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International Conference and Exhibition on Tunnelling and Trenchless Technology 7-9 March 2006, Subang, Selangor, MALAYSIA

STORMWATER MANAGEMENT AND ROAD TUNNEL (SMART): A BYPASS SOLUTION TO MITIGATE FLOODING IN KUALA LUMPUR CITY CENTER NG KOH HING DAVID N. WELCH TEOH SENG GIAP Sepakat Setia Perunding (Sdn) Bhd ABSTRACT Stormwater Management and Road Tunnel Project (SMART) involves the construction of a 9.7 km long by 11.8 m internal diameter bored tunnel, six hydraulic structures, two detentions ponds, a 0.5 km long release culvert, and numerous other auxiliary facilities such as motorway ingress / egress structures, vent cum surge shafts and a flood detection system. The central 3 km length of the tunnel will also be used as a two-lane doubledeck motorway. The project objectives are to a) Mitigate over-bank flow nearby Tun Perak Bridge located at Kuala Lumpur city center. b) Relieve traffic congestion at the main southern gateway (KL-Seremban Highway) into the city. This paper specifically discusses the flood mitigation approach taken in SMART, namely to: i) Manage stormwater flowing into the city through diversion of river water at Sg Ampang / Sg Klang confluence into the bypass tunnel running along the perimeter of city center. Detain diverted floodwater and regulate its release through Sg Kerayong back to Sg Klang downstream of city center. INTRODUCTION

ii)

The Federal Capital of Kuala Lumpur (KL) is situated in the Klang River Basin in a region that is heavily urbanized and where urbanizing of new lands will be a continuing feature for some time into the future. This phenomenon of extensive land use conversion has led to a situation whereby the existing capacities of rivers in the basin are no longer able to cope with the flood flows from their developing catchments (Abdullah 2004). Floods therefore are becoming a problem to the region as evidenced by the increasing incidence of flooding in recent years (Table 1).

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International Conference and Exhibition on Tunnelling and Trenchless Technology 7-9 March 2006, Subang, Selangor, MALAYSIA

Table 1: Flooding incidences in Kuala Lumpur city

PERIOD Before 1950 1950 to 1975 1976 to 1985 1986 to 1995 1996 to 2004

INTERVAL (years) 16 10 10 9

NO OF TIMES 1 1 1 4 7

DATES 1926 1971 1982 1986, 1988, 1993, 1995 1996, 1997, 30-Apr-2000, 26Apr-2001, 29-Oct-2001, 11Jun-2002, 10-Jun-2003

Following the 1971 event, the Government has carried out studies to Understand the flood problems in the river basin. Identify principal causes of flooding. Investigate flood mitigation measures.

Resulting from the studies, Klang River Basin Flood Mitigation Project (KRBFMP) was formulated and subsequently implemented in phases. During the implementation of the KRBFMP, midcourse appraisals were conducted to investigate necessary follow up plans. The reviews suggested that: Flood magnitudes in the city have further escalated. This was largely due to the intensity of land development. The computed 100-year average recurrence interval (ARI) flood peak at Tun Perak Bridge is now about 430 cumecs instead of the original 353 cumecs on which the KRBFMP design had been based. New points of constrictions have emerged in Sg Klang particularly along the stretch upstream of Masjid Jamek. These were related to infrastructure development that encroached into the river corridor.

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International Conference and Exhibition on Tunnelling and Trenchless Technology 7-9 March 2006, Subang, Selangor, MALAYSIA

SMART o INCEPTION

On 26-Apr-2001, Sg Klang overflowed its banks and severely flooded the nations commercial hub at the city center stretching between Tun Perak Bridge (near Masjid Jamek) and Dang Wangi Bridge. Shortly after the event, the project proponent initiated a partnership between the Government and private sector. They invited the engineering consultant to prepare a technical proposal aiming at complementing the ongoing KRBFMP to alleviate over-bank flow adjacent to Tun Perak Bridge (near Masjid Jamek). Then in May 2001, the first proposal comprising construction of bypass culvert and attenuation pond was conceived. The initial concept has since developed to the first dual-purpose tunnel of its kind in the world, Stormwater Management and Road Tunnel Project (SMART), embodied seemingly conflicting objectives namely (): a) An underground flood bypass tunnel to mitigate over-bank flow adjacent to Tun Perak Bridge by diverting stormwater into Sg Kerayong before discharging back into Sg Klang further downstream. b) Double up the middle barrel as a toll road facility for cars to relieve heavy traffic from southern gateway into the city center near Sg Besi Airfield.

Figure 1: Schematic layout plan

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International Conference and Exhibition on Tunnelling and Trenchless Technology 7-9 March 2006, Subang, Selangor, MALAYSIA

To complement SMART, the Government has also implemented Sg Kerayong Improvement Works. The project encompasses upgrading of 1.8 km of Sg Kerayong between Sg Kerayong / Sg Klang confluence and SMART outlet to: Convey a peak flow of 400 cumecs discharging from Sg Kerayong catchment with the operation of Sri Johor Pond at upstream and completion of Sg Klang improvement works at downstream of the Sg Kerayong / Sg Klang confluence. Drain the SMART attenuation pond to 20.0 mLSD by gravity. o TOWARDS A COMPREHENSIVE SOLUTION During the development of SMART, it became apparent that tailwater consideration at Sg Gombak / Sg Klang confluence and tributary inflow from Sg Bunus have also contributed to the flooding at city center. Analyses carried out showed that SMART alone is not able to fully offset the influence of the above. As such, the Government has concurrently introduced two other projects, namely: i) Batu / Jinjang Ponds and Related Diversions Project The project attempts to divert and attenuate peak flood flow along Sg Gombak, Sg Keroh and Sg Jinjang before entering Sg Gombak and its confluence at Sg Klang, leading to: Alleviation of over-bank flow along the rivers stretching from Sg Gombak / Sg Klang confluence (near Masjid Jamek) to the points of diversions. Lowering of Sg Klang tailwater elevation at Sg Gombak / Sg Klang confluence.

Upon completion of this project, the maximum flow entering Sg Gombak / Sg Klang confluence via Sg Gombak will be limited to 400 cumecs during a 100year ARI event. ii) Sg Bunus Detention Ponds The project involves the construction of flood detention works by Dewan Bandaraya Kuala Lumpur (i.e. KL City Hall) to attenuate discharges from Sg Bunus. When completed the operation of these facilities would regulate flood flow in the river down to 45 cumecs before going into Sg Klang. o PROJECT STRATEGY The objective of SMART is to reduce the peak flood flow entering Kuala Lumpur city center through Sg Klang, hence lowering the floodwater elevations. This is achieved by means of a controlled diversion cum attenuation system. In the case during peak discharge of a 100-year ARI event, SMART will divert a large volume of river flow from Sg Ampang / Sg Klang confluence, passing only 10 cumecs through the point of diversion into the city center. The floodwater diverted into SMART will be conveyed to an attenuation pond, regulated and released via Sg Kerayong back to 16

International Conference and Exhibition on Tunnelling and Trenchless Technology 7-9 March 2006, Subang, Selangor, MALAYSIA

Sg Klang downstream of city center. In this manner, flooding will not be transferred from the city center to a downstream area. Further, the actions of regulate and release will help to reduce on the enormous storage that would otherwise have been required. o DIVERSION ROUTE SMART diverts water from the river at a point situated at just downstream of Sg Ampang / Sg Klang confluence (). By lowering and controlling four sets of radial gates resided within the diversion structure, river water is directed through the offtake structure entering into holding pond. The latter would be sited on the left bank of Sg Klang in Kg Berembang. On the opposite end of the pond ( & ), water over-spills into the bell-mouth discharging into the bypass bored tunnel (refer Wallis 2005 for more description on tunnelling). The tunnel is divided into three sections, namely upper barrel, middle barrel and lower barrel by two floodgate chambers. The upper barrel runs from Kg Berembang to Kg Pandan roundabout. The lower barrel runs from Jalan Chan Sow Lin located near Sg Besi Airfield to an ex-mining pond situated in Taman Desa. The middle barrel consisting of two traffic decks and a lower culvert connects the upper and lower barrels. Floodwater from the tunnel passes through the outfall structure and discharges into the attenuation pond. The water is detained at the pond and subsequently drained through the intake structure, twin box culvert and released via the second outfall structure. Two sets of gates housed in the outfall structure regulate the release into Sg Kerayong. The receiving waterway runs along the southern boundary of the city center for about 1.8 km and connects back to Sg Klang at its confluence located downstream of the city center.

Holding Pond Attenuation Pond

Holding Pond

SMALL STORM (CATEGORY 1)

Attenuation Pond

Holding Pond

MODERATE STORM (CATEGORY 2)

Attenuation Pond

MODERATE STORM (CATEGORY 2)

Figure 2: Schematic longitudinal section - flow through bypass tunnel

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International Conference and Exhibition on Tunnelling and Trenchless Technology 7-9 March 2006, Subang, Selangor, MALAYSIA

Figure 3: Schematic longitudinal section - level

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International Conference and Exhibition on Tunnelling and Trenchless Technology 7-9 March 2006, Subang, Selangor, MALAYSIA

o HYDRAULIC COMPONENTS The principal components of the system are: A 9.7 km long by 11.8 m internal diameter bored tunnel. A 3.0 km long two-lane double-deck motorway within the middle barrel. Two detention ponds. A 0.5 km long release culvert. Six hydraulic structures. Numerous other auxiliary facilities (e.g. motorway ingress and egress connections, emergency escape routes, ventilation system, traffic control and surveillance system, flood detection system, operation control centers, etc.).

The primary functions of hydraulic structures have been documented by Abdullah (2004) and summarized in Table 2. Table 2: Summary of primary functions of hydraulic structures HYDRAULIC STRUCTURE Sg Klang Diversion LOCATION Across Sg Klang at downstream of Sg Ampang / Sg Klang confluence in Kg Berembang. On the left bank of Sg Klang at entrance to Holding Pond. FUNCTION Regulate discharge into city. Control diversion into SMART system. Isolate Holding Pond from Sg Klang. Minimize entry of debris and sediment bed load into the system. Provide 600,000 m3 storage capacity. Hold floodwater preceding over-spill at Tunnel Intake. Sedimentation basin. Isolate Bypass Tunnel from Holding Pond. Delay floodwater from entering the tunnel (for approx. 50 minutes after the storm starts).

a)

b)

Sg Klang Offtake

c)

Holding Pond

On the left bank of Sg Klang in Kg Berembang

d)

Tunnel Intake (Bell- Within Holding Pond. Mouth)

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International Conference and Exhibition on Tunnelling and Trenchless Technology 7-9 March 2006, Subang, Selangor, MALAYSIA

Table 2 (cont.): Summary of primary functions of hydraulic structures e) Bypass Tunnel Between Holding Pond and Attenuation Pond. At both ends of traffic compartments within middle barrel.

f)

Tunnel Flood / Traffic Gates System Tunnel Outfall

g)

h) i) j) k)

Attenuation Pond Intake from Attenuation Pond Twin Box Culvert (Release Conduit) Outfall to Sg Kerayong

At downstream of bypass tunnel within the perimeter of Attenuation Pond. At Taman Desa. At the perimeter of Attenuation Pond near Sg Kerayong. Between Attenuation Pond and Sg Kerayong. At downstream of Twin Box Culvert.

Convey floodwater to Attenuation Pond. Provide 1,000,000 m3 storage capacity. Isolate tunnel into upper, middle (traffic compartments) and lower barrels. Isolate Bypass Tunnel from Attenuation Pond. Provide 1,400,000 m3 storage capacity. Detain floodwater. Isolate Twin Box Culvert from Attenuation Pond. Convey diverted water to Sg Kerayong. Regulate discharge into Sg Kerayong. Isolate the system from Sg Kerayong.

MANAGING DIVERSION

A set of operating rules has been formulated to make use of SMART and the in-bank flow capacity of Sg Klang at the same time. This is accomplished by detecting the storm magnitude and managing the volume of stormwater to be diverted from Sg Ampang / Sg Klang confluence into SMART. The former is covered by the flood detection system, while the latter is discussed below. During most days in a year, the flow in the river is either low or storm magnitude is such that Sg Klang would convey the runoff through the city center causing no flood. In this instance, no diversion would be required and traffic within the middle barrel remains uninterrupted. A storm of this category does not exceed 70 cumecs and it is identified as a Category 1 case ( & ).

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International Conference and Exhibition on Tunnelling and Trenchless Technology 7-9 March 2006, Subang, Selangor, MALAYSIA

CATEGORY 1 STORM - OPERATION RULE FOR Q < 70 CUMEC Q0.5 6 hours storm 450 400 350 300 Q (cumec) 250 200 150 100 50 0 0 5 10 Time (hour) 15 20 Q at Klang/Ampang Confluence Q at Klang/Ampang Confluence passing to Tun Perak with Project Q at Tun Perak without Project Q at Tun Perak with Project

CATEGORY 2 STORM - OPERATION RULE FOR 150 > Q > 70 CUMEC Q2 6 hours storm

450 400 350 300 Q (cumec) 250 200 150 100 50 0 0 5 10 Time (hour) 15 20 Q at Klang/Ampang Confluence Q at Klang/Ampang Confluence passing to Tun Perak with Project Q at Tun Perak without Project Q at Tun Perak with Project

CATEGORY 3 STORM - OPERATION RULE FOR Q > 150 CUMEC (Q100 6 hours storm) 450 400 350 300 Q (cumec) 250 200 150 100 50 0 0 5 10 Time (hour) 15 20 Q at Klang/Ampang Confluence Q at Klang/Ampang Confluence passing to Tun Perak with Project Q at Tun Perak without Project Q at Tun Perak with Project

Figure 4: Storm category and operation rules

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International Conference and Exhibition on Tunnelling and Trenchless Technology 7-9 March 2006, Subang, Selangor, MALAYSIA

Now, consider an event of moderate storm or a category 2 case where peak flow exceeds 70 cumecs, but stays below 150 cumecs (about ten or so times each year). In this case, the flow in the river is allowed into the city until the discharge reaches a level of 70 cumecs. Thereafter the flow into the city is throttled down and kept at 50 cumecs by activating radial gates housed in the diversion structure (). When the storm subsides, observation will focus on the discharge under Tun Perak Bridge. When a flow of 100 cumecs is observed at this point, the downstream release at the Sg Ampang / Sg Klang confluence will be stepped back up to 100 cumecs. This action will initially create a slight increase in discharges passing under Tun Perak Bridge. A little later, however a fall would be observed as the flood continues to subside. Once the incoming river flow reduces to 100 cumecs at the Sg Ampang / Sg Klang confluence, diversion is stopped and all discharge once again allowed into the city. The diverted floodwater of this category is of a relatively small volume. The water is taken into the upper barrel, passing through the lower culvert placed underneath the traffic deck and entering the attenuation pond via the lower barrel. Traffic on the motorway remains undisrupted (). On occasion of a major storm or Category 3 case, peak flow exceeds 150 cumecs, but stays below 300 cumecs (about once or twice yearly). A large volume of runoff will be diverted into SMART to mitigate flooding in city center. Under such condition, SMART will evacuate traffic from the motorway and utilize the full tunnel section for flood conveyance. The management of diversion for this case is a little more complex. As before, no diversion would be necessary until the flow at the Sg Ampang / Sg Klang confluence reaches 70 cumecs. Thereafter diversion is activated and the downstream flow is throttled down to 50 cumecs. As the storm intensity increases and the runoff at the confluence reaches 150 cumecs, the downstream flow is further reduced to 10 cumecs. This setting is maintained until after the storm has peaked and the flood begins to subside. Observation will then focus on the discharge under Tun Perak Bridge (similar to that for Category 2 storm). When a flow of 100 cumecs is first observed at this point, the downstream release at the Sg Ampang / Sg Klang confluence will be stepped back up to 50 cumecs. As the flood continues to subside and when the flow at Tun Perak Bridge drops below 100 cumecs for the second time, the downstream release at the diversion structure will be increased to 100 cumecs. Flow diversion will continue until the runoff at the confluence is less than 100 cumecs whereupon the diversion is deactivated and entire discharge is allowed into the city. The details for the above mentioned operating rules are currently being developed to maximize the usage of SMART and Sg Klang in-bank flow capacity. It is intended that the rules will be refined and further optimized after commissioning of SMART when more hydrological data collected from a new network of instrumentation becomes available.

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International Conference and Exhibition on Tunnelling and Trenchless Technology 7-9 March 2006, Subang, Selangor, MALAYSIA

ATTENUATION o MATHEMATICAL MODELING

Mathematical modeling using HYDRO-1D has been employed to study the diversion and attenuation capacities of SMART system for a wide range of storm conditions (SSPMM 2001b & SSPMM 2003). This discussion shall focus on design storms (SSPMM 2001a & SSPMM 2002) listed in Table 3. Table 3: Design storm and objectives of model simulation DESIGN STORM ARI (year) 100 100 10 29-Oct-2001 STORM DURATION (hour) 6 3 3 OBJECTIVE OF MODEL SIMULATION To assess the diversion and attenuation capacities of the system. - ditto To assess storage capacity of the system without releasing into Sg Kerayong. To assess system performance for the recent historical flood.

o MODEL SIMULATION RESULTS & DISCUSSIONS Simulated inflow into and outflow from SMART and several key locations within the system for the 6-hour storm of 100-year ARI, i.e. Q100yr-6hr, are shown in and . Diversion into holding pond begins at 1.6-hour after the starts of storm. The holding pond holds the diverted water for about an hour before reaching an elevation of 34.0 mLSD and overspills into the bypass tunnel at 2.6-hour. This holding time is essential for the safe evacuation of traffic from the motorway before water conveys through the traffic decks. The water then flows down the tunnel and exits into attenuation pond at 3.9-hour, just before inflow into holding pond peaks at 267 cumecs at 4.0-hour. The outfall structure at downstream of attenuation pond begins to regulate and release detained floodwater to Sg Kerayong at 4.4-hour, about an hour after the Kerayong catchment passes the peak flood flow of 215 cumecs at 3.3-hour. Water in attenuation pond continues to rise and reaches the maximum level of 26.7 mLSD while releasing 196 cumecs into the river at 7.2-hour. The system attenuates the peak flow by about 26%. Thereafter, the release decreases as the diversion flow reduces. The total volume of water entering SMART system is about 4,551,000 m3, i.e. approximately 1.5 times the storage capacity of the system (3,000,000 m3). Similarly, simulated results for Q100yr-3hr show that the diversion starts at 1.2-hour and over-spills into the bypass tunnel at 2.0-hour or 50 minutes after commencement of diversion. The holding time is shorter than that for Q100yr-6hr due to steeper slope on the rising limb of Q100yr-3hr hydrograph. The system attenuates the maximum inflow to

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International Conference and Exhibition on Tunnelling and Trenchless Technology 7-9 March 2006, Subang, Selangor, MALAYSIA

SMART of 288 cumecs to the maximum outflow to Sg Kerayong of 188 cumecs, i.e. about 35% reduction in peak discharge (Table 4). The maximum level in attenuation pond reached by the water is 26.5 mLSD at 5.7-hour, i.e. marginally lower than that for Q100yr-6hr. In this case, the peak diversion is 21 cumecs larger than that for Q100yr-6hr, but total diversion volume is about 3,890,000 m3, approximately 1.3 times the storage capacity of the system and about 0.85 times that for Q100yr-6hr, hence higher attenuation and lower peak release. Table 4 summarizes peak flows into and out of the SMART system and a set of selected timing for various storm conditions. The system has adequate storage capacity to hold all diverted water with no discharge to Sg Kerayong for Q10yr-3hr and the flood event on 29Oct-2001.

350 300 250 Discharge (m /s)


3

200 150 100 50 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Time from start of flood (hours) Inflow to SMART Outflow to Sg Kerayong From Holding Pond Sg Kerayong Into Attenuation Pond

Figure 5a: Simulated 100-years ARI (6-hours) flood flows at key locations

40

Water Level (mLSD)

35

30

25

20

15 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

Time from start of flood (hours) Holding Pond Upper B arrel (u/s end) Atten uation P ond Sg Kerayong

Figure 5b: Simulated 100-years ARI (6-hours) water levels (heads) at key location

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International Conference and Exhibition on Tunnelling and Trenchless Technology 7-9 March 2006, Subang, Selangor, MALAYSIA

Table 4a: Summary of model simulation results discharge (cumecs) DESIGN STORM ARI (year) PEAK FLOW AT SG KLANG / SG AMPANG CONFLUENCE 277 298 207 189 PEAK DIVERSION INTO SMART PEAK OUTFLOW FROM SMART DIVERSION VOLUME (x1,000m3) 4,551 3,890 2,244 1,768 FLOW THROUGH TRAFFIC DECK Yes Yes Yes No

100 (6-hour) 267 196 100 (3-hour) 288 188 10 (3-hour) 197 0* 29-Oct-01 179 0* Note: a) * = SMART system holds all diverted flood volume with no release into Sg Kerayong.

Table 4b: Summary of model simulation results time (hour after the starts of storm) DESIGN STORM ARI (year) 100 (6-hour) 100 (3-hour) 10 (3-hour) 29-Oct-01 DIVERSION COMMENCEMENT 1.6 1.2 1.4 2.5 PEAK DIVERSION INTO SMART 4.0 3.5 3.5 5.0 FLOW EXITS INTO ATTENUATION POND 3.9 3.2 3.8 5.2 START OUTFLOW TO SG KERAYONG 4.4 3.8 PEAK OUTFLOW TO SG KERAYONG 7.2 5.7 -

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International Conference and Exhibition on Tunnelling and Trenchless Technology 7-9 March 2006, Subang, Selangor, MALAYSIA

CONCLUSION

SMART has been designed to mitigate flooding in KL city. The project manages volume of floodwater entering the city by controlling the diversion. For a Category 1 storm, all water will discharge into the city. However, 50 cumecs of Category 2 storm will enter into the city while the remaining water is being diverted into the system. During the peak discharge of a Category 3 storm, SMART will divert a large volume of stormwater, passing only 10 cumecs down into the city. The diverted floodwater will be detained in the attenuation pond before discharged back into Sg Klang downstream of city center via Sg Kerayong. Diversion of Q100yr-6hr and Q100yr-3hr were discussed in some details. Model simulation results indicated that the system attenuates peak flood flow by more than 26%. Further, the system could hold all diversion from flood events upto Q10yr-3hr without releasing water to Sg Kerayong. The project is currently under construction phase and scheduled to be completed by December 2006. Its implementation is overseen and coordinated by Jabatan Pengairan dan Saliran Malaysia and Lembaga Lebuhraya Malaysia. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Ms. Choo Ee Li derived the flood hydrographs during the hydrological study. Prof. K. Guganesharajah undertook some modifications to the Mott MacDonald in-house hydrodynamic modelling software HYDRO-1D to meet the project unique requirements. Ms. Helen Steward set up the original mathematical model during the feasibility study phase. REFERENCES Abdullah, Keizrul., July 2004. Keynote address at International Conference on Bridge Engineering & Hydraulic Structures, BHS2004, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Stormwater Management and Road Tunnel (SMART): A Lateral Approach to Flood Mitigation Works. SSPMM., Nov 2001a. Design report. Design basis report: Hydrology. SSPMM., Nov 2001b. Design report. Design Basis Report: Mathematical Modeling. SSPMM., Jun 2002. Design report. Hydrology Addendum. SSPMM., Dec 2003. Design report. Design Basis Report: Mathematical Modelling Addendum A. Wallis, Shani, May 2005. A Tunnels & Tunnelling International Supplement (ed). SMART: Stormwater management and road tunnel, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

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International Conference and Exhibition on Tunnelling and Trenchless Technology 7-9 March 2006, Subang, Selangor, MALAYSIA

NOMENCLATURE ARI cumecs JPS KL KRBFMP LLM Q Q10yr-3hr Q100yr-3hr Q100yr-6hr Sg SMART SSPMM = = = = = = = = = = = = = average recurrence interval (year) m3/s Jabatan Pengairan dan Saliran Malaysia (Department of Irrigation and Drainage Malaysia) Kuala Lumpur, the Federal Capital of Malaysia Klang River Basin Flood Mitigation Project Lembaga Lebuhraya Malaysia (Malaysian Highway Authority) Discharge (cumecs) Discharge for 3-hour design storm of 100-year ARI event Discharge for 3-hour design storm of 100-year ARI event Discharge for 6-hour design storm of 100-year ARI event Sungai (river) Stormwater Management and Road Tunnel Project Sepakat Setia Perunding (Sdn) Bhd in association with Mott MacDonald (Malaysia) Sdn Bhd

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