112
Alunite ........... KAb(SO.)2(OH)s .............. R 4
Jarosite .......... KFeJ(SO.)2(OH)s ............. R 31/2
4.50 sg,001,110,tab xls
3.98 sg,001,110,tab xls
6.39 sg,ad,conch
2.98 100,010,OOj
2.32 h,010,100,111
2.29 azure-bl,met taste
1.90 cap agg,met taste
1.68 cap agg,bitter taste
3.88 grn,010,non-eff in cid HCI
2.9 massive,w,gy or reddish
3.26 y to br,strk pale-y
PHOSPHATES, ARSENATES, ANO VANAOATES
Monazite ........ (Ce,La,Nd.Th)PO .......... M 5112 5.4 res,y to rbr,001 prtg
Apatite ........... Ca5(PO.)l(F,CI,OH) ........ H 5 3.20 prisms,h,grn,br,bl,purp,c
Pyromorphite Pb5(PO.,AsO.)3CI. ......... H 4 7.08 res to ad,sg,grn,br,y,gy,w
Turquoise ...... CuAI6(PO.).(OH)8 5H2Q T 6 2.8 bl,bl-grn,grn,h
Wavellite ........ Ab(PO.)2(OH.F)J. 5H2o. O 4 2.33 radiating globular agg
Torbernite ...... Cu(U02)Z(PO.)2nH20 ... T 2112 3.2 pale to dk-grn,rad,001
Autunite ......... Ca(U02)Z(PO.)2nH20 ... T 2112 3.2 Y to grn,rad,fl y-gr,001
VANAOIUM OXYSALTS
Carnotite ........ K2(U02)2V20e 3H20 .... M 2 5 Y to grn-y,rad,001
Tyuyamunite. Ca(U02)2VZOS nH20 ... 02 3.62 y,rad,turns grn in sun,001
MOLYBDATES ANO TUNGSTATES
Huebnerite .... MnWO ........................... M 4 7.2 res,sg,010,transp
Wolframite ..... (Fe.Mn)WO .................... M 41/2 7.4 brn-blk to Fe-blk,met-ad,
sg,010
Ferberite ........ FeWO ............................ M 4
1
/2 7.51 blk,met-ad,sg,010
Scheelite ....... CaWO ............................ T 5 6.12 vit,sg,fl bl-w,101
Wulfenite ....... PbMoO .......................... T 3 7.0 tab xls,vit.y,or,r,gy,w,h
REFERENCE: Fleischer, Michael, 1987. Glossary of Mineral Species. 5th ed. Mineralogical Record.
Tuscon. 234 p.
AGI DATA SHEET 16.1
Non-Conductors (high tension pinned)
Magnetic
Xenotme
Game:
Sdente
Stauroli:e
Weakly
Magnetic
Bastnaesite
Epidote
Q1lvlre
Apetlle
Mica (B1otite)
Non

Scheehte
Zlfcon
Banle
Perovsk'te
KyaMe
Topaz
Sphene
Beryl
Fe!cspars
Calcita
Quartz

ChrysO!I!e
SulphJf
Specific
Gravity
0..'
8.0
80
75
7.0
6.5
! 6 O
5.5
5.e
4.5
4.0
i 35
30
2.5
2.0
Unde:r
J 20
See noles on Data Sheel 16.3
I
.
AGI DATA SHEET 16.2
Conductors (high tenslon thrown)
'---NO;; .
SpeClllC
.....__ .ognetlc : Magnetlc
Gravlty

Over
! Copper
8.0
80
7.5
Galena
Cassiterite
Ferberte Wolframile
7.0
6.5

6.0
Tantalite
5.5
Magnetita
Sarnarskite
i Pyrite
5.0
Euxenite
Ilmemte-
Itmenite Hematite
; (high iron)
I Molybdenile
Davidite Chromite
4.5
Rutile
Chalcopyrite
4.0
8rockite
, limonite
:
Diamond
3.5
I
3.0
2.5
, Graphile
2.0
_Geolibros_
AGI DATA SHEET 16.3
Notes
Starting with a mixture 01 any 01 the minerals listed, it may be determined
whether or not they can be separated by high tenson, magnetic. or gravity
methods and whether any one or a combination 01 methods is required. II the
minerals appear in different columns. they may be separated by high tension
and/or magnetic methods alone. Two or more minerals appearing in the same
column can be separated by gravty concentration il they have sufficient
difference in gravity (usually a difference 01 approximately 1.0).
It should be noted that grain shape and/or size may alter separation
characteristics. This s sometimes a detriment and other times uselu!. As an
example, mica and quartz may in some cases be separated by high tension due
to their grain shape.
Mineral-behavior charaeteristics shown are Irom tests made in Carpeo's
laboratories rather than Irom results 01 theoretieal analyses. Mineral
charaeteristics and behaviors sometimes differ from one deposit to another. The
behavior 01 minerals not shown can usually be predieted by the behavior 01
similar minerals in the above table.
Reprinted. by permission 01 Carpeo. Ine., Jacksonvlle, Florida. Copyright
1954. Carpeo, Ine., now publishes an expanded verson 01 this table tilled
"Eleetrostatie and Magnetic Separaton Characteristes 01 Selected Minerals."
AGI DATA SHEET 17.1
Gem Materials
J.I. Kolvula and R.C. Kammerl/ng, Gemologicallnatltute of Amerlca
GamMaterlal
I Refractlve In:;x I
Characterlstlcs Norm Rana Systern
=lflC Moh'
ravlty ==
DA
u...
E........
$YN.RunL& 8-8'1i!
.......... doubIing 2.903

Adarnat1linelu_; SR
3.52.01 2417 10 OIAllONO
.-.... dilperJsion (.044) Cubic
STRONTIUM SR
TITANATE
2_
S 13.02 s-e

Cubic
SR CZ
2.160 ...030 S.80.2O
SI""'II dilperJsion (.080)
Cubic
''Ii! ..... ..'
GQQ(QIodoIIIIIum SR
GIIIIuoftca.n.
1.970 tI'Ii! Mode"lIeditpenlion(.ll4S ".080
Cubic
.040 DA U. C(r....);SuIMIdamanIlne 1925 000
IUIIef';mod.diIperJsion(.038)

e-7'Ii! ZlRCON
-.145 1.9&4 TelfagonaJ .059
ANORAOITE C('-1; v.. Dem_: .007 SR
384:1:.03 e'li!-7
l."
a.m.c Cubic """'11 dilperJsion (.057) -033
SA YAOmu
010 1.833 4.SS .05
ti'"
Cubic
.004 SPElSARTITE SR
-020
Colo< _ina _Ofange 1.810 7-7'1i!
415:::
Cubic
........-
AUIANOITE A SR
7-7'11 1.790 tOlO

0IIen datk.n tone Cubic
.009 1.1IS2 008 DA u-
A. CC; C (._,
CORUNOUM

1.770 -.005 010 Hexagonal
SYN. CORUNOUM 1.782 A, CC. C ( ....): Sta.' .005 DA u
curwd growlh on_
4oo .03 ooe
1.770 -.003 Hexagonal
SYN. CORUNOUM 1782 DA u-
4.oo .03 ooe
1770 IFIux)

RHOOOUTE .010 SR
1.7eo 3.84:1: .10 7-7'1i! Pu,pIe 10 pUrpijIIh '*' eoIOf
a.m.c -.020 Cubic
.004 1.7* ooe- DA 8.
373:1: .02 CHRYS08ERYL C.CC
''11
175S 010 Onhorl'lomblc - 008
P'tROPE .010 SA
- 026
OIten ..ry dark In tone 1.746 7-7'11

a.m.c Cubre
GROSSULARlTE .020 SR
1740 7_7''''

-.010 Cuboc
HYDIIOOROS8ULAA .010 NJG
1.720
347::
a.m.c........, - 030 Cuboc
CC; CoIorMa.lrghI
.012 SR
SYN.SPtNEL 11'"". lght \O dan. blue
CublC - 008
eommon
.017 CC:A(....) SA
1718 SPtNEI,

Colo... oIIIIn Iow ....u,lIt"'" CubIC
- 008
C(,...,
1.691 008 DA OfAGGI!I.
VOry """'11 pIeOchrorsm
ZQlSITE .005 8-7
335:
1100 013 OrlhomomblC
1660 014 DA 8.
1676
:1:005 SPOOUMENE 6',,-7 3 lit 03
016 Monochnl'C
16eo
JAOEITE
NJG
OIten greaoy \O ...xy lu_ t 008 1.680 6',,-7
.1.66
334: ::
Monoclinc
-
AGIDSrvd-e9
AGI DATA SHEET 17.2
Phenomena & Other
Dlstlnctlve Visual
Characterlstlcs
PEAlDOT '654
t 020
035 DR B+
334+ '4
6'h-7
0IIwIne '690
038 - 07
ANDAlUSlTE IIory .'rong pleOChrOl.m
'634
t 005
007 DRorAGGlB
317t04 7-7'h
, 643
0'3

TOUAIIALlNE
C.CC(rare) '624 + 011 0'8 DR U

7-7';'z
Slrong dlChrOlsm
'644
- 009 040 Hex.gonal
TOMZ
'6'9
t 0'0
008 DR B+
353t 04
'627 0'0 OnhorhomblC
'6'0
AGG
276: TUAQUOISE Malm.: posslbie
'650
5-6
6'
Tnchmc

1-
+ 009 AGG
295+ '5

-
Ottan grBaS';' lo xy IUSlftr
'632
-.006 MonochnlC - 05
16'
BERYL C. "'(rare)
'577
t 017
005 DR U
272+ '8
7'/2-8
'583 009 Hexagonal - 05
SYN. EIIEAALD Sy". M.y fluoresce red lo vISible
'588 + 008 005 DR U
268t 03 71z-S
Ioghl '573
007 Hexagonal
SYN. EIIEAALD M.y Huorase. red 10 vISible
'56' + 010
003 DR U
266+ 03
7Vz-8
Sy". a..yt [FIu.,
'oghl
'564
008 Hexagonal
- O,
SEAPENTINE
Waxy 10 greasy Iusler, aften
, 560
+ 004 AGG
257 + 23
2-6
resembles_ '570
- 070 MonocllnlC - '3
OUAATZ .... "",C. I
' 544
t 000 009
DRorAGG/U+
266:
'553
Hexagonal
IOUTE .... "" and C (rare) '542 + .045 008 DR B
26' t 05 7-7
1
/1
(CordIettIel Strong Inchrotsm
'55'
- 011
0'2
OrlhorhomblC
IYOAY Engine-turned eHect,
1540 -.005 AGG
, 85t '5 2'12
lE""",l] gr.asv 10 dulllusler
....BEA Resll'M)US luSler
, 540
+ 005 SR

2-2'h
-.001 Amorphous
CHALCEDONY 1535 000 AGG
260+
10
6'h-7
1539 004 Hexagonal - 05
PEAAL O 1530
155 AGG
270:
2'h-4
...lIurecl]
Oull 10 submetalhc luster
, 685
OATHOCLASE "',Ad.C
, 518
+ 0'0
005 DR B
258t03 6-6'h
........ Vllreous lO pearly luster
, 526
008 MonochnlC
LAPIS LAZULl
' 670.
SR AGG
2 75t 25 5-6
1500
OML
P: .... C (rare). May or may
1450
+ .020 SR

S-6
1
h
no4h... - oeo Amorphous
AGI DATA SHEET 18.1
J.I. Kolvula and R.C. Kammerling, Gemologlcallnstltute of Amerlca
Delinitions
Poor
FaH lo Goo
9
9
10
6- 6112 Poor
2l2 4 OIle" Good. QUlle
variable
61/2- falftoGood
Goo
Good
Good
Good
Goo
Poor
Topaz Poor
7tl2 faH
Poar la Goo
Poor10 Falf
6112-7 Poor lo FaH
AOOllIONAl C O M M E ~ S
Good uraMr!y
Gooddurabill!y
Goo durabliity
Farrurabllrty
Olstlnc\ cleavage
Farrdurablhly
V"ry goo durabrllty
FaHdurabrllty
AG I-DS-IV-69
AGI DATA SHEET 18.2
Gemstone Misnomers
J.!. Kolvula and R.e. Kammerllng, Gemological Institute 01 America
GEMSTONE MISNOMERS
MlSND.MfB
'Mexican Jade"
"Mexican Onyx" (or "Onyx")
"Alexandrite" (or "Syn. Alexandrite")
"Colorado Jade" (or "Pike's Peak Jade")
"Colorado Ruby" (or "Arizona Ruby")
"Transvaal Jade" (or "South African Jade")
"Black Pearl" (or "Alaskan Black Oiamond")
"Topaz Ouartz" (or "Spanish Topaz")
'Herkimer Oiamond" (or "Arkansas Oiamond")
'Smoky Topaz" (or 'Scotch Topan
'Indian Jade"
"Oueensland Jade"
"Chalcedony' Moonstone"
"Swiss Lapis" (or "German Lapis")
"Blue Onyx"
"Green Onyx" (or "Chrysoprase')
"Korean Jade" (or 'New Jade")
CORRECT NOMENCLATURE
Oyed Green Marble Calcite
Onyxmarble Calcite
Synthetic Alexa ndritelike Sapphire
Amazon Microcline Feldspar
Pyrope Garnet
Translucent Grossularite Garnet
Hematite
Citrine Ouartz
Rack Crystal Ouartz
Smoky Ouartz
Aventurine Ouartz
Chrysoprase Chalcedony
White Chalcedony (or Milky Chalcedony)
Oyed Blue Jasper Chalcedony
Translucent Oyed Blue Chalcedony
Translucent Oyed Green Chalcedony
Bowenite Serpentine
AGIDS-rvd89
_Geolibros_
AGI DATA SHEET 19.1
and Bravais Lattices
THE 6 CRYSTAL SYSTEMS
Crystallographic axes lor the six crystal systems' Axes labeled a
n
, are all the same
length within any given system: axes with differen! lelter labeis are different lengths. in
the isometric system a, =8
2
whereas in Ihe hexagonal syslem a, = 8
2
8
3
" e, in
Ihe orthorhombc syslem 8 In Ihe isometric, tetragonal, and orthorhombic systems,
Ihe angles between axes are in the hexagonal syslem, Ihe angles between the a
n
axes
are 120", and Ihe angle belween e axis and the plane 01 Ihe a
n
axes is 90; in the mono
clnic system, the angle designated i3 is grealer than 90', and the other angles are equal to
90; in the triciinic system, none 01 Ihe designated angles is equallo 90'.
A Iypical crystal 01 a common mineral Ihat crystallizes in each system is shown as an
example 01 how Ihe axes relate to cryslals,
ISOMETRIC
TETRAGONAL HEXAGONAL
(=CUBIC)
Gamat Zircon Apetite
ORTHORHOMBIC MONOCLlNIC TRICLlNIC
"'f b
a

Olivine Hombiende Albite
AG10S-r'lO-89
AGI DATA SHEET 19.2
THE 14 BRAVAIS LATTICES
Eaeh laltiee ean be described on the basis 01 points, eaeh 01 whieh has identieal sur
roundings. Notiee Iha! and ' are different expressions ollhe sama lalliee.
rJlJOQ
a a b
(B) Triclinic (b) Monoclinic (e) Monodinc
I! b ' c ' 8 a ' b ' c ' 8 (end-centered)
t ' fJ ' r ' 90' P ' 90'
le
_.

(d) Orthorhombic (e) Or1horhombc (g) Orthorhombic
8'b"c*8 (end'centered) (face-centered)
(f) Or1homombic
(body-centered)
(h) Hexagonal
8'C
" 60'
(i) Ahombohedral (n Ahombohedral (j) Tetragonal
a ' c
(m) IsometriC (n) lsometric
(body-centered) (face-centered)
(k) Tetragonal
(body-centered)
(I) Isometric
(cubic)
------
----------
--------
Silica tetrahedra can, by sharing one or more oxygens, polymerize to form complex anions. For the tetrahedra
shown, Ihe oxygens would be al each apex and a slicon would be in each The diagrams are as viewed Irom
~
s:::
above with the solid lines on or above the plane 01 the paper and the dashed below that plane.
9.
s:::
Revised alter L.G., and Mason, B., 1983. Mineralogy: Concepts, Descriptons, Determinations, 2nd edition
!.
revised by R.V. WH. Freeman and CO .. New York, 561 p.
O
ji)
ti)
!!,
Formula of
g.
Complex
Example Classification Anion Si:O a Structural Arrangemenr
O'
:::J
(Si0
4
)-4 Nesosilicates 1:4 Forsterite, Mg
2
(Si04 ) Independent tetrahedra
2
~
~

1 (Sb07)- Sorosilicates 2:7 Hemimorphite, ln4 (Sb07) (OHh H
2
0 Two tetrahedra sharing one
lit
oxygen
== 3'
C'D
;
Cyclosilicates Closed rings of tetrahedra,
~
each sharing two oxygens
I
)lo
Aa
~
(SbOg)- 1:3 Benitoite, BaTi(ShOg)
o
~
(Si4 O'2)- Axinite, CaJAb (BOJ) (Si
4
0d (OH)
UI
x
m
~
(Si
6
0
18
)-6
Beryl, Be3 Ab(Si
6
0
18
)
1\)
~
Inosilicates Continuous chains
b
of
tetrahedra
Single chain, each tetrahedron
sharing two oxygens
: . . . ~ - -
Double chain, alternate tetra
hedra sharng two and three
oxygens
~ -
----
- ~ ~
(Si0
3
);;-/
(5i.0
11
),;;6
--
(SPal;4
1 :3
and
4:11 Enstatite, Mg
2
(Si0
3
h
------
Anthophyll ite, Mg7 (5i.0
11
h (OHb
----
Jmthompsonite
Phylloslicates
Triple chain
Continuous sheets of tetrahedra,
each sharing three oxygens
(5bOs);;/ 2:5 Kaolinite, AI 4 (5i 20sh (OH)8
T ektosi I icates
- ~ -
jo
Three-dimensional framework of
tetrahedra, each sharing al!
four oxyens
(5i0
2
)0 1:2 Quartz, 5i02
,.
e
e
~
~
m
!!I
~
N
Q-quarlz
A-alkali feldspar'
P-plagioclase
F-"foid'"
Px-pyroxene
Ho-hornblende
Ol-olivine
fod diorilods and
AGI DATA SHEET 21.1

IUGS Preliminary classificatlon lor plutonic rocks'
THE PHANERITES'
XI, hornblendiles;
In order lo plol a rock's composition in the appropriale triangle on "a", Ihe three eom
ponenls alkali feldspar (A), plagioclase feldspar (P), and quarlz (Ql or the foid minerals
(F) are equaled lO 100 percenl-i,e., the olher componenls are subtracted rom the total
mode and the remaining QAP or FAP pereentages are normalized 10 100 pereent. .. etc.
(for "b" and "e"),
Diagrams for Ihe general nomenelature are presented on Daia Sheet 62, Addi
tional diagrams outlining suggested use 01 prelxes leuco and mela and gving
nomenelature for less eommon phanerites sueh as earbonattes and lamprophyres may
be lound in the following relerences:
Dietrich. R.V. and Skinner, B.J, 1979, Rocks and Roek Minerals: Wiley, N.Y., 369p.
IUGS Subcommisson on the Systematics 01 Igneous Rocks, 1973, Classificalion and
nomenclature 01 plutonic roeks: Geotimes, v. 18, n. 10 (Oc!.), p. 26-30.
Streckeisen, A., 1976, To each plutonic rack lIs proper name: Earth Science Rev" v.
12. p. 1-33,
"plutonic rock", which refers to phanerilc rocks, is no! assumed lo re
felclsp<thclids-IEUCI,le and pseudoleucle, nepheline, sodalile, no sean,
AGI DATA SHEET 21.2
IUGS Group name classlflcatlon lor Yolcanlc rocks
THE APHANITES'
I rhyolitoids
a
II dacitoids
1II trachytoids
IV andesltoids, basaltoids
V phonolitoids
VI tephritoids
VII loiditoids
VIII uitramalitites
A P
~ - - - - , , . . . - L - - { Mel
~
01 pl(
M = 90-100
F
Q-quartz; A-alkali leldspar (inciuding orthoclase, sanidlne, perthite, and anortho
clase); P-plagioclase; F-Ieldspathoids; Mel-melillte; Ol-ollvlne; Px-pyroxene;
M-malic minerals.
Most true aphanites cannot be named without knowledge 01 their mineral com
ponents, which requires employment 01 nonmegascopic procedures. Many aphanitic
rocks, however, are porphyritic and lor those, the group names may be applied tentative
Iy by estimating the overall percentages 01 the component minerals on the basis 01 Ihe
assumption that the compositions 01 the phenocrysts rellect the bulk mineral composi
tlon 01 the rocks,
A diagram lor the IUGS general nomenclature scheme lor volcanic rocks is given on
Data Sheet 62. Additional inlormation and suggestions lor naming aphanites and por
phyries may be lound in the lollowing relerences:
Dietrich, R.V. and Skinner, B.J., 1979, Rocks and Rock Minerals: Wiley, N.Y., 369p.
Streckeisen, A., 1978, Classilication and nomenclature 01 volcanic rocks. .:N. Jb.
Min. Abh., 'l. 134, p. 1-14.
Streckeisen, A., 1979, Classification and nomenclatura 01 volcanic rocks ... 01 the
IUGS Subcommission ... :Geology, v. 7, p. 331-335.
1. Undar the IUGS acheme, these rocks are larmad volcanlc rocks.
_Geolibros_
AGI DATA SHEET 22.1
Textures of Igneous Rocks
Compiled by R.V. Dietrlch, Central Michlgan University
For many igneous rocks , texture is the chiel clue used to interpret their consolida
tion - especially their crystallization - histories. Texture depends upon such interre
lated variables as the bulk chemistry 01 the magma (including the volatile-content), rate
01 cooling, and the relative powers 01 crystallization 01 diverse minerals.
Terms that are Irequently used to describe igneous rock textures are outlined below:
Crystallinlty
Holocrystalline - 100 percent minerals
Hypocrystalline - minerals and glass
Holohyaline - 100 percent glass
Granularlty
Grain size
Phaneritic - grains are visible with the unaided eye or with 10x magnilication
Aphanitic - grains are not discernible with 10x magnilication
(Glassy - does not consist 01 grains)
Grain equality
Equigranular - grains 01 main constituents are the same general size
(see Figure 1)
Porphyritic - large grains (phenocrysts) 01 one or more minerals that occur
in a matrix (groundmass) 01 the same mineral or other minerals or both
(see Figure 2)
Fabric - arrangement and interrelationships 01 constituent minerals
(see Figure 3)
Euhedral, idiomorphic. automorphic - all crystal faces developed
Subhedral. hypidiomorphic, hyautomorphic - sorne crystal laces developed
Anhedral , allotriomorphic. xenomorphic - no crystal laces developed
Figure 1. Equigranular rock. Figure 2. A porphyry.
AGt -DS-rvd-8S
AGI DATA SHEET 22.2
Figure 3. Fabric terms
Crysta/ Faces A B C
all euhedral idiomorphic automorphic
some subhedral hypidiomorphic hyautomorphic
none anhedral allotriomorphic xenomorphic
A: Terms introduced by Cross et al. (t906) ; originally suggested lor use in descriptions
01 igneous rocks but now widely applied in descriptions 01 all kinds 01 rocks.
B: Terms introduced by Rosenbusch (1887) ; Irequently used in America in descriptions
01 igneous rocks.
C: Terms introduced by Rohrbach (1885) ; used by many European geologists but sel
dom used in America.
References
Cross, W., Iddings, J.P., Pi rsson, L.v. , and Washington, H.S., 1906. The texture 01 igneous
rocks: J. Geo/., v. 14, p. 692-707.
Rohrbach, C.E.M., 1885. Ueber die Eruptivgesteine im Gebiete der schlesischmahrischen
Kreidelormation: TschermiJk's Minera/ogische und Petrographische Mitrei/ungen, N.F., Bd.
7, part 1: p. 1-63 (not seen).
Rosenbusch, H., 1887. Mi\roskopische Physiographie der Mineralien und Gesteine, Bd. 2.
Schweizerbart'sche Verlagshandlung, Stuttgart (E. Koch) , 877 p.
AGI DATA SHEET 23.1
Comparison Chart for Estimating Percentage Composition
Prepared by Richard D. Terry and George V. Chllingar, Allen Hancock Foundation, Los
Angeles. Reprinted from Joumal 0# Sedimentary Petrography, v. 25, n. 3, p. 229-234,
Sept.1955.
1% 3% 7%
2% 5% 10%
AGIDs.eS
AGI DATA SHEET 23.2
15% 25% 40%
20% 30%
50%
_Geolibros_
AGI DATA SHEET 24.1
Masses
Complled by R.V. Dietrich, Central Michigan University
Masses 01 igneous rocks that have consoldated from magma beneath the Earth's
surlace are usually termed intrusive or called plutons. Masses 01 igneous rocks that
have been lormed Irom magma (lava and/or pyroclastic Iragments) on or aboye the
surface are usually termed extrusive or volcanic.
Several bodies of each 01 these kinds of igneous rocks have been given names.
The list below brief1y describes named bodies according to a classilication revised
after Daly (1933). Masses listed with an asterisk after the name are shown on the
diagrams. If known, the name 01 the person who originated the desgnation and the
date of introduction are given in parentheses directly following the termo
Three-dimensional information relating to overall shape and relations with surround
ing rocks (Le., concordance) are required to name most of the masses, and addi
tional data (e.g., time of formation as related to tectonism) are required lor a couple
01 them. Shapes, sizes, and other features may differ lor masses that could be given
the same name; some masses essentially defy naming with any 01 these designa
~ tions. This last statement, in particular, supports-at least permissively-the com
piler's viewpoint that a name should never be substituted lor a good description.
SUBJACENT MASSES
Subjacent masses have no known 1I00r. They enlarge downward and apparently
merge into subjacent crust.
Abyssolith (RA Daly, 1933) A "bottomless mass" that hypothetically passes
downward into the "vitreous substratum."
Bathollth" (E. Suess, 1885) A mass with no known bottom and an outcrop area 01
greater than 40 square miles (100 km'). It s typically discordant but may be partly
concordant. Also spelled bathylith, batholte, batholyte, and batholyth.
Boss A stock with a roughly circular outcrop area.
Stock" A mass with the characteristics 01 a batholith but with an outcrop area 01 less
than 40 square miles (100 km'). Depth 01 erosion may control naming a mass a
stock rather than a batholith.
INJECTED MAS SES
Injected masses have all three dimensions known or inferred. A few petrologists
call these masses irruptive.
Akmolith (O.H. Erdmannsdrffer, 1923) A largely concordant mass, typically with many
apophyses, emplaced largely within the antilorms 01 dcollements during lolding.
Also spelled acmolith.
Apophysis An irregular tongue-shaped mass, typically discordant, that is an off
shoot lrom a larger intrusion. Also called tongue.
Asthenolith (B. Willis, 1938) A magma body formed by melting in response to heat
generated by radioactive disintegration. This can be either a subjacent or an in
jected mass.
Bell-jar intrusion A bysmalith around which the adjacent strala have been domed
and Iractured.
Bysmalith (J.P. Iddings, 1899) A roughly cylindrical, laccomorphic mass bounded by
laults.
Cactolith (C.B. Hunt el al., 1953) "A quasi-horizontal chonolilh composed of
anastomosing ductoliths whose distal ends curl like a harpolith, thin like a
sphenolith, or bulge discordantly lke an akmolith or ethmolith." (The compilar
presumes that this descriptio.n was made, at least in part, in jest and/or contempt.)
AGIDSrvd-89
AGI DATA SHEET 24.2
Chonolith (RA Daly, 1905) A "sack name" lor any mass with a shape so irregular
that it cannot be called a dike, a sill, a laccolilh, or other recognized body, Originally
spelled chonolite.
Dike' A tabular mass discordant with ether bedding or foliation 01 surrounding country
rocks. Some geologisls, especially Europeans, apply the name only il the mass
is vertical or sleep-dipping, Also spelled dyke.
Ring dikes and cone sheets have the overall conligurations 01 walls 01 hollow
cylinders and hollow eones, respectively,
Ductolith A more or less horizontal igneous intrusion that is tear-drop shaped in cross
section.
Epiphysis An apophysis detached Irom its sovereign mass.
Ethmolith (W. Salomon, 1899) A discordant mass thal is funnel-shaped in cross
section.
Globulith (A. Berthelsen, 1970) An intrusive mass or a group 01 spatially associated
masses with a globular or botryoidal shape and almost concordant contacts,
Harpolith (H, Cloos, 1921) A sckle-shaped mass; essentially a phacolith with a ver
tical or steeply plunging axis.
Interformational sheet A tabular mass emplaced along an unconlormity.
Laccolith' (GK Glbert, 1877) A concordant, Iloored, mushroom-shaped mass.
Originally called laccolite.
Lopolith' (F.F, Grout, 1918) A large concordant, basin-shaped mass, The constituent
rocks are typically layered,
Phacolith' (A. Harker, 1909) A concordant, lenticular (concavo-convex) mass em
placed during the lolding 01 surrounding country rock.
Pluton A general term lor any igneous intrusion.
Ribbon injection A nal-sized sill, typically injected along a cleavage plane 01 a loliated
rock.
Sheet A general ter m lor a tabular mass such as a dike, a sill, an interlormational
sheet. or asole injection.
SIl!' A tabular mass concordant wlth the bedding or loliation 01 surrounding country
rock, Some geologists, especiaUy Europeans, apply the name only il the mass is
horizontal or low-dipping.
Sole injectlon A tabular mass emplaced along a thrust-fault plane (zone).
Sphenolith (C. Burckhardt, 1906) A partly concordant, partly discordant mass that
pushed (wedged) the surrounding country roek aside, in some places overturning
the beds
Stromatolith (J.C. Foye, 1916) A mass comprising tabular injections interfingered with
sedimentary strata.
Stromoconolith (S.1. Tomkeeff, 1961) A layered intruson that is ether conical or
funnel-shaped
Tongue See Apophysis.
'Shown on the diagrams that follow
AGI DATA SHEET 24.3
TRANSITIONAL MASSES
Transitional masses bridge the gap between intrusive masses and volcanics. They
comprise both subsurface and supracrustal gneous rocks.
Diatreme* A volcanic pipe consisting largely 01 breccia.
Neck" The mass that the conduit 01 a lormer volcanic ven!. The term s most
olten applied to remnants 01 su eh masses. Also called pipe or plug.
EXTRUSIVE MASSES
Extrusive masses are largely igneous and pyroclastic rocks that have lormed at
or above the Earth's surface. Some geologsts call these rocks eruptive.
Ash flow" A deposit produced by gas-charged volcanic ash. Also called pyroclastic
flow.
Bedded volcano See Composite cone.
Bulbous dome See Lava dome.
Cinder cone" A conical vent formed by the accumulation of cinders and other
vesicular ejecta, typically basaltic to andesitic in composition. Also called pyroclastic
cone.
Composite cone" A volcanc cone that consists 01 both lava Ilow and pyroclastic
materials. Also called strata-cone, stratovolcano, or less oflen, bedded volcano.
Cumulo-dome A seldom-used name lor lava dome.
Fissure flow A lava flow formed as the result 01 an eruption from a fissure.
Lava cone A volcanic vent consisting largely 01 lava flow material. Also called shield
volcano.
Lava dome Another name lor lava cone, especially one with a domical shape. Also
called bulbous dome.
Lava flow" A mass 01 rock consolidated lrom lava that flowed from a volcanic vent
or lissure.
Maar" A low-reliel explosion crater the walls 01 which consist largely or entirely of
loose fragments 01 country rock and possibly some magmatic ejecta. These ap
parently volcanism-associated leatures are not, in the opinion 01 some geologists,
igneous in origino Also called embryo volcano or explosion pi!.
Plateau eruption* An accumulation 01 successive lava flows that covers a vast area
lor example, a plateau basal!.
Pyroclastic cone See Cinder cone.
Pyroclastic flow See Ash flow.
Shield volcano A cone consisting wholly or largely 01 lava flow material. Also called
lava cone.
Strata-cone See Composite cone.
Stratovolcano See Composite cone.
Taphrolith (J.J. Sederholm, 1902) A trough-shaped mass at least part 01 which
Ilowed out along boundary faults into a trough or graben.
Volcanic cone A general term that includes cinder eones, lava eones and domes,
and composite (strata) eones.
Volcano A typically conical edifice, produced by extruded lava and/or pyroclastc
materals.
'Shown on the diagrams that follow.
AGI DATA SHEET 24.4
The following schematic diagrams show relations of a few of the masses de
scribed: A, modified after R.G. Schmidt and H.R. Shaw (1971); B, redrawn after A.F.
Buddington (1929); e, basad on descriptions.
Ci nder
B
~ Country
J ? E ~ I Granite
.,..,-; ~
l!:C::J::I!i Rock
AGI DATA SHEET 24.5
~ Intruded
8 S ~ Lopolith
~ country rock
e
References
Berthelsen, A., 1970, Globulith: A new type 01 intrusive structure, exemplilied by
rT,)etabasic bodies in the Moss Area, SE Norway: Norges Ge%giske Unders(Jke/se
(Arbok, 1969), no. 266, p. 70-83.
Buddington, A.F., 1929, Granite phacoliths and their contact zones in the Northwest
Adirondacks: New York State Museum Bulletin, no. 281, p. 51-107.
Daly, RA, 1933. /gneous Rocks and theDepths of the Earth. McGraw-Hill Book Co.,
New York.
Foye, J.C., 1916, Are the " batholiths" 01 the Halliburton-Bancroft area, Onl., correctly
named?: J. Geo/., v. 24, p. 783-791.
Hunt, C.B., Averitt, P., and Miller, R.L., 1953, Geology and geography 01 the Henry
Mountains region, Utah: U.S. Geo/. Surv. Prof. Pap. 228.
Schmidt, R.G., and Shaw, H.R., 1971, At/as of Vo/canic Phenomena: U.S. Geol. Surv.,
20sheets.
Tomkeieff, S.I., 1961, Alkalic ultrabasic rocks and carbonatites 01 the U.S.S.R.:
/nternationa/ Ge%gy Review, v. 3, p. 739-758.
Willis, B., 1938, Asthenolith (melting spot) theory. Geo/. Soc. Am. Bull., v. 49, p. 603-614.
_Geolibros_
AGI DATA SHEET 25.1
Pyroclastic Sediments and Rocks
Richard V. Fisher, Department 01 Geological SCiences, Unlversity of California,
Santa Barbara
The term pyroelastie is commonly used to reler to volcanic materials ejected
Irom a volcanic vent There are two main causes 01 explosive activity: (1) internal
gas expansion from within a magma body, and (2) magma-water interactions that
cause steam explosions. Type 1 activity produces particles known as pyroc/asts;
type 2 activily produces hydroelasts. Vo/canie/astc has a broader meaning and
applies lo clastic deposits with particles 01 volcanic composition irrespective 01
origino Volcaniclastic particles are created in the lollowing ways.
Pyroe/astie parte/es (pyroe/asts) lorm by disinlegration 01 magma, as gases
are released by decompression and then ejected Irom a volcanic vento
Hydroe/asts form by magma-water interactions in two major ways. Explosive
Iragmentation 01 magma and ejection through vents occur when magma and
water (such as ground water) come into contact and steam is generated in
conlined spaces. Nonexplosive thermal contraction and granulation produces
particles when magma inleracts with water in unconfined spaces.
Autoclastc fragments lorm by mechanical Iriction during movement of lava
and breakage 01 cool brittle outer margins, or gravity crumbling 01 spines and domes.
AI/oc/astc fragments form by disruption 01 pre-existing volcanic rocks by
igneous processes beneath the Earth's surface.
Reworking 01 the aboye Iragment types by rivers, wind, turbidity currents, and
other agents results in reworked pyroc/astc deposits.
Epic/asts are lithic clasts and minerals (usually silicates) released by ordinary
weathering processes from pre-existing consolidated rocks. Volcanic epiclasts are
clasts 01 volcanic composition derived lrom erosion 01 volcanoes or ancient
volcanic terrane with no volcanic edifice.
To interpret pyroclastic sediments and rocks, it is advisable lo dislinguish
between epiclasts and other volcaniclastic fragments so as to determine
contemporaneity 01 volcanism and sedimentation. Terms such as pyroclastic,
hydroclastic, and epiclastic also reler to the processes by which the Iragments
originate. Thus, a pyroclast cannot be transformed into an epiclast merely by
reworking by water. wind, glacial action, etc. Recognizing the differences in these
materials and processes is importan!, because sediment supply rates commonly
differ by orders 01 magnitude between degrading ejecta piles and erodng
epiclastic terrains.
FRAGMENT NAMES
Blocks. Angular to subangular; cognate or accidental origin; size >64 mm.
Bombs. Fluidal shapes; shaped by aerodynamic drag 01 atmosphere on fluid dots
01 lava; size >64 mm.
Spatter. Nearly molten bombs, usually basaltic, that readly weld upon impact to
lorm agglutinate.
Pumce. Highly vesicular glass; usually Iloats; commonly lelsic; no size lmitations.
Scoria. Less vesicular than pumice; sinks in water; more malic than pumice; no
size limitations.
Aecretionary /aplli. Lapillus-size particles lormed by concentric accretion 01 ash.
AGI DATA SHEET 25.2
WAYS TO ClASSIFY PYROClASTIC DEPOSITS ANO ROCKS
GRAIN SIZE
Consolidated
Clast Unconsolidated pyroclastic
slze(mm) Pyroclast tephra rock
Bomb, block Agglomerate Agglomerate, pyroclastic
breccia
64mm--
Lapillus Layer, bed of laplli Lapillistone
(Iapilli tephra)
2mm
Coarse ash Coarse ash Coarse tuff
1/16mm
Fine ash Fine ash Fine tuff
GRAIN SIZE MIXTURE
BLOCK!! ANO BOMBS
/75

I
t
(f
,,'"
$
I 25 k - - - - - - - - - - ~
LAPILUTUFF
LAPILLI 75 25 ASH
PERCENTAGE OF LAPILU ANO ASH
COMPONENTS
UTHIC
AGI DATA SHEET 25.3
SOURCE OF FRAGMENTS
Essential (juvenile). Parlicles (cryslal, lithic, vitric) derived Irom new magma.
Accessory (cognate), Particles derived Irom earlier eruptions at same
volcanic center.
Accidental. Particles of any origin or composition Irom rocks through which
the vent penetrates.
MANNER OF TRANSPORT
Pyroclastc fall. Particles derived from ejection of ballistic fragments and
eruption plumes that fall from the atmosphere onto land or into water.
1 0 0 ~ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ~ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ~
F (%) 50
HAWAIIAN
O,OS soo 50,000
o(km')
F% is weight per cent 01 deposit finer than 1 mm along dispersal axis where
it is crossed by isopach tine that is 10% 01 the maximum thickness (0.1 T
max
)
isopach line. D is area 01 dispersal,
Pyroclastic flow. Ho!. essentially nonturbulent, gaseous sediment gravity
flow; emplaced at high velocities on low slopes, filling in low topographic
irregularities.
Eruptive
mechanism Pyroclastic flow Deposit Characteristic fragment
Eruption Pumice flow, Ignimbrite, Pumice*
column ash flow pum ice flow
collapse deposit,
ash-flow tuff
Scoria flow Scoria flow Scoria'
deposit
Lava dome Block and ash Block and Dense lava*
collapse flow (nue ash-flow
(explosive ardente) deposit
and gravita
lional)
'Upward decrease of density of juvenile clasts.
AGI DATA SHEET 25.4
Pyroclastic surge. Hot, expanded, turbulent, gaseous sediment gravity flow;
more dilute than pyroclastic flow; emplaced at high velocities over topographic
irregularities, thickening in valleys and thinning on hilltops.
Eruptive Type of pyro- Temperature, Typesof
mechanism clastlc surge moisture fragments
Phreatomag- Base surge Relatively cool, Juvenile,
matic wet accessory
(column lithics (poorly
collapse) vesicular)
Accompanying Ground surge Hot, dry Juvenile
pyroclastic
flows
Ash-cloud surge Hot, dry Juvenile
From lateral Blast surge Hot, dry lO wel Juvenile lithics
blasts (micro
vesicular)
Lahar. Flow is a high concentration mixture of volcanic clasts and water;
deposit is composed of clasts of volcanic composition. Same word is used for
flow and deposit. Lahars originate in the following ways:
Directly by eruptions. Through crater lakes, snow or ice, or heavy rains
falling during or immediately after an eruption; by mixing of pyroclastic surges
with water in rivers; by dewatering of volcanic avalanches.
Indirectly due to eruptions. Triggering of loose saturated debris by
earthquake activity, rapid drainage of lakes dammed by erupted products, or
remobilizalion of 100se volcanic debris on steep volcano slopes by melling snow
or heavy rains shortly after eruplions.
Indirectly due lo processes not related to eruptions. Erosion of old
volcanoes or volcanic terrane wilh no volcano edifices Ihalleads lo debris flow action.
AGI DATA SHEET 25.5
MIXTURES WITH NONVOlCANIC PARTlClES
Tuffites (mixed
pyroclastlc-
Pyroclastic eplclastic)
Agglomerate, Tuffaceous
agglutinate, conglomerate,
pyroclastic tuffaceous breccia,
breccia
Lapillistone
Tuff coarse Tuffacaous sandstone
fine Tuffaceous siltstone
Tuffaceous mudstone,
shale
100% 75% 25%
Epiclastic
(volcanic
and/or non
volcanic)
Conglomerate,
breccia
Sandstone
Siltstone
Mudstone,
shale
0% by volume of
pyroclasts
Clastsize
limits(mm)
64
2
1/16
1/256
References
Cas, R.A.E, and Wright, J.V., 1987. Va/canie Raeks: Madem and Ancien!. Allen
and Unwin, Winchaster, Massachusetts, 528 p.
Fisher, R.V., and Schmincke, H.-U .. 1984. Pyraclastic Racks. Springer-Verlag,
New York, 472 p.
Heiken, G., and Wohletz, K.H., 1985. Va/canje Ash. University of California Press,
Berkeley, 246 p.
AGI DATA SHEET 26.1
Characteristics of Fallout
Alter Fisher and Schmincke, 1984
SUBAERIAL TEPHRA
Dlstribution (Fallout Pattern) and Thickness
Distribution is circular or lan-shaped (regular to irregular) wilh respeel lo source.
Secondary thickness maxima may occur lar downwind.
There are flat wedges Ihal syslematically decrease in Ihickness along fan axes.
Some have displaced or multiple thickness maxima.
Thickness may be skewed to one side, perpendicular to fan axis.
Azimuth of fan axis may change with dlstance Irom source.
Apex 01 lan axis may not be on volcano (e.g., Mount SI. Helens),
Structures
Plane parallel beds drape over gentle topography and minor surface irregularilies.
Ash layers wedge oul against steep slopes (> 35 or 40).
Laminations and thicker beds rellecl composilional changes or textural changes;
either 01 these may cause overall color changes.
Minor lenticularity may occur close lo so urce.
Grading may be normal or reverse in various combinalions depending upon varia
lions in wind and/or eruplion energy, venl radius, or erupllon column densily.
Reverse grading in beds on cnder cones and on other steep slopes commonly
develops by downslope rolling or sliding 01 dry granular material.
Fabric in beds is typically isotroplc because elongate Iragments are uncommon.
Exceptions: phenocrysls such as biotite, amphlbole, etc., and platy shards.
Bedding planes may be sharp il Ihere are abrupt changes in eruptive conditions,
wind energy, or dlrections, or in composition.
Bedding planes are distinct il deposils are on wealhered or erosional surfaces, or
on dlfferent rock types. They may be gradatlonal il deposition is slow by small incre
ments so Ihal blolurbatlon, wind reworklng, or olher soi!lorming processes dominate.
Textures
Size and sorting parameters vary geometrically with distance lo source. Spread 01
values is greater in proximal amas Ihan in distal areas.
Sortlng: moderale lo good. Inman sorting parameters, 0'<1>' 1.0 to 2.0, are mosl
common. This applies 10 relatlvely coarse-grained as well as 10 line-grained tephra.
Median dameler, Mdq,: highly variable; coarser close lo source than larther away.
Mdq:. IS commonly -1.0 lo -3.0d> (2 mm to 8 mm) or smaller (phi values) close lo
source. Farther Irom source, Mdd> may vary Irom O.0d> (1 mm) lO 3.04> ('/B mm) or
more.
Composltlon
Subaerial lephra composilion is mafic 10 slliclc, calc-alkaline lo alkaline, etc. Siliclc
or intermediale fallOUI is more wldespread than maflc lallout because 01 usually
greater explosivlty and volume 01 the eruptions,
Inlermediate composillon is commonly assocated with large composile volcanoes.
Malic composllion is commonly associated wllh cinder cones and extenslve lava
flows,
Bulk composilion gene rally becomes slighlly more silicc away from so urce due to
eolian fractionation.
Rock Associations and Facies
Close to source (within vent or on steep volcano slopes): lava flows, pyroclastic
flows, domes, pyroclaslic tuf! breccias, avalanche deposts, and debris Ilows.
Inlermediate dslance to source: coarse-gralned tephra, some lava flows, pyrOclaS
lc flows, ash lalls, and reworked fluvial deposlls, The coarser-grained pyrOclastic
deposits gradually decrease, and reworked pyroclastic deposits gradually increase
away from source.
Far from source: airfall tephra, most easily recognized in marshy, lacustrine, wind
blown environments. Rock associations depend on environment 01 deposilion There
are no relatad lava flows or coarse-grained volcaniclastics.
AGI,DS-""l-I19
AGI DATA SHEET 26.2
SUBAQUEOUS TEPHRA
Distribution and Thickness
Dislribution 01 airfall pattern may be modilied by waler currenls -mosl often lo
an irregular lan shape close lo source. Dislribulion tends lo beco me Ihicker loward
source bul may be highly irregular.
Thickness 01 single layers is commonly < 50 cm unless augmented by currenls
in low places. Thick layers with many Ihin laminae may be multiple lall units.
Structures
Plan e parallel beds exlend over hundreds 01 km
2
. Normal grading s Irom cryslal
and lilhicrich bases lo shard-rich tops.
Basal conlacls are sharp; upper contacts diffuse due to reworking by burrowing
animals.
Structures may be inversely graded il pumice is present. Presence 01 abundant
pumice suggesls restricted circulalion and is more common in lacustrine than in
marine environments.
Structures on land-based oulcrops may include post-depositional thickening,
thinning, and flow slruclures, especially if diagenetically altered, or they may include
water-escape structures and load or slump struclures.
Textures
Size and sorting parameters vary irregularly wilh distance from source but over
all, size tends lo decrease.
Sorting: good to poor depending upon amount 01 biolurbation. Inman sorting
parameters, O'," generally > t.O,, and < 2.5
w
.
Median diatneler, Md</>: comtnonly > 3.0</> - fine-grained sand size and smaller.
Composition
Subaqueous lephra composilions range from matic lo silcic, wilh silicic ash
mosl widespread.
Composition is generally relaled lo composition 01 nearest volcanic sources.
The Si0
2
conlent 01 glass shards may range 10 per cent wilhin a single layer.
Bulk samples are more Si0
2
-rich near top Ihan boltom 01 single layers because
olgrading.
Ancient layers in terrestrial geologic settings are typically altered to clays (domi
nantly monlmorillonite) and zeolites and are commonly known as bentonite (ton
stein in Europe).
Rock Associations and Facies
Tephra is commonly interbedded with pelagic calcareous or siliceous oozes, or
with terrigenous muds and silts depending upon proximily to land. Terrigenous
materials are commonly turbidites.
Ancient tephra layers on land are commonly interbedded wilh non-volcanic or
tuffaceous shale or siltstone.
Reference
Fisher, R.V., and Schmincke, H.-U., 1984. Pyroclastc Rocks. Springer-Verlag, New
York, 472 p.
____81___
-_-..
COMPOUND VOlCANO STRATO-VOlCANO
COMPLEX VOlCANO (COMPOSIH VOLCANO)
.-. ...............
SOMMA VOlCANO CALDERA
SHIElD VOLCANO
ee
.............
~
l"'VA DOME CRATU ROW CINDU CONE TUFF CONE TUFF
-
RING MAAR
FISSURE VEN T SCORIA CONE
PUMICE CONE
PYROClASTlC CONES - --
Schematic profiles (vemcally exaggerated-2:1 shadad and 4:1 dark) from the data o, R.J. Pike
(1978. Proc. 9th Lunar Planet. Sci. Cont., p. 3239-3273). Shapes and relativa sizes are only
approximate. as dimensions vary within each group. lIIustration from Smithsonian publication
VoIcanoesotthll W ~ 1981, Hutchinson Ross, Stroudsburg. Pa., 240 pp. More volcano data
appears on Data Sheets 84.1-84.4.
iI:"
Oa
~
:D-a
S "l1li
~
al
r-er
0'< m
C)C)
(;0
-ter
<!!!.
"<
mo
(/)
l1li
:l
j'
3
41
o
c

El
(/)
3
g
111
o
:l
i
:l
11
1;
(/)
:J:
m
!!I
~
_Geolibros_
_____
50 VEI 6

:1 60" F.... T.... L (HIGHLV EXPLOSIVE) _ ~


o
50 VEI 5
~
~ I 3'" F.... T.... L _
C/'I
."e..
z=> m -1
< I ~
:IJ f\,)
O ~
50 VE' A
C/'I .....
te> ~ I 311(, F.... T.... L _ L _______ 5i ."
::>> m
c.:...
w _ :IJ
50 VEr 3 c:
.... ~
~ I 12" F.... T.... l
o
(5
zc:.
z
50 VE I 2
O ~
~
::: :! F _ L_____________ m 311 ....T.... L
"':x:
:IJ
OU
~
c..<
50 VEI 1 r
~ w
o."
_II......
~
~ ! 211 F.... T.... l L _____________
c..!
50 VEITO _ (NON-EXPlOSIVE)
11 0 111 F ........ L _
1
o 1 10 100 1000 10,000
INTERVAL BETWEEN ERUPTIONS (YEARSl
Increased explosivily occurs wth longer eruption intervals. Data lor hislograms are from 4320 historie eruptions in which the time
interval Irom the start 01 the previous eruption is known. These are grouped by Volcanie Explosivity Index (VEI, see Data Sheet
84.2). For eaeh group, the percentage 01 historie eruptions thal have caused fatalities is also shown. IlIustration from Smithsonian
publication Vo/canoes of the Wor/d, 1981, Hutehinson Ross, Stroudsburg. Pa., 240 pp.
AGI DATA SHEET 28.1
Graph for Determining the Size of Sedimentary Particles
Data Sheet Commlttee, alded by George V. Chlllngar
DARK PARTlCLES
I
d. = /0 mm d. = /5 mm
Place sand grains or rock parti cles in the central part 01 the circle. Compare the size 01 the par
ticles with those on the graph with the aid 01 a magnilyi ng glass. Record the corresponding
number (1 , 2, 3, 4. 5. 6. 7.8) in notebook. For samples with parti cles 01 varying sizes, record the
most common size lirst.
Note: A comparator is available lo make size comparisons in the field and laboratory
from Edmund Scientific Company, Barrington, New Jersey.
AGIOs-M
AGI DATA SHEET 28.2
L1GHT PARTICLES
Relerences: (1) George V. Chilingar, 1956, Soviet classilication 01 sedimentary parti cles and
Vasil'evskiy graph: AAPG Bull., v. 40, no. 7, p. 1714. (2) M.S. Shvetsov, 1948, Petrography 01
sedimentary rocks, 2nd ed ., 387 p. Gosgeolizdat, Moscow-Leningrad
AGI DATA SHEET 29.1
Grainsize Scales
By Roy L. Ingram. University 01 North Carolina
GRAINSIZE SCALE USED BY AMERICAN GEOLOGISTS
Modified Wentworth Scale - after Lane, et al., 1947. Trans. American Geophysical
Un ion, v. 28, p. 936-938
GRADE LlMITS
phi mm mm mehes
--_....--
-12 4096 161.3
-11 2048 80.6
-lO 40.3
-9 512
256 lO. 1
5.0
-6 64 2.52
1.26
-4 16
032
0.16
-1 008
0.04
+1
+2 1/4 0.250
li8 0.125
+4 1/16 0.062
+5 1/32 0.031
1/64 0,016
+7 11228 0008
1/256 0.004
+9 0.002
-1-10
1/1024 0001
1/2048 0.0005
AGIDSrvd-82
rnrn
31.5mrn
16rnm
8rnm
NO.5
No. 10
No. 18
No.
No. 60
No. 120
No.
GRADE NAIv1E
very large
large
BOLlders
medium
srnall
large
Cobbles
GRAVEL
very coarse
rnediurn
Pebbles
fine
very fine
verycoarse
rned,um
Sand SAND
fine
veryfll1e
rnediurn
very fine
Iv1UD
rned,urn
Clay size
fine
very fine
AGI DATA SHEET 29.2
GRAINSIZE SCALE USEO BY ENGtNEERS
(A.S.T.M. Standards 0422-6_3_;0_64_3_-_18.-'-)____
GRADE LI MITS GRADE NAME
Boulders
305 12.0
Cobbles
76.2 3.0
3.0 in. ~ . - .....--
Gravel
4.75 0.19 - No. 4
coarse
2.00 0.08 No. 10
medium Sand
0.425 No. 40
fine
- 0.074 .. No. 200
Silt
0.005 ... ~ .. ~ - - .... _ .. -----......
GRAINSIZE SCALE USEO BY SOILS SCIENTISTS
U.S. Dept. 01 Agriculture, Agriculture Handbook No. 436 (1975)
GRADE LlMITS ------
G ~ A D E NAME
-76.2--3.0
2.0 0.08
75mm
No. 10 ~ -
Gravel
1.0 0.04 No. 18
very coarse
0.500 No. 35
coarse
0.250 No. 60
medium
Sand
0.100 No. 140
fine
0.050
-0.002
No. 270
very fine
Silt
AGI DATA SHEET 29.3
SIEVES FOR DETAILED SIZE ANALYSIS
-4.0 16.000
-3.75 13.454
-3.50 11.314
-3.25 9.514
-3.00 8.00
-275 6.727
5.657
-2.25 4.757
-2.00 4.000
-1.75 3.364
-150 2.828
-125 2.378
-1.00 2.000
-0.75 1.682
-0.50 1.414
-0.25 1.189
0.00 1.000
0.25 0.841
0.50 0.707
0.75
1.00 0.500
1.25 0.420
1.50 0.354
1.75 0297
2.00 0250
2.25 0210
2.50 0.177
2.75 0.149
3.00 0.125
3.25 0.105
0.088
3.75 0.074
4.00 0.062
4.25 0.053
4.50 0.044
16.0
13.2
11.2
95
8.0
6.7
5.6
4.75
4.00
3.35
2.80
2.36
200
1.70
1.40
1.00
0.850
OllO
0.600
0.500
0.425
0.355
0.300
0.250
0.212
0.180
0.150
0.106
0.090
0.075
0.063
0.053
0.045
6
7
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
60
70
80
100
120
140
200
230
325
AGI DATA SHEET 30.1
Comparison Chart for Estimating Roundness and Sphericity
Maurlce C. Powers, Elizabeth City StBte Universlty
This sheet showing both sphericity and roundness suggests that particle shapes that
initially break out or weather Irom parent rocks tend to be either discoidal, rodlike
(prismatlc), or spheroidal. It lurther suggests that as the particles are reduced in size by
abraslon andlor chemical weathering they tend to assume more nearly spherical
shapes. This, 01 course, is not invariably true, but it is the evolutionary process to be ex
pected.
The chart below incorporates median rho values lor roundness and sphericity. as sug
gested by Folk (1955). because 01 the ease 01 handling these values statistically. and be
cause they represent midpoints 01 each roundness and sphericity class. Alter determining
Irequency and cumulative percents lor roundness and sphericily classes. each may be plot
ted as histograms or as cumulative curves on probability paper. Such plots give a visual
relerence lor samples under examination and afford an opportunity to carry out statisticl
nrocedures.
"'GIOS-rvd-89
AGI DATA SHEET 30.2
This chart has the following advantages over other charts such as the one given on
the 1953 AGI Data Sheet
1. Most sedimentary particles between sand and cobble size wlll appear similar to
one of the particles iIIustrated.
2. When a "match" or near match has been found, the investigator has simultaneously
determined the roundness, the sphericity, and the general shape lerm that describe
the particle.
3.

4. Relationships belween roundness and sphericity populalions and Ihe fluid
dynamics or aerodynamics 01 a transporting medium may be investigated.
Experience indicates thal at leasl fifty grains from a sample should be examined in
order lo arrive al valid average values.
Allhough the fluid dynamics involving particles of differenl shapes and varying parti
cle slze Is rather complex, it appears lo blend for slzes smaller than 2 phi, even if they
have differenl shapes.

abraded lo more nearly spherlcal formS.Excellent examples of highly spherical lour
malines and zircons can be found in the Carmel formation of southeastern Utah.
Wllh the exceptlon of certain phyllosilicates that tend to retain thelr discoidal shapes
even as extremely smallsized partlcles, discoidalshaped mineral grains may lollow a
similar sequentlal shapin, thus also eventually becoming spheroldal. It Is noteworthy
in Ihis respect that fine micas as well as clay mlnerals (both groups are phyllosillcates)
commonly form "fine partlngs" in shales and even In fine sandslones and sillstones.
For particles larger than 2 phi, the effect of grain shape on fluid dynamics or
aerodynamlcs Is more compllcated. Allhough discoidal shapes have greater surface
area per unlt volume than other shapes, they tend to be imbrlcaled on sedlment floors,
an arrangement which effectlvely streamlines the particles and makes them relatlvely
stable wlth respect to curren! acllon. Rods have less surface area par unit volume than
discs, bu! tend lo roll rather easily wlth their long axes essenlially perpendicular to curo
rents. Spheres have less surface area than other shapes and roll easily on plaln Sur
faces; spheres, however, are rather easlly entrapped in pockets and other irregularities
on sediment surfaces and thus may be removed from the transpor! load.
References
Barrett, P .J., 1980, Tha shape 01 rock particlas, a critical reviaw: Sedimentology, v. 27, p.
291-303.
Dobkins, J.E., and Folk, R.L, 1970, Shape davelopment on Tahiti-nui: J. Sediment. Pet., v.
40, p.11561203.
Doyle, LJ., Carder, K-L, and Steward, R.G., 1983, The hydraulic equivalence 01 mica: J.
Sedimento Pet., v. 53, p. 643-648.
Els, B.G., 1988, Pebble morphology 01 an anclent conglomerate: the Middelvlei gold plac
er, Witwatersrand, South Africa: J. Sedimento Pet., V. 58, p. 894-901.
Folk, R.L, 1955, Student operator error in deterrnination of roundness, sphericlty and grain
slze: J. Sedimento Pet., V. 25, p. 297-301.
Komar, P.D., Baba, J., and Cul. B., 1984, Grainsize analyses 01 mica within sediments and
the hydraulic equivalence 01 mica and quartz: J. Sedimento Pet., v. 54, p. 1379-1391.
Krumbein, W.C., 1941, Measurements and geologic signiflcance 01 shape and roundness
01 sedlmenlary particles: J. Sedimento Pet., V. 11, p. 64-72.
Landon, R.E., 1930, An analysis 01 beach pebble abrasion and Iransportation: J. Gso!., V.
38, p. 437446.
AGI DATA SHEET 30.3
McBride, E.F., and Picard, M.O., 1967, Downstream changes in sand composition, round
ness, and size in a short-headed, high gradient stream, Northwest Italy: J. Sedimento
Pet, V. p.l016-1026.
Milis, H.H., 1979, Downstream rounding of pebbles a quantitative review; J. Sediment.
Peto v. 49, p. 295-302.
Powers. M.C., 1953, A new roundness scale lor sedimentary partides: J. Sediment. Pet., V.
23. p. 117-119.
Sneed, E.D., and Folk, R.L., 1958, Pebbles in the lower Colorado River, Texas, a study in
particle morphogenesis: J. 6eol., v. 66, p. 114-150
Visher, G.S., 1969, Grain size distributions and depositional processes: J. Sedimento Pet., V.
39. p. 1074-1106.
Waag, C.J., and Ogren, DE, 1964, Shape evolution and fabric in a boulder beach, Monu
ment Cove, Maine: J. Sedimento Pet., V. 54, p. 96-102.
AGI DATA SHEET 31.1
Descriptive Terms for Megascopic Appearances of Rack
and Particle Surfaces
Compiled by Maurice C. Powers, Elizabeth CUy Slale University
[Most delinitions are slightly revised versions 01 those in the A.G.!. "Glossary 01
Geology" (2nd ed.)]
Burnished surlace-Megascopically indistinguishable Irom polshed and sorne var
nished surlaces. Polished surfaces are marked by extremely fine scratches lormed
by surlace abrasion whereas burnished surlaces result Irom more nearly random
removal 01 multimolecular sized pieces to lorm a nearly Ilat surface.
Chattermark-One 01 a series 01 small, closely spaced, short curved scars or cracks
brittle rock surlace by rock Iragments car
Crescentic gouge-A crescentic mark in the form 01 a groove or channel with a sorne
what roundad bottom; it is lormad by the removal 01 rock material from between two
Iractures; it is concave toward the direction from which the ice moved (Le., its
"horns" point in the direction 01 ice movement).
Desert varnish-A thin dark shiny lilm or coating, composed 01 iron oxide commonly
accompanied by traces 01 manganese oxide and silica, formed on the surlaces 01
pebbles, boulders, and other rock Iragments in, lor example. desert regions alter
long exposure. It is believed to be causad by exudation 01 mineralized solutons lrom
within and deposition by evaporation on the surlace. A similar appearance produced
by wind abrasion is known as desert polish. Syn: desert patina; desert lacquer; desert
crust; desert rind; varnish.
curved laces intersecting in three
Dull luster-The luster 01 a mineral or rock surface that difluses rather than reflects
light, even though the surlace may appear smooth (c.f. (rosted surlaee, matte sur
faee).
Einkanter-A ventilact having only one lace or a single sharp edge.
Etched-A naturally eorroded surlace 01 a mineral or rock with the erystal or structural
pattem enhanced lor observation beeause 01 differences in reliel.
Faeet-A nearly plane surlace produeed on a roek Iragment by abrasion. as by wind
sandblasting, by the grinding aetion 01 a glacier, or by a stream thal differentially
removes material Irom the upstream side 01 a boulder or pebble.
Frosted surlaee-A lusterless groundglasslike surlaee on roundad mineral grains,
espeeially 01 quartz. It may result Irom innumerable impaets 01 other grains during
wind aetion, lrom chemieal aetion, or Irom deposition 01 many microscopie erystals,
lor example, 01 line silica seeondarily deposited on quartz grains (e.1. matted sur
faee).
Groove-A low area between two ridges; a linear depression 01 whieh lhe length greatly
exeeeds lhe width. A groove is larger than a striation.
Matte(d) surlace-An evenly roughened surfaee (c.f. frosted surfaee).
Pereussion mark-A ereseentie sear produeed on a hard, dense roek (e.g., chert or
quartzite) by a sharp blow, as by the violen! collision 01 a eobble with a boulder in a
streambed.
Pitted surlaee-Marked eoncavities not related to the eomposition or texture 01 the
rock on which they appear. The depressions range in size Irom minute pits eaused by
dust partieles to those that are a lew eentimeters aeross and a lew eentimeters deep.
Polished surlace-Charaeterized by high luster and strong relleeted light.lt may be pro
dueed by various agents, e.g., desert varnish or abrasion by glacial Ilour (e.l. bur
nished surfaee).
Seored surlaee-Parallel seratehes, striae, or grooves on a badroek surlaee eaused by
the abrasion aetion 01 roek Iragments transportad by, lor example, a moving glaeier.
Serateh-See groove, scored surfaee, and striated surlace.
Striated surlaee-Surlaee marked by fine lines or seratehes, generally parallel or sub
parallel to eaeh other.
Surfaee luster-The appearanee 01 a surlaee in reflectad light, generally deseribed by
its quality and/or intensity. For example, metallie versus nonmetallie and bright ver
susdull.
Varnlsh-See desert vamish.
AGIDSrvd82
AGI DATA SHEET 32.1
Names for Sedimentary Rocks
Condensed by A.R. Compton trom Manual of Fleld Geology, John Wiley and Sons, New
York,1956
..(1)/,,
/)VI>
'"

J::
'"

:S lo i
V
&"J6J
o
'" -;
i;i
o
o

'"

<ll
g
.go

<ll
E
o
:g
"
.,
.;

'O
o

a:
"
<ll
-;
;;




6J1
1
q
(Jo(/)
%/) o
/)ve en
6J
1
1
"/e"
10IV6J"

Arenlte: relatvely well sorled sandslone.
le
'"
c:'"

==()

",u
o
<IJ
&!V6J
J
/;r


-o
c:
"
-;;
o
-o
c:
'"
'"
'O
o

,;

-o
c:
<IJ
'"
Waeke: sandstone so poorly sorled as lo inelude more than 20 percenl 01 silt or clay.
Graywacke: strongly indurated dark-colored wacke.
Shale: siltstone (silly shale) or claystone (clay shale) with promlnent bedding cleavage (flssllity).
Mudstone: mixture 01 silt and clay with blocky or spheroldal Iracture.
Argilllte: recrystalllzed) clayslones or siltstones Ihat break Into hard,
AGI DATA SHEET 32.2
wacke
Rocks In th,s general
area are chlefly volcarllc
sandstones. formed by
drrect 01
pyroclastlc material,
Feldspar Unstable Ilne-grarned
gra1ns rock Iragmen!s
Names lor Sandstones, Based on Composilion. To name a rack: (1) determine the amounts 01 Ihe various
mineral and rock grains, (2) Sum these amounls iolo Ihe Ihroo groups shown al !he corners 01 Ihe !,iangle.
aod (3) usrng the proportions between Ihe groups. estimate a poio! 10 the triangle. A poorly $Orted sand
stone with equal amoun!s 01 quartz. leldspar. aod slate grains. for example. would lall at poin! x (a
lithic, leldspalhic wacke). Other detrital minerals tha! lorm mOfe lhan 10 percenl 01 Ihe sand may be
used as adjeclives in the name, as biolllic. From a dagram suppled by C. M. Gilbert.
pebbles, etc
Pebbly
wacke
1 I
Pebbly
mudstone
Ratio 01 sand to sil! plus clay-s1ze
Names lor Sedimentary Rocks Containing GravelSize Fragments
_Geolibros_
AGI DATA SHEET 33.1
Names tor Limestones
GRADE SIZE SCALES
0.004 0.03 0.06 0.12 0.25 0.5 1.0 2.0
8.0 (mm)
I
.,

.,1
calcilutite > 8 calcirudite
calcisi Itite calcarenite
CLASTIC LIMESTONE CLASSIFICATION
Modlliad after R.L. Folk, 1959.(Wlth permission 01 the American Association 01 Petro
leum Geologists.)
ALLOCHEMICAL ROCKS
allochems > 10%
sparry calcite microcrystalline
calcite
microcystalline >
calcite sparry calcite
.. :"... ............:.::.
.. :....:.. ..:...:...:...:.... ...:....:.:..... ... ...... :.....:....:.:

>

<""".<
intrasparite intramicrite
Fossils
Ooliths
Pellets
pelsparite pelmicrite
m
biosparite


ORTHOCHEMICAL ROCKS
... .:... . ::: ... . :.:.: micro
...:' ...::.:.::
'::..:::::
...:...:.:.:.:...:.::..:.... .. :...:.: ....:..........
:..
Crystall ine
::
:. : : .. . .:: : .. :. 01 rock

micrite
.. .......
dismicrite
AUTOCHTHONOUS
REEF ROCKS
..... . " ...
:::..:.: .: ...:....:....:::... :..:....:: ..:.::.... ..:...:...:..........:.:... : :.:.:..::: .......
.
.:: ...:.::.: !...
biol ithite
AG I-DS-jld-82
AGI DATA SHEET 33.2
CLASSIFICATION OF LIMESTONES ACCORDING TO DEPOSITIONAL TEXTURE
Modified after R. J. Dunham, 1962.
(With permission 01 the American Associ ation 01 Petroleum Geologists.)
Depositional Texture Recognizable
Depositional
Texture Not
Recognizable
Original components were nol bound together
during deposition
Original
components
were bound
together during
deposition

Contains mud' I Lacks muda
BOUNDSTONE
Mud-supported Grain-supported
Less than 10, \, More than lO
percent grains percent grains
MUDSTONE WACKESTONE PACKSTONE \ GRAINSTONE
a Particles 01 clay and line silt size.
b To be subdivided according to classilications designed to bear on physical texture or diagenesis.


mudslone wackeslone
boundstone crystalline
carbonate
The line stipple represents mud matri x
RelerenC8S
Dunham , R. J ., 1962. Classificalion 01 carbonale rocks according to deposltlonal texture. In
Classil icalion 01 carbonate rocks, W. E. Ham (ed.), 108-21. Amer. Assoc. Petrol. Geol. Mem. l .
FOlk, R. L. , 1959. Practical petrographic classification 01 limestones. Amer. Assoc. Petrol.Geol.
Bull . 43, 1- 38.
Greensmith, J. T., 1978. Petrology 01 Sedimentary Rocks (Sixlh Edition), p. 124-132. London:
George Allen & Unwin.
AGI DATA SHEET 34.1
Descriptive Classllication 01 Metamorphic Rocks
by Robert R. Compton, Stanford Unlversity
In thls binomial system for naming metamorphlc rocks, the maln rock name Is based on

names are meant 10 be applled on a descrlptive basis; a schislose rock, for example,
should nOI be called a hornfels just because it Is found in a contact aureole.
TEXTURES
SChlstose-gralns platy or elongate and oriented parallal or subparalleL Follated (Iepidoblastlc) II
fabric Is planar, IIneated (nematoblastlc) If linear.
Granoblllsllc-gralns approximately equldlmenslonal; platy and linear gralns orlented randomly or
so subordinate that lollation is not developad. .

freshly broken surfaces show a sugary coating that will not rub off (Iormed rendlng 01 interlock
Ing gralns).
Semlschlstose (gnelsslc)-platy or linear grains subparallel but so subordinate or so unevenly
dlstrlbuled that rock has only a crude foUallon; especially common in metamorphosed granular
rocks, such as sandstones and Igneous rocks,
Cataclllstlc-clastlc textures resulting from breaklng and grlnding with lillle, II any recryslalllza
tion; characlerized by angular, lensoid, or rounded Iragments (porphyroc/asts) In a Ilne-gralned and
commonly streaked or layered groundmass, Mortar slructure applles lO nonorlented arrangements,
and phacoida/, flaser, and augen structura apply to lenticular arrangements.
ROCK NAMES
SCHISTOSE ROCKS
SChlst-gralns can be sean wlthoul using a microscope,
Phylllte-all lor almost all) gralns 01 groundmass are mlcroscoplc, bul cleavage surlaces have
sheen caused by rellections from platy or linear minerals; commonly corrugated.
Slate-grains are micr05copic; very cleavable; surfaces dull; lougher Ihan shale and eleavage como
monly oblique lo beddlng.
Phyllonlte-appearanee like phyllite but lormed by eataelasis (sea mylonlle) and recrystallizatlon
commonly 01 coarser-grained rocks, as Indlcaled by rellet rock sllces, slip folds, and
porphyroclasts.
GRANOBLASTIC ROCKS
Granullle or Ilrllnolels-granoblastic rocks, irrespective 01 mineral eomposillon; because granu/ite
can connote special compositons and conditlons 01 origln, granofe/s may be preferred.
Quartzite, marble, and amphlbolite-composllional names thal generally connote granoblastlc
texture; exceptlons should be modifled lor clarity, as schistose quartzlte or p/agioc/ase hom
blende 8cMst
Tactlte (skarn) - heterogeneous calc-silicate melasomatic rocks 01 uneven grain, Common usage
implies a contact metasomatc orign,
HORNFELSIC ROCKS
AII called homfe/s, or, il rellet !eatures are elear, hornfelsic may be used with the original rock
name (as hornla/sic andesite).
SEMISCHISTOSE (GNEISSIC) ROCKS
Semlschlsl-line-grained (typcally less than 1/4 mm) so that individual platy or lineate grains are
indistlnct; relct features often common.

be dislrlbuted evenly through the rock or may be concentraled locally so thal some layers or
len ses are granoblastic or schlstose (banded gnaiss).
was condensed from Manua/ of fie/d geo/ogy, John
AGI-OS.Jml-89
AGI DATA SHEET 34.2
CATACLASTIC ROCKS
Where original nature 01 rock Is sU" apparenl, rock name can be modifiad by suitable adjectives (as
eataclastie gran/te, flaser gabbro, phacoldsl rhyolite),
Cataclasite - a rock conlaining angular Iragmen!s tha! have been produced by Ihe crushing and
Iracturing 01 preexisling rocks as a result 01 mechanical torces.
Mylonite - loliated, lineatad rock, commonly wilh ribbons 01 quartz and lenticular porphyroclasts.
Ultramylonite, pseudotachylyte-Aphanitc lo nearly vltreousappearing dark rock commonly in
jeclad as dikes mIo adjoinmg rocks.
RELICT ANO SPECIAL TEXTURES ANO STRUCTURES

produced promlnent new mlnerals, names such as chloritized diorta and sariefized granfa can be
usad.
Strongly metasomatized rocks with coarae or un usual textures may require special names such as
gresen, Quartz-sehor/ rock, and eorundum-mica rack.
Mlgmlltlte-a composite rock composed 01 igneous or igneous-appearing and/or metamorphic
materials that are generally distingushable megascoplcally,
AGI DATA SHEET 35.1
Bernard W. Evans, University 01 Washington
A metamorphic lacies has been delined (Turner, (968) as: "a sel 01 metamorphic mineral
assemblages, repeatedly associated in space and lime, such thal Ihere is a constant and
therefore predictable relation between mineral composition and chemical composton." Ponts
to nole are (1) the concept is pelrographic, or lield-oriented, (2) any one lacies encompasses
all possible rock compositions, (3) lacies are not delined n terms 01 pressure and temperature,
nor in terms 01 mode 01 occurrence, (4) facies are delined in terms 01 sets 01 mineral assem
blages, deally set out n a sequence 01 (triangular) paragenetic diagrams. showing changing
mineral compatibilities across the facies boundaries.
01
more, lew metamorphic rocks can be satisfactorily depicted in triangular, three-component
(Ior example, ACF) diagrams, or in projection onto triangular diagrams.
The accompanying tables show the characteristic mineral assemblages lor eight widely
recognized metamorphic lacies, keyed to bulk rock composition. For each facies, the upper
row gives the typical mineral assemblage. and the lower row () lists possible additional min
erais. Minerals in the latter may not necessarily occur throughout the lacies, may be restricted
lo fairly specilic bulk compositions, and may be incompatible with others in the lis\. For exam
pie, kaolinile and paragonite occur in highly aluminous pelites in the zeolite lacies, and should
not be accompanied by K-Ieldspar. Rocks 01 basic (basaltic) compositon provide the assem
blage diagnostic 01 each lacies (capitalizad), with the possible exception 01 the sanidinite lacies.
Assemblages in other bulk compositions mayo in a lew cases, be diagnostic 01 a specilic facies,
lor example, staurolite+ muscovite+ quartz (amphibolite lacies). Individual minerals seldom
serve this purpose; lor example, neither glaucophane nor lawsonte is restricted to the blueschist
lacies. Accessory minerals have only been included where they are specilically known lo char
acterize a metamorphic lacies.
The inferred pressure-temperature relationships of Ihe lacil!s are based on a combination
01 lield observations and experimental reversals 01 reactions. Although most ollhese reaction
boundaries are a lunction 01 PH,o in addilion lo PsoIids and T, it appears in practice Ihal Ihere
is a sufficiently close relationship between the two pressure terms lor the metamorphic lacies
lo be interpreted in lerms 01 Plilhostatic and T. Possible exceplions, notably the granulile and
eclogile lacies, are still a subjecI 01 debate among petrologists.
Reference
Turnar. F. J. (1968) Maramorphic Petrology, Mineralogical and Feld Aspects, McGraw-Hill, Inc., 403 p.
Facies Pelitie Basle Ultrabasle
CA-ZEOLlTE +CHLORITE +
QUARTZ +ALBITE
Zeolile
kaolinite, paragonite, adularia, carbonate ,.... .... ''' ..~ ~ ' .........,;.... '''' ....
PREHNITE or ACTINOLlTE +
PUMPELL YITE +ALBITE +
CHlORITE + QUARTZ
Prehnile-pumpellyitel
Pumpellylte-actinolite
lawsonite, stilpnomelane antigorite, carbonate, tale,
diopside
Blueschisl
Eclogite
phengite +chlorite +quartz
kyanite, adeite, omphaeite
~
e
~
en
:r:
m
~
~
\)
Facies Pelitle Caleareous Basle Ultrabasle
Greensehist
Amphlbolite
(Inel. Hornblende
hornfels)
Granulite
(tnet. Pyroxene
hornfels) hornblenda,
calcite +dolomite +quartz
tale, aetinolite, K-feldspar
cal cite + dolomite
eummingtonite, enstallte

e
e
e
Santdtnlte
lA
::r
m
~
COI
UI
W
_Geolibros_
AGI DATA SHEET 35.4
PRESSURE-TEMPERATURE DIAGRAM
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(SJBqOI!}I)d
AGI DATA SHEET 36.1
And Classification Of Soils
Roy W. Slmonson
DEFINITION: Soil Is a natural, historical body with an internal organization reflected in
the profile and its horizons, conslsting of weathered rock material s and organlc matter
with the former usually predomlnant, and formad as a continuum at tha land surface
largely within the rooting zonas of plants.
HYPOTH ETICAL SOIL PROFILE:
wlth notatlons lor master horlzons
p ... 1980 current
nomenclature nomenclature




' ,
82

01
Oe
A
ES
BE
B
Be
e
lOose leavas and organic debrls, largely undecomposed.
Organic debrls, partially decomposed.
A dark-colored horlzon 01 mixed mineral and organlc
malter and wllh much blologlcal activlty.
A Ilght-colored horlzon 01 maxlmum eluviatlon; promi
nent in some soils but absent in others,
Transitlonallo B but more ka A (or El than B; may be
absen!.
Transitional lo A (or E) but mora like B lhan A (or E);
may be absen!.
Maxlmum accumulatlon 01 silicate clay minarais or 01
sesquloxldes and orllanle malter; maxlmum expresslon
01 bloeky or prlsmallc struclure; or bolh.
Translltonal to C bul more Ilke B Ihan C; may be absen!.
Wealhered parent material, occaslonally absenl; forma
Ilon 01 horlzons may lollow weathering so closely tha!
Ihe A or B horizon rests on consolidated rock.
Layer 01 consolidaled rock beneath the soil.
CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM: Tha system is describad, and classes in Ihe upper lour
categories are delined in U.S. Departmenl of Agriculture Handbook 436 (1975). Guides
are also inciuded lor delining classes in the fllth calegory (families). Changes since
1975 are recorded in Soil Management Support Services Monograph 6, "Keys lo Sol!
Taxonomy: (Soil Management Suppor! Services are in the Soil Conservation Service,
U.S. Deparlment 01 Agriculture, WaShington, D.C.)
The syslem consisls of six categores. They are lsted in descending sequence with
approximate numbers of classes in each (as 01 1988): orders (10). suborders (50), great
groups (250), subgroups (1,550), lamilies (5,500), and series (12,000). Numbers of fam
lIies and series are lor the Uniled Stales only.
The nomenclature of the system s systematic except for the series category. The
name of each class identfes Ihe category lo which it belongs. The name 01 each class
from families to orders dentifes all parenl classes of higher rank. Thus, the name of
each family ncludes all or parts 01 he names of the parenl subgroup, great group, sub
order, and order.
Names 01 soil groups used in the pasl-e.g., laterite, latentc soil, pOdzol, and cher
nozem-are not used in the system. The term laterte has been restrcted lO sesquiox
ide-rich materals that are hard or thal harden upon exposure when Ihey are wet and
then dry. Names such as podzols and chernozems and the phrase lateritic soils were
used for assortments of sols thal are now classlied under other orders of the system.
Further information about the classifcation system is given on Data Sheets 36.3
and 36.4.
...d-89
AGI DATA SHEET 36.2
SOll HORIZON DESIGNATIONS
Roy W. Simonson. Guthrie and Witty, 50il Sei. 50c. Am.
J., v. 46, p. 443,1982.
A. Capitalletters, lowercase letters, and Arabic numerals are all used to form hor
zon designations. In addition, prime notations are used to make some distnctions.
1. Capital letters, singly or in pairs, identify master horizons, shown in the
hypothetical soil profile on Data Sheet 36.1.
2. Lowercase letters are used as suffixes with the capital letters to indicate
subordinate leatures 01 master horizons.
3. Arabic numerals are used in Iwo ways: Firsl, Ihey are used as suffixes to
indicale vertical subdivisons 01 horizons. Second, they are used as pre
lixes with Ihe capital lellers lo indicale lilhologic discontinuilies within
profiles.
4. Prime notalions are used lo dislinguish Iwo or more horizons within a pro
file that are separated by anolher horizon bul have Ihe same designaton.
When two separaled horzons have the same designaton, the prime
notaton is used lor the deeper one, e.g., E and E'. If three separated hor
zons have the same designalion, a double prime is used lor the deepesl
one, e.g., E, E', and En.
B. A list 01 the lowercase letters used to identify subordinate leatures of master
horizons is given below. Opposite the lellers in current use are those thal were
replaced in 1982. Briel explanations are given lor the current leller suffixes.
Old New Features Represented
a Highly decomposed organic maller
b Buried
en Concretionary or nodular
e Moderately decomposed organic matter
I Frozen
9 9
Markedly reduced, expressed in low chromas, etc.
h h IlIuvial accumulaton 01 organic matler
Slightly decomposed organic maller
ca Accumulation 01 carbonates
m m Strongly cemented
sa n Accumulation 01 sodium
o Residual accumulation 01 sesquioxides
p p Dislurbed, as by plowing
si q Accumulalion 01 silica
Soft bedrock
ir lIIuv/al accumulation 01 sesquioxides
t Accumulation 01 clay
v Plinthitic
w For B horzons only, se! off by color or structure or both
Having Iragpan leatures
cs Accumulation 01 gypsum
sa Accumulaton 01 salts
AGI DATA SHEET 36.3
AMERICAN SOIL TAXONOMY: PART I
Roy W. Simonson. Principal sources are U.S. Department of Agriculture Hand
book 436 (1975) and Soil Management Support Services Monograph 6 (1987).
CLASS CRITERlA: Classes are distinguished in all six categories 01 the sys
tem on the basis 01 diagnostic leatures, chielly kinds 01 horizons. Six surlace
horizons, labeled epipedons, are diagnostic, with one, the mollic epipedon, 01
special importance. Sixteen subsurlace horizons serve as criteria, with nine
widely used and seven not. More than 20 leatures other than horizons are
used as class criteria - lor example, moisture regimes, temperature regimes,
and evidence 01 cracking and churning.
Principal features lor selting apart the 10 soil orders are gross composition
01 the soil (mineral versus organic). diagnostic horizons, distinctness 01 hori
zons, and base saturation.
Principal leatures lor distinguishing suborders within orders are moisture
regimes. temperature regimes, mineralogy, argillic horizons, and composition
01 horizons.
Principal leatures lor distinguishing great groups within suborders are
presence or absence 01 certain diagnostic horizons and the occurrence 01 hori
zons extra to the delinitive sequence lor a suborder.
For subgroups, a norm is lirsl selecled lor the great group as a whole. This
is meant lo typily or epitomize the great group. Soils that lit the norm lorm a
subgroup. Additional soils 01 the great group are then set apart based on the
properties shared with other great groups. For example, certain soUs are
selected as the norm lor the great group 01 Hapludalls and labeled Typic Hap
ludalfs. Other soils in the great group on the wet side but not wet enough to be
Aqualls are then set apart as Aquic Hapludalfs.
Soll Orders Names and Major Features
Alfisols Soils with subsurlace horizons 01 silicate clay accumulation and
moderate to high base status. Formative element: aff.
Aridisols Soils with very dry moisture regimes, little organic matter, and
some diagnostic leatures. Formative element: d.
Entisols Soils with little or no horizonation. Formative element: ent.
Histosols Soils consisting largely 01 organic maller. Formative element: st.
Inceptisols Soils with some diagnostic horizon or horizons, poorly
expressed. Formative elemen!: ept.
Mollisols Soils with thick, dark surface horizons, moderate to high in
organic matter, and well supplied with divalent bases. Formative
element: 011.
Oxisols Soils with lew weatherable minerals, very low supplies 01 bases,
and poorly expressed horizons. Formative elemen!: ox.
Spodosols Soils with subsurlace horizons 01 amorphous accumulations or
01 cementation with ron oxides. Formative element: od.
Ultisols Soils with subsurface horizons 01 silicate clay accumulation and
low to very low base status. Formative element: uft.
Vertisols Soils moderate to high in clay and with evidence 01 cracking
and churning. Formative element: ert.
AGI DATA SHEET 36.4
AMERICAN SOIL TAXONOMY: PART 11
Roy W. Simonson. Principal sources are U.S. Department o, Agriculture
Handbook 436 (1 975) and 5011 Management Support Servces Monograph 6
(1987).
NOMENCLATURE: AII names 01 elasses in a single eategory have the same
formo Names are also distinetve lor every eategory. The names 01 the soil
orders have three or lour syllables and end in sol. One syllable 01 the name 01
eaeh order s used as the final syllable in eonstructing the names 01 suborders,
great groups, subgroups, and lamilies. The names 01 suborders consist 01 two
syllables, a prelix plus the element Irom the name 01 the parent order. The
names 01 great groups eonsist 01 a prelix plus the name 01 the parent suborder.
The names 01 subgroups are binomials, with the name 01 the paren! great
group as the seeond word. The names 01 lamilles eonsist 01 the names 01 the
pare nI subgroups preceded by several modiliers based on particle size distri
bulion. mineralogy, and temperature. The syllables used as prelixes in the
names of suborders and 01 great groups are ehielly 01 Greek and Latin origino
A lew are Irom other languages.
Examples 01 syllables used as prelixes to construct names 01 suborders
with lormative elements lrom names 01 orders:
and J.. Ando, dark soil For soils with much amorphous material.
aqu L., aqua, water For soils wet to various degrees.
arg L., argilla, clay For soils with argillic horizons (elay accumulations).
bor Gr., boreas, eool For soils with relatively low temperatures.
lerr L., ferrum, iron For soils with iron-cemented horizons.
Iluv L., fluvus, river For soils lormed in recent alluvium.
psamm Gr., psammos. sand For soils high in sand.
ud L., udus, humid For soils with moderately high moisture.
ust L., ustus, burnt For soils with somewhat restreted moisture.
Examples 01 names 01 suborders are 80rolls lor eold Mollisols in North
Dakota and Psamments for sandy soils in Florida.
Examples 01 syllables used as prelixes to construct names 01 great groups
Irom names 01 suborders:
alb L., albus, white For soils with albie (pale) horizons.
cale L., ca/Gis, lime For soils with calcc horizons.
cry Gr.. Kryos, iey eold For soils that are very cold.
Irag L., fragilis. brittle For soils with Iragipans.
hapi Gr., haplous, simple For soils with no extra leatures.
natr L., natrum, sodium For soils with natric horizons (high in Na).
sal L., sal, salt For soils with salie horizons, high in salts.
trop Fr., tropkos, 01 the For soils that are moist and always warm.
solstiee
verm L., Yermes, worm For soils with mueh evidenee 01 launal mixing.
Examples 01 the names 01 great groups are Natriborolls lor eold Mollisols
with natric horizons high in sodium in North Dakota and Quartzipsamments lor
sandy soils high in quartz in Florida.
Examples 01 the names 01 subdivisions 01 a soil order in progressively
lower categones lor the Mohave series 01 the southwestern United States are
the lollowing: Aridisol, Argid, Haplargid, Typie Haplargid, fine-Ioamy, mixed,
thermie Typie Haplargid, and Mohave series. Aridsols constitute the great bulk
01 soils in the deserts 01 the world.
AGI DATA SHEET 37.1
for Field of Soils
Roy W. Slmonson. Principal sources are U.S. Department 01 Agrlculture Handbooks
18 and 436.
GENERAL INFORMATION ANO SETTING
IDENTIFICATION: Name 01 soil series or broader class. as specific as leasible.
PHYSIOGRAPHY: Such as til! plain. high terrace, flood plain.
UNDERL YING MATERIALS: General nalure, such as calcareous clayey liII or residuum lrom
granile.
SLOPE: Approximale gradient.
PLANT COVER: Vegetalion al slte, such as oakhickory lorest, corn, pasture.
MOISTURE STATUS: Conditions al the time, such as wel, molst, dry.
REMARKS: Olher features such as stoniness, sallnity, ordepth 10 ground waler; nol ap
plicable or observable everywhere.
DESCRIPTlONS OF INDIVIDUAL HORIZONS
DESIGNATION: See hypothetlcal 5011 profile, Data Sheet 36.
DEPTH: cm (or nches) Irom lop 01 A horlzon and lrom surface 01 organic soll.
THICKNESS: Average, such as 15 cm, plus range, su eh as 10-20 cm.
BOUNDARY: Lower one, as lO distinclness: abrupt, clear, gradual, or diffuse; and as lo
lopography: smOOlh, wavy, irregular, or broken.
COLOR: Record colors 01 both wet and dry specimens il possible, but always lor wet condltons.
Use numberletter notations from Munsell Soll Color charts, e.g., 10YR 5/4. Record mottles
(patches 01 one color in malrix 01 anolher color) as lo abundance: lew, common, many; as
10 size: fine, medium, coarse; and as lo contras!: lainl, dislincl, prominent.
o.lhe separales sand, sil!, and clay. Sea
STRUCTURE: Describe nalural unils as lo grade (distinctness): weak, moderale, strong; as lo
size: very fine, fine, medium, very coarse; and as to type: platy, prismatic, blocky,
granular. Wilhout peds, horizon be either singlegrained or massive.
CONSISTENCE: Cohesion, adhesion, and resistance 01 specimens lo delormation and rupture.
When wet: nonslicky, slighlly stlcky, sticky, or very Slicky; aiso: nonplastic, slightly plastic,
plastic, or very plastic. When moist: loose, very friable, friable, firm, very lirm, or extremely
lirm. When dry: loose, soft, slighlly hard, hard, very hard, or extremely hard.
ROOTS: Numbers of observable roots: lew, common, or many; and dimensions: line, medium,
or coarse.
Numbers 01 lield-observable pores: lew, common, or many; dimensions: very fine,
medium, or coarse; and shapes: irregular, tubular, or vesicular.
REACTION: pH as measured with lield kit.
ADDITIONAL FEATURES: Other fealures il present, such as iron or carbonate concretions
(use same abundance and dimension classes as lor rOOIS), effervescence with dilute HCI,
krolovinas (filled animal burrows), cemenlalion (weakly, strongly, indurated), and stone tines.
AGI DATA SHEET 37.2
GUIDE FOR TEXTURAL CLASSIFICATION
U.S. Department of Agriculture Soil Conservatlon Servlce
M.y 1, 1950
percent sand
Names and sizes 01 classes 01 soi l separates or "fine earth" lorming bases lor
texture determinations
NAME SIZE RANGES mm
Very coar se sand 1.0-2.0
Coarse sand 0.5-1 .0
Medium sand 025-05
Fine sand 0.1-0.25
Very line sand 0.05-0.1
Silt 0.002-0. 05
Clay 0.002
_Geolibros_
AGI DATA SHEET 38.1
Unified Soil
Complled by B. W. Pipkin, University 01 Southern California
NOTES:
1. Boundary Classilication: Soils possessing characleristics 01 two groups are designated by como
binations 01 group symbols. For example. GW-GC. well-graded gravel-sand mixture with clay binder
2. AII sieve sIzes on lhis charl are U.S. Slandard.
3. The lerms "silt" and "clay:' are used respectively lO dstinguish materals exhibiting lower plasticity
Irom Ihose wlth higher plastlclty. The minus no. 200 Sleve materialls sllt 1I the liqUld Ilmil and plasllclty
index plOI below Ihe "A" line on lhe plaslicily chart (next pagel. and Is clay il Ihe lquid Iimil and plaslicily
index plot aboye Ihe "A" line on Ihe chart.
4, For a complele deseriptlon 01 Ihe Unlfied Soll Classification System. see "Technical Memorandum
No. 3-3,57." prepared for Office, Chel 01 Englneers, by Waterways Equipment Slation, Vlcksburg. Mis
SJSSipPl, March 1953 (See also Data Sheet 29.)
Frs! published by GSA Engineerlng Geology Dlvislon.
AQI-OS-Mi82
o
II)
V
AGI DATA SHEET 39.1
Outline for Environmental Impact Statements
Revlsed alter O.B. Jorgenson, Las Vegas, Nevada
(Adaptad from guidelines preparad by NEPA, HUD, and James A, Roberts Associates, Ino" Sacramento,
California. Summarizad in: Burchell, R. W., and Listokn, D., 1975: The Environmentallmpact Hend
booI<, Center for Urban Policy Research, Rulgers Unlversity, New Jersey.)
NOTE: Oifferent lisIS might be prepared, but they should include the lollowing:
1. Propased project (e.g., construction, park site, mineral exploration, or development)
A. Purpase 01 projeet
B. Status 01 project
C. Location
O. Owner5hip and legal description 01 area and site
11. Current environment 01 area and site
A. Physical leatures and processes
1, Materials (e.g., water, sol, surficial rocks)
2. Processes (e,g., erosion, mass-wastng)
3. Rate and reeurrence 01 processes
4. Topagraphy and geomorphology
B. Vegetation and biota
C. Wetlands (Iocation, shapa, and sze)
O. Social or cultural characteristics
E. Archaeological features
F. Aesthetic nature
111. Impact of the environment on:
A. The projeet and its design
B. Projeet's inhabitants
C. Project's usars
IV. Impact 01 propased project on environment
A. The natural environment
1. 15 the project controversial?
2, In what ways might t alter the patterns 01 behavior lor mammals?
lor lish? lor amphibians? lor reptiles? lor inseets?
3. In what ways might it a"er the breedin9, nesting, or leeding grounds 01 birds?
4. How might the project affect existing blota and vegetation?
5. In what ways might it change water or air?
6. How might the water table be affeeted in the area?
7. How might the stability 01 the soHs or the geology 01 the area be affeeted?
B, The cultural environment
1. WiII the projeet produce changes in traffic?
2, Will it affect the aesthetics 01 the area?
3. Will it divide or disrupt existing land uses?
4, WiII it affect current recrealional uses?
5. WilI it affeet areas 01 unique interest or beauty, including those relating to geology,
paleontology, archaeology, anthropalogy, or history?
Alternatives to the proposed action
A Possiblity 01 restricted or reduced development and construction
B. Use 01 alternative development or construction
C. Passibility 01 construction on another site
D. Other alternatives
VI. Anticipated adversa environmental effects, il any
A. Adverse environmental effects which cannot be avoided within the proposed plan
B. Thase which could be avoided by adopting alternative actions
C. Those which could not be avoided by any alternative ac!ions
D, Thase which will be avoided by choosing the recommended action
E. Actions taken by developar to mitigale environmental damage
VII. Description 01 relationship between shortterm and long-term uses olthe environment
A Effeets during construction
B. Short-term impacts
C, Long-term impacts
VIII. Oescription 01 irreversible or irretrievable commitment 01 resources which would be made
il propasal were implemented
Name ________________ Oate ________
Prolessional Affiliation _____________________
License or Certilication
AGIQS,mj89
AGI DATA SHEET 40.1
Checklist for a Mine
John Eliot Allen, Portland (Ore.) State Universlty
LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL
Qualilications 01 wriler
Name 01 property, origin and purpose 01 reporl, and lima "pent on survay
Condusion
Recommendalions
Signature and certilicalion
PROPERTY
Name 01 prapeny and principal ore
Mining area or dislricl
County and state
Old name or names
OWNERSHIP AND HISTORY
Operator lessee and address
Present owner Or owners and addresses
Status 01 title: history 01 claims, how owned, stock ownership, corporate structure, etc,
Previous owners
Past mining methods
Record 01 production
LOCATION
Latitude and longitude
Magnelic declination
V. saction, section, township, range, base, and meridian
Natural landmarks
Distances 10 shipping pOints, power lines
Name 01 and distance to nearest town
Type 01 claim; map of claims (A) (Use bar scales on all maps)
GENERAL INFORMATION
Geography, topography, reliel, elevation, climate, rainlall, snowlall, lenglh 01 open season
Water: supply, right, disposal problems
Labor: supply, unionization, taxes
Literature relerences, bibliography
List 01 previous repons, maps, shipping records, assay records, etc,
Names and address 01 inlormants
Photographs of property (B)
GEOLOGY (with paniculu attention to the leatures that bear on Ihe deposit)
Map of are81 geofogy and structure (C)
(Someltmes combined with developmenl map)
General
Hand-Iens deseription 01 rack outcrops and wall racks
Percentage 01 outcrops verSus overburden
Topographic relations
Geologic age and stratigraphic position 01 rocks
Rack specimens (O)
Stratigraphic, long, and cross-sections (E)
Structures (note kind, aUitude, spacing, and relationship to ore)
Formational or intrusive contacts, unconlormities, relationships
Bedrock structures (bedding, jointing, and cleavage, etc,)
Faults and lau!t systems
Lodes
AUitude, shape and size 01 vein, lode, blanket, bed, altered zone, etc,
Kind, size, and amount 01 minerals in wall rOCk, gangues, and ore
Localzation 01 ore and possible causes
Classilication (Le.. primary, secondary, replaced; relationships)
Assay values; assay map (F), ore specimens or semples (G)
Placer, quarry, plt
hillside, etc,)
Shape
Areal extent
Depth to bedrock
Thickness 01 overburden
Composition & size range 01
Presence 01 clay, boulders,
Value per yard
Distribution 01 values
GI-DS,rmHl9
AGI DATA SHEET 40.2
ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT (See Data Sheet 39)
Culturalleatures which might affect operation on property (waste disposal, lish damage, air pollution,
gO\lernment reslrictions, elc.)
DEVELOPMENT WOAK (complete description, including as much as possible 01 the lollowing)
Sketch map Or mapa 01 development (H)
Number, name il any, dimensions snd elevalions 01 all surface culs, pits, trenches, portals, shaft collars
Same as aboye lar sil underground drifts, crosseuts, raises, wlnzes. and shafts
Areas 01 ground mlned out and Ihose Indicated as posslble or blocked-out ore
Location and direction 01 drill hales, and analylical work done en cores (1)
MINING AND BENEFICIATION
Deseripllon 01 mlning and milllng practica
Method 01 mining, moving, and treating ore
Costs known or estimated 01 treatment
List 01 mining equlpment
Descrptlon 01 plant
L1st 01 equipment
CondiUon 01 buildings
Klnd and amount 01 power avalable
Flow sheet and mine mapa (J)
ECONOMICS (these notes often eonlidental)
Costs 01 mning, milling, shpping, etc.
Tonnage or yardage reserves (measured, indeated, and inlerred)
Estimaled lile 01 operaton
Drawbacks to property
Aeasons lor present or poss/ble succass or la/ure
Owner's plans lar the luture
Aecommendations
A to J: Supplementary exhibts
NAME 01 examner ______
DATE 01 examination:_
WORK DONE AND TIME SPENT in examlnatlon: _______________
AGI DATA SHEET 41.1
Investigation 01 Seismic Intensity
Robert Nason, U.S. Geological Survey
Seismlc inlenslly Is a measure 01 Ihe local dislurbance caused by the shaking 01 an earth
quake. Seismic inlensity differs Irom earthquake magnilude in Ihal Ihe strenglh 01 seismic shak
ing differs lrom place to place, whereas magnltude Is an absolute measure 01 Ihe size 01 Ihe
earthquake. Seismic-inlensily sludies indicale Ihe geographic pattern of Ihe earthquake dis
lurbance (isoseismal maps) and Ihe relalion 01 Ihe shaking lo local or regional geologic con
dilions.
The selsmlc-inlensity raling is eslimaled Irom the amount 01 dislurbance and local damage

may be misplaced as indicalors 01 slrenglh 01 shaking, particularly Ihe ground lailure effects
(Nason and Espinosa, 1977),
Inlenslly invesligations should focus on accurale descriplion 01 Ihe earthquake dislurbances
studiad, so thal accurale inlensily ralings can be assigned laler. The lollowing compllalion
lisIs mesl 01 Ihe common effecls 01 earthquake shaking,
Many seismic-inlensily scales have been construclad and usad in differenl parts 01 Ihe world,
Wood (1911) describes early intensily scales and Barosh (1969) lisIs differenl modern scales.
The 12-level Modilied Mercalli (MM) scale 01 Wood and Neumann (1931) and Richler (1958)
is widely used in Ihe Uniled Slales and is similar lo Ihe scales used elsewhere in Ihe wol1d
(excepl in Japan), Richler's (1958) version 01 Ihe MM scale is lisIad here, wilh aslerisks lo mark
criteria Iha! may be misleading as indicators 01 shaking,
References
Richler, e, F, 1958, Elementary seismology: W.H, Freeman Co" San Francisco, 736 p,
Wood, HO, 1911, The observalion 01 earlhquakes: Seismo!. Soc, Amer, Bull" v, 1, P 48-82
andl Neummn, F" 1931, Modified Mercall intensity scale 01 1931: Seismo!. Soc, Amar
AGI DATA SHEET 41.2
SEISMIC EFFECTS L1ST
A. Description 01 shaking
Felt by: lew, many, most, or all persoos.
Felt outdoors: sitting only, standing, moving.
Felt indoors: sitting only, standing, moving; on ground Iloor, upper Il00rs, tall buildings only.
Type 01 shaking: weak, strong; rOlling, sharp, episodic; what duration, what direction.
Dlsturbance of people
Sleepers awakened: none, lew, many, most, all; beds moved, people thrown out 01 bed.
People standing: no problem, difficulties, lall down.
Animals standing: no problem, diffculties, lall down.
People effects: nausea, d:zziness, uncertainty.
Nolses
Ground noises: none, rumbling, sharp (what drection).
Building noises: none, some, much (type 01 building).
Other noises: windows, doors, dishes, trees.
Other dlsturbances
T rees shaken, bent, branches/trunk broken.
Liquids moved, thrown Irom container.
Rnging 01 large/small bells.
Overhead wires vibrate, tighten, break.
Waves seen in ground: size, shape, direction, speed.
B. Dlsturbances In houses (type 01 building)
Small objects: unmoved, rocked, shifted, lallen; some, many.
Kitchen objects: unmoved, rocked, shifted, lallen.
Books on shelves: unmoved, shifted, lallen.
Fumiture
Light lurniture: unmoved, shifted (how much), overturned.
Heavy lurniture: unmoved, shifted (how much), overturned.
Tall objects: unmoved, shifted (how much), overturned.
Heavy appliances: unmoved, shifted (how much), broken (type).
Type 01 1I00r: carpet, wood. linoleum, cemen!.
Other
Hanging lamps: unmoved, swing, hit ceiling.
Hanging pictures: unmoved, shifted, turned, lallen.
Pendulum clocks: unchanged, stopped, started, lost time.
Water spilt: fish tanks, toilet tanks.
C. Dlsturbances In stores
Items lallen, shelves shifted.
Type 01 $lore, type 01 lloor.
Furniture atores (small, medium, large, warehouse)
Shell items: unmoved, shifted (how much), lallen (how many).
Tall items: unmoved, shifted (how much), overturned.
Heavy lurniture: unmoved, shifted (how much), overturned
Type 01 lloor: carpet, linoleum, wood, concrete.
Food stores (small, large, supermarket)
Fall 01 shell items: none, some, many, aisles blocked; wall shelves, central shelves.
Central shelves: u nmoved , shifted (how much), overturned.
Bookstores, libreries (ground lloor, upper floor)
Books: unmoved. shifted, lall (direction 01 shelves).
Shelves: unmoved. shifted, collapSed (anchored?).
AGI DATA SHEET 41.3
D. Building damage
Type: house, store, factory; one-story, multi-story; wood, brick, stone (type), concrete, adobe,
other.
Age: pre-1900, pre-1935, pre-1965, POSI-1965.
Damage: none, sorne, twisted, tilted, fallen walls, cOllapsed.
Bricklmasonry walls: uncracked, cracked, fallen (how much); parapet, upper wall below para
pet, whole wall.
Chimneys: uncracked, cracked, shifted, bricks thrown, fallen.
Foundation damage: slab, wall, pillar; concrete, briCk, wood; no damage, cracked, shfted,
(how mUCh), overturned.
Inside plasler: uncracked, cracked, fissured, fallen.
Outsde plasterfstucco: uncracked, cracked, falln.
House or slore windows: uncracked, cracked, broken.
Roof tiles: unmoved, shifted, fallen.
Air cooler: unmoved, shftedfrotated, fallen.
E. Other disturbances
Factory smokestacks: cracked, shilted, top lallen, lallen.
Heavy machinery: shifted, anchors broken, overturned.
Statues, cemetery monuments: unmoved, shiftedfrolaled, fallen; none, few, many, most, al!.
Water tanks: unmoved, shifted, fallen; water spilt; ground level, elel/ated, type of support, size.
Outdoor walls: loose stone, shaped stone, brick, concrete; undamaged, cracked, shifted, fal
len (how much).
Parked cars: unmoved, rocked, shifted, rolled.
Moving cars: shaking not noticed, lke lIat tire, hard to control.
Rallroad engineslcars (standing/moving): rolled, overturned.
F. Ground disturbance
Type of ground: rock, soil, clay/mud, wetJdry; level, sloped, cut-slope, flll, vaUey bonom.
Cracks: none, small, large (what size), ground shifted; panern, relatlon to topography.
Landslides: slight, minor, major (what size).
Rockfalls: single rock, many rocks (about how many).
River banks shifted; river bonom uplifted.
Fault cracks: primary, secondary, amount 01 offset.
Liquefaction elfeets: fountains, sand bols, land spreading.
Ground settlement: wavy surface, irregularities, grabens.
Escape of gas: flow, odor, flame.
Boulder movement in soll: deformed soj, shifted position, thrown.
Railroad tracks: straight, bent (how much), senled.
Streetslhighways: cracked, broken-up, shifted, senled.
Underground pipes: size, type; leak, broken, shifted.
Bridges: twisted, compressed, piars shifted, span fallen.
Water springs: changed flow, dried-up, muddied. temperature change.
Water wells: changed flow, muddied. sanded, collapsed.
Dust rises:lrom fractures. from ground.
G. Distant effects
Oscillation of lakes, canals, rivers.
Changes in springs, water wells.
Motion of hanging objeets.
Nausea, dizziness 01 people.
H. AHershock infonnation
Number, time, description 01 disturbance.
AGI DATA SHEET 41.4
MODIFIED MERCALLI SEISMIC INTENSITY SCALE
From Richter, 1958
1. Not lelt. Marginal and long-period effects 01 large earthquakes.
11. Felt by persons at rest, on upper Iloors, or lavorably placed.
111. Felt indoors. Hanging objects swing. Vibration like passing 01 light trucks. Duration esti
mated. May not be recognized as an earthquake.
a ..
clink. Crockery clashes. Wooden walls and Irame creak.
V. Felt outdoors; direction estimated. Sleepers wakened. Liquids disturbed, some spilled.
Small unstable objects displaced or upset. Doors swing, close, open. Shuners, pictures move.
Pendulum clocks stop, start, change rate.
VI. Felt by all. Many Irightened and run outdoors. People walk unsteadily. Windows, dishes,
glassware broken. Knickknacks, books, etc., off shelves. Pictures off walls. Furniture moved
or overturned. Weak plaster and masonry D (weak masonry) cracked. Small bells ring (church,
school). Trees, bushes shaken visibly, or heard to ruslle.
VII. Difficult to stand. Noticed by drivers 01 motor cars. Hanging objects quiver. Furniture
broken. Damage to masonry D, including cracks. Weak chimneys broken at rool line. Fall 01
plaster, loose bricks, stones, tiles, cornices, unbraced parapets, and architectural ornaments.
Some cracks in masonry C (ordinary masonry). Waves on ponds; water turbid with mud. Small
slides and caving in along sand or gravel banks. Large belis ringo Concrete irrigation ditches
damaged.
VIII. Steering 01 motor cars affected. Damage to masonry C; partial collapse 01 masonry D.
Some damage to masonry B (good masonry); none to masonry A (excellent masonry). Fall
01 stucco and some masonrv walls. TwistinQ. lall 01 chimnevs. lactorv smokestacks, monuments,
towers, elevated tanks. Frame houses moved on loundations il not bolted down; loose panel
walls thrown out. Decayed piling broken off.' Branches broken Irom trees . Changes in Ilow
or temperature 01 springs and wells. Cracks in wet ground and on steep slopes .
IX. General panic. Masonry D destroyed; masonry C heavily damaged, sometimes with
complete collapse; masonry B seriously damaged. General damage to loundations. Frame
structures shifted off loundations, il not bolted. Frames racked. Serious damage to reservoirs .
. Underground pipes broken. Conspicuous cracks in ground. In alluviated areas sand and
mud ejected, earthquake lountains, sand craters.
X. Most masonry and Irame structures destroyed with their loundations. Some well-built
wooden structures and bridges destroyed . Serious damage to dams, dikes, embankments .
Large landslides. Water thrown on banks 01 canals, rivers, lakes, etc . Sand and mud shifted
horizontally on beaches and Ilat lands. Rails bent slightly.
XI. Rails bent greally. Underground pipelines completely out 01 service.
XII. Damage nearly total. Large rock masses displaced.' Lines 01 sight and level distorted.
Objects thrown into the air.
*These criteria may be misleading as a measure 01 the strength 01 shaking.
AGI DATA SHEET 42.1
Geologic Study of Earthquake Effects
----_......._-
by M. G. Bonilla and E. H. Bailey, U.S. Gel":ogical Survey
This check list suggests desirable geologic observations 01 surface changes that accompany
moderate 10 large earthquakes_ Other AGI Data sheets deal with engineering and sesmological
observations pertaining lo earthquakes Ihal may or may nOI have surface eflecls_
Field study is elleclively begun by low-allitude aerial reconnaissance lor landslides and major
faulting, combined with ground invesligation 01 all known and suspecled faults near the epi
center. Places where paved roads cross laulls are particularly informative. Study lirst those
leatures that may be modilied or destroyed in a few hours or days, leaving those 01 greater
permanence untillater. Carefully search beyond the apparent ends of fault ruptures to be sure
that the lulllength 01 the laulling is mapped. and look lor subsidiary laulting outside the maln
lault zone. Queslion local residents, who are often aware 01 earthquake-related geological
phenomena. as a supplement to reconnaissance. Record and report Ihe route lollowed and
the time, so thal others know what area was examined and when. Plol data on aerial pholos
or large-scate maps, or locale relative to slable landmarks, to geographic coordinales, or lo
numbered stations on maps.
One should decide and report whether observed effecls are Ihe direcl result 01 teclonic move
men! or are secondary, as this aclion often leads 10 recording perlinen! evidence tha! o!her
wise would be missed. In areas of nonteclonic lailure, record Ihe 01 the rock, uncon
solidaled deposit, or artilicial fill, and if possible gel the deplh to water table_
Much dala 01 geologic implication can be learned Irom Ihe displacemenl 01 canals, tunnels,
and other artificial structures. II the geologlst can work closely with an engneer the result will
be a belter mulual understanding 01 Ihe relalions between geologic processes or geologic condi
lions and specific kinds 01 structural damage.
FAUlTS
Positlon: Map as accuralely as possible_ Show dip.
Oisplacement: Normal. reversa. righl- or left-slip. Or combinalion?
Measure slip (magnitude and dlreclion) at inlervals along laul!. II separation Is mea
sured. record enough dala so tha! slip can be calculaled. Give opinion as to whether
the series 01 measured slips probably includes the largest Ihat occurred anywhere
on the lault
Idenlify measurement locations and remeasure displacements later to detect afterslip_
Note evidence 01 compression or extension.
Is apparent displacement distoned by horizontal or vertical drag or elastic rebound?
Measure change in displacement with increase 01 distance lrom laull.
Record length. orientaton, and number of fractures wthin rupture zona.
Measure width 01 fractured or disloned zone al inlervals along (aul!.
Material: Rock or unconsolidated Describe.
Effecl 01 movemant on gouge, breccia. slickensides, mylonile, other?
Relation too Topographic leatures? Older faul!? alleration?
Other laults 01 same age lo lorm en or other paltern. or hors! and graben?
Cracks. pressure ridges, lurrows,
Have strong or weak rock masses trace 01 laull?
SCARPS
Posillon: side.
component 01 lault movement il possible.
Attltude: Record dip 01 scarp lace ando it exposed, 01 related lault
Change in dip related lO different material cut?
Relation lo: Topography? Other scarps? Graben al their base? Earthquake lault, other lault, or
landslide?
Origln: Faulting, landsliding, lurching. liquelactian, compaction. other?
EI/ects on: Drainage, streams, shorelines, structures, olhers?
FISSURES
Posltlon: Map. II lOO numerous. record spacing, patlern. and orienlaliOn. Relation 10 steep
slopes. laulls. or landslides?
Dimensione: Width? length?
Attitude: Dip 01 walls? Relative movemenl 01 walls?
Material: Rack, sand. silt. or clay? At surtace; at depth? In place?
Origln: Faulting, landsliding, lurching, liquelaction. compacton, other?
Enlarged by runoff?
Time 01 opening relative to earthquake and rainlall?
AGI DS-rmt-82
AGI DATA SHEET 42.2
~ ~ ~ - - ~ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
DISTORTION OF LINEAR OR PLANAR ELEMENTS
Posllion: Show on map; give amount.
Klnd: Horizontal or vertical?
Relalad 10 drag, elaslic rebound, or other processes?
Material: Rock or unconsolidatad deposits? Kind? In place?
Effeets: Mole tracks and pressure ridges; relalion lo active fault?
Uplift, submergenee, or tilting 01 shore lines? Amount?
Dverted, ponded, or distorted drainage?
Decreasad slope stability causing slides, lurbidily eurrenls?
Deformalon 01 artificial struclures?
LANDSLIOES (ineludes rOCkfalls)
Posftlon: Show location and size on map. Show scarps, slide mass, direction 01 movement.
Relation lo earthquake fault, olher laults, older landslide?
Altllude: Inclination and orientation 01 original slope; 01 sliding sur/aee?
Malerlal: Rock or unconsolidated deposit? Kind? Wet or dry? Springs?
Are cohesive deposits soft or stiff?
Are noncohasive deposits loosa or dan se?
Tltickness 01 slide material?
Movemenl: Amount?
By lalling, toppling, flowing. spreading, sliding, or combinalion?
Broken inlO lew or many parts? Did parts rotate? Time 01 movement relativa to earth
quakes?
Klnd: Use classilication 01 Transportation Research Board (Varnes, 1978).
Effeels: Production 01 scarps and lissures?
Diversion or damming 01 drainage? Production 01 waves in water?
Trees down or tilted? Other effects?
SUBSIOENCES
Posillon: Show amount and areal limits on map,
Malerlal: Unconsolidated deposit or rock? Describa in sama detall as lor landslides.
Kind: Warp causad by tectonies, compaction, liquelaction, or olher process?
Graben? COllapsed cavern? Lateral or vertical ftow 01 underlying material?
Effeels on: Su r/aea , !opography. drainaga, elc?
Shorelines? Water lable and springs? Artificial structures?
OISCHARGES OF WATER ANO UNCONSOLIDATEO MATERIALS
Posltlon: Show on map by appropriate symbols.
Klnd: Sand boil, sand mound. mud volcano, elaslie dike, spring?
Earthquake lounlains observad? Time relalive 10 earthquake?
Height, duration. and lime 01 ftow relative to slrong shaking?
Malerial: Sand, silt, clay; water; olher?
Glva dimensions and grain sizes 01 deposits.
Source 01 matarial? Depth to source?
Relallon lo: Area 01 subsidence? Compaction? Trace 01 laull?
Changed water levels in wells? Changed or naw springs?
MISCELLANEOUS EFFECTS
Tsunamis, Loeation 01 sltores allectad and direction 01 wave movemen!?
Seiehes, Height reachad? Time 01 arrival? Numbar and periodicity 01 waves?
and Local Modilicalion 01 landlorms?
Wsves: Transported objecls: material, size, weighl, dislanee movad?
Slraams and Record changes in dlscharge, turbidlly, temperalure, etc. and relate to time 01 earth
Springs: quake.
Turbidity Starting time relalive to main or subsequent earthquakes?
eurrents: Size. speed, distance travellad?
Malerial and topographic se\1ing al source; al site 01 deposition?
Position 01 source relative to earthquake laull or epicenler?
Boulders: Nesls enlarged by rocking? Chippad by mutual impact? Thrown Irom nest? Rollad
Irom nest? Direction 01 movement? Bouldar Irails? Give size range 01 boulders that
moved vs, those Ihal did nol.
Traes: Record location, size, and direction 01 lall or IlIt 01 traes alleeled by earthquake.
Glaciers: Advance, relreat, or no change? Nole large avalanches onto glaciers.
Voleanie Describe, il seemingly related lo Ihe earthquake.
sellvily:
Reference
Varnes. D. J .. 1978. Slope movemenl types and processes, in Sehuster, R. L., and Krizak, R. J .. eds.
Landslldes, analysis and conlrol: Nalional Research Council, Transportation Research Board Special
Reporl 176, p. 11-33.
AGI DATA SHEET 43.1
Checklist for Effects
devise<! by Kart Steinbrugge
More complete checklists are in "Learning from Earthquakes," Oakland, California, Earthquake
Engineering Research Institute, 1977, 200p.
Earthquake time:
~ _______ Dale: ___'__.,__~ _ ..__
Type 01 structure or Inetallation: _________
Briel description: __,._.______,... ____. ______. ___
localion: ______
Date 01 inspeclion: ______
(1) Observed damage
None O Severe O
Slight O leaning
Considerable Collapse
(a) Non-1ltructural elements
Plasler O Cracked
Tila Fallen
Brick Insida O
Ornamentalion O Outside O
(b) Slructural elements
Foundation Bracing
o
Salid walls O Cracked O
Frame Fallen O
(2) Observed repair.
None O Wall damage O
Painting O
Other __..___
Plastering
(3) Ground data
(a) Ground under structure
Rock O Compact
Soil Marshy O
Loose O
Other _ ...__.. _
Filled, with
CUI Sloping O
Natural O Sleep O
Level O Olher ...___,_
(b) Ground cracks Sliding
None None o
Few O Local O
Many O General
Subsidence or Heaving
None Local General O
(e) Signs 01 loundation movemenl or rocking?
Yes O No:::J
(4) Effecls al sile during shock
Observed
Reportad by others
(a) Molion
Fas! Rolling
Slow o Jarring o
Eslimated duration ___.___seconds.
(b) Shifting, all 01 small objects, heavy objects
Yes O No O
(5) Remarks and dlagrams: - --__
Person making inspeclion: __..____
Name_____~ .. _____
Address
Pleasemai! copy lo:
Branch 01 Global Seismology
U.S, Geological Survey
Denl/er Federal Center
Denver CO 80225
AGIDS65
AGI DATA SHEET 44.1
Major Public Sources 01 Geological Information
The lollowing lists give addresses 01 organizations in the Unted States, Canada,
and member countries 01 the International Union 01 Geological Sciences (IUGS) that
provide general and basic inlormation on geology. In addtion, in the United States,
other state agencies are con cerned with regulation or control 01 mineral industries
in the particular state nvolved, and there are offices 01 the U.S. Geological Survey
devoted to mineralleasing and management 01 public domain, and district offices
01 a specialzed nature concerned with water resources, topographic mapping, etc.
Inlormation on the location and lunction 01 these specialized agencies may be ob
tained in each state Irom the offices listed below.
U.S. STATE SURVEYS
Alabama
Geologcal Survey 01
Alabama
Box D
Tuscaloosa. Ala.
35486-9780
(205) 349-2852
Alaska
Dvsion 01 Geological
& Geophysical
Surveys
794 Universty Ave.,
Suite 200
Fairbanks, Alaska
99709
(907) 479-7625
Arizona
Geological Survey
Branch
845 N. Park Ave., Suite
100
Tucson, Ariz. 85719
(602) 621-7906
Arkansas
Geological Commission
Vardelle Parham
Geology Center
3815 W. Roosevelt
Road
Little Rock, Ark. 72204
(501) 371-1488
California
Department of
Conservation
Division 01 Mines &
Geology
1416 Ninth St., Room
1341
Sacramento, Calit.
95814
(916) 445-1923
AGI.DSjtd-89
Colorado
Geological Survey
1313 Sherman St.,
Room 715
Denver, Colo. 80203
(303) 866-2611
Connecticut
Natural Resources
Center
Department 01 En
vironmental
Protecton
State Dllice Building
165 Capitol Ave., Room
553
Hartlord. Conn. 06106
(203) 566-3540
Delaware
Geological Survey
University 01 Delaware
Newark, Del. 19716
(302) 451-2833
Florida
Bureau 01 Geology
Department 01 Natural
Resources
903 W. Tennessee St.
Tallahassee, Fla.
32304-7795
(904) 488-4191
Georgla
Geologic Survey
Department of Natural
Resources, Room
400
19 Martn Luther King,
Jr., Orive, S.w.
Atlanta, Ga. 30334
(404) 656-3214
Hawaii
Division 01 Water &
Land Development
Box 373
Honolulu. Hawaii
96809
(808) 548-7533
Idaho
Geological Survey
University 01 Idaho
Morrill Hall, Room 332
Moscow, Idaho 83843
(208) 885-7991 or
885-6195
IIlInols
State Geological
Survey
Natural Resources
Building
615 E. Peabody Orive,
Room 121
Champaign, 111. 61820
(217) 333-5111 or
333-4747
Indiana
Geological Survey
611 N. Walnut Grove
Bloomington. Ind.
47405
(812) 335-2862
lowa
Geologlcal Survey
Bureau
Department 01 Natural
Resources
123 N. Capitol SI.
lowa Cay, lowa 52242
(319) 335-1575
_Geolibros_
AGI DATA SHEET 44.2
Kansas
Geological Survey
1930 Constant Ave.,
West Campus
University 01 Kansas
Lawrence, Kan. 66046
(913) 864-3965
Kentucky
Geological Survey
University 01 Kentucky
228 Mining & Mineral
Resources Building
Lexington, Ky.
40506-0107
(606) 257-5500
Louisiana
Geological Survey
Box G
Baton Rouge, La.
70893
(504) 388-5320
Maine
Geological Survey
Department 01
Conservation
State House, Station
22
Augusta, Maine 04333
(207) 289-2801
Maryland
Geological Survey
2300 SI. Paul SI.
Baltimore, Md. 21218
(301) 554-5503
Massachusetts
Executive Off ice 01 En
vironmental Affairs
100 Cambridge St.,
20th Floor
Boston, Mass. 02202
(617) 727-9800
Michigan
Geological Survey
Division
Department 01 Natural
Resources
Box 30028
Lansing, Mich. 48909
(517) 334-6923
Minnesota
Geological Survey
2642 University Ave.
St. Paul, Minn.
55114-1057
(612) 627-4780
Mississippi
Bureau 01 Geology
Department 01 Natural
Resources
Box 5348
Jackson, Miss. 39216
(601) 354-6228
Missouri
Department 01 Natural
Resources
Division 01 Geology &
Land Survey
111 Fairgrounds Road
Box 250
Rolla, Mo. 65401
(314) 364-1752
Montana
Bureau 01 Mines &
Geology
Montana College 01
Mineral Science &
Technology
Butte, Mont. 59701
(406) 496-4180
Nebraska
Conservation & Survey
Division
Institute 01 Agriculture
& Natural Resources
113 Nebraska Hall
University 01 Nebraska
Lincoln, Neb.
68588-0517
(402) 472-3471
Nevada
Bureau 01 Mines &
Geology
University 01
Nevada-Reno
Reno, Nev. 89557-0088
(702) 784-6691
New Hampshire
Department 01 En-
vi ron mental Services
117 James Hall
University 01 New
Hampshire
Durham, N.H. 03824
(603) 862-3160
New Jersey
Geological Survey
Division 01 Water
Resources, CN-029
Trenton, N.J. 08625
(609) 292-1185
New Mexico
Bureau 01 Mines &
Mineral Resources
Campus Station
Socorro, N.M. 87801
(505) 835-5420
New York
State Geological
Survey
3136 Cultural Educa
tion Center
Empire State Plaza
Albany, N.Y. 12230
(518) 474-5816
North Carolina
Department 01 Natural
Resources & Com
munity Development
Division 01 Land
Resources
Box 27687
Raleigh, N.C. 27611
(919) 733-3833
North Dakota
Geological Survey
University Station
Grand Forks, N.D.
58202-8156
(701) 777-2231
Ohio
Department 01 Natural
Resources
Division 01 Geological
Survey
Fountain Square,
Building B
Columbus, Ohio 43224
(614) 265-6605
Oklahoma
Geological Survey
University 01 Oklahoma
830 Van Vleet Oval,
Room 163
Norman, Okla. 73019
(405) 325-3031
Oregon
Department 01 Geology
& Mineral Industries
910 State Office
Building
1400 S.w. Fifth Ave.
Portland, Ore.
97201-5528
(503) 229-5580
AG. DATA SHEET 44.3
Pennsylvanla
Bureau of Topographc
& Geologic Survey
Oepartment 01 En
vronmental
Resources
Box 2357
Harrisburg, Pa. 17120
(717) 787-2169
Puerto Rico
Servicio Geologico de
Puerto Rico
Oepartmento de Recur
sos Naturales
Apartado 5887
Puerta de Tierra
San Juan, Puerto Rico
00906
(809) 724-8774
Rhode Island
Oepartment of Geology
Green Hall
Universily 01 Rhode
Island
Kingston, R.I. 02881
(401) 792-2265
South Carolina
Geological Survey
Harbison Forest Road
Columbia, S.C. 29210
(803) 737-9440
South Dakota
Geological Survey
Oepartment 01 Water &
Natural Resources
Science Center
Universty 01 South
Oakota
Vermillion, S.O.
57069-2390
(605) 677-5227
Tennessee
Oepartment 01
Conservation
Ovsion 01 Geology
Customs House, 701
Broadway
Nashvlle, Tenn.
37219-5237
(615) 742-6691
Texas
Bureau of Economic
Geology
University 01 Texas at
Austin
University Slalion, Box X
Austn, Texas
78713-7508
(512) 471-1534
U.S. Virgin Islands
Caribbean Research
Institute
College of the Vlrgln
Islands
SI. Thomas, Unted
States
Virgin Islands 00801
(809) 774-9200
Utah
Geological & Mineral
Survey
606 Black Hawk Way
Salt Lake City, Utah
84108-1280
(801) 581-6831
Vermont
Oflice 01 the State
Geologst
103 S. Maln SI.
Center Building
Waterbury, VI. 05676
(802) 244-5164
Virginia
Oivision of Mineral
Resources
Box 3667
Charlottesville, Va.
22903
(804) 293-5121
Washington
Geology & Earth
Resources Oivision
Oepartmenl 01 Natural
Resources
Olympia, Wash. 98504
(206) 459-6372
West Virginia
Geological & Economic
Survey
Mont Chateau
Research Center
Box 879
Morgantown, W.va.
26507-0879
(304) 594-2331
Wlsconsin
Geological & Natural
History Survey
University of Wisconsin
3817 Mineral Point
Road
Madison, Wis. 53705
(608) 263-7384 or
262-1705
Wyoming
Geological Survey 01
Wyoming
Box 3008
Unversity Station
University 01 Wyoming
Laramie, Wyo. 82071
(307) 742-2054 or
721-3920
AGI DATA SHEET 44.4
U.S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
Headquarters
USGS
12201 Sunrise Valley
Drive
R esto n , Va. 22092
(703) 648-4000
Alaska
USGS
4230 University Drive,
Suite 201
Anchorage, Alaska
99508-4664
(907) 271-4138
USGS
Alaska Distribution
Section
101 12th Ave., Box 12
Fairbanks, Alaska
99701
(907) 452-1951
Arizona
USGS
2255 N. Gemini Drive
Flagstaff, Ariz. 86001
(602) 527-7150
California
USGS
345 Middlefield Road
Menlo Park, Calil.
94025
(415) 329-4000
Colorado
USGS
Denver Federal Center
MS 911, Box 25046
Denver, Colo.
80225-0046
(303) 236-5438
USGS
Distribution Branch
Building 810
Denver Federal Center
Box 25286
Denver, Colo. 80225
(303) 236-5900
USGS
Books and Open-File
Reports Section
Federal Center
Box 25425
Denver, Colo. 80225
(303) 236-7476
USGS
National Earthquake In
lormation Center
MS 967, Box 25046
Denver Federal Center
Denver, Colo. 80225
(303) 236-1500
Hawaii
USGS
Hawaiian Volcano
Observatory
Box 51
Hawaii National Park,
Hawaii 96718-0051
(808) 967-7328
Massachusetts
USGS
Branch 01 Atlantic
Marine Geology
Quissett Campus
Woods Hole, Mass.
02543
(508) 548-8700
Nevada
USGS
Office of Mineral
Resources
Reno Field Office
Mackay School 01
Mines
University 01
Nevada-Reno
Reno, Nev. 89557-0047
(702) 784-5574
Puerto Rico
USGS
Marine Geology
Division
Box 5917, Puerta de
Tierra Station
San Juan, Puerto Rico
00906
(809) 729-6935
South Dakota
USGS
EROS Data Center
Sioux Falls, S.D. 57198
(605) 594-6151
Virginia
USGS
Earth Science Inlorma
tion Center
507 National Center
Reston, Va. 22092
(703) 684-5920
USGS
Hydrologic Inlormation
Unit
419 National Center
Reston, Va. 22092
(703) 648-6817
USGS
Geologic Inquiries
Group
907 National Center
Reston, Va. 22092
(703) 648-4383
Department 01 Interior
Minerals Management
Services
381 Elden SI., MS 634
Herndon, Va.
22070-4817
(703) 787-1414
Washington
USGS
Off ice 01 Mineral
Resources
Spokane Field Oflice,
Room 656
U.S. Courthouse
Spokane, Wash. 99201
(509) 353-2642
USGS
Cascades Volcano
Observatory
5400 MacArthur Blvd.
Vancouver, Wash.
98661
(206) 696-7860
Washington, D.C.
USGS
Earth Science Informa
tion Center
18th and C streets,
NW.
Washington, D.C.
20240
(202) 343-8073
USGS and Bureau 01
Mines
Minerals Inlormation
Olfice
18th and C streets,
N.w.
Washington, D.C.
20240
(202) 343-2647
AGI DATA SHEET 44.5
CANADIAN PROVINCIAL SURVEYS
Alberta
Alberta Geological
Survey
Alberta Research
Council
Box 8330, Postal Sta
tion F
Edmonton, Alberta T6H
5X2
(403) 438-7555
British Columbia
Geological Survey
Branch
Mineral Resources
Division
Ministry 01 Energy,
Mines and
Petroleum
Resources
Parliament Buldings
Victoria, British Colum
bia V8V 1X4
(604) 387-0688
Manitoba
Geological Services
Branch
Mineral Resources
Division
Department 01 Energy
and Mines
Eaton Place
535-330 Graham Ave.
Winnipeg, Manitoba
R3C 4E3
(204) 945-6569
New Brunswick
Geological Surveys
Branch
New Brunswick Depart
ment of Natural
Resources and
Energy
Box 6000
Fredericton,
Brunswick 5H1
(506) 453-3687
Newfoundland
Government 01 New
foundland and
Labrador
Department 01 Mines
and Energy
Geological Survey
Branch
Box 8700
SI. John's, New
foundland A1B 4J6
(709) 576-2301
Northwest Territories
Geoiogy Division
Northern Affairs Pro-
gram,INAC
Box 1500
Yellowknife, Northwest
Territories X1A 2R3
(403) 920-8212
Nova Scotia
Nova Scotia Depart
ment 01 Mines and
Energy
Box 1087
Halilax, Nova Scotia
B3J 2X1
(902) 4244161
Ontario
Ontario Geological
Survey
Mines and Minerals
Division
Ministry 01 Northern
Development and
Mines
77 Grenville St., West,
Room 1121
Toronto, Ontario M7A
1W4
(416) 9651283
Prlnce Edward Island
Energy and Minerals
Branch
Department 01 Energy
and Forestry
Box 2000
Charlottetown, Prince
Edward Island C1A
7N8
(902) 368-5010
Qubec
Exploration gologique
el minral (Mines)
Ministere de l'Energie
et des Ressources
Gouvernement du
Qubec
1620, boulevard de
'Entente
Qubec, (Qubec) G1S
4N6
(418) 643-4617
Saskatchewan
Geology and Mines
Division
Saskatchewan Energy
and Mines
Toronto Dominion Bank
Building
1914 Hamilton SI.
Regina, Saskatchewan
S4P 4V4
(306) 787-2560
Yukon Territory
Exploration and
Geological Services
Division
Indian and Northern
Affairs, Canada
200 Range Road
Whitehorse, Yukon Ter
ritory Y1A 3V1
(403) 667-3201
AGI DATA SHEET 44.6
GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF CANADA
Headquarters
601 Booth SI.
Ottawa, Ontario K1A
OE8
(613) 996-3919
GSC Sector
580 Booth St., Room
2064
Ottawa, Ontario K1A
OE4
(613) 992-5910
Programs, Planning
and Services
Branch
580 Booth St., Room
2064
Ottawa, Ontario K1A
OE4
(613) 995-4482
Program Coordination
and Planning
Divlsion
601 Booth St., Room
212
Ottawa, Ontario K1A
OE8
(613) 995-5937
Geoscience Informa
tlon Dlvlslon
601 Booth St.. Room
263
Ottawa, Ontario K1A
OE8
(613) 995-4089
Polar Continental
Shelf Project
344 Wellington St.,
Room 6137
Ottawa, Ontario K1A
OE4
(613) 990-6987
Continental Geo
science and
Mineral Resources
Branch
601 Booth SI., Room
213
Ottawa, Ontario K1A
OE8
(613) 995-4093
Lithosphere and
Canadian Shield
Division
601 Booth St., Room
459
Ottawa, Ontario K1A
OE8
(613) 995-4314
Mineral Resources
Divislon
601 Booth SI., Room
665
Ottawa, Ontario K1A
OE8
(613) 9969223
Sedimentary and
Marine Geoscience
Branch
580 Booth St., Room
2054
Ottawa, Ontario K1A
OE4
(613) 9925265
Institute o, Sedimen
tary and Petroleum
Geology
3303-33rd SI. N.W.
Calgary, Alberta T2l
2A7
(403) 284-0345
Atlantic Geoscience
Centre
Bedford Institute 01
Oceanography
Box 1006
Dartmouth, Nova
Scotia B2Y 4A2
(902) 4263448
Cordilleran Division
100 W, Pender SI.
Vancouver, British Col
umbia V6B 1 R8
(604) 666-0529
Paciflc Geoscience
Centre
Box 6000
9860 W. Saanich Road
Sidney, British Colum
bia V8l 4B2
(604) 356-6433
Geophyslcs and Ter
rain Sciences
Branch
601 Booth SI., Room
227
Ottawa. Ontario K1A
OE8
(613) 995-0623
Geophysics Dlvision
1 Observatory Crescent
Ottawa, Ontario K1A
OY3
(613) 995-5484
Terrain Sciences
Division
601 Booth S., Room
361
Ottawa, Ontario K1A
OE8
(613) 995-4938
AGI DATA SHEET 44.7
INTERNATIONAL GEOLOGICAL SURVEYS
Algeria
Direction des Mines et
de la Geologie
Ministare de l'lndustrie
Lourde
Rue Ahmed Bey de
Constantine
Immeuble "Le
Colysee"
Algiers
ALGERIA
Angola
DireCQao de l3erviQOs
de Geologia e Minas
Caixa Postal 1260-C
Luanda
ANGOLA
Argentina
Servicio Geolgico
Nacional
Secretaria de Estado
de Mineria
Avenida Santa Fe 1548
1060 Buenos Aires
ARGENTINA
Australia
Bureau 01 Mineral
Resources, Geology,
and Geophysics
P.O. Bol(. 378
Canberra City
A.C.T. 2601
AUSTRALIA
Austria
Geologische
Bundesanstalt
Rasumofskygasse 23
A-1031 Vienna
AUSTRIA
Bangladesh
Geological Survey of
Bangladesh
153 Pioneer Road
Shegunbagicha
Dhaka-l000
BANGLADESH
Belgium
Service Gologique de
Belgique
13 Rue Jenner
1040 Brussels
BELGIUM
Bolivia
Servicio Gelogico de
Bolivia (GEOBOL)
Federico Zuazo, Esq.
Reyes Ortiz
Casilla de Correos 2729
La Paz
BOLIVIA
Botswana
Geologcal Survey
Department
Minstry of Mineral
Resources and
Water Affairs
Prvate Bag 14
Lobatse
BorSWANA
Brazil
Rio Doce Geolgica e
Mineracao S/A
(DOCEGEO)
Companhia Vale do
Rio Doce (CVRD)
Av. Presidente Wlson
210, 11Andar
22030 Rio de Janeiro, RJ
BRAZIL
Bulgaria
Geological InsUtute
Acad. G. Bonchev
Street, Block 24
Sofia 1113
BULGARIA
Burklna Faso
Bureau Voltaique de la
Gologie et des
Mines
B.P. 601
Ouagadougou
BURKINA FASO
Burundi
Ministare de l'Energe
el des Mines
B.P. 745
Bujumbura
BURUNDI
Cameraon
Institut de Recherches
Gologiques et
Miniares
B.P. 4110
Yaound
CAMEROON
Chile
Servicio Nacional de
Geologa y Minera
(SERNAGEOMIN)
Teatinos 120, Piso 9
Santiago
CHILE
China
Ministry 01 Geology
and Mineral
Resources
64 Fucheng Mennei
Street
Beijing 00812
CHINA
Colombia
Instituto Nacional de
Investigaciones
Geolgico Mineras
(INGEOMINAS)
Diagonal 53 no. 34-53
Apartado Areo 4865
Bogot, D.E.
COLOMBIA
Cuba
Instituto de Geologa
Academia de Ciencias
de Cuba
Ave. Van-Troi no. 17203
Rancho Boyeros-
Apartado Postal 10
La Habana
CUBA
Cyprus
Geological Survey
Department
Ministry of Agriculture
and Natural
Resources
Nicosia
CYPRUS
Czechoslovakia
Usti'edn ustav
geologicky
Malostransk namesti 19
118 21 Praha 1-Mala
Strana
CZECHOSLOVAKIA
Denmark
Geological Survey 01
Denmark
Thoravej 8
DK-2400 Copenhagen
NV
DENMARK
AGI DATA SHEET 44.8
Ecuador
Direccin General de
Geologa y Minas
Ministerio de Recursos
Naturales y
Energticos
Carrin no. 1016 y
Pez
Quito
ECUADOR
Egypt
Geological Survey and
Mning Authorty
4 Salah Salem Road
Abbassia
Cairo
EGYPT
Finland
Geological Survey 01
Finland
Betonimiehenkuja 4
02150 Espoo
FINLAND
France
Bureau de Recherches
GOlogiques et
Miniares (BRGM)
B.P.6009
45060 Orlans Cedex
FRANCE
German Democratlc
Republic
Gesellschaft lr
Geologische
Wissenschaften d.
DDR
Invalidenslrasse 43
1040 Berlin
GERMAN
DEMOCRATIC
REPUBlIC
Germany, Federal
Republic of
Bundesanstalt lr
Geowissenschaften
und Rohstoffe (BGR)
(Geobund)
Alfred-Benlz-Haus
PosUach 510153
Stilleweg 2
3000 Hannover 51
FEDERAL REPUBlIC
OF GERMANY
Ghana
Geologcal Survey 01
Ghana
P.O. Box M 80
Accra
GHANA
Greece
Institute 01 Geological
and Mning
Research (IGMR)
70 Mesogton Street
GR-115 27 Athens
GREECE
Greenland
Geologiske

Ostervoldgade 10, Tr.
KL
DK-1350 Copenhagen
K
DENMARK
Guatemala
Divisin de Geologa
Avenida las Amricas
5-76, Zona 13
Guatemala, C.A.
GUATEMALA
Guyana
Geology and Mines
Commission
68 Brickdam
Georgetown
GUYANA
Hungary
Kzponti Fldlani
Hivatal [Central 01
lice 01 Geology[
H-10ll Budapest, 1.
Iskola u. 19-27
HUNGARY
Iceland
Divison 01 Geology
and Geography
Museum 01 Natural
History
Laugavegi 105 and
Hverfisgta 116
P.o. Box 5320
105 Reykjavik
ICELAND
India
Geological Survey 01
India
27 Jawaharlal Nehru
Road
Calculta 700016
INDIA
Indonesia
Directorate General lor
Geological and
Mineral Resources
Department 01 Mines
and Energy RI
JI. Jen. Gatot Soebroto
!<av 49
Jakarta Selatan
INDONESIA
Iran
Geological and Mineral
Survey 01 Iran
Ministry 01 Industry and
Mines
P.O. Box 1964
Tehran
IRAN
Iraq
State Establishment lor
Geological Survey
and Mineral
Investigation
Ministry 01 Industry and
Military
I ndustrialzation
P.O. Box 2330 and
2730
Baghdad
IRAQ
Ireland
Geological Survey 01
Ireland
Beggard Bush
Haddington Road
Dublin 4
IRELAND
Israel
Geological Survey of
Israel
30 Malkhei Israel
Streel
Jerusalem 95501
ISRAEL
AGI DATA SHEET 44.9
Italy
Comtato Nazonale per
le Scienze
Geologiche e
Mineraria
Consiglio Nazionala
dalla Ricarche
Piazzala Aldo Moro 7
00185 Roma
ITALY
Ivory Coast
Direction da la
Geologe
Ministere das Mines
B.P V 28
Abidjan
IVORY COAST
Jamaica
Geological Survey
Division
Ministry 01 Mining and
Natural Resourcas
Hope Gardens
Kingston 6
JAMAICA
Japan
Gaological Survay 01
Japan, Ministry 01
Intarnational Trade
and
Industry (MITI)
1-1-3 Higashi, Tsukuba
Ibaraki 305
JAPAN
Kenya
Gaological Survay 01
Kanya
Mines and Geological
Dapartment
Ministry 01 Natural
Resourcas
Madini Housa,
Machakos Road
P.O Box 30009
Nairobi
KENYA
Korea, North
Gaologyand
Gaography
Rasearch Institute
Academy 01 Sciances
Mammoon-dong, Cen
tral District
P'yongyang
NORTH KOREA
Korea, South
Natonal Geography
Institute
Ministry 01
Construction
111, Wonchon-dong,
Kwonso-ku
Suwon City, Kyonggido
SOUTH KOREA
Libya
Geological Rasaarch
and Mning
Dapartmant
Industrial Rasaarch
Canter
PO Box 3633
Tripoli
LlBYA
Luxembourg
Servica Geologique
Ponts et Chausseas
43. Bd. G.D.-Charlotta
Luxembourg
LUXEMBOURG
Madagascar
Direction das Mines at
de la Gaologie
B.P.280
101 Antananarivo
MADAGASCAR
Malawi
Geological Survey
Dapartment
Ministry 01 Natural
Resources
P.O Box 27, Liwonde
Road
Zomba
MALAWI
Malaysla
Gaological Survey
Department
Bangunan Ukor, 2d
Floor
Jalan Gurnay
Kuala Lumpur
MALAYSIA
Mexico
Instituto de Gologia
Universidad Nacional
Autnoma da Mex
ico (UNAM)
Cuidad Universitaria
Mxico 20, D.F.
MEXICO
Morocco
Minstere de l'Energe
et des Mines
Diraction da la
Geologa
Quartiar Administratif
Rabat
MOROCCO
Namibia (Southwest
Africa)
Geological Survay
P.O. Box 2168
Windhoek
NAMIBIA
Nepal
Departmant 01 Minas
and Gaology
Ministry 01 Industry
Lainchaur
Kathmandu
NEPAL
Netherlands, The
Rijks Gaologische
Dianst
Spaarna 17, P.B. Box 157
2000 AD Haarlam
THE NETHERLANDS
New Zealand
Naw Zaaland
Gaological Survey
Dapartment of Scien
tifc and Industrial
Rasaarch
P.O. Box 30-368
Lowar Hutt
NEW ZEALAND
Niger
Diraction des Minas et
da la Geologia
Ministre das Minas et
de I'Hydraulique
BIP. 257
Niamay
NIGER
Nigeria
Geological Survay
Department 01
Nigeria
Ministry 01 Minas and
Powar
PM.B.2007
Kaduna South, Kaduna
Stata
NIGERIA
AGI DATA SHEET 44.10
Norway
Norges Geologiske
UnderS0kelse
Leiv Erikssons Vei 39
P,B,300
7001 Trondheim
NORWAY
Pakistan
Geological Survey of
Pakistan (GSP)
Sariab Road
Po. Box 15
Quetta
PAKISTAN
Panama
Direccin General de
Recursos Minerales
Ministerio de Comercio
e Industria (MICI)
Apartado Postal 8515
Panam 5. Repblica
de Panam
PANAMA
Papua New Guinea
Geological Survey
Division
of Minerals and
Box
Port Moresby
PAPUA NEW GUINEA
Paraguay
Direccin de Desarrollo
de Recursos
Minerales
Ministerio de Obras
Pblicas y
Comunicaciones
Calle Olivil y Alberdi
Asuncin
PARAGUAY
Peru
Inshtuto Geolgico
Minero y Metalrgico
(INGEMMET)
Pablo Bermudez 211
Apartado 889
Lima
PERU
Philippines, The
Mines and Geo
sciences Bureau
2nd Floor, J, Fer
nandez Building
Petrolab compound.
North Avenue
1100 Quezon City
THE PHILlPPINES
Poland
Centralny Urzad
Geologii
ul. Jasna 6
00-013 Warszawa
POLAND
Portugal
ServiGos Geolgicos
de Portugal
Rua da Academia das
Ciencias, 19-2
1200 Lisboa
PORTUGAL
Romana
Ministerul Geologiei
Str. Mendeleev no, 36-38
Bucharest
ROMANIA
Saudi Arabia
Ministry of Petroleum
and Mineral
Resources
Directorate General of
Mineral Resources
P,O. Box 2880
Jeddah
SAUDI ARABIA
Senegal
Direction des Mines et
de la Gologie
Ministre du
Developpement
Industriel
Route de Ouakam
B,P, 1238
Dakar
SENEGAL
Sierra Leone
Geological Survey
Division
Ministry of Lands,
Mines, and Labor
New England,
Freetown
SIERRA LEONE
Somalia
Geological Survey
Department
Ministry of Minerals
and Water
Resources
P.O. Box 744
Mogadishu
SOMALlA
South Africa
Geological Survey
280 Pretoria Street
Silverton
0184
(Private Bag Xl12,
Pretoria, 0001)
SOUTH AFRICA
Soviet Union
Department of
Geology,
Geophysics, and
Geochemistry
Akademiya Nauk USSR
117901 GSP-I Moscow
V-71
Leninskiy Prospekt 14
SOVIET UNION
Spain
Servicio Geolgico
Ministerio de Obras
Pblicas y
Urbanismo
Avenida de Portugal, 81
28071 Madrid
SPAIN
Srl Lanka
Geological Survey
De:>artment
48 Sri Jinaratna Road
Colombo 2
SRI LANKA
Sudan
Geological and Mineral
Resources
Ministry of Energy and
Mining
Geological Survey
Department
p.o, Box 410
Khartoum
SUDAN
AGI DATA SHEET 44.11
Suriname
Geologisch Mi
jnbouwkundige
Dienst
Kleine Waterstraat 2-6
Paramaribo
SURINAME
Swaziland
Geological Survey and
Mines Department
P.O. Box 9
Mbabane
SWAZILAND
Sweden
Sveriges Geologiska
Undersokning (SGU)
[Geological Survey
01 Sweden)
Box 670
S-751 28 Uppsala
SWEDEN
Switzerland
Geologisches Institut
Eidgenissische
Technische
Hochschule
ETH-Zentrum
8092 Zrich
SWITZERLAND
Syria
General Establishment
01 Geology and
Mineral Resources
Ministry 01 Petroleum
P.O. Box 7645
Khatib Street, Adawi
Damascus
SYRIA
Tanzanla
Geology
Ministry 01 Minerals
P.O. Box 903
Dodoma
TANZANIA
Thailand
Geological Survey
Division
Department 01 Mineral
Resources
Rama VI Road
Bangkok 10600
THAILAND
Togo
Direction Gnrale des
Mines, de la
Gologie et du
Bureau National de
Recherches
Minieres
B.P. 356
Lom
TOGO
Tunlsla
Office National des
Mines
Dpartement de
Gologie
95 Avenue Mohamed V
Tunis
TUNISIA
lUrkey
Maden Tetkik ve Arama
Enstitusu [Mineral
Research and Ex
ploration Institute)
Eskisehir Yolu
Ustu-Ankara
TURKEY
Uganda
Geological Survey and
Mines Department
P.o. Box 9
Entebbe
UGANDA
United Kingdom
British Geological
Survey
Nicker HiII
Keyworth
Nottingham NG12 5GG
UNITED KINGDOM
Uruguay
Instituto Geolgico del
Uruguay
Hervidero 2853
Montevideo
URUGUAY
Venezuela
Direccin de Geologa
Direccin General Sec
torial de Minas y
Geologia
Ministerio de Energa y
Minas
Torre Oeste, Piso 4
Parque Central
Caracas
VENEZUELA
Yugoslavia
Institut za geoloska,
geofcicka i rudarska
istrazivanja nuklear
nih i drugih
mineralnih sirovina
(GEOINSTITUT) [In
stitute lor
Geological,
Geophysical and
Mining Exploration
01 Nuclear and other
Mineral Resources]
12, Rovinjska
11000 Belgrade
YUGOSLAVIA
Zaire
Service Gologique du
Zaire
Ministry 01 Mines and
Energy
B.P. 898
44 Avenue des
Huileries
Kinshasa
ZAIRE
Zambla
Geological Survey
Department
Ministry of Mines
P.O. Box 50135
Lusaka
ZAMBIA
Zimbabwe
Department 01
Geological Survey
Ministry 01 Mines
P.O. Box 8039,
Causeway
Harare
ZIMBABWE
Taiwan
InsUtute 01 Geology
National Taiwan
Unversity
1 Roosevelt Road,
Secton 4
Taipei
TAIWAN
AGI DATA SHEET 44.12
References
Directory of Geoscience Departments, 1989. American Geological Institute, Alexan
dria, Virginia. 384 p. Updated annually.
Directory 01 geoscience organizations: Geotimes, October 1989, p. 16-25. American
Geological Institute, Alexandria, Virginia. Updated annually. Each issue includes a
column on new geologic maps.
Episodes, quarterly publication 01 the International Union 01 Geological Sciences
(IUGS). Address inquiries to Editor, P.o. Box 919, Herndon, Virginia 22070. Episodes
lists IUGS member countries and publishes a column on geologic maps available
lrom other countries.
Guide to Obtaining USGS Inlormation, Kurt Dodd et al., compilers: U.S. Geol. Surv.
Circo 900, 34 p., 1989.
AGI DATA SHEET 45.1
State and Provincial Geological Maps
STATE GEOLOGICAL MAPS
State Title Date Seale Sheets
Alabama Geologic Map 01 Alabama 1988 250,000
Alaska 1, Geologic Map 01 Alaska 1980 2,500.000
2, Surlicial Geology 01 Alaska 1964 1,584,000
Arizona Geologic Map 01 Arizona 1988 1.000.000
Arkansa$ Geologic Map 01 Arkansas 1976 500.000
California Geologc Map 01 Calilornia 1977 750.000
Colorado GeolOgic Map 01 Colorado 1980 500,000
Connectlcut 1, Bedrock Geological Map 01 Connecticut 1985 125,000
2, Glacial Geologic Map 01 Connecticut 1929 125,000
Delaware Generalized Geologic Map 01 Delaware 1976 576.000
Florida Geolog',c and Physiographic Maps 01 Florida 1982 500,000
Georgla Geologic Map 01 Georgia 1976 500,000
Idaho Geologic Map 01 Idaho 1978 500,000
IIIlnols 1. Geologic Map 01 IlIinois 1967
2. Quaternary Deposits 01 IlInois 1979
Indiana 1, Bedrock Geologic Map 01 Indiana 1987 500,000
2, Glacial Geology 01 Indiana (Atlas, map 10) 1958 1,000,000
lowa 1, Geological Map 01 lowa 1969 500,000
2, 'Quaternary Map'-Surficial 1969 1,900,800
Kansas Geologic Map 01 Kansas 1964 500,000
Kentucky Geologic Map 01 Kentucky 1981 250,000
Louisiana Geologic Map 01 Louisiana 1984 500,000
Maine 1, Bedrock Geologic Map 01 Maine 500,000
2, Surficial Geologic Map 01 Maine 500,000
Maryland Geologic Map al Maryland 1968 250,000
Massachusetts Bedrock Geologic Map 01 Massachusetts 1983 250.000
Michlgan 1, Bedrock Geology 01 Michigan 1987
2, Quaternary Geology 01 Michigan 1982
Mlnnesota 1, Geologic Map 01 Minnesota 1970 1,000,000
2, Quaternary Geology Map 1982 500,000
Mlsslsslppl Geologic Map 01 Mississippi 1969 500,000
Mlssouri Geologic Map 01 Missouri 1979 500,000
Montana Geologic Map 01 Montana 1955 500,000
AGI,DS"td,S9
AGI DATA SHEET 45.2
State Title Date
Nebraska Geologic Bedrock Map 01 Nebraska 1986
Nevada Geologic Map 01 Nevada 1978
New Hampshire l. Bedrock Geology 01 New Hampshire
2. Surlicial Geology 01 New Hampshire
New Jersey Geologlc Map 01 New Jersey 1950
New Mexico 1965
1978
New York 1, Geologic Map 01 New York, Series 15 1970
Norlh Carolina Geologic Map 01 North Carolina 1985
Norlh Dakota Geologic Map 01 North Dakota 1980
Ohlo 1, Geologic Map 01 Ohio
2, Glacial Map 01 Ohio
Oklahoma 1 . Geologic Map 01 Oklahoma
2. Geologc Atlas 01 Oklahoma
OGS (HA 19) covers all bu! panhandle
Oregon 1, Map, Oregon, 1961
2, Map, Ore90n, 1977
Meridan)
Pennsylvana Geologic Map 01 Pennsylvania 1980
Rhode Istand Bedrock Geologic Map 01 Rhoda Island 1971
Soulh Carolina
1, 1965
2, & Tertiary 1936
Soulh Dakota Geologic Map 01 South Dakota 1951
Tennessee Geologic Map 01 Tennessee 1966
Texas 1 , Geologic Map 01 Texas 1937
2. Geologic Atlas 01 Texas 1965-1988
Ulah Geologic Map 01 Utah 1981
Vermont 1, Centennial Geologic Map 01 Vermont
2, Surlieial Geologic Map 01 Vermont
Virginia Geologie Map 01 Virginia 1963
Washlnglon 1, Geologic Map 01 Washington 1961
2. Geologic Map (sou!hwesl quadrant) 1987
(Three Other Sheets in Preparatlon)
Wesl Virginia Geologic Map 01 West Virginia 1986
Wlsconsln
Scale Sheets
1,000,000
500,000
250,000
250,000
250,000
250,000
500,000
500,000
500,000
500,000
500,000
250,000
250,000
125,000
250,000
500,000
500,000
250,000
4
38
500,000
500,000
500,000
250,000
250,000
Wyomlng Geologie Map 01 Wyomlng 1986 500,000
Puerto Rico Provisional Geologie Map 01 Puerlo Rico & 1964 240,000
Adjacent Islands, USGS Map 1392
NOTE: For other general slate maps, sea Data Sheet 45.4,
AGI DATA SHEET 45.3
PROVINCIAL GEOLOGICAL MAPS
Province Title Dale Scale Sheets
Alberla Geologcal Map 01 Alberta 1972 167,200
Brlllsh Columbia Br!sh Columbia Geologc Highway Map 1983 1,250,000
Maolloba 1 . Geologcal Map 01 Man!oba
2. Mineral Deposils Map 01 Manitoba
3. Surlcial Geological Map 01 Manloba
1979
1980
1981
New Bruoswlck Geological Map 01 New Brunswick 1979 500,000
Newloundland 1. Geological Map 01 Newloundland
2. Geologeal Map 01 Labrador
1983
1972
1,000,000
1,000,000
Nor1hwest Terrltorles Geology, Yukon Territory and
Northwesl Terrlores
1963 3,000,000
Nova Seotia 1. Geologeal Map 01 Nova Scotia
2. Teclonie Map 01 Nova Scolia
500,000
500,000
Oolarlo l. Wesl-Cenlral 1975
2. Northeast 1971
3. Northwest 1971
4. Southern 1979
S. Eas!-Central 1979
Explana!ory Notes and Sheets 1979
Prlnce Edward Island Surticial Deposi!s 01 Prinee Edward 1973 126,720
Island
Qubec La carte gologique du Qubee 1969 1,013,760
Saskatchewan Geologieal Map 01 Saskalehewan 1980 1,000,000
Yukon Terrilory 1. Geology, Yukon Terrilory and 1963 3,000,000
Northwesl Terrilories
Macmillan River 1980 1,000,000
NOTE: Many other knds 01 state and maps (Iopographle, geophysieal, salelli!e image,
geolhermal resources, mineral available. Contactlhe pertinen! lederal, state or
provincial survey for nformation. and 46
AG' DATA SHEET 45.4
STATE GEOLOGICAL HIGHWAY MAPS
Tltle Dale Scale Sheels
Colorado 1985 1,000,000
Kansas 1988 1.000,000
New Mexlco 1982 1,000,000
North Dakota 1977 1.000,000
Texas (see AAPG entry)
Ulah 1975 1.000,000
Wyoming 1986 1,000,000
PROVINCIAL GEOLOGICAL HIGHWAY MAPS
Alberta 1975 1.800,000
Brltlsh Columbia 1,250,000
New Brunswick 1985 638,000
Nova Scotia 1980 640,000
Ontarlo (southern) 1978 800,000
Ontarlo (northern) 1986 1.000,000
AAPG GEOLOGICAL HIGHWAY MAPS
map
Northeastern Reglon 1976
Mid-Atlantlc Region 1970
Southeastern Region 1975
Great Lakes Region 1978
Northern Plalns Region 1984
Mid-Contlnent Reglon 1986
Texas 1973
Northern Rocky Mountain Reglon 1972
Southern Rocky Mountain Reglon 1967
Paclllc Northwest Region 1973
Paclflc Southwest Region 1968
Alaska-Hawail 1974
_Geolibros_
AGI DATA SHEET 46.1
Map and Aerial Photograph Coverage of the United States
Complled by David D. Glnsburg, Central Mlchlgan Universlty
MAPS
TOPOGRAPHIC MAP SERIES
U.S. (Irom International Map 01 the
World Series) 1: 1 ,000,000
Statel:500,000
U.S. 1x quadrangles 1: 250,000
U.S. intermediate scale quadrangles 1: 100,000
County series 1: 100,000 and 1: 50,000
15 minute quadrangles 1: 62,500 and 1: 63,360
7
1
/2 minute quadrangles 1 : 24,000, 1 : 25,000, and 1 : 20,000
U.S. Geological Survey, Distribution Branch, P.O. Box 25286, Denver Federal
Center, Denver, Colo. 80225.
Soil Surveys 1: 20,000 or 1: 15,840
U.S. Oepartment 01 Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service, Cartographic Oivision,
501 Felix SI., FWFC Building 23, Ft. Worth, Texas 76115.
National Forest Maps
U.S. Forest Service, Office 01 Inlormation, P.O. Box 96090, Washington, D.C.
20090-6090.
CHARTS
Nautical charts 1: 10,000 to 1: 600,000
National Ocean Service, Distribution Branch N/CG33, National Oceanic and
Atmospheric Administration, Riverdale, Md. 20852.
World 1: 1,000,000 to 1: 22,000,000
Defense Mapping Agency HTC, Public Affairs, 6500 Brooks Lane, Washington,
D.C.20315-0030.
PHOTOS AND IMAGERY
Aerial photographs
Landsat 1, 2, and 3, and Skylab 2, 3, and 4 imagery
Agricultural Stabilization and Conservation Service, Aerial Photography Field
Office, P.O. Box 30010, Salt Lake City, Utah 84125.
Landsat and other satellite imagery
Earth Resources Observation Systems, EROS Data Center, User Services Unit,
U.S. Geological Survey, Sioux Falls, S.O. 57198.
AGI DATA SHEET 46.2
Some data lor the agencies listed below are held and reproduced by the EROS
Data Center.
Air Force (USAF) Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
Army (USA) National Aeronautics and Space
Bureau 01 Indian Attairs (BIA) Administration (NASA)
Bureau 01 Land Management (BLM) Navy (USN)
Bureau 01 Reclamation (BaR) U.S. Geological Survey (USGS)
Corps 01 Engineers (CaE)
Requests lor inlormation or reproduction be lilled by calling 1-800-USA
MAPS or contacting any 01 the following Geological Survey Earth Science
Information Centers:
Reston-ESIC Menlo Park-ESIC Stennis Space Center
507 National Center Building 3, MS 532 ESIC
Reston, Va. 22092 345 Middlelield Road Building 3101
(703) 860-6045 Menlo Park, Cali!. 94025 Stennis Space Center
(415) 329-4309 Miss. 39529
Washington, D.C.-ESIC (601) 688-3544
Department 01 the Interior San Francisco-ESIC
Building 504 Custom House Rolla-ESIC
18th and C streets, N.W. Battery SI. 1400lndependence
Room 2650 Francisco, CaUI. Road, MS 231
Washington, D.C. 20240 94111 Rolla, Mo. 65401
(202) 343-8073 (415) 556-5627 (314) 341-0851
Anchorage-ESIC Denver-ESIC Sal! Lake City-ESIC
4230 University Drive 169 Federal Building 8105 Federal Building
Room 101 1961 Stout SI. 125 S. State SI.
Anchorage, Alaska Denver, Colo. 80294 Sal! Lake City, Utah
99508-4664 (303) 844-4169 84138
(907) 561-5555 (801) 524-5652
Lakewood-ESIC
Los Angeles-ESIC Box 25046 Spokane-ESIC
Federal Building Federal Center, MS 504 678 U.S. Courthouse
Room 7638 Denver, Colo. 80225- W. 920 Riverside Ave.
300 N. Los Angeles SI. 0046 Spokane, Wash. 99201
Los Angeles, Calif. (303) 236-5829 (509) 353-2524
90012
(213) 894-2850
See also Thompson, M., 1988. Maps for America, 3rd ed. U.S. Geological Survey,
Reston. Virginia. Makower. J., 1986. The Map Catalog: Every Kind of Map and
Chart on Earth and Even Sorne Above It. Vintage Books and Modern Library
(Random House), New York.
AGI DATA SHEET 47.1
Bibllographies, Indexes, and Abstracts
Complled by David D. Glnsburg, Central Michigan Unlversity
Most 01 these bibliographies, indexes, and abstracts are also accessible
online lor computerized searching, although in some cases the online database
may nclude only the last lew years. Mos! notable s the GeoRel database, pro
duced by the Amercan Geologcal Institute and available onlne through three
worldwide search servces: DIALOG, Maxwell Online, and STN. In Canada, the
GeoRef database s also available through CAN/OLE.
The GeoRel database neludes records Irom the full fles 01 the Bibliography
of North American Geology (1785-1970), the B/bl/ography and Index of Geology
Exclusive 01 North Amer/ca (1933-1968), the Bib/iography and /ndex of Geology
(1969-), as well as other sources. Consult your libraran lor further information.
Abstracts of North American Ge%gy. U.S. Geological Survey, 1966-1971. For
merly Geological Abstracts (1953-1958) and GeoScienee Abstracts (1959
1966).
Annotated Bibliography of Economic Geology. Economc Geology Publishng Co.,
1928-1965.
Applied Seienee and Teehnology Index. H.W. Wilson CO., 1958-. Monthly wth
annual cumulations.
Aquatie Se/enees and Fisheries Abstraets, Part 2: Ocean Technology, Polieyand
Non-living Resources. Cambridge Scentific Abstracts, 1971-. Monlhly.
Astronomy and Astrophysics Abstraets. Sprnger-Verlag, 1969-. Semiannually.
Bibliography and Index of Geology. Geological Socety 01 Amerca and American
Geologicallnstitute, 1969-1978. American Geologicallnsttute, 1979-. Month
Iy with annual cumulations.
Bibliography and Index of Geology Exclusive 01 North Ameriea. Geological Soci
ety of America, 1933-1968. Contnued by Bibliography and /ndex of Ge%gy.
Bibliography and /ndex of Mieropa/eontology. Amercan Museum 01 Natural Histo
ry, 1972-. Monthly wth annual ndexes.
Bibliography of North American Ge%gy. U.S. Geological Survey, 1732-1970.
Issued in the U.S. Ge%gica/ Survey Bul/etin series. See below for publca
tion details. Continued by Bibliography and Index of Ge%gy.
Publcaton details 01 Bibliography of North American Geology
1732-1891
1785-1918
1919-1928
1929-1939
1940-1949
1950-1959
1960
1961
1962
1963
1964
1965
1966
1967
1968
1969
1970
Catalog and Index 01 Contributions to 127 1896
North American Geology
Geologic Literature on North Amerca
Part 1: Bibliography 746 1923
Part 11: Index 747 1924
823 1931
937 1944
1049 (2 vols.) 1957
1195 (4 vols.) 1965
1196 1964
1197 1965
1232 1966
1233 1968
1234 1966
1235 1969
1266 1970
1267 1970
1268 1971
1269 1972
1370 1973
AGJ-OS-rvd89
AGI DATA SHEET 47.2
Bbliography ol Theses in Geology. American Geological Institute and Geological
Socety 01 America, 1958-1970 (1964 in GeoScience Abstracts)
Biological Abstracts. BioSciences Inlormation Service, 1926-. Semimonthly with
semiannual indexes.
81010gical Abstracts/RRM (Reports, Revews, Meetings). BioSciences Information
Service, 1980-. Semimonthly with semiannual indexes. Formerly BioRe
search Index, 1965-1979.
Catalogue ol Scientifc Publications, 1800-1900. Continued by International Cata
logue ol Scientific Literature, 1901-1914; Part G-Mineralog1. Part H-Geolo
gy, Part K-Paleontology. Royal Society 01 London.
Chemical Abstracts. American Chemical Society, 1907-. Weekly with semiannual
indexes. Section on Mineralogical and Geologlcal Chemistry is biweekly.
Chemcal Abstracts, Col/ective Indexes. American Chemical Society, 1907-1956,
decennial; 1957-, quinquennial.
Conference Papers Index. Cambridge Scientific Abstracts, 1973-. Bimonthly. For
merly Current Programs.
Current Physics Index. American Institute of Physics, 1975-. Ouarterly with annual
indexes.
Dissertaton Abstracts Internatonal, Section B: The Sc/ences and Engineering.
University Microfilms International, 1938-. Monthly.
Energy Abstracts. Engineering Index, 1974-. Monthly.
Energy Index. Environment Information Center, 1973-. Annually.
Energy Information Abstracts. Environment Inlormation Center, 1976-. Monthly.
Energy Research Abstracts. U.S. Department of Energy, 1976-. Semimonthly.
General Science Index. HW. Wilson CO., 1978-. Monthly with annual cumulations.
Geographical Abstracts. A-Landforms and Quaternary; B-Climatology and
Hydrology; C-Economic Geography; D-Social and Historlcal Geography;
E-Sedimentology; F-Regional and Community Planning; G-Remote Sens
ing, Photogrammetry, and Cartography. GeoAbstracts (Norwich, England).
1960-. Bimonthly. Formerly GeoAbstracts.
Geological Abstracts. Four parts: Economic Geolog1. Paleontology and Stratigra
phy, Sedimentary Geology, 1986-; Geophysics and Tectonics, 1977-.
GeoAbstracts (Norwich, England). Bimonthly. Formerly Geophyscal Abstracts.
Geophysical Abstracts. U.S. Geological Survey, 1929-1971.
Geotitles. Geosystems (London). 1969-. Monthly. Formerly Geotitles Weekly.
Government Reports Announcements and Index. National Technical Information
Service, 1946-. Semimonthly. Under various tiUes, 1946-1975.
Index to Scientific and Technical Proceedings. Institute lor Scientific Information,
1978-. Monthly with semiannual cumulations.
Index to Scientfic Reviews. Institute lor Scientilic Inlormation. 1974-. Semiannu
ally with annual cumulations.
Meteorological and Geoastrophysical Abstracts. American Meteorological Society,
1950-. Monthly. Formerly Meteorological Abstracts and Bblography.
Mineralogical Abstracts. Mineralogical Society, 1920-. Ouarterly with annual index
es. Before 1959 issued as supplement to Mineralogical Magazine.
Oceanic Abstracts. Cambridge Scientfic Abstracts, 1964-. Bimonthly. Formerly
Oceanic Index, Oceanc Citation Journal with Abstracts, and Oceanic
Abstracts with Indexes.
Petroleum Abstracts. University 01 Tulsa, 1961-. Monthly.
AGI DATA SHEET 47.3
Physies Abstraets. Institute of Electrical Engineers, 1903-. Semimonthly. Formerly
Seienee Abstraets: Seetion A.
Pol/ution Abstraets. Cambridge Scientific Abstracts, 1970-. Monthly.
Publieations of the U.S. Geologeal Survey. U.S. Geological Survey, 1879-. Annual
Iy. Supplemented by New Publieations of the U.S. Geologieal Survey. Monthly.
Scenee Citation Index. Institute far Scientific Informatian, 1964-. Bimonthly with
annual cumulatians.
Seleeted Water Resourees Abstraets. U.S. Department 01 Interior, Water
Resources Scientific Information Center, 1968-. Monthly.
Notes
Sorne professional journals, e.g., Eeonomie Geologyand Gems and Gemology,
have abstracts 01 current articles of interes!.
See also Ward. D.C.; Wheeler, M.w.; and Bier, RA Geologie Referenee Sourees,
Scarecraw Press, 1981.
AGI DATA SHEET 48.1
of
Ths data sheet has been compiled to help those who now and Ihen vsl unlamliar libra res
manly to browse, It should not be consdered a substitute lor any library's card calalog or lor
drectons one might get trom, for example, a reference libraran, In most libraries, perodlcals
are elassifed under Library 01 Congress or Dewey Decimal systems. In some libraries, perodi
cals are incorporated in the book collection; in others, they are housed separately,
The tollowing lists give many 01 the more appropriate designations in the 1) Library 01 Con
gress Classilicaton, 2) Dewey Decimal system, and 3) U,S, Superntendent 01 Documenls
Classificaton, Attenton is also directed lo Data Sheet 47. "Bblographes, Indexes, and
Abstracts,"
1) LIBRARV OF CONGRESS CLASSIFICATION:
G 1000-3100 Aliases
3190-9980 Maps-generally housed separately
GB Physcal Geography
400-649 Geomorphology
651-2998 Hydrology
651-2400 Ground and surlaee waters
2401-2598 Glaciers
5000-5030 Natural disasters
GC Oeeanography
83-87.6 Submarine lopography
377-399 Marine sediments
1000-1023 Marine resources
O Science
OA Mathematies
76-76,8 Computer seience
OS Astronomy
275-343 Geodesy
981-991 Cosmology
OC Physics
170-197 Atome physies
310.15-319 Thermodynamics
350-467 Opties
450-467 Spectroscopy
770-798 Nuclear physies
794.95-798 Radioactivity
801-809 Geophysies
811-849 Geomagnetism
851-999 Meteorology, Clmatology
OD Chemistry
450-731 Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
901-999 Crystallography
OE GEOlOGY
1-350 General geology
351-399.2 Mineralogy (including meteorites and lektites)
420-499 Petrology
500-625 Dynamic and structural geology
515-551 515-516 Geochemistry
521-545 Volcanoes and earthquakes
640-699 Stratigraphy
701-996.5 Paleonlology (including paleobolany)
761-899 Paleozoology
OH Natural history (general), Bology (general)
OK Botany
Ol Zoology
S Agriculture
591-599 Soils
AGI DATA SHEET 48.2
TA Engineering, general and civil
705-710.5 Engineering geology and soil mechanics
TC Hydraulic engineering
TO Environmental technology and sanitary engineering
201-205 Water supply
420-427 Water pollution
TE Highway engineering
200-205 Materials lor roadmaking
TG Bridge engineering
TK Electrical engneering, electroncs, nuclear engineering
TN Mining engineering and metallurgy
263-271 Prospecting (including geophysical and oil)
400-580 Ore deposits
600-799 Metallurgy
799.5-948 Nonmetallic minerals
950-997 Building and ornamental stones
TP Chemical Technology
315-360 Fuel
690-692 Petroleum refining and products
751-762 Gas
785-869 Clay industries
2) DEWEY DECIMAL SYSTEM:
500 Pure Sciences 600 Technology (applied sciences)
510 Mathematics 620 Engineering
520 Astronomy and alled sciences 630 Agriculture
530 Physics 650 Business
540 Chemstry and alled sciences 660 Chemical technology
550 EARTH SCIENCES 680 Assembled and final products.
560 PALEONTOLOGY
570 Anthropology and biological sciences
580 Botanical sciences
590 Zoological sciences
3) SUPERINTENDENT OF DOCUMENTS CLASSIFICATION:
19.3 Bulletins 01 USGS
19.4 Circulars 01 USGS
19.13 Water Supply Papers
19.16 USGS Prolessional Papers
19.43 Geophysical Abstracts
19.61 USGS Journal 01 Research
22.37 Minerals Yearbook (U.S. Bureau 01 Mines)
In some libraries, government documents (United Nations. U .S., State, and loreign) are incor
porated in the collections under their appropriate classilication category; in other librares, all
or some 01 these publications may be housed in separate collections using different classifica
tion systems. For example, severallbraries classify their lederal government publcatons under
the Superintendent 01 Oocuments Classificaton scheme. That overall classilicaton is based
on ssuing agencies and Includes publications 01 the U.s. Geological Survey and the
U.S. BlireauoT MineS.
AGI DATA SHEET 49.1
SI UNIT PREFIXES
Preflx'
exa
peta
tera
giga
2
mega
kilo
hecto
deka
deci
centi
milli
micro
3
nano
pico'
lemlo
atto
Symbol
E
P
T
G
M
da
m
Multlplication factor
1 000 000 000 000 000 000
1 000 000 000 000 000
1 000 000 000 000
1000000000
1000000
1000
100
10
0.1
0.01
0,001
0.000001
0.000000001
0.000 000 000 001
0.000 000 000 000 001
0,000 000 000 000 000 001
10'B
10'5
10'2
10
9
la
10
3
10
2
10
10"
10.
2
10
3
10'6
10'9
10,,2
10,,5
10"8
Source: National Bureau 01 Slandards Specal Publication 330.
1 The firsl syllable 01 each prefix is accenled when pronounced.
2 Pronounced as jig' a.
3 Pronounced as nan'oh (an as in animal).
4 Pronounced as peak' oh.- -
AGI,OS-jtd-89
AGI DATA SHEET 50.1
Electromagnetic Spectrum
The electromagnetic spectrum righl. The expanded portio n 01 the spectrum
lhal includes visible light is on !he ranges of wavelengths are indicated for each
color.
Newlon's seven
colors
lmlS)
6500
7000
7500
10 '
INFRARED lOS
SHORT
RADIO WAVES I
10.0
.g
;
1::.
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Q.l

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BROADCAST BANO

LONG RADIO WAVES


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AG!DS,rvd-89
_Geolibros_
AGI DATA SHEET 51.1
Measurement
ENGLISH TO METRIC
Known (symbol)
inches
inches
feet
fee!
yards
miles (s!a!u!e)
nau!ical miles
(in or ")
(in or ")
(ft or ')
(flor')
(yd)
(m)
(nmi)
Multiplier
2.54 x lO"
25.4
30.48
0.3048
0.9144
1.6093
1.85
square inches (in
2
) 6.4516
square leet (112) 0.0929
square yards (yd
2
) 0.8361
square miles (mi
2
) 2.5900
(1 square mile=640 acres)
cubic ioches
cubic feel
eubc yards
cubic miles
quarts (U.S. liquid)
liquid)
Imperial gal)
barreis
barreis 32API
(For o!her den sities, see table on nex! page.)
barreis (bbl) 158.9828
(petroleum - 1 bbl =42 gal)
acre-feet (acre-ft) 1233.5019
X 10
5
gal)
ounees (avdp.) (oz) 28.3495
ounces (avdp.)
1 troy oz.",0.083 lb)
pounds (avdp.) (lb) 0.4536
short lons 09072
(2000 lb)
long lons 10160
(2240 lb)
(e) 0.2000
(ft
3
/s) 0.02832
cubic leel per second
cubic leet per minute
('" 7.48 gallmn)
galloos per minute
bbl=42 gal)
AGIOSrvdS9
(IP/s) 283161
(ft
3
/min) 0.47195
(gallmio) 0.06309
(bblld) 0.00184
Product

micron (Il)
[; 10,000 Angstrom units (A)
millimeters (mm)
centimeters (cm)
meters (m)
meters (m)
klomelers (km)
kilometers (km)
square centimeters (cm
2
)
square melers (m
2
)
square meters (m
2
)
square kilomelers (km
2
)
hectares
___ _
cubic cenlimelers (cm
3
)
cubic melers (m
3
)
eubie melers (m
3
)
cubic kilomelers (km
3
)
liters (1)
('" 1000 cm')
liters (1)
cubic meters (m
3
)
metrc tons (MT)
lilers (1)
cubic melers (m
3
)
grams (g)
kilograms (kg)
(Mg)
tons)
megagrams (Mg)
grams
\lJ]
cubic melers per secood (m
3
Is)
cubic decimelers per (dm
3
/s)
secood (= liters per second)
Iilers per second (lis)
lilers per second (lis)
liters per second (115)

(i0
3
)
(ft3)
(yd
3
)
(mi
3
)
(ql)
(gal)
(bbl)
(bbl)
0.405
16.3871
002832
0.7646
4.1884
0.9463
3.7854
0.159
0.137
AGI DATA SHEET 51.2
per square neh (lb-flin
2
)
(=PSI)
6.8948 }
kilapaseal (kPa)
alm'Jsphere (atm)
(=14.6960 PSI=1.01325 bars)
101.325
(1 Pascal = Lt'-leWll:ln
m
2
bar 100.0
_(= 14.5038 PSI = 0.9869 al_n:'L_
TEMPERATURE
--------
temperature. degrees
Fahrenhet
temperature. degrees
5/9 (alter Celsius
subtracting 32)
temperature, degrees
Fahrenheit
temperature, degrees
Celsus
(OC)
5/9 (alter temperature Kelvn
adding 459.67)
add 273.15 temperature Kelvn
(K)
(K)
28 0.887 0.140
30 0.876 0.139
32 0.865 0.137
34 0.855 0.135
36 0.845 0.134
38 0.835 0.132
40 0.825 0.130
42 0.816 0.129
Note: Appraximate figures 60F.
*Interpolate linearly lor intermedate API's.
Additonal conversons may be faund, lar example, in the annual editions 01 the Handbook
ol Chemistry and Physics and on Data Sheets 53 and 54.
inches
1 2 3
1"I II "III,ltlll
If i iI I 1 I
I
,
I
I I
I I
I
cm 2 3 4 5 6 7 a
AGI DATA SHEET 51.3
ME1RIC 10 ENGLlSH
Known
Multiplier
Product
LENGTH
micron (.) 3.9370
(= 10,000 Angstrm unts) x 10-
5
millimeters
centimeters
meters
meters
kilometers
kilometers
square centme!ers
square meters
square meters
square kilometers
hectares
VOLUME
cubic cenlimelers
cubic melers
cubic melers
cubic kilomelers
lilers
1000 cm
3
)
lilers
lilers
cubic meters
metric tons 32API
cubic melers
MASS
grams
grams
kilograms
megagrams
(= melrie lons)
megagrams
inches (in or ")
inches (in or a)
fee! (It or ')
feet (flor')
yards (yd)
miles (s!atute) (mi)
nautical miles (nmi)
square nches (n')
square fee! (It')
square yards (yd
Z
)
square miles (mi
2
)
(1 square mile = 640 acres)
acres
(ac!.
cubic inches (in
3
)
cubic feel (tt')
cubic yards (yd
3
)
cubic miles (mi')
quarts (ql)
(U,S.liquid)
gallons (gal)
(U,S. liquid)
barreis (bbl)
(1 bbl =42 gal)
barreis (bbl)
barreis (bbl)
acre-feel (acre-tt)
(= ft3 = 3.259 x 10
5
gal)
carals (gems) (e)
ounees (avdp,) (oz)
pounds (avdp,) (lb)
short lons
(2000 lb)
long lons
(2240 lb)
eubie feel per second (ff3/s)
(=448,83 gal/min)
eubic feel per seeond (fP/s)
eubie feel per minute (ff3/min)
gallons per minute (gal/min)
day (bbl/d)
1 bbl = ___
(mm)
(cm)
(m)
(m)
(km)
,(km)
(cm')
(m
2
)
(m
Z
)
(km')
(hal
(cm
3
)
(m
3
)
(m
3
l
(km
3
)
(1)
ti)
(1)
(m
3
l
(MT)
0,03937
0,0328
3,2808
1,0936
0,6214
0.54
0,1550
10,7639
1.1960
0.3861
2.471
0.06102
35,3146
1.3079
0.2399
1,0567
0.2642
0,006290
6.29
728
(For other densities, sea table on nex! page.)
(m
3
) 0.0008107
(g) 50000
(g) 0.03527
(kg) 2.2046
(Mg) 1.1023
(Mg) 0.9842
cubie melers per seeond (m
3
/s) 35.3107
euble decimelers per (dm
3
/s) 0.03532
seeond (lilers per second)
lilers per seeond (l/s) 2.1188
liters per seeond (lis) 15.8503
lilers per second (115) 543.478
AGI DATA SHEET 51 A
PRESSURE
kilopascal (kPa) pound
nch
(1 Pascal =1 NewlcJn : ::::69 atmosphere (atm)
- m
2
{
(= 14.6960 PSI)
= kg m/sec
2
) 0.01 bar
m'
PSI)
temperature, degrees
Celsius
(OC) 9/5 (then temperature, degrees
add 32) Fahrenhet
temperature Kelvin (K) 9/5 (then temperature. degrees
subtract Fahrenheit
45967
temperature Kelvin (K) subtract temperature, degrees
(OC)
273.15 Celsius
THERMAL GRADIENT
28 0.887 7.10
30 0.876 7.19
32 0.865 7.28
34 0.855 7.37
36 0.845 7.46
38 0.835 7.55
40 0.825 7.64
42 0.816 7.73
Note: Approximate figures 60F.
*Interpolate linearly for intarmediate API's.
Additional conversions may be found. for example. in the annual editions of tha Handbook
af Chemistry and Physics and on Data Sheets 53 and 54.
cm 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
I I I I I
1
I 1
f"IItllllJ I I I
1i l'Ii 11' , 1 j 1
I
I
1
Inches
2 3
AGI DATA SHEET 52.1
Gemological Weights and Measures
J.I. Koivula and R.C. Kammerling, Gemologlcallnstltule of America
TABLE OF WEIGHTS ANO MEASLlRES
CARAT WEIGHT
1Cara! (e!) 115 gram (g) 25 POlOts 0.25 (114) earat
1Cara! 100 'points" 50 POinls 0.50 (112) caral
1Cara! 4 pearl gralos
1Pearl Grain - 0.25 (114) caral
lO CONVERr
Carats to Grams Carals x0.2 = Grams
1 Poinl ~ 0.01 (11100) earal
lROY WEIGHT
1Grain (grl = 0.0020833 ounees (al t) 0.0648 grams (g)
24 Grams (gr) = 1 pennyweighl (dwl) 1.5552 grams
20 Pennyweights = 1 ounee (al \.) 31.1035 grams
12 Ounees (Iray"!) 1 pound (lb t) 373.2417 grams
1Paund (Iray) (1.) 0.622857 paunds avoirdupols
1Ounee (Iray"!) 109714 ounees avoirdupois
TO CONVERT
Pennywelgtlt lO Grams Pennywelghl x 1.5552
~ Grams
Ounees (l.) to Grams: Ounees (1) x 31.1 035 = Grams
Grams lO Pennyweighls Grams x 0.6430 Pennyweighls
Grams 10 Ounees (1.) Grams x 0.0322 Ounees (1)
GOLO CONTENT ANO NOTATION
OEFINITIONS
Karala9]jyslem Asyslem 01 measuremenl based an 24 karals = fine (pure) gald.
1karat 1/24 fine gold by weight.
European System Asystem 01 measuremenl basad on a !rachon 011,000, i.e., the
number 01 grams 01 gold 10 1kilogram, ar 1,000 grams, 01 alloy
KARAT PARTS GOlO PERCENTAGE GOLO NORMAL EUROPEAN STAMPING
9 kl 9124 37.50% 375
10 kl 10124 41.67% 41 B
12k1 12/24 50.00% 500
14 kl 14/24 58.33% 583 or 585
18 kl 18/24 75.00% 750
22 kt 22/24 91.67% 917
24 kt 24124 9999% 999 (or99999)
AGIOS-rvd-89
AGI DATA SHEET 52,2
OIAMONO WEIGHT ESTIMATION FORMULAS
(AII measuremenlS lO be lO mllllmelers)
ROUNO 8RILLlANT: Average Olameler
2
, Oeplh, .0051
. ~ ~ )
~ . J . BRILLlANT: Average Olameler
2
, Oeplh '.0062
ff'9" Nole: Add lenglh and wldlh. dlilde sum by 2 lO determine 'A.erage O,amele"
V 01 an oval slone
H'!A1 SHAPE BRILLlANT Lenglh, Wldlh ,Oeplh, .0059
TheadluslmenllaclOf used In Ihe lollowing lormulas IS basedon Ihelenglh lo ,wldlh
rallo ollhe dlamond For e, ample. a slone wllh a lenglh 01 9.00 mllllmelers and
a Wldlh 01 6.00 mrlllmelers would have a lenglhlo ,wldlh rallO 011.50:1
M,uslmenl Lenglh lo-Wldlh
~ __R_all_o_
O
EMERAlO CUT Lenglh,Wldlh,Oeplh, .008 1.00:1.00
.0092 1.50:1.00
.010 2.00:1.00
O
.0106 2.50:1.00
MAROUISE CUT Lenglh, Wldlh x Oeplh , .00565 1.50:1.00
.0058 2.00:1.00
.00585 2.50:1.00
.00595 3.00:1.00
PEAR SHAPE Lenglh, Wldlh ,Oeplh x .00615 1.25:1.00
.0060 1.50:1
f?tt,
.00
.0059 1.66:1.00
~ f
.00575 2.00:1.00
Alllormulas are based on slones wllh medlum 9lfdles. Adlusl welghl as lollows lor
sloneswllhlhlcker glfdles
Sllgh\ly Thlck add 2%
Thlcklo E,lremelylhlck add4101O'Io
A10% correcllon 1$ rare
COLOREO STONE WEIGHT FORMULAE
I Round Faceled Slones
Olameler
2
, deplh xS.G. x.0018 - caral welghl
2 Oval Faceled Slones: (Average lenglh &wldlh lo oblaln
dlameler)
Olameler
1
xdeplh 'S G. ' .0020 - caral welghl
3 Emerald Cul Faceled Slones
Lenglh xwldlh xdeplh , S G x .0025 - caral welghl
(Add 515%lor bulge laclor)
4 Reclangular Faceled Slones
lenglh xWldlhx deplh xS.G '.0026 - caral welghl
5 Square Faceled Slones
lenglh xwldlh ,deplh x S. G. '.0023 - caral welghl
6 Navelle or Boal ' shaped Slones
Lenglh xwldlh , deplh xS.G '.0016 - caral welghl
7 PearshapedorTeardropshapedSlones
lenglh xWldlh ,deplh xSG '.00175 - caralwelghl
8Cabochons
Lenglh ,wldlh,deplh xS.G x.0026 - caral welghl
(.002911 ver, lIal or shallow domed)
Volume
1 cubic It 7.4805 U.S. gallons .
1 U.S. gallon 0.13368 cubic ft
1 imperial gallon 0.16046 cubic ft
11iter 0.035315 cubic ft
1 cubic ft 0.028317 cubic meler
1 cubic meler = 35.315 cubic ti
1 acreft = 43,560 cubic ft
1 cubic mile = 3.3792 million acreft
1 cts<lay = 86,400 cubic ft
6.2321. Imperial gallons
0.83271 imperial gallon
1.2009 U.S. gallons
0.26417 U.S. gallon
0.000022957 acreft
0.00081071 acreft
1,233.5 cubic meters
1 cubic fl per second lor 24 hr
28.317 Illers
3.7854 Ilters
4.5437 lilers
0.22009 imperial gallon
- - - - - - - - - - - ~ - - ~ ~
Volume Conversion Faclors
62.4 lb
64.1 lb
1000 kg
Weight
1cublc ft 01 Iresh water
1cubic ft 01 sea water
1cublc meter 01 Iresh waler
CT :J:
'< '<
e C.
in O;
c; e
5
i

&>
!!!. ::::1
(fJ <
e C'/)
; l
~ O
lE ::::1
a o
!l!
I
!.
1 ::o
~
!!.
o
:::1
~
e
~
(ti
::1:
m
~
~
Rales 01 Flow
1 cubic ft per sec 448.83 U.S. gallons per min = 646,317 U.S. 9allons per day .029317 cu meter per sec
1 cublc ft per min 7.4805 U.S. gallons per mln 10,772 U.S. gallons per day .00047195 cu meter per sec
1 U.S. gallon per min 0.002228 cubic ft per sec 0.13368 cubic ft per min 1440 U.S. gallons per day =
.000063090 CU meter per sec
U.S. gallo n per day .000093 cubic ft per min .0006944 U.S. gallon per min
723.97 acre-ft per year
.014276 cu meter per sec
day
Rale Conversion Factors
Acre1t per day
Cu ft per sec (els) 448.63 0.64632 1.9635
Gal per min (gpm) 0.0022280 .0014400 .0044192
Mil gal per day (mgd) 1.5472 694.44 3.0689
Acreft per day .50417 226.29 .32585
Inehes per day per sq mi
u meters per sec
26.889 12,069 17.379 53.333
C 35.314 15,850 22.834 70.045
Inches per day Cu meters
per sq mi per sec
0.037190
.00008286
.057542
.01850
1.3134
Mlner's Inch is arate 01 discharge tha! has been lixed by statute in most 01 the western states:
North Oako!a, Sou!h Oakota)
,.

O

(J)
:::c
m

!!l
N
AGI DATA SHEET 54.1
Tables
by Judilh L. Pluenneke
Conversion Table tor Common Energy Unls
1 joule (work) = 10 million ergs (work)
= 0.74 foot-pounds (work)
= 3.74 x 10-
7
horsepower hours (work)
= 1 watt seeond (eleelreal energy)
=6 x 10'8 electron voUs
1 large Calore
(heat) =1000 small calores (heat)
=3.968 Brtsh Ihermal units (Btu, heat)
= 4168 joules (work)
= 3090 foot-pounds (work)
= 0.00116 klowatt hours (electrical energy)
1 kilowatt hour
(kWh, electrical) = 2.656 mllion lootpounds (work)
= 1 .341 horsepower hours (work)
= 860 large Calores (heal)
=3413 Blu (heat)
Conversion Table tor Power Unlts
1 horsepower= 746 watts = 0.746 klowatts= 550 foot-pounds per second.
i
Energy Conversion Factors
Crude Oit
Equv. British Thermal
Ene!(jy ::ontent
Barreis Un
Anthracite coal, short ton 4.38 25,400,000
Bituminous coal, short ton 4.24 24,580,000
Average coal, short Ion 24,020,000
Automolive gasoline, gallon 0.0216 125,000
Aviation gasoline, gallon 0.0216 125.000
Jet fuel kerosene type, gallon
Jet luel naphtha type, gallon
0.0234
0.0219
135,000
127,000
Kerosene, gallon 0.0234 135,000
Oesel oil, gallon 0.0239 138,700
Dislillate luel oil (#2), gallon 0.0239 138,700
Distillate fuel oil (#2), barrel 1.004 5,825,000
Residual oil, gallo n 0.0258 149,700
Residual ol, barrel 1.084 6,287,000
Natural gas, standard eubic loot (SCF) 0.000178 1,031
liqufied petroleum gas, SCF 2,522
(Ineluding propane and butane)
ElectriCily, Btu 01 fuel eonsumed al power 0.0020 11,600
planl per kWh delivered to consumer
(assume 10,536 Blu/kWh slalion heat
rale lor all stations 9% lne loss as
reported lor 1971 by Edison Eleelrie
Institule)
Steam, Btu 01 luel consumed al boiler 0.000196 1,390
plant per pound of steam delivered
consumer (assume 1000 Blullb 01
generated, 82% boiler efficiency,
12% lne loss)
Kilowatt-Hours

7440.0
7240.0
7040.0
36.6
36.6
39.5
37.2
39.5
43.9
1,843.0
0.302
3.40
0.407
1 kWh = 3.600xl00
6
joules (J) = 859.9 kilocalories (kcal) = 3412 Btu
1 horsepower-hour (hp-hr) =0.746 kWh =2545 Btu
1 J =2.778xl0-
7
kWh .2388 cal =9A78xl0-
4
Blu
1 Blu = 1.055xl0
3
J = 2,931xl0-
4
kWh = ,2520 kcal
AG1-OS,rvd-.82
AGI DATA SHEET 54.2
FUEL ANO COMMON MEASURES-BTU's
Crude Oil-Barrel (bbl) , , , ' , , ,5,800,000
Natural Gas-Cubic Foot (ft') ",,, .. ,,,,, .. ,,.,, 1,032
Coal- Ton" , , " "" """,' . 24,000,000 lo 28,000,000
Electrcity-Kilowatt Hour (kWh) , .3,412
Two trillion Btu's per year are approximately equal to 1,000 barreis per day 01 crude oil.
APPROXIMATE CALORIFIC EQUIVALENTS OF OIL
One million lons 01 011 equals approximately-
Heal Units:
41 Million million Blu
415 million therms
10,500 Teracalories
Salid Fuels:
1.5 million tons of coal
4,9 million lons of lignite
3,3 million lons of peat
Nalural Gas (1 cu. ft. equals 1,000 Btu, 1 CU. meter equals 4,200 kcal):
2.5 thousand mllion cubic meters
88,3 thousand million cubic leel
242 million cubic feetlday for ayear
Electricity (1 kWh equals 3,412 Btu, 1 kWh equals 860 kcal):
12 thousand million kWh
Reference
Energy Aeference Handbook, Second Edilion, Government Institutes, Inc" 1977
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