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Youth and Development

-Dr. Jaimon Varghese

4. National Policies for Youth


1. 2. 3. Youth policy, Education policy, Employment policy,

4.

H.R.D. policy and its impact

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Youth policy
Exposure Draft -National Youth Policy 2012 (NYP 2012)

Ministry of Youth Affairs and Sports, Government of India earlier Policy formulated in 1988 and, later, in 2003
(1988) Prime Minister Shri Rajiv Gandhi addressing youth had said, We have brought down the age of voting from 21 to 18. This will make your thoughts come up and help in raising your voice, so that a government is formed that helps you.
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1. Preamble

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Youth policy
Lowering of voting age coupled with institutionalizing Panchayati Raj institutions proved to be the most defining events in empowerment and enabling of youth in the country. Subsequent to the year 1985 being declared The International Year of Youth, the first youth policy was brought out under the then Prime Ministers guidance in 1988.

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Youth policy
The Central and the State governments, in partnership with other stakeholders of the society voluntary organizations, civil society groups and the corporate sector should ensure that equal opportunities for growth are extended to young people for their overall development, growth and empowerment where they are productively engaged in activities aimed towards national development.

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Youth policy
2. Rationale for the Policy A comprehensive National Youth Policy will provide direction to youth-focused interventions by the Central and State governments and the voluntary sector beyond the present, empowering young people for affirmative and positive action and transforming their life. Recognising the need for an integrated and collaborative approach to youth development programmes in the country, it is necessary that a comprehensive and distinct framework is made available to all youth-related ministries, departments, agencies and voluntary organisations to translate their policies into workable action plans.

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Youth policy: rationale


The NYP 2012 seeks to ensure that youth needs and concerns are mainstreamed into overall national development policies, underscoring the need for the wholesome development of the young people and optimum utilization of their potential for national development. The NYP 2012 emphasizes the need for developing suitable mechanism, criteria and indicators by the Central and State governments for measuring the progress of the implementation of the policies, especially with regard to the impact of the programmes on the overall development of young people and their contribution to the country, at large.

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Youth policy
3. Overarching principles of NYP 2012 National Youth Policy is consistent with the overall national goals, policies, plans, and social and cultural ethos. Youth development programmes should be fully integrated into the mainstream of policies and programmes of all youthrelated initiatives of various ministries of Central and State governments. Youth development policies and programmes are to encompass all aspects of the life of young people and respond to their physical, psychological, social, economic and spiritual needs.

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Youth policy
4. Definition of youth The National Youth Policy document of 2003 covers the age group of 13-35 whereas the NYP 2012 aims to cover the agebracket of 16-30 years The first sub-group of 16-21 years covers adolescents whose needs and areas of concern are substantially different from youth under the other age-groups. The second sub-group of 21-25 years includes those youth who are in the process of completing their education and getting into a career. The third sub-group of 26-30 years comprises of young women and men most of whom have completed their education, including professional, and are, more or less, settled in their job and in their personal life.
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Youth policy: objectives


5. Goal and objectives of National Youth Policy 2012 Goal: The National Youth Policy aims at empowering the youth of the nation by bringing holistic development Objectives: Strengthen the culture of patriotism among young people and help them to become responsible citizens of the country who care for their families and communities in which they live. Instill a sense of national unity and social cohesion in the young people while recognizing and respecting the diversities in religion, language, culture, ethnicity, lifestyle and habitat in the country.

Foster in young people not only an abiding commitment and adherence to the values enshrined in our Constitution but also develop them as key promoters of these values in all sections of the society
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Youth policy: objectives


Through a sustained programme of education and training and appropriate support services, help young people become economically self-reliant and productive units of the country, either by taking up employment or by setting up their own business enterprises. Empower youth to take up the challenge of eliminating all forms of social and economic discrimination and exploitation; counter forces that threaten to undermine national harmony; and launch a crusade against unhealthy social practices, evils and becomes sensitive towards human rights. Through a programme of training and education, guide them in a manner that they become active partners in promoting sustainable development,

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Youth policy: objectives


Facilitate access to all sections of youth to basic nutrition and health especially related to reproductive and sexual health information, facilities and services including access to mental health services ; promote a healthy lifestyle, free of substance abuse and other unhealthy addictions, and dissuade them for engaging in harmful sexual practices. Enhance the availability of facilities in sports and constructive recreation for all sections of youth with special focus on disabled youth and female youth. Instill and nurture a spirit of volunteerism among the youth; develop their competencies in various areas of social development; and extend opportunities to enable them to contribute productively to the welfare of their communities.

Through a wide range of initiatives, including educational and training opportunities, instill in young women and men a culture of scientific thinking, critical analysis, and rational attitude in their day-to-day life
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Youth policy: objectives


Help youth to develop an international perspective on issues of global significance and work for promoting international understanding and a just and non-discriminatory global order.

Through affirmative action and measures, extend support to priority groups young women, socially and economically disadvantaged youth, and youth living with physical, sensory and intellectual impairments and ensure that they become part of mainstream development process.
Encourage voluntary sector to create appropriate platforms which promote youth volunteering and support recruitment and training of youth for social action in the community. Encouraging youth engagement in monitoring and evaluation process of development work undertaken by government and non-government structures including the PRI.

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Youth policy
6.1 Target groups 6.1.1 Student youth 6.1.2 Urban youth in slums; migrant youth 6.1.3 Rural youth 6.1.4 Tribal youth 6.1.5 Youth at risk substance abuse, human trafficking, working in hazardous occupations, sex workers 6.1.6 Youth in violent conflicts participants or victims 6.1.7 Out-of-school or drop-outs from formal education 6.1.8 Groups that suffer from social or moral stigma transgender, gays and lesbians, those infected and affected by HIV/AIDS and Tuberculosis (TB) 6.1.9 Youth in institutional care, orphanages, correctional homes and prisons
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6.2 Priority groups 6.2.1 Young women

6.2.2 Youth belonging to socially and economically disadvantaged communities and groups
6.2.3 Differently-abled youth

7. Thrust areas and Policy Interventions 7.1 Promotion of national values, social harmony and national unity 7.2 Empowering youth through employable skill development and providing entrepreneurship opportunities 7.3 Education formal, non-formal and continuing learning

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Youth policy
7.4 Health and healthy lifestyle 7.5 Sports and recreation facilities

7.6 Promoting gender justice and equality


7.7 Participation in community service 7.9 Social justice and action against unhealthy social practices 7.10. Issues related to environment, its conservation and preservation 7.11 Youth and local governance, including support to statesponsored programmes and schemes

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Youth policy
8. Policy implementation and coordinating mechanism 8.1 Key strategies for the implementation The NYP 2012 sets out broad parameters for policies and for planning programmes for the youth across the country Many Central Ministries, such as, Ministries of Human Resource Development, Rural Development, Womens Welfare, Environment, Health, Labour, and Industry, have significant components of their policies and programmes that are relevant to young people. Keeping this in view, inter-sectoral approach is imperative for dealing with youth-related issues. The State Coordinating Committee may be chaired by the Chief Minister of the state or a senior member of the cabinet. For monitoring the implementation of the programmes under the Policy 2012, these Coordinating Committees (national and state levels) may also set up special Task Force for each of the thrust areas.
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Youth policy
The programmes may be evaluated on the basis of 'Youth Development Index' developed by the RGNIYD. National Youth Forum like NYKS and NSS will provide a formal and on-going platform to young people from different states and regions, to deliberate on their emerging needs and areas of concerns. RGNIYD has been tasked for mobilizing fund from different sources like donor agencies, corporate sectors, international agencies, donation, contribution, etc. for the wide implementation of the policy and the action plans related to youth.

9. Monitoring and Evaluation 10. Role of the RGNIYD 11. Review of the National Youth Policy: 2022
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National Education policy, 1992


The National Policy on Education (NPE) was adopted by Parliament in May 1986. A committee was set up under the chairmanship of Acharya Ramamurti in May 1990 to review NPE and to make recommendations for its modifications. In July 1991 under the chairmanship of Shri N. Janardhana Reddy, Chief Minister of Andhra Pradesh, to consider modifications in NPE taking into consideration the report of the Ramamurti Committee and other relevant developments having a bearing on the Policy. The report of the Committee was considered by the Central Advisory Board of Education (CABE) in its meeting held on 5-6 May, 1992. Since the adoption of the 1968 Policy, there has been considerable expansion in educational facilities all over the country at all levels. More than 90 per cent of the country's rural habitations now have schooling facilities within a radius of one kilometre.
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National Education policy, 1992


the most notable development has been the acceptance of a common structure of education throughout the Country and the introduction of the 10+2+3 system by most States. In the school curricula, in addition to laying down a common scheme of studies for boys and girls, science and mathematics were incorporated as compulsory subjects and work experience assigned a place of importance.

National System of Education


The 10+2+3 structure has now been accepted in all parts of the country. Regarding the further break-up of the first 10 years efforts will be made to move towards an elementary system comprising 5 years of primary education and 3 years of upper primary, followed by 2 years of High School. Efforts will also be made to have the +2 stage accepted as a part of school education throughout the country
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National Education policy, 1992


In higher education in general, and technical education in particular, steps will be taken to facilitate inter-regional mobility by providing equal access to every Indian of requisite merit, regardless of his origins. The universal character of universities and other institutions of higher education is to be underscored. In the areas of research and development, and education in science and technology, special measures will be taken to establish network arrangements between different institutions in the country to pool their resources and participate in projects of national importance. The Nation as a whole will assume the responsibility of providing resource support for implementing programmes of educational transformation, reducing disparities, universalisation of elementary education, adult literacy, scientific and technological research, etc.
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National Education policy, 1992


Life-long education is a cherished goal of the educational process. This presupposes universal literacy. Opportunities will be provided to the youth, housewives, agricultural and industrial workers and professionals to continue the education of their choice, at the pace suited to them. The future thrust will be in the direction of open and distance learning. The institutions which will be strengthened to play an important role in giving shape to the National System of Education are the University Grants Commission, the All India Council of Technical Education, the Indian Council of Agricultural Research and the Indian Medical Council. These, together with the National Council of Education Research and Training, the National Institute of Educational Planning and Administration, the National Council of Teacher Education and the National Institute of Adult Education will be involved in implementing the Education Policy
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National Education policy, 1992


THE ROLE OF YOUTH Opportunities will be provided for the youth to Involve themselves in national and social development through educational institutions and outside them. Students will be required to participate In one or the other of existing schemes, namely, the National Service Scheme, National Cadet Corps, etc. Outside the Institutions, the youth will be encouraged to take up programmes of development, reform and extension. The National Service Volunteer Scheme will be strengthened.

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National Education policy, 1992 (pdf)


Chapters
I II III IV V VI VII VIII IX X XI XII Introductory The Essence and Role of Education National System of Education Education for Equality Re-organisation of Education at Different Stages Technical and Management Education Making the System Work Reorienting the Content and Process of Education The Teacher The Management of Education Resource and Review The Future
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2 4 5 7 13 21 25 26 31 33 35 37
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National Employment Policy, 2008


Employment is the main source of livelihood and self-fulfilment for most women and men. It is critical to the way women and men live and view their lives. A well-nurtured and productive labour force contributes towards a dynamic economy and equitable society. Lack of access to employment, that is decent and remunerative, lowers self-esteem and leads to denial of basic needs of the individual and the family, and can lead to social instability. It is, therefore, important to work towards the goal of decent and remunerative work for all women and men seeking such work, in conditions of freedom, equity, security and human dignity.

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National Employment Policy, 2008


Unemployment rates have been high and increasing, especially amongst certain groups such as youth, women and young graduates. Furthermore, about 10 million new entrants to the labour force are expected each year, for whom jobs would need to be generated. An overwhelming majority of workers are currently employed in the unorganised sector where most of the new jobs are also created. In addition, most new jobs that are being created in the organized sector are informal in nature. These jobs are mostly characterized by low earnings, poor conditions of work and lack of social protection and organisation. A large number of workers, whether wage-employed or selfemployed earn below poverty line incomes and are Working Poor.

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National Employment Policy, 2008


The Government of India has ratifed the ILOs Employment Policy Convention, No. 122. This Convention promotes full, productive and freely chosen employment to all women and men who are seeking work. The objective of the NEP is to provide a framework towards the goal of achieving remunerative and decent employment for all women and men in the labour force. More specifically it aims at: accelerating employment growth in the organized sector, and improving the quality of jobs (in terms of productivity, earnings, and protection of workers) in the unorganized sector. This document, however, concentrates mainly on the productive employment generation aspects, and signals a number of related issues for which separate policies need to be considered.

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National Employment Policy, 2008 (pdf)


Chapters PREAMBLE Page No.

1.Context
2.Objective 3.Basic Considerations

1
3 3

Part II POLICY STATEMENTS


4. Macro-economic Policies Sector-Focused Strategies Fiscal and Monetary Policies Trade Policy 6

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National Employment Policy, 2008 (pdf)


Chapters 5.Sectoral Policies Identification of Sectors Agriculture Manufacturing Construction Retail Trade Page No. 8

Tourism
Others

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National Employment Policy, 2008 (pdf)


Chapters 6.Labour Market Policies Labour Regulation Active Labour Market Policies Skill Development Labour Market Information Gender Issues 15 Page No. 12

7.Policies for Micro and Small Enterprises Credit Cluster Development Institutional Infrastructure Organisation of Industry and Workers
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National Employment Policy, 2008 (pdf)


Chapters 8 Skill Development Page No. 18

Matching Training with Demand


Standards and Certification Linkage with Education System and other programmes

9. Women Workers and their Special Concerns


Gender sensitive macro policies Identifying Sectors Facilitating Structures Organisation and empowerment

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National Employment Policy, 2008 (pdf)


Chapters 10.Vulnerable Workers Migrant Workers Child Labour Bonded Labour (24-25) Page No. 22

Part III IMPLEMENTATION AND MONITORING

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H.R.D. policy and its impact


Source: Mala Dutt (2010) Development and HRD in India IDEAS 20th Anniversary, Tokyo, March 10 (pdf).

An educated and empowered population resulting from proper human development strategies can significantly contribute to increased productivity and thereby, sustainable economic growth and development HRD is the engine of growth and development
HDR places India at 134th among 182 countries (2009) HDI is based on 3 dimensions of human development: life expectancy at birth; being educated as measured by adult literacy rate and gross enrolment ratio; and having a decent standard of living as measured by per capita GDP in terms of purchasing power parity.
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H.R.D. policy and its impact


Challenges to HRD in India are: to universalize secondary education and provide the right education to all children, achieve full literacy for adults, upscale higher and technical education, and expand opportunities for vocational training. Education policy deals with primary, secondary, university, technical and vocational education while paying special attention to girls education, adult education, and education of the economically and socially disadvantaged communities. Public investment in education as percentage of GDP increased from 2.6 % (2004-05) to 3.23 % (2009-10); as percentage of total expenditure increased from 9.7 % to 10.6 % during the same period. Private investment directly and through PPP is encouraged.

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H.R.D. policy and its impact


National Policy of Education 1986 and the Plan of Action 1992 emphasized micro planning for designing a familywise and child-wise plan of action to ensure that each child regularly attends school and completes at least 8 years of schooling. Universalisation of Elementary Education (UEE) scheme launched in 2002-03 aimed at enrolment of all children in the age group of 6-14 years and bridging gender and social gaps in enrolment. UEE is guided by five parameters universal access, universal enrolment, universal retention, universal achievement and equity. This scheme provided for one primary school within 1 km of habitation and one upper primary school for every 2 primary school. Under this scheme, new schools and classrooms were constructed, drinking facilities and free text books were provided with.
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Since the launch of this scheme, 36.8 million children have joined the formal education system and the GER for 6 to 14 age group increased from 82.4 % (2001-02) to 97.1 % (200607). Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act, 2009 sought to provide free and compulsory elementary education to every child in the 6-14 age group.

In April 2008, Mid Day Meal programme was extended up to VIII standard in all govt. and aided schools in the country covering 111.9 million children in 2008-09.
The National Programme for Education of Girls at Primary Level (NPEGEL) launched in July 2003 provides support for enhancing girls education, gender sensitisation of teachers & development of gender sensitive materials.
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For the promotion of secondary education, construction of 11000 new secondary schools other than 6000 model high schools was initiated in 2009 besides strengthening 44000 existing high schools in the country. In order to retain girl children in the secondary schools, a scheme for construction of girls hostel with a capacity of 100 each was started in 2010 in 3500 educationally backward areas. A scheme of National Means-cum-Merit Scholarship was launched to cover 0.1 million scholarships annually.

Higher and Technical Education

About 480 university level institutions and 20,000 colleges, caters to 12.5 million students in higher education.

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H.R.D. policy and its impact


Indias GER in higher education is 12.4 % (2007), the world average is 23.2 % and the Asian average is 22 %. Govt. aims 25 % GER in higher education by 2015-16 and 30 % by 2020. 35 Universities have been created (2009-10) and 14 innovation universities are proposed besides setting up of new model colleges in educationally backward districts.

IGNOU determines standards for open learning and distance education and provides innovative and needbased general and continuing education through an integrated strategy consisting of print material, audiovideo programmes, teleconferencing and personal counselling. It conducts technical, professional and vocational courses besides academic courses.

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H.R.D. policy and its impact


There are 65 technical institutions in the public sector 15 IITs, 20 NITs, 7 IIMs and 6 Institutes of Science, Education and Research like ICSSR and CSIR.

Vocational Education and Skill Development Along with formal and higher education, development of vocational skills is also an integral part of HRD. Only 5 % of the population of 19-24 age group go for vocational education against the expectation of 25 %. National Skill Development Mission has been announced (2010) with a target to achieve 500 million skilled persons by 2022. NSDM addresses 5 core areas curriculum revision on a continuous basis, vocational education, apprenticeship training, accreditation and certification system and skill-gap mapping. 1000 new polytechnics are proposed.
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Adult Education (p.12) Strengthening Infrastructure (p.13)

Mobilisation of resources (p.14)


International Cooperation (p.16)

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Thank You
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