Sie sind auf Seite 1von 39

December1988-AceticAcid

602 . 5 020A
CEHMarketingResearchReport
ACETICACID
By
KevinWheeler
CEHMarketingResearchReportsarecomprehensive
studiespreparedfrominformationintheCEHData
Centerandfromextensivepersonalinterviewswith
sourcesinthechemicalindustry . Adistinctivefeatureof
thesereportsistheanalysisoffuturesupply/ demand
relationships .
O 1988bytheChemicalEconomicsHandbook-S RIInternational .
http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/hhj82e00/pdf
~
~

~~~ ~~~
~~~~~~~
~~~~~


~~~ ~~~
~ ~ ~ ~~ ~ ~~~ ~~~
~~ ~~~ ~~~
~ ~~ ~ ~ ~~~ ~~~
~ ~ ~ ~ ~~~ ~ ~~~ ~~~~
~ ~ ~ ~
~~~ ~~~
~ ~ ~ ~ ~~~ ~~~
~ ~ ~ ~~~ ~~~
~~ ~~~ ~~~ ~~~
~ ~ ~~~ ~~~
~~ ~~ ~ ~ ~~~~~~
~ ~
~~~ ~~~
~ ~ ~ ~~~~~~
~ ~ ~~~~~~
~ ~~~~~~
~ ~ ~ ~~~~~~
~ ~ ~~~~~~
~ ~ ~ ~~~ ~~~
~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~~~ ~~~
~ ~~~~~~
~ ~ ~ ~ ~~~ ~~~
~ ~ ~ ~ ~~~ ~~~
~ ~ ~ ~~~ ~~~
~ ~~ ~ ~~~ ~~~
~ ~ ~ ~~~ ~~~
~ ~~ ~ ~ ~~~ ~~~
~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~~~ ~~~
~ ~ ~~~ ~~~
~~~ ~~~
~ ~ ~~~~~
~ ~~~ ~~
~~ ~~~ ~~
~ ~ ~~ ~~~ ~~
~ ~ ~ ~~~ ~~
~~ ~ ~ ~~~ ~~
~ ~~~ ~~~
~~ ~~~ ~~~
~ ~~

~~~ ~~~
~ ~ ~ ~~~ ~~~
~~ ~ ~ ~~~ ~~
~ ~~~ ~~
~ ~~~~~
~ ~ ~~~~~
~ ~ ~ ~~~~~
~ ~ ~~~~~
~ ~~~ ~~
~ ~~~ ~~~
~~ ~~~ ~~~

~~ ~ ~~~ ~~
~

~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~
~

~
http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/hhj82e00/pdf
t
December1988ACETICACIDAcet icAcid
602. 5 020C
SUMMARY
Acet ica cidis s y n t h et ica l l y p ro du cedby s ev era l p ro ces s es a n df eeds t o ck s . It is a l s o reco v ereda s a by -
p ro du ct o f ma n y rea ct io n s . As s h o w n bel o w , t h ema j o rit y o f v irg in a cet ica cidis p ro du cedby met h a n o l
ca rbo n y l a t io n . Th ea p p ro x ima t ew o rl dca p a cit y f o ra cet ica cidby p ro ces s / f eeds t o ck in 1987 w a s a s
f o l l o w s :
Met h a n o l Ca rbo n y l a t io n 47 %
Acet a l deh y deO x ida t io n 27 %
Et h y l Al co h o l 5 . 5 %
Bu t a n e/ Na p h t h a O x ida t io n 6 . 5 %
Co a l - Ba s edSy n t h es is G a s 3%
P ro ces s / F eeds t o ck No t Iden t if ied 11%
Th ef o l l o w in g t a bl es h o w s w o rl ds u p p l y a n ddema n df o ra cet ica cidin 1987 , w it h f o reca s t s f o r1992 :
Wo rl dSu p p l y / Dema n df o rAcet icAcid
(mil l io n s o f p o u n ds )
Un it ed
St a t es
Wes t ern
I3u ro p e Ja p a n O t h er$ To t a l
Ca p a cit y
P ro du ct io n
Imp o rt s
Ex p o rt s
Co n s u mp t io n
1987
3, 391
3, 228
35
102
3, 266
1992
3, 616
3, 5 82
20
100,
3, 610
1987
2, 5 84
2, 410
n et 7 0
2, 35 4
19921987
3, 1831, 219
2, 5 90809
110
n et 15 486
2, 5 60831
1992
1, 296
7 83
110
44
85 1
1987
3, 097
2, 87 3
n et 82
2, 939
1992
3, 913
3, 419
n et 165
3, 461
1987 1992
10, 29112, 008
9, 31910, 37 5
97 41, 093
9991, 168
9, 39010, 482
(t h o u s a n ds o f met rict o n s )
Un it ed
St a t es
Wes t ern
Eu ro p e Ja p a n O t h er' To t a l
1987 1992 1987 19921987 1992 1987 1992 1987 19, 92
Ca p a cit y 1, 5 38 1, 640 1, 17 2 1, 4445 5 3 5 88 1, 405 1, 7 7 5 4, 668 5 , 447
P ro du ct io n 1, 464 1, 625 1, 093 1, 17 5 367 35 5 1, 303 1, 5 5 1 4, 227 4, 7 06
Imp o rt s 16 9 5 0 5 0 n et 37 n et 7 5 442 496
Ex p o rt s 146 45 n et 32 n et 7 039 20 45 3 5 30
Co n s u mp t io n 1, 481 1, 637 1, 068 1, 16137 7 386 1, 333 1, 5 7 1 4, 25 9 4, 7 5 5
a
. O t h erin cl u des An dea n co u n t ries , Arg en t in a , So u t h ea s t As ia , Au s t ra l ia , Bra zil , Bu l g a ria , Ca n a da , Ch il e, P eo p l e's Rep u bl ic: o f
Ch in a , Czech o s l o v a k ia , Eg y p t , G erma n Demo cra t icRep u bl ic, Hu n g a ry , In dia , Ira n , Is ra el , Rep u bl ico f Ko rea , Mex ico , New
Zea l a n d, P o l a n d, Ru ma n ia , Sa u diAra bia , So u t h Af rica , Ta iw a n , USSR, a n dYu g o s l a v ia .
SO URCE: CEHes t ima t es in co n j u n ct io n w it h Wo rl dP et ro ch emica l s P ro g ra m, SRIIn t ern a t io n a l .
In 1987 , No rt h America (Un it edSt a t es , Ca n a da , a n dMex ico ), Wes t ern Eu ro p e, a n dJa p a n a cco u n t edi: o r
mo ret h a n 7 0%o f t h et o t a l w o rl dca p a cit y f o ra cet ica cid. Wit h f ew ex cep t io n s , n ew f a cil it ies w il l be
ba s edo n met h a n o l ca rbo n y l a t io n t ech n o l o g y . F a cil it ies ba s edo n t h is p ro ces s w il l bebu il t in In dia , t h e
USSR, Bu l g a ria , a n dt h eP eo p l e's Rep u bl ico f Ch in a by 1992 . No n ew f a cil it ies a rep l a n n edel s ew h erein
t h ew o rl do v ert h en ex t f iv ey ea rs . G ro w in g dema n din dev el o p in g co u n t ries , o t h ert h a n Ea s t ern Eu ro p e,
w il l bemet p rima ril y by ex p o rt s f ro mt h eUn it edSt a t es a n dWes t ern Eu ro p e.
1988by t h eCh emica l Eco n o mics Ha n dbo o k - SRIIn t ern a t io n a l
http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/hhj82e00/pdf
Deeember19&&ACETICACIDAceticAcid
602 . 5 020D
W o rl dp ro du ctio n a n dco n s u mp tio n o f a cetica cidw il l in crea s ea ta n a v era g ea n n u a l ra teo f 2 . 2%p eryea r
betw een 1987a n d1992 . Thes tro n g es tdema n dg ro w thf o ra cetica cidw il l o ccu rin thedev el o p in g
reg io n s o f theFa rEa s t,Ea s tern Eu ro p ea n dSo u thAmerica ,w hereco n s u mp tio n is p ro jectedto g ro w a t
3 . 0- 3 . 5 % . Thef a s tes tg ro w in g en du s es w il l bein v in yl a ceta temo n o mera n da s a s o l v en tin the
p ro du ctio n o f TPA/DMT.
U. S
. a cetica cidp ro du ctio n a n dco n s u mp tio n w il l in crea s ea ta ra tes l ig htl yg rea tertha n 2%p eryea r
betw een 1987a n d1992 . Imp o rts ,w hichhw ereu p in 1988,w il l decrea s eto 1987l ev el s by1989a s
Ho echs tCel a n es eres ta rts its Pa mp a ,Texa s f a cil ityin December1988 . Imp o rts a reexp ectedto decl in e
s o mew ha tthro u g h1992
. Exp o rts w il l rema in l ev el o v erthen extf iv eyea rs a s n ew ca p a cityco mes o n
s trea min W es tern Eu ro p ea n dtheFa rEa s t. V in yl a ceta temo n o mer,thel a rg es ten du s ef o ra cetica cid,
w il l g ro w s l ig htl yf a s tertha n GNPa n dexp o rts w il l co n tin u eto a cco u n tf o ra bo u t30%o f v in yl a ceta te
mo n o merp ro du ctio n . Stro n g dema n df o rTPA,u s edin p o l yes terterep htha l ica cidres in s ,w il l in crea s ethe
co n s u mp tio n o f a cetica cidu s eda s a p ro ces s s o l v en t. O therma jo rma rk ets f o ra cetica cid,s u cha s a cetic
a n hydridea n des ters ,a rema tu rew ithl ittl eg ro w thexp ected,w hil es o men ew er,s ma l l erma rk ets (e. g . ,
ro a dma in ten a n cea n dmedica l )ha v eg o o dg ro w thp o ten tia l s .
Acetica cidp ro du ctio n w il l in crea s ein W es tern Eu ro p ea s B PIn tern a tio n a l brin g s n ew ca p a cityo n s trea m
in theUn itedKin g do ma n dIn du s tria s Qu imica s As o cia da s res ta rts its p l a n tin Sp a in . Co n s u mp tio n in
W es tern Eu ro p eis exp ectedto g ro w a ta bo u t1. 4 - 1. 9%a n n u a l l y,s l ig htl yl es s tha n in theUn itedSta tes .
Netexp o rts a reexp ectedto do u bl eby1992 . Us ein v in yl a ceta temo n o mera n ds o l v en ta p p l ica tio n in
TPAp ro du ctio n w il l g ro w mo s ts tro n g l y .
In J a p a n ,p ro du ctio n o f a cetica cidis p ro jectedto decl in eby0 . 5 %p eryea rbetw een 1987a n d1992 .
Du rin g thes a mep erio d,co n s u mp tio n is exp ectedto in crea s e0 . 5 %p eryea rw ithdema n dmetbyrecycl ed
a cetica cidf ro mimp o rtedv in yl a ceta temo n o meru s edto p ro du cep o l yv in yl a l co ho l .
Acetica cidco n s u mp tio n in theres to f thew o rl dis f o reca s tto in crea s emo rera p idl y- a bo u t3 . 3%
a n n u a l l y- du rin g this p erio d. As w iththeUn itedSta tes a n dW es tern Eu ro p e,a cetica cidu s edto p ro du ce
v in yl a ceta temo n o mera n da cetica cidu s eda s a s o l v en tin n ew TPAf a cil ities w il l ha v eg o o dg ro w th
p ro s p ects .
MANUFACTURINGPRO CESSES
SYNTHETIC
Acetica cidca n bep ro du ceds yn thetica l l yo rf ro mn a tu ra l s o u rces . Syn theticp ro du ctio n in cl u des
metha n o l ca rbo n yl a tio n ,a ceta l dehydeo xida tio n ,bu ta n e/n a p htha o xida tio n ,a n dco a l - ba s eds yn thes is g a s .
Itis a l s o p ro du ceda s a by- p ro du cto f ma n yrea ctio n s f ro mw hichitis then reco v ereda n drecycl ed.
Themo s tdra ma ticcha n g ein a cetica cidp ro du ctio n techn o l o g yha s been thea dv en ta n dg ro w thin
p o p u l a rityo f metha n o l ca rbo n yl a tio n . Fo ril l u s tra tio n ,in theUn itedSta tes ,ca p a cityba s edo n metha n o l
ca rbo n yl a tio n g rew f ro mo n l y4 %o f to ta l ca p a cityin 1970to 81%o f to ta l o p era tio n a l ca p a cityin 1988
.
In co mp a ris o n ,a cetica cidf ro ma ceta l dehydeha s s tea dil ydecl in edf ro m4 1%in 1978to o n l y12%in
1988 . Acetica cidp ro du ctio n f ro mn - bu ta n ew a s temp o ra ril ys u s p en dedf o l l o w in g Ho echs tCel a n es e's
Pa mp a f a cil ityexp l o s io n in No v ember1987 . Ho w ev er,this f a cil ityis s chedu l edf o rs ta rt- u p in December
1988a n dw il l reg a in a bo u t15 %o f do mes ticca p a city . Thef o l l o w in g ta bl eil l u s tra tes thetren dto w a rd
metha n o l - ba s eda cetica cido v ero therp ro ces s es du rin g the1978- 1988p erio d:
O 1988bytheChemica l Eco n o mics Ha n dbo o k - SRIIn tern a tio n a l .
http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/hhj82e00/pdf

~~~~~~~~
~~ ~
~ ~ ~
~ ~ ~ ~~
~ ~
~ ~ ~ ~
~~ ~

~ ~
~~ ~

~ ~
~~ ~

~ ~
~~ ~

~

~
~~ ~

~

~
~~ ~~ ~~ ~ ~ ~~ ~~
~ ~~ ~ ~~ ~ ~~ ~ ~ ~ ~~~ ~~
~ ~~ ~~ ~ ~~~ ~~ ~ ~~ ~~
~ ~ ~ ~~~ ~~~ ~ ~ ~ ~~
~ ~ ~~ ~ ~ ~ ~~~ ~ ~ ~~
~ ~ ~~~~ ~~ ~~ ~
~~
~ ~ ~~ ~ ~~~~~~~~ ~~
~~~~ ~ ~ ~
~ ~ ~~~ ~~ ~
~ ~ ~ ~ ~~~~~ ~ ~ ~ ~~ ~ ~~~ ~~
~ ~
~ ~
~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~
~ ~ ~ ~~ ~ ~ ~ ~~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~~
~ ~ ~~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~~ ~~ ~ ~~
~ ~ ~ ~ ~~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~~ ~
~~ ~ ~ ~~ ~ ~ ~~~ ~ ~ ~ ~~ ~
~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~-~ ~ ~
~~ ~ ~ ~ ~~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~~ ~ ~ ~~~~
~ ~ ~~~ ~ ~~ ~ ~ ~
~ ~ ~~ ~ ~~ ~ ~~ ~~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~~
~~ ~~ ~ ~ ~~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~~
~~ ~ ~ ~ ~~ ~ ~
http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/hhj82e00/pdf

~~~ ~~
~ ~~~ ~ ~ ~ ~

~~
~ ~~~~~~~~ ~~~~

~
~
~~~~~

~~~~~

~~~~~

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
~~ ~~ ~~ ~ ~~ ~ ~~ ~ ~ ~ ~~~
~ ~~~~ ~ ~ ~
~ ~ ~ ~ ~
~~ ~~ ~ ~ ~ ~~~~ ~ ~ ~~~~
~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~~ ~~ ~ ~~ ~ ~ ~
~~~~ ~
~ ~ ~ ~
~~ ~ ~~~
~ ~
~ ~ ~~~
~ ~~~
~ ~~ ~~~
~~ ~ ~ ~~~ ~ ~~ ~ ~~~~~
~~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~~~ ~ ~
~ ~ ~~ ~~ ~ ~~ ~ ~ ~ ~~~
~~ ~ ~~ ~~ ~~ ~ ~ ~~ ~
~ ~~ ~ ~ ~ ~~ ~ ~~ ~ ~ ~
~ ~ ~ ~~ ~ ~~ ~ ~~ ~ ~

~ ~~ ~ ~ ~~ ~ ~ ~

http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/hhj82e00/pdf
December1988ACETICACIDAceticAcid
s o 2 . 5 o 2 0 < s
in th eU n itedS ta tes . Th es eo x ida tio n p ro ces s es a ren o tco s tco mp etitiv ew ith meth a n o l tech n o l o g y if o n l y
a cetica cidp ro du ctis co n s idered; h o w ev er, by - p ro du ctcredits a tcu rren tma rk etp rices a l l o w ex is tin g
p l a n ts to co mp eteef f ectiv el y . ( F o rmo rein f o rma tio n , s eeth eCEH ma rk etin g res ea rch rep o rto n B u ta n es )
O x ida tio n o f Aceta l deh y de
B y Ja n u a ry 1, 1989o n l y 10 %o f U . S . a cetica cidca p a city w il l beba s edo n Wa ck er- a ceta l deh y de
o x ida tio n . H o ech s tCel a n es edis co n tin u edo p era tio n o f its a ceta l deh y de- ba s edu n itin 1982
. Ea s tma n
o p era tedo n l y en o u g h a ceta l deh y deo x ida tio n ca p a city to ma k eu p th ea mo u n to f a cetica cidreq u iredo v er
a n da bo v eits o th erro u tes o f a cetica cidp ro du ctio n ; h o w ev er, a n ex p l o s io n a tth eH o ech s tCel a n es e
bu ta n e- ba s edp l a n t( Pa mp a , Tex a s ) in l a te1987ma deitdes ira bl ef o rEa s tma n to u til izea l l its
a ceta l deh y deu n itin 1987 . Co n cu rren tl y , Ea s tma n w a s in th ep ro ces s o f deco u p l in g TPA/DMTa n da cetic
a cidp ro du ctio n , a n din 1988a ceta l deh y deo x ida tio n ca p a city w a s in crea s edf u rth er. Mu ch o f Eu ro p e's
a cetica cidca p a city is s til l ba s edo n a ceta l deh y de
. Th is meth o dco n s is ts o f th edirecto x ida tio n o f
eth y l en eto a ceta l deh y dev ia th eWa ck erp ro ces s , f o l l o w edby th eo x ida tio n o f a ceta l deh y dein th e
p res en ceo f ma n g a n es ea ceta te, f o rmin g a cetica cid.
( 1) 2 C2 H 4+0 2 PdC12 , Cu Cl 2 , H 2 0 110 2 CH 3CH O
eth y l en ea ceta l deh y de
mo l w t:2 8. 0 5 44. 0 5
( 2 ) 2 CH 3CH O +0 2 - 10 2 CH 3CO O H
a cetica cid
mo iw t:60 . 0 5
Atth ecu rren tma rk etp riceo f 35 - 40 cen ts p erp o u n df o ra ceta l deh y de, a p ro du cerreq u ires a ca p tiv e
s o u rceo f a ceta l deh y de. Th ep ro ces s y iel do n a ceta l deh y deis ty p ica l l y 95 % . ( S eeth eCEH ma rk etin g
res ea rch rep o rto n Eth y l en ea n dth eCEH p ro du ctrev iew o n Aceta l deh y def o rmo rein f o rma tio n . )
Terep h th a l icAcidCo p ro du ct
U n til th ef o u rth q u a rtero f 1987, Ea s tma n u s eda TPA/DMTp ro ces s a tKin g s p o rt, Ten n es s eeth a t
co p ro du ceda cetica cid. Th eq u a n tity o f a cidp ro du cedby th eo x ida tio n o f th ea ceta l deh y derea cta n t
v a rieddep en din g o n TPA/DMTp ro du ctio n . Ea s tma n h a s n o w deco u p l eda cetica cidp ro du ctio n f ro m
TPAp ro du ctio n . Th eirp ro ces s n o l o n g erreq u ires a ceta l deh y dea s a co rea cta n ta n dn o w u s es a h a l o g en
p ro mo ter, a l s o , th eTPAp ro ces s u s es n o a cetica cida s s o l v en t, u n l ik eth eAmo co p ro ces s .
B Y- PRO DU CTACETICACID
Acetica cidis p ro du ceda s a by - p ro du cto f ma n y rea ctio n s . Itis o f ten reco v ereda n drecy cl edin s o me
f a s h io n , u s u a l l y a s a n es tero rs a l t, o ru s edin a p p l ica tio n s w h erea dil u tea cidis a ccep ta bl e. S o mema y be
reco n cen tra tedto g l a cia l a cetica cida n dreu s ed.
Acetica n h y driderea ctio n s a ren ea rl y a l w a y s a cco mp a n iedby th ep ro du ctio n o f a mo l eeq u iv a l en to f
a cetica cid. Th el a rg es tu s ef o ra cetica n h y drideis in p ro du ctio n o f cel l u l o s ea ceta te. S in ceth ea cid
p ro du cedin th is rea ctio n is reco v ereda n drecy cl edto p ro du cemo recel l u l o s ea ceta te, th ea cidg en era ted
1988by th eCh emica l Eco n o mics H a n dbo o k - S RIIn tern a tio n a l
http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/hhj82e00/pdf
December1988ACETICACIDAceticAcid
602. 5 020H
in th is rea ctio n h a s h is to rica l l y n o tbeen trea teda s a by - p ro du ct. Th is a rea is dis cu s s edmo ref u l l y in th e
CONSUMPITONs ectio n s o f th is rep o rt.
Po l y v in y l a ceta teis co n v ertedto p o l y v in y l a l co h o l by s tea min g o res terin terch a n g ew ith meth a n o l o r
eth a n o l . Th eby - p ro du cts o f th es erea ctio n s a rea cetica cid, meth y l a ceta te, o reth y l a ceta te.
Acetica cidis a by - p ro du cto f th ea l l y l a l co h o l - p era cetica cidro u teto g l y cerin ( w h ich , u n til 1983 , w a s
u s edby F MC) a n dis a l s o th ema j o rby - p ro du ctin th el iq u id- p h a s eo x ida tio n o f a ceta l deh y deto p era cetic
a cidemp l o y edby Un io n Ca rbide. Rh o n e- Po u l en creco v ers s ma l l v o l u mes o f a cetica cidf ro mv a rio u s
a cety l a tio n s , in cl u din g co u ma rin ma n u f a ctu re, a n dDo w a n dMo n s a n to reco v ers o mea cetica cidf ro m
a s p irin p ro du ctio n .
NATURAL
H is to rica l l y , s ma l l a mo u n ts o f a cetica cidw erep ro du ceda s a res u l to f des tru ctiv edis til l a tio n ( o r
ca rbo n iza tio n ) o f h a rdw o o ds . Wh en w o o dis s u bj ectedto temp era tu res a bo v e100C, th erma l
deco mp o s itio n o ccu rs . In du s tria l ca rbo n iza tio n emp l o y s temp era tu res u p to 5 00C. As a res u l to f th erma l
deco mp o s itio n , th el a rg eco mp l ex p o l y mericmo l ecu l es o f th ew o o dtis s u ea rebro ken do w n to ca rbo n a n d
a w idev a riety o f s imp l emo l ecu l es . Th es ep ro du cts s ep a ra ten a tu ra l l y in to f o u rg ro u p s :ch a rco a l ,
p y ro l ig n eo u s a cidl iq u o r, ta r, a n dn o n co n den s a bl eg a s es . Th ep y ro l ig n eo u s a cidl iq u o ris th en ref in eda n d
f ra ctio n a tedin to w a ter, ta r, w o o do il s , a n dp u rech emica l s .
Dil u tea cetica cid( 5 - 18% ) is p ro du cedby f ermen ta tio n f o rp ickl in g o rco n dimen tu s e.
PRODUCTIONCOSTS
Th ef o l l o w in g ta bl es u mma rizes th ema j o rp ro du ctio n co s tco mp o n en ts f o ra cetica cidby tw o o f th eth ree
ma j o rs y n th eticp ro ces s es . Ma j o rco s tco mp o n en ts a reba s edo n n ew co n s tru ctio n a n dma y n o tbe
rep res en ta tiv eo f a ctu a l co s ts a n dv a l u es o f ex is tin g o p era tio n s . F o rex a mp l e, ra w ma teria l co s ts w il l v a ry ,
w ith l o w erp ro du ctio n co s ts f a v o rin g p ro du cers w ith ca p tiv era w ma teria l s u p p l ies .
Ma j o rCo s tCo mp o n en ts o f Sy n th eticAceticAcidMa n u f a ctu re- 1987'
Aceta l deh y deby Ox ida tio n
w ith Air
Lo w - Pres s u reCa rbo n y l a tio n
o f Meth a n o l
Cen ts p er
Po u n d
Cen ts p er
Kil o g ra m
Cen ts p er
Po u n d
Cen ts p er
Kil o g ra m
NetV a ria bl eCo s ts b 3 0. 6 67. 5 6 . 5 14. 4
Ra w Ma teria l s 28. 9 63 . 7 5 . 2 11. 5
Util ities 2 . 6 5 . 7 1. 3 2. 9
B y - Pro du ctCredits / Debits - 0. 9 - - - - - -
La bo r 03 0 . 7 0 . 4 0. 9
Oth erPro du ctio n Co s ts 4 . 3 9. 4 3 . 6 8. 0
To ta l Pro du ctio n Co s ts 3 5 . 2 77. 5 10. 6 23 . 3
( , .
a - Co s ts a ref o ra 600mil l io n p o u n d- p er- y ea ra cetica cidp l a n t, U . S . G u l f Co a s t, o v en u g h tco n s tru ctio n , ~
mid- 1987, o p era tin g a tf u l l ca p a city , a n da tta in in g f u l l v a l u ef o rby - p ro du cts . ~
b. Ma y n o teq u a l th es u ms o f th eco mp o n en ts beca u s eo f ro u n din g . ~
F f ~
SOURCE:1987PEPY ea rbo o k, Pro ces s Eco n o mics Pro g ra m, , SRIIn tern a tio n a l .
1988by th eCh emica l Eco n o mics H a n dbo o k- SRIIn tern a tio n a l
co
http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/hhj82e00/pdf
December 1988ACETICACIDAceticAcid
602.5020 1
Comparabledata arenot availablefor then-butaneoxidation process . Although production costs arehigh
in this process, coproduct credits allow existing facilities to becompetitive. *
SUPPLY ANDDEMANDBY REGION
UNITEDSTATES
PRODUCING COMPANIES
Aceticacidproducedfromraw materials, such as methanol or acetaldehdye, is identifiedas virgin acetic
acid, whileacidobtainedas a reaction by-product or regeneratedfromspent solvents is identifiedas
recoveredaceticacid. For example, theacidusedto makepolyvinyl acetateis recoveredwhen the
polyvinyl acetateis convertedto polyvinyl alcohol . Thedistinction is madeto prevent thedouble-
counting of aceticacidproduction. Capacity data for recoveredas well as virgin aceticacidarepresented
in thenext series of tables. Thefirst two tabulations arefor virgin acid. They arefollowedby a tabulation
of recoveredacidcapacities. Thefirst tableof this series lists U.S. producers andcapacities for virgin
aceticacidin 1988.
U.S. Producers of Virgin AceticAcid
Company and
Plant Location
Annual Capacity
as of
January 1, 1988
(millions of
pounds) Process
Borden Inc.
Borden Chemical Division
Geismar, LAa 40 Methanol carbonylation
(high pressure)
Eastman Kodak Company
Eastman Chemical Division
TennesseeEastman Company
Kingsport, TN 160 Coal gas coproduct
350 Acetaldehydeoxidation
Hoechst CelaneseCorp.
Hoechst CelaneseChemical
Group, Inc.
Clear Lake, TXb
Pampa, TXc
*
QuantumChemical Corp.
Chemicals Division
USI Chemicals Company,
division
Deer Park, TXd
1,040
(550)
Methanol carbonylation
(low pressure)
n-ButaneLPO
820 Methanol carbonylation
(low pressure)
For additional information on theprocess economics for aceticacidmanufacture, seeAceticAcidandAcetic
Anhydride, Report No. 37A, March 1973, andAceticAcidby Low PressureCarbonylation of Methanol, Review
78-3-4, January 1980, Process Economics Program, SRI International .
1988by theChemical Economics Handbook-SRI International
http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/hhj82e00/pdf


~~~~~~
~









~ ~

~

~

~
-
~ -
- ~~ - -

~~
~ ~~

~ ~
-~~

~~
-
~ ~
~~~
~ ~~ -

-~~
-

~







~ ~~ ~ -- ~ -
~ ~~ -
~~ ~~-
~ -- ~
--
~ -
-

- - ~
http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/hhj82e00/pdf
Decernber1988ACETICACIDAceticAcid
1602. 5 020K
U. S . Ca p a city f o rV irg inAceticAcid( co ntinu ed)
Co mp a ny a nd
Annu a l Ca p a city a s o f J a nu a ry 1
( mil l io ns o f p o u nds )
P l a ntL o ca tio n P ro ces s
Ea s tma n
K ing s p o rt, TN 1979 - - 1986160Co a l - ba s ed
1980- - 1987 160s y nth es is g a s
1981 - - 1988 160
1982- -
1983 - -
1984 - -
1985 15 0
1979 45 0198625 0Aceta l deh y de
198045 01987 25 0o xida tio n
1981 4001988 35 0
1982400
1983 400
1984 400
1985 25 0
1979 - - 1986300TP A/co p ro du ct
1980- 1987 300
1981 - - 1988 -
1982-
1983 300
1984 300
1985 300
FMC
Ba y p o rt, TX 1979 401986- - G l y cerin
1980401987 - - co p ro du ct
1981 401988 - -
198220
1983 - -
1984 - -
1985
H o ech s tCel a nes e
Ba y City , TX 1979 175 1986- - Aceta l deh y de
1980175 1987 - - o xida tio n
1981 175 1988 - -
1982- -
1983 - -
1984 -
1985 - -
Cl ea rL a k e, TX 1979 5 001986- - Aceta l deh y de
19805 001987 - o xida tio n
1981
1982
5 00-
- - -
1988
1983 - -
1984 - -
1985 - -
1988by th eCh emica l Eco no mics H a ndbo o k - S R IInterna tio na l
http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/hhj82e00/pdf
D e c e m b e r 1 9 8 8 ACETIC ACID Ac e t i c Ac i d
602 . 5 020 L
U. S . Ca p a c i t y f o r V i r g i n Ac e t i c Ac i d ( c o n t i n u e d )
Co m p a n y a n d
An n u a l Ca p a c i t y a s o f J a n u a r y 1
( m i l l i o n s o f p o u n d s )
P l a n t L o c a t i o n P r o c e s s
H o e c h s t Ce l a n e s e
( c o n t i n u e d ) 1 9 79 600 1 9 8 6 8 00 Me t h a n o l /CO
1 9 8 0 600 1 9 8 7 8 00
1 9 8 1 600 1 9 8 8 1 , 04 0
1 9 8 2 8 00
1 9 8 3 8 00
1 9 8 4 8 00
1 9 8 5 8 00
P a m p a , TX 1 9 79 5 5 0 1 9 8 6 5 5 0 n -Bu t a n e L P O
1 9 8 0 5 5 0 1 9 8 7 5 5 0
1 9 8 1 5 5 0 1 9 8 8 - b
1 9 8 2 5 5 0
1 9 8 3 5 5 0
1 9 8 4 5 5 0
1 9 8 5 5 5 0
Mo n s a n t o
Te x a s Ci t y , TX 1 9 79 4 00 1 9 8 6 4 9 0 Me t h a n o l /CO
1 9 8 0 4 00 1 9 8 7 -
1 9 8 1 4 00 1 9 8 8 -
1 9 8 2 4 00
1 9 8 3 4 00
1 9 8 4 4 9 0
1 9 8 5 4 9 0
S t e r l i n g
Te x a s Ci t y , TX 1 9 79 -- 1 9 8 6 - Me t h a n o l /CO
1 9 8 0 -- 1 9 8 7 4 9 0
1 9 8 1 -- 1 9 8 8 4 9 0
1 9 8 2 --
1 9 8 3 --
1 9 8 4 --
1 9 8 5 --
Un i o n Ca r b i d e
Br o w n s v i l l e , TX 1 9 79 600 1 9 8 6 -- n -Bu t a n e L P O
1 9 8 0 600 1 9 8 7 --
1 9 8 1 600 1 9 8 8 -
1 9 8 2 700
1 9 8 3 --
1 9 8 4 --
1 9 8 5 --
Ta f t , L A 1 9 79 4 0 1 9 8 6 4 0 P e r a c e t i c a c i d
1 9 8 0 4 0 1 9 8 7 4 0
1 9 8 1 4 0 1 9 8 8 4 0
1 9 8 2 4 0
1 9 8 3 4 0 ~
1 9 8 4 4 0 ~
1 9 8 5 4 0 ~
~
~
1 9 8 8 b y t h e Ch e m i c a l Ec o n o m i c s H a n d b o o k-S RI In t e r n a t i o n a l w ~
~
~~
http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/hhj82e00/pdf
December1988ACETICACIDAceticAcid
602.5020M
U.S .Ca p a city f o rV irg in AceticAcid( co n tin u ed)
Co mp a n y a n d
An n u a lCa p a city a so f Ja n u a ry 1
( millio n so f p o u n ds)
P la n tL o ca tio n P ro cess
US I
DeerP a rk , TX 1979 300 1986 600 Metha n o I/CO
1980 600 1987 800
1981 600_ 1988 820
1982 600
1983 600
1984 600
1985 600
To ta l 1979 3, 755 1986 3, 190
1980 4, 055 1987 3, 390
1981 4, 205 1988 2, 940
1982 3, 810
1983 3, 090
1984 3, 180
1985 3, 080
a .S hu tdo wn in 1982 .Abo u t40millio n p o u n dso f ca p a city werebro u g htba ck o n strea min 1988to
su p p lemen tU.S .su p p lies .P la n tisexp ectedto shu tdo wn in Ap ril1989f o llo win g Ho echstCela n eses
P a mp a , Texa sf a cility resta rt.
b.P la n texp lo sio n in N o v ember1987 .
S OURCE:CEHestima tes .
Assho wn in thep rev io u sta ble, ca p a city rea cheda p ea k in 1981, a ta timeo f wo rldwideeco n o mic
recessio n , resu ltin g in o p era tin g ra teso f a bo u t65% .Ra tio n a liza tio n in 1982a n d1983bro u g htca p a city
u tiliza tio n to bettertha n 90% in 1983 .Theo p era tin g ra teslu mp eda g a in in 1984a sa resu lto f wea k
dema n d, bu tin crea sedto a bo u t94% in 1985a stheeco n o my rebo u n ded
.P la n tp ro blemsa n dschedu led
tu rn a ro u n dslimitedef f ectiv eca p a city in 1986 .In 1987, du ep rima rily to in crea seddema n df o rv in y l
a ceta temo n o mer, p la n tswereru n n in g a ta ro u n d95% o f ca p a city
.In 1988, withthetemp o ra ry lo sso f
ca p a city a tHo echstCela n ese' sf a cility a tP a mp a , Texa s, p la n tsra n a tn ea r100% o f ca p a city
.TheHo echst
Cela n esef a cility rep resen tsa p p ro xima tely 15% o f U .S .ca p a city a n d5% o f to ta lwo rldca p a city .In 1988,
Ho echstCela n esein crea seda cetica cidca p a city by 60millio n p o u n dsa tClea rL a k e, Texa s, a n dUS I
Chemica lsin crea sedca p a city by 20millio n p o u n dsa tDeerP a rk , Texa s
.In 1989, S terlin g Chemica lwill
in crea seca p a city a tTexa sCity , Texa sby 110millio n p o u n ds .Theseca p a city in crea sesa n dtheresta rto f
theHo echstCela n eseP a mp a f a cility willbrin g U.S .ca p a city ba ck in lin ewithdema n din 1989, a n dthe
Un itedS ta teswilln o treq u irea dditio n a lca p a city thro u g h1992 .
Then extta blep ro v ideshisto rica lca p a city f o rreco v ereda cetica cidf ro m1979to 1988.N o tin clu dedin
theta bleisa cetica cidreco v eredf ro mthea cety la tio n o f cellu lo sea ceta te, whichisu su a lly recy cledwithin
thep la n tto p ro du cemo rea cetica n hy dride.
1988by theChemica lEco n o micsHa n dbo o k - S RIIn tern a tio n a l
http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/hhj82e00/pdf
!Devembet2988ACETICACIDAceticAcid
602.5020N
U.S .Ca p a city f o r R eco ver edAceticAcida
Co mp a ny a nd
tL ti P l
Annu a l Ca p a city a s o f J a nu a r y 1
( mil l io ns o f p o u nds )
o ca a n o n
S o u r ce
Air P r o du cts
Ca l ver tCity , K Y 1 979 50 1 986 1 25 P o l y viny l a l co h o l
1 980 68 1 987 1 25 p r o du ctio n
1 981 68 1 988 1 25
1 982 75
1 983 75
1 984 75
1 985 1 25
Do wCh emica l
Midl a nd, MI 1 979 na 1 986 4- 6 As p ir inp r o du ctio n
1 980 na 1 987 4- 6
1 981 na 1 988 4- 6
1 982 na
1 983 na
1 984 na
1 985 na
Du P o nt
L a P o r te, TX 1 979 1 54 1 986 1 54 P o l y viny l a l co h o l
1 980 1 54 1 987 1 54 p r o du ctio n
1 981 1 54 1 988 1 54
1 982 1 54
1 983 1 54
1 984 1 54
1 985 1 54
Mo ns a nto
S t.L o u is , MO 1 979 6 1 986 6 As p ir inp r o du ctio n
1 980 6 1 987 6
1 981 6 1 988 6
1 982 6
1 983 6
1 984 6
1 985 6
S p r ing f iel d, MAb 1 979
1 980
56
56
1 986
1 987
2- 4
2- 4
P o l Y v~ 1 bu ty r a l mY
p r o du ctio n
1 981 56 1 988 2- 4
1 982 56
1 983 56
1 984 56
1 985 56
R h o ne- P o u l enc
NewBr u ns wick, NJ 1 979 na 1 986 < 1 Acety l a tio n
1 980 na 1 987 < 1
1 981 na 1 988 < 1
1 982 na
1 983 na
1 984 na
1 985 na
01 988by th eCh emica l Eco no mics H a ndbo o k- S R IInter na tio na l
http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/hhj82e00/pdf
December1988ACETICACID
U. S . Ca p a ci t y f o rR eco v ered Acet i cAci d t ( co n t i n u ed )
Acet i cAci d
602. 50200
Co mp a n y a n d
An n u a l Ca p a ci t y a s o f J a n u a ry 1
( mi l l i o n s o f p o u n d s )
P l a n t L o ca t i o n S o u rce
S t erl i n g Dru g
Tren t o n , N J 1979 n a 1986 1 As p i ri n p ro d u ct i o n
1980 n a 1987 1
1981 n a 1988 1
1982 n a
1983 n a
1984 n a
1985 n a
Un i o n Ca rbi d e
Ta f t , L A 1979 n a 1986 n a P era cet i ca ci d
1980 n a 1987 n a ep o x i d a t i o n
1981 n a 1988 n a
1982 n a
1983 n a
1984 n a
1985 n a
To t a l 1979 >266 1986 >293-297
1980 >284 1987 >293-297
1981 >284 1988 >293-297
1982 >291
1983 >291
1984 >291
1985 >341
a . Do es n o t i n cl u d eby -p ro d u ct a cet i ca ci d f ro mt h ep ro d u ct i o n o f cel l u l o s ea cet a t e, a s t h i s p ro d u ct i s
u s u a l l y recy cl ed . H o ech s t Cel a n es ea n d Ea s t ma n a ret h eo n l y p ro d u cers o f cel l u l o s ea cet a t e.
b. P ri o rt o 1986, M o n s a n t o p ro d u ced . p o l y v i n y l a i co h o l .
S OUR CE:CEH es t i ma t es .
Th ef o l l o w i n g t a bl es h o w s t h en et s u p p l y ba l a n cef o rU. S . a cet i ca ci d p ro d u cers a n d ma j o rco n s u mers :
~

Ci t
~
~
~
~
1988by t h eCh emi ca l Eco n o mi cs H a n d bo o k-S R IIn t ern a t i o n a l ~
~
http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/hhj82e00/pdf
N e t S u p p l y B a l a n c e f o r U . S . Ac e t ic Ac id Pr o du c e r s a n d Ma jo r Co n su me r s-S e p t e mbe r 1,1988' ~
Ac e t ic Ac id R e q u ir e me n t s f o r Ch e mic a l D e r iv a t iv e s
( ba se d o n 10 0 % o f de r iv a t iv e n a me p l a t e c a p a c it y )
~
~
N a me . Ac e t ic An h y dr ide S o l v e n t Mo n o - T o t a l Ap p a r e n t o
30 p l a t e Vin y l f o r T PA/ c h l o r o - Ac e t ic N e t S u p p l y 0
Ac e t ic Ac id
Pr o du c e r s
Ac e t ic
Ac id
Ac e t a t e
Mo n o me r b
Ce l l u l o se
Ac e t a t e c Ot h e r d E st e r s
D MT Pr o -
du c t io n
Ac e t ic
Ac id T e x t il e Ot h e r
Ac id
R e q u ir e d S u r p l u s D e f ic it
4 B o r de n 40 0 40
~
~
E a st ma n 510 2 7 3 10 0 7 0 443 6 7
0 0
0 0 H o e c h st Ce l a n e se 1,10 0 7 85 312 50 51 1,198 98
~
~
Qu a n t u m 82 0 438 438 382
E I r S t e r l in g 490 n a n a 490
~
n
U n io n Ca r bide 40 40 2 7 3 47 5 435
~~
B
T o t a l 3 0 0 0 1 6 2 5 585 150 194 0 0 0 0 2 554 441b
w
~
, , ,
M ~
0
Ac e t ic Ac id n
~
0
Co n su me r s
~
B
~.
~
y Air Pr o du c t s 12 5 0 12 5 ~-
1~
Amo c o 185 185 185
A
. . 7
~
Aq u a l o n
( H e r c u l e s/H e n k e l ) 16 16 16
d
AR CO 10 10 10
~
B AS F 13 13 13
~ Ca p e I n du st r ie s 90 90 90
~
~
Ch e v r o n 30 30 30
~
E . I . du Po n t
de N e mo u r s 154 36 5 140 50 5 351
~.
D o w 6 19 19 13
~
~.
Mo n sa n t o 10 35 35 2 5
T o t a l 2 95 36 5 0 0 2 3 415 35 0 6 5 90 3
T o t a l 3,2 95 1,990 585 150 2 17 415 35 0 6 5 3,457 16 2
`'GA :
http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/hhj82e00/pdf
b
h
a. N o t e t he d i f f e r e n c e i n t he e f f e c t i v e d at e o f t hi s t abl e i n c o m p ar i s o n t o t he p r e v i o u s v i r g i n ac e t i c ac i d c ap ac i t y . To t al v i r g i n ac i d i n c l u d e s Ho e c hs t Ce l an e s e 's 60 m i l l i o n ~
p o u n d -p e r -y e ar e xp an s i o n at Cl e ar Lake , Te xas . ~
M
t i
b. F ac t o r o f 0. 7 3 u n i t o f ac e t i c ac i d p e r u n i t o f v i n y l ac e t at e m o n o m e r . ~
c . F ac t o r o f 0. 3 9 u n i t o f ac e t i c ac i d p e r u n i t o f c e l l u l o s e ac e t at e .
d . O t he r ac e t i c ac i d an hy d r i d e i n c l u d e s e xp o r t s .
SO URCE: CEH e s t i m at e s .
http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/hhj82e00/pdf
December1988ACETICACID
PRODUCTION
Th ef o l l o w i n g t a bl ea n d g ra p h p res en t d a t a o n p ro d u ct i o n a n d s a l es o f a cet i ca ci d s i n ce195 5 .
U. S . Pro d u ct i o n a n d S a t es f o rAcet i cAci d
( mi l l i o n s o f p o u n d s )
Pro d u ct i o n ' S a l es
195 5 5 47 73
195 6 5 73 79
195 7 5 44 10 4
195 8 5 84 95
195 9 672 10 8
1960 765 141
1961 784 160
1962 985 178
1963 1, 10 0 20 5
1964 1, 120 23 4
1965 1, 3 65 295
1966 1, 40 9 3 3 5
1967 1, 5 60 3 42
1968 1, 73 8 3 79
1969 1, 770 425
1970 1, 93 2 3 90
1971 1, 95 6 3 68
1972 2, 23 5 5 70
1973 2, 429 60 8
1974 2, 5 84 666
1975 2, 198 60 0
1976 2, 462 5 44
1977 2, 5 70 60 0
1978 2, 776 823
1979 3 , 265 5 74
1980 2, 977 5 15
1981 2, 70 5 45 0
1982 2, 748 5 22
1983 2, 80 7 83 6
1984 2, 619 811
1985 2, 898 1, 0 28
1986 2, 728 865
1987 3 , 246 1, 10 3
S eeMANUALOFCURRENTINDICATORS f o ra d d i t i o n a l i n f o rma t i o n .
a . Fro m195 5 t o 1965 , a bo u t 18-24mi l l i o n p o u n d s o f a cet i ca ci d
w erep ro d u ced byt h ed es t ru ct i ved i s t i l l a t i o n o f w o o d a n d a re
i n cl u d ed i n p ro d u ct i o n .
S OURCE:S yn t h et i cOrg a n i cCh emi ca l s , U. S . Pro d u ct i o n a n d
S a l es , U. S . In t ern a t i o n a l Tra d eCo mmi s s i o n .
1988byt h eCh emi ca l Eco n o mi cs H a n d bo o k -S RIIn t ern a t i o n a l
Acet i cAci d
60 2 . 5 0 20 R
W"
http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/hhj82e00/pdf
December1988ACETICACIDAceticAcid
602 .5020T
Acetica cidp ro du ctio n p ea k edin 1987 a t3 .2bil l io n p o u n ds a f terf l u ctu a tin g betw een 2.6bil l io n a n d2 .9
bil l io n p o u n ds f ro m1980to 1986 .In 1986, p ro du ctio n l ev el s w ereex p ectedto beh ig h er, bu ts ev era l
p l a n ts ex p erien cedo p era tin g p ro bl ems : In 1988, w ith redu cedca p a city , p ro du ctio n is ex p ectedto dro p to
th e1986l ev el o f a bo u t2 .7 - 2 .8bil l io n p o u n ds .W ith th eres ta rto f th eH o ech s tCel a n es ef a cil ity in 1989,
p ro du ctio n is ex p ectedto g ro w a ta ra teo f a bo u t2% to rea ch mo reth a n 3 .6bil l io n p o u n ds in 1992 .
Abo u t100mil l io n p o u n ds o f a cetica cid( v in eg a r) is p ro du cedby f ermen ta tio n a n n u a l l y .Acetica cid
co n ten to f v in eg a rra n g es f ro m5- 18% w eig h tby v o l u mea n dis u s edp rima ril y in th ep res erv a tio n
( p ick l in g ) o f f o o ds .
CONSUMPTION
Acetica cidis a ma tu reco mmo dity ch emica l , bu th a s s h o w n s o meren ew edg ro w th in th el a s tf ew y ea rs .
Al th o u g h a cetica cidh a s a w idev a riety o f a p p l ica tio n s , a bo u t56% o f do mes tica cidco n s u mp tio n in 1987
w a s u s edf o rth ema n u f a ctu reo f v in y l a ceta temo n o mer, a n o th er8- 9% a s a s o l v en tf o rterep h th a l ica cid
p ro du ctio n , a n d8% in a cetica n h y drideu s edto ma k ecel l u l o s ea ceta te.Th erema in in g 27 % g o es in to th e
ma n u f a ctu reo f es ters o f a cetica cid, a cetica n h y dride( o th erth a n th a tu s edf o rcel l u l o s ea ceta te
p ro du ctio n ) , a n da n u mbero f mis cel l a n eo u s s ma l l eru s es .
U.S .co n s u mp tio n o f a cetica cidin crea s eda bo u t4% a n n u a l l y betw een 1984a n d1987 , p rima ril y a s a
res u l to f in crea s edreq u iremen ts f o rv in y l a ceta temo n o merp ro du ctio n .Acetica cidreq u iremen ts f o ro th er
deriv a tiv es h el df a irl y s tea dy du rin g th a tp erio do rg rew s l o w l y , ex cep tf o rmo n o ch l o ro a cetica cid, w h ich
decl in ed.
Th ef o l l o w in g ta bl ep ro v ides h is to rica l co n s u mp tio n o f a cetica cidw ith f o reca s ts f o r1992 :
U.S.Co n s u mp tio n o f AceticAcid
( mil l io n s o f p o u n ds )
AceticAn h y dride
Vin l Ch l o - y
Aceta te
Mo n o mer'
Cel l u l o s e
Aceta te
Oth er
Us es Es ters
DMT/
TPA
o r
a cetic
Acid Tex til es Oth er To ta 16
197 9 1, 3 13 57 0 1503 29 3 25 55 65 140 2, 947
1980 1, 27 8 590 13 53 16 3 00 51 60 110 2, 840
1981 1, 281 586 1403 28 27 0 60 7 0 125 2, 860
1982 1, 249 516 1453 14 215 55 65 128 2, 687
1983 1, 288 483 1503 09 250 60 7 0 13 0 2, 7 40
1984 1, 3 44 27 4 1503 02 260 60 7 0 13 0 2, 590
1985 1, 542 23 5 1613 16 250 50 7 0 13 2 2, 7 56
1986 1, 610 23 5 1903 3 1 250 3 1 7 5 166 2, 888
1987 1, 829 3 00 23 43 43 27 5 22 7 5 168 3 , 266
1992 2, 120- 2, 140 3 08- 3 15 240- 2463 60- 3 7 0 3 00 21- 44 7 0 195- 200 3 , 57 0-
3 , 640
Av era g eAn n u a l Gro w th Ra te ~
( p ercen t) ~
~
1987 -
~
1992 3 .0- 3 .2% 0 .5- 1.0% 1.0- 1.5% 1.0- 2.0% 1.7 % ( - 1.0) - 4 .0% ( - 1.0) - 0.0% 3 .0- 3 .5% 2 .0- 2.4%
1988by th eCh emica l Eco n o mics H a n dbo o k - SRIIn tern a tio n a l
http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/hhj82e00/pdf
December1988ACETICACIDAceticAcid
602. 5 020iJ
a. Dataincludevinylacetatemonomerusedtoproducepolyvinylalcohol . EstimatesbasedondatapublishedbytheU . S .
InternationalTradeCommissionusingafactorof0 . 7 3 ( actualrange0 . 7 1- 0 . 7 3 ) . Industrysourcesindicatedataforaceticacid
consumedintheproductionofvinylacetatemonomerareunderstatedby13 0- 15 0millionpoundsin1983 and13 0- 240
millionpoundsin1984 .
b. Totalsmaynoteq ualthesumsofthecategoriesbecauseofrounding .
S OURCE:CEHestimates .
Theoutlookforaceticacidconsumptionbetween1987 and1992isforamodestincreaseof2 . 0- 2 . 4%
annually . Consumptionforvinylacetatemonomerwillcontinuetobethefastestgrowingoutletandwill
increase3 . 0- 3 . 2%peryear. M iscellaneousnewuseswillprovidemodestgrowthforaceticacid.
VinylAcetateM onomer
Vinylacetateisthelargestenduseforaceticacid, accountingforabout5 6%ofdomesticconsumptionin
1987 . IntheUnitedS tates, vinylacetateisproducedbyreactingethyleneandaceticacidinthevapor
phase. TheproducersofvinylacetateareHoechstCelanese, DuPont, QuantumChemical, andUnion
Carbide. BothHoechstCelaneseandDuPonthaveincreasedvinylacetatemonomercapacitysince
midyear1987 by15 0millionpoundsand7 5 millionpounds, respectively . Inthefirstq uarterof19813 ,
UnionCarbideandBPChemicalsAmerica, whichmarketsS terling'saceticacid, haveformedAmerican
Acetyls( afinancialandmarketingj ointventure) . ThisassuresUnionCarbideasourceofaceticacidfor
vinylacetatemonomerproductionandassuresBPamarketforS terling'saceticacid.
Vinylacetatemonomerisusedinmakingpolyvinylacetateemulsionsandresins, polyvinylalcohol,
polyvinylbutyral, vinylchloridecopolymers, andethylenevinylacetateresins, andinotherapplications.
Themaj orusesforthesecompoundsareinpaintsandadhesivesandinpolyvinylalcohol . In1987 , vinyl
acetateproductionof2, 5 06millionpoundsreq uiredapproximately1, 83 0millionpoundsofaceticacid.
Anestimated200- 225 millionpoundsofaceticacidweregeneratedfromtheconversionofpolyvinyl
acetatetopolyvinylalcoholandpolyvinylbutyral . AirProducts'recoveredacidissoldonthemerchant
market, whileDuPontandM onsantocaptivelyconsumerecoveredacid.
Exportdemandaccountedforabout3 0%ofvinylacetatemonomerproductionin1987 . In1988, aweak
U . S . dollarfurtherincreasedforeigndemandforU . S . vinylacetatemonomer. Unfortunately, feedstock
disruptionskeptproducersfromcapitaliz ingonafavorabletradesituationasproducerswereforcedto
allocatevinylacetatemonomertodomesticcustomers . F eedstockdisruptionsincludedtheexplosionat
HoechstCelanese'saceticacidplantinPampa, TexasinNovember1987 andexplosionsatthesteam-
crackingfacilitiesatS hell'splant( Norco, Texas) andTexaco'splant( PortArthur, Texas) in1988.
Aceticacidreq uirementsforvinylacetateproductionareproj ectedtogrowat3 . 0- 3 . 2%peryearbetween
1987 and1992, req uiring2, 120- 2, 140millionpoundsofaceticacid. Duringthisperiod, domesticdemand
willremainstrongandexportswillsupplyatightworldmarket, withnoplannedvinylacetateplants
scheduledthrough1992 . ( F ormoreinformationonvinylacetatemonomer, seetheCEHmarketing
researchreportsonVinylAcetate, PolyvinylAcetate, andtheCEHproductreviewonPolyvinylAlcohol)
AceticAnhydride
Aceticacidisusedtomakeaceticanhydridebytwomaj orprocesses . Inthefirst, aceticacidisreacted
withketene, whichisgeneratedfromaceticacid. About1. 25 poundsofaceticacidarereq uiredt:o
produceapoundofanhydridebythisprocess . Thesecondprocess, usedonlybyEastman, reactsacetic
01988bytheChemicalEconomicsHandbook- S RIInternational
http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/hhj82e00/pdf
Descmber2988ACETICACIDAceticAcid
602. 5 020V
acidwithmethanoltoproducemethylacetate,whichiscarbonylatedtotheanhydride. Thetheoretical
conv ersionf actorf orthisprocessis0 . 5 9poundof aceticacidperpoundof aceticanhydride. Hoechst
Celaneseusesonlythek eteneroutetoaceticanhydride,whileEastmanhasbothtypesof processes.
Thelarg estusef oraceticanhydrideisintheproductionof celluloseacetate,theconsumptionof whichis
describedinmoredetailbelow . Allotherusesf oraceticanhydridearetreatedseparatelyinthesection
f ollowing Celluloseacetate.
Celluloseacetate
Aceticacidisrequiredinsev eralstepsduring celluloseacetatemanuf acture:(1)cellulosemaybe
preparedf oracetylationwithanaceticacid- - watermix ture,(2)during acetylation,aceticacidisusedasa
solv entf oraceticanhydride,and(3 )whencelluloseacetatef lak eisrecov ered,thehydrolyz edcellulose
acetatesolutionisprecipitatedbymix ing withdiluteaceticacid,theprecipitateisseparated,andthedilute
aceticacidisrecov ered. Thediluteacidmaybeuseddirectlyinotherpartsof theprocess,recov eredf or
reuse,orconv ertedtoaceticanhydridef oracetylation . HoechstCelaneseandEastmanChemicalarethe
twoU. S . producersof celluloseacetate.
Aceticacidrequirementsf oraceticanhydrideusedf orcelluloseacetateproductiondroppedf rom483
millionpoundsin1983 toabout3 00millionpoundsin1987 . Thelarg edropinaceticacidrequirements
v ersuscelluloseacetateproductionwasduetothef ullphasing - inof Eastman' saceticanhydrideplantin
1984 . Eastman' sprocesstechnolog yusescoal- basedsynthesisg astoproduceaceticanhydrideusing
aceticacidproducedinsitu .
Celluloseacetatef lak eisusedtomanuf acturecelluloseacetateandtriacetatef ibersandcelluloseester
plastics,including celluloseacetate,celluloseacetatebutyrate(CAB ),andcelluloseacetatepropionate
(CAP) . Thesecompoundsareusedf orf ilmandsheetandf ormolding andex trusionapplications.
Productionof celluloseacetatein1987wasestimatedtobeabout810millionpounds. About43 0million
poundswereusedtomak ecig arettef iltertow,whiletex tilef ibersrequired15 0millionpounds; plastics
requiredabout85 millionpounds,photog raphicf ilmsabout5 0- 5 5 millionpounds,and92millionpounds
wereex ported. Productionof celluloseacetateisf orecasttog rowslowlyat0 . 5 - 1 . 0%peryearbetween
1987and1992. Ex portsof cig arettef iltertowtodev eloping countrieswillbetheprimaryg rowtharea .
(F ormoreinf onnationoncelluloseacetatef bersandplastics,seetheCEHmark eting reportsonCellulose
AcetateandTriacetateF ibersandCelluloseAcetateandCelluloseEsterPlastics)
Aceticanhydride(deriv ativ esotherthancelluloseacetate)
Therearesev eralsmallmark etsf oraceticanhydridethatarebeliev edtohav erequiredanestimated23 0
millionpoundsof aceticanhydridein1987 . Aweak U . S . dollarin1987increaseddemandf oracetic
anhydrideex portstoov er80millionpounds,doubletheanhydrideex portsin1986andsev entimesthe
amountshippedin1985 . Themostclearlydef ineddomesticmark etf ortheanhydrideistheacetylationof
salicylicacidtomak easpirinandthemanuf actureof acetaminophen(N- acetyl- para- aminophenol) .
Approx imately22- 24millionpoundsof aceticacidwererequiredf orthesepurposesin1987 . Other
applicationsf oraceticanhydrideincludestarchacetylationtomak etex tilesiz ing ag ents,electrolytic
polishing of metals,semiconductorprocessing ,v ariousox idationreactions,anduseinthemanuf actureof
acetylchloride. Aceticanhydridemayalsobeusedtomak eacetatesof v itaminE(d- ,ordl- alpha-
tocopherolacetate) . (F ormoreinf ormation,seetheCEHdatasummaryonAceticAnhydride- - U. S . Data,
S ummary . )
OO1988bytheChemicalEconomicsHandbook - S R IInternational
http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/hhj82e00/pdf
December1988ACETICACID
Es t ers o f Acet i cAci d
Acet i cAci d .
602 . 5020W
Th ema j o res t ers o f a cet i ca ci d - et h y l a cet a t e, n - bu t y l a n d i s o bu t y l a cet a t e, a n d n - p ro p y l a n d i s o p ro p y l
a cet a t e- a reu s ed ma i n l y a s s o l v en t s f o ri n k s , p a i n t s , a n d co a t i n g s . Th ey a rep rep a red by es t eri f y i n g t h e
co rres p o n d i n g a l co h o l wi t h a cet i ca ci d i n t h ep res en ceo f a s u l f u ri ca ci d ca t a l y s t , wi t h mo ret h a n o n e
es t eri f i ca t i o n o f t en ca rri ed o u t i n co mmo n eq u i p men t a t t h es a mef a ci l i t y . Es t ers o f a cet i ca ci d a rea l s o
p ro d u ced a s by - p ro d u ct s o f o t h errea ct i o n s , red u ci n g t h ereq u i remen t s f o ra cet i ca ci d .
At o t a l o f 3 4 3 mi l l i o n p o u n d s o f a cet i ca ci d werereq u i red f o ra l l es t ers o f a cet i ca ci d ( i n cl u d i n g g l y co l
et h era cet a t es ) i n 1987 . By 1992, a cet i ca ci d req u i remen t s f o rt h es eco mp o u n d s wi l l bea p p ro xi ma t el y
3 60- 3 7 0mi l l i o n p o u n d s , a s s u mi n g a p ro j ect ed g ro wt h ra t eo f 1. 0- 1. 5%a n n u a l l y . Bu t y l a cet a t es , t h e
l a rg es t g ro u p o f a cet i ca ci d es t ers , wi l l s h o wt h es t ro n g es t g ro wt h , wi t h a 2- 3 %a v era g ea n n u a l i n crea s e.
P ro p y l en e- s eri es g l y co l et h era cet a t es wi l l g ro wby d i s p l a ci n g et h y l en e- s eri es g l y co l et h era cet a t es , bu t
f u t u reco n s u mp t i o n o f a cet i ca ci d wi l l s t a y a t p res en t l ev el s . Th erema i n i n g a cet i ca ci d es t ers wi l l s h o w
l i t t l eo rn o g ro wt h .
As u mma ry o f a cet i ca ci d req u i remen t s f o ri mp o rt a n t es t ers f o l l o ws :
U. S . Co n s u mp t i o n o f Acet i cAci d f o rMa j o r
Es t ers a n d Gl y co l Et h erAcet a t es - 1987
( mi l l i o n s o f p o u n d s )
Bu t y l Acet a t es 120
P ro p y l Acet a t es 7 2
Et h y l Acet a t e 7 6
Gl y co l Et h erAcet a t es 65
Amy l Acet a t es 5
Ot h er 5
To t a l 3 4 3
S OURCE: CEHes t i ma t es .
Bu t y l a cet a t es
Bu t y l a cet a t es a rema d eby es t eri f y i n g t h ea p p ro p ri a t ea l co h o l wi t h a cet i ca ci d . Fo u rp ro d u cers o f bu t y l
a cet a t es i n t h eUn i t ed S t a t es o p era t ed i n 1987 ( BAS F, Ho ech s t Cel a n es e, Ten n es s eeEa s t ma n , a n d Un i o n
Ca rbi d e) . In 1987 , a bo u t 290mi l l i o n p o u n d s o f bu t y l a cet a t es ( n - bu t y l a n d i s o bu t y l ) werep ro d u ced i n t h e
Un i t ed S t a t es . Th i s rep res en t s a n a cet i ca ci d req u i remen t o f a bo u t 154 mi l l i o n p o u n d s . Ho wev er, by -
p ro d u ct p ro d u ct i o n i s es t i ma t ed t o h a v ered u ced t h ea cet i ca ci d co n s u mp t i o n i n 1987 t o 120mi l l i o n
p o u n d s . By 1992, bu t y l a cet a t ep ro d u ct i o n wi l l req u i rea n es t i ma t ed 13 2- 13 8mi l l i o n p o u n d s o f a cet i c
a ci d , a s s u mi n g a p ro j ect ed a v era g ey ea rl y g ro wt h o f 2- 3 % . Bu t y l a cet a t es a reu s ed a s s o l v en t s f o rf a s t -
d ry i n g p a i n t s a n d co a t i n g s a n d a cco u n t f o r80%o f d o mes t i cco n s u mp t i o n . Th erema i n d eri s u s ed a s a
rea ct i o n med i u ma n d f o ro t h ers o l v en t a p p l i ca t i o n s t h a t i n cl u d ev i n y l res i n s , p ri n t i n g i n k s , a n d co s met i cs .
( Fo rmo rei n f o rma t i o n , s eet h eCEHd a t a s u mma ry o n Bu t y l Acet a t es - Un i t ed S t a t es . )
~
~
~
~
W
1988by t h eCh emi ca l Eco n o mi cs Ha n d bo o k - S RIIn t ern a t i o n a l ~
~
http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/hhj82e00/pdf
DecemberI988ACETICACIDAceticAcid
602 . 5 020X
P ro p y l a ceta tes
P ro p y l a ceta tes a rema deby es terif y in g th eco rres p o n din g a l co h o l w ith a cetica cid
. H o ech s tCel a n es e,
Ten n es s eeEa s tma n , a n dU n io n Ca rbidea re: p ro du cers o f is o p ro p y l a ceta tea n dn - p ro p y l a ceta te.
U . S . p ro du ctio n o f n - p ro p y l a ceta tein 1 987 w a s 7 2mil l io n p o u n ds , req u irin g a bo u t4 0mil l io n p o u n ds o f
a cetica cid. Th el a rg es tu s ef o rn - p ro p y ia ceta teis a s a s o l v en tf o rp rin tin g in k s , co n s u min g a bo u t7 0% o f
th edo mes ticdema n df o rn - p ro p y l a ceta te
. Itis a l s o u s eda s a s o l v en tf o rn itro cel l u l o s el a cq u ers a n do th er
cel l u l o s ees ters a n deth ers . Is o p ro p y l a ceta teis a l s o a s o l v en tf o ra n u mbero f s y n th etica n dn a tu ra l res in s
a n dis u s edw h ereth era teo f ev a p o ra tio n o f th es o l v en tn eeds critica l co n tro l . P ro du ctio n o f th eis o p ro p y l
es terreq u ires a bo u t32mil l io n p o u n ds p ery ea r. P ro p y l a ceta tes a rep ro jectedto g ro w s l o w l y a ta n .
a v era g ea n n u a l ra tebetw een 0% a n d1 % f o rth en extf iv ey ea rs , req u irin g betw een 7 2mil l io n a n d7 6
mil l io n p o u n ds o f a cetica cid.
Eth y l a ceta te
H o ech s tCel a n es e, Texa s Ea s tma n , a n dMo n s a n to rep o rtedeth y l a ceta tep ro du ctio n in 1 987
. In a dditio n
to th edirectes terif ica tio n o f eth a n o l , w h ich is u s edby a l l p ro du cers , eth y l a ceta teis a l s o p ro du cedby
H o ech s tCel a n es ea s a by - p ro du cto f th el iq u id- p h a s eo xida tio n o f bu ta n eto a cetica cida n dby Ea s tma n
v ia th eTis h ch en k o rea ctio n
. In th is rea ctio n , a ceta l deh y deu n derg o es o xida tio n - redu ctio n to th ees terin
th ep res en ceo f a n a l u min u mo rs o diu ma l k o xideca ta l y s t. Mo n s a n to p ro du ces eth y l a ceta tea s a by -
p ro du cto f p o l y v in y l bu ty ra tep ro du ctio n .
If a l l a ceta tep ro du ctio n w erema deby th erea ctio n o f a cetica cidw ith eth y l a l co h o l , 1 4 8mil l io n p o u n ds
o f a cidw o u l dbereq u ired. H o w ev er, itis es tima tedth a tth ea ctu a l req u iremen tf o ra cetica cidw a s o n l y 7 6
mil l io n p o u n ds in 1 987 beca u s ea p o rtio n o f th eeth y l a ceta tew a s a cco u n tedf o rby o th ers o u rces . Th e
ma jo ra p p l ica tio n f o reth y l a ceta teis a s a s o l v en tf o rco a tin g s , p l a s tics , a n do th eru s es . P ro du ctio n o f
eth y l a ceta teis exp ectedto g ro w a ta bo u t; t% p ery ea r, req u irin g a bo u t80mil l io n p o u n ds o f a cetica cidin
1 992. (Fo ra dditio n a l in f o rma tio n , s eeth eCEH da ta s u mma ry o n Eth y l Aceta te- U n itedS ta tes . )
Gl y co l mo n o eth era ceta tes
Gl y co l mo n o eth ers a rep ro du cedby rea ctin g eth y l en eo xideo rp ro p y l en eo xidew ith a n h y dro u s meth y l ,
eth y l , o rbu ty l a l co h o l s . Th emo n o eth eris th en rea ctedw ith a cetica cidto f o rmth ea ceta te
. Th eth ree
l a rg es t- v o l u meeth era ceta tes a reeth y l en eg l y co l mo n o eth y l eth era ceta te, eth y l en eg l y co l mo n o bu ty l
eth era ceta te, a n dp ro p y l en eg l y co l mo n o meth y l eth era ceta te.
Th es ea ceta tes a reu s eda s s o l v en ts f o rn itro cel l u l o s ea n da cry l icl a cq u ers , v a rn is h remo v ers , a n dw o o d
s ta in s . Th ea ceta teo f mo n o bu ty l eth erh a s a p p l ica tio n s a s a s u rf a ceco a tin g s o l v en ta n da s a f u g itiv e
p l a s ticiz erin l a texa dh es iv ef o rmu l a tio n s
. Itis es tima tedth a t65 mil l io n p o u n ds o f a cetica cidw ere
req u iredto p ro du ceth es ea ceta tes (a p p ro xima tel y 1 5 5 - 1 60mil l io n p o u n ds to ta l a ceta tes ) in 1 987
. Th e
g ro w th o f eth y l en es eries g l y co l eth ers a n deth era ceta tes h a s been a dv ers el y a f f ectedby a n u mbero f
l a bo ra to ry s tu dies th a th a v es h o w n th es es u bs ta n ces to ca u s ebirth def ects in l a bo ra to ry a n ima l s
. Beca u s e
o f th is , a n dth es u s p icio n th a tth ey ma y a l s o p o s eh ea l th h a z a rds to h u ma n s , s ev era l p ro du cers h a v el ef t
th ebu s in es s a n dma n y p ro du cts h a v ebeen ref o rmu l a tedto redu ceo rel imin a teg l y co l mo n o eth era ceta tes .
R es trictio n s by th eEP Ao n th eu s eo f s o meo f th es ep ro du cts h a v ebeen in ef f ects in ce1 985
. P ro p y l en e
g l y co l mo n o eth era ceta tes a reexp ectedto s u bs titu tef o rth eeth y l en eg l y co l mo n o eth era ceta tes to s o me
exten tin th ef u tu re. Fo rth en extf iv ey ea rs , a cetica ciddema n df o rg l y co l eth era ceta tes w il l rema in
s ta tic. (Fo rmo rein f o rma tio n , s eeth eCEH ma rk etin g res ea rch rep o rts o n Gl y co l Eth ers a n dP ro p y l en e
Oxide. )
1 988by th eCh emica l Eco n o mics H a n dbo o k - S R IIn tern a tio n a l
N
http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/hhj82e00/pdf
December1988ACETICACIDAceticAcid
602.5020Y
Amy l a ceta tes
UnionCa rbidewa s theonl y producerofa my l a ceta tes in1987 .Thes ea ceta tes a reproducts ofthe
es terifica tionofa my l a l cohol s witha cetica cid.P roductionofa my l a ceta tes in1987is es tima tedtoha v e
been10-12mil l ionpounds ,requiring4 .5-5 .5mil l ionpounds ofa cetica cid.Requirements in1992wil l
rema ina ta bout5mil l ionpounds .Amy l a ceta tes a reus edma inl y a s s ol v ents fornitrocel l ul os el a cquers ,
cons uminga bout50%ofthedomes ticdema nd.Others ol v enta ppl ica tions incl udeproductionof
photogra phicfil ms ,l ea therpol is hes ,tex til es iz ing,a ndprintingcompounds .(Formoreinforma tion,s ee
theCEHda ta s umma ry onAmy l Aceta tes -UnitedSta tes .)
Othera cetica cides ters
Therea rea numberofotherl es s importa ntes ters ofa cetica cid,mos tofwhicha reus edins ol v ent
a ppl ica tions .Thes eincl udemethy l a ceta teus eda s a s ol v entforcel l ul os enitra tea ndcel l ul os ea ceta te; 2-
ethy l hex y l a ceta te,a s ol v entforl a cquers ,emul s ions ,a ndink s ; gl y cery l tria ceta te,witha ppl ica tions a s a
pl a s ticiz erforcel l ul os icres ins a ndcel l ul os ea ceta tetow ; a ndbenz y l a ceta te(requiringa bout100thous a nd
pounds ofa cetica cid) ,a fra gra ncechemica l .Acetica cidcons umedforthes ees ters is es tima teda tno
moretha n5mil l ionpounds a ndis growingv ery s l owl y .
Terephtha l icAcid/Dimethy l Terephtha l a te(TP A/DMT)
Acetica cidma y eitherbecons umedorproducedintheproductionofterephtha l ica cid(TP A) ,depending
upontheproces s us ed.
IntheUnitedSta tes ,purifiedTP Ais ma deby theAmocoproces s ,whichox idiz es 25%pa ra -x y l enein
a cetica cidwitha irinthel iquidpha s e.G l a cia l a cetica cidis us edtodil utethep-x y l enea ndis l a ter
recov eredforrecy cl e.As ma l l percenta geofthea cetica cids ol v entis ox idiz eda ndl os tintheproces s .
DuP ontproduces crudeTP Afrompa ra -x y l ene,whichis thenpurifiedv ia DMT.Thes eproces s es a l s o
cons umes ma l l a mounts ofa cetica cid.Continuous improv ements ha v ebeenma deinthes eproces s es s o
tha tonl y between0 .06a nd0 .10unitofa cetica cida rel os tperunitofTP Aproduced.About275mil l ion
pounds ofa cetica cidwerecons umedforthis purpos ein1987 .
Acetica cidwa s formerl y producedby Ea s tma na tKings port,Tennes s eea s a coproductintheproduction
ofterephtha l ica cid.Inthis proces s ,a ceta l dehy dewa s us eda s a promoterintheconv ers ionofpa ra -
x y l enetoterephtha l ica cida nd,s ubs equentl y ,a ceta l dehy dewa s ox idiz edtoa cetica cid.InDecember
1987,Ea s tma nconv ertedits proces s a tKings porttoa ha l ogen-promotedrea ctiona ndnol ongercons umes
a ceta l dehy deorproduces a cetica cidby this method.Theha l ogenproces s is thes a mea s tha tus edby
Ea s tma na tCol umbia ,SouthCa rol ina .Al s o,unl ik etheAmocoproces s ,theha l ogen-ba s edproces s us ed
by Ea s tma ndoes notus ea cetica cida s a rea ctions ol v ent.
TP Aa ndits methy l es ter,dimethy l terephtha l a te(DMT) ,a recons umedprima ril y intheproductionof
pol y ethy l eneterephtha l a tepol y mers forpol y es terfibers ,fil m,bottl eres ins ,a ndengineeringpl a s tics .
About40%oftheTP Aproducedin1987wa s ex ported.Thea cetica cidrequirementforTP Aproduction
is ex pectedtogrowa ta bout1.7%a nnua l l y through1992duetocontinueds trongdema nda nda s trong
ex portma rk et.(Formoreinforma tiononTP Aa ndDMT,s eetheCEHma rk etingres ea rchreports on
Dimethy l Terephtha l a tea ndTerephtha l icAcida ndTerephtha l a teP ol y es terRes ins a ndFil ms .)
1988by theChemica l Economics Ha ndbook -SRIInterna tiona l
http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/hhj82e00/pdf
December1
.988ACETICACIDAceticAcid
602.5 020Z
MonochloroaceticAcid
Monochloroaceticacidis commonly p rodu cedby thedirectchlorinationof aceticacidinthep res enceof
cataly ticq u antities of s u lf u rorredp hos p horu s .
O nly P f iz errep ortedp rodu ctionof this acidin1986, bu titis believ edthatDow andH ercu les als op rodu ce
monochloroaceticacidf orcap tiv econs u mp tion .AmericanH oechs tbrou ghtanew 40millionp ou nd-p er-
y earhigh-p u rity p lantons treaminJ u ly 1983 ands hu titdow ninthes econdq u arterof 1985 .H oechs t
Celanes ehas continu edtos u p p ly cu s tomers w ithp rodu ctimp ortedf romits FederalRep u blicof Gennany
op erations .Withthecu rrentw eakU .S .dollar, H oechs tCelanes eis cons ideringres tartingits f acility .
Total1987U .S .op eratingcap acity is es timatedtobe5 5 millionp ou nds p ery ear, w ithanother65 million
p ou nds ons tandby .
Nearly 3 6%of thechloroaceticacidcons u medin1987w as u s edtomakecarboxy methy lcellu los e .
Carboxy methy lcellu los eis u s edinmany p rodu cts as athickener, s tabiliz er, emu ls if ier, andv is cos ity
controlagent.Thelarges tu s eis inoilw elldrillingf lu ids .Itis als ou s edas textilew arp s iz inginp ap er
p roces s ingchemicals , andindetergentf ormu lations as as oilantiredep os itionagent.As longas cru deoil
p rices remainatthep res entlev el, u s eindrillingf lu ids w illremains tatic .
Thes econd-larges tu s eis inthep rodu ctionof theherbicide2, 4-D( 2, 4-dichiorop henoxy aceticacid) , of
w hichDow Chemicalis theonly remainingU .S .p rodu cer .Trichop y ris as maller-v olu meherbicide
deriv edf rommonochloroaceticacid.In1987, abou t3 0%of monochloroaceticacidw as cons u medf or
herbicidep rodu ction .
In1987, anes timated22millionp ou nds of aceticacidw erereq u iredtop rodu ceabou t3 5 millionp ou nds
of chloroaceticacid.S incetheclos ingof theH oechs tCelanes e40millionp ou nd-p er-y earmonochioro-
aceticacidp lantin1985 , U .S .demandhas increas ingly beenmetby imp orts .Demandhas decreas ed
s harp ly f rom1984to1987du etothedeclineincons u mp tionof carboxy methy lcellu los eby theoilw ell
drillingindu s try andtoalackof grow thf orp henoxy herbicides ( es p ecially 2, 4, 5 -T, w hichis nolonger
beingp rodu cedintheUnitedS tates ) .( Formoreinf ormationonchloroaceticacid, s eetheCEH data
s u mmary onMonochloroaceticAcid.)
Imp orts of monochloroaceticacidreachedahis toricalhighof 3 5 millionp ou nds in1987f ollow ingthe
clos ingof H oechs tCelanes e' s p lantin1985 .Inthep as t, exp orts hav enotbeens ignif icant, bu tthis
s itu ationcou ldchangeif H oechs tbrou ghtits p lantbackons tream .Ins p iteof adecliningdomes tic
marketf ormonochloroaceticacid, reop eningof this p lantcou lddou bledemandf oraceticacidby 1992 .
Textiles
Theu s eof aceticacidintextiles rep res ents as mallp ortionof aceticacidcons u mp tionintheUnited
S tates -abou t2-3 % .Textileu s es inclu dew ooldy eing, s ilkcleaning, p rintingp as tes , andf inis hing .Mos t
of theaceticacidis u s edinthis indu s try toneu traliz emerceriz edcottonortoadj u s ttheacidity of dy ebath
s olu tions .Ap p roximately 75 millionp ou nds of aceticacidw eres u p p liedf orthes eu s es in1987 .Demand
is f orecas ttodeclinetoabou tthe70millionp ou nd-p er-y earlev elov erthenextf iv ey ears .
1988by theChemicalEconomics H andbook-S RIInternational
http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/hhj82e00/pdf
December1988ACETICACIDAceticAcid
602 . 5 021A
Other
Therea ren u mero u s o therderiv a tiv es o f a cetica cid, ea chco n s u min g a rel a tiv el y s ma l l v o l u me. Theto ta l
"Other"ca teg o ry wa s es tima teda ta bo u t5 %o f do mes tica cetica cidco n s u mptio n in 1987, o ra bo u t168
mil l io n po u n ds .
Acetica cidis u s edin pho to g ra phicpro ces s in g to s to pthedev el o pmen to f ima g es by n eu tra l iz in g the
dev el o pera n dto pro mo teha rden in g o f theemu l s io n o n thef il m. This u s eis s ig n if ica n ta n dma y co n s u me
a s mu cha s 70mil l io n po u n ds o f a cetica cidin 1988.
M eta l l ics a l ts o f a cetica cida rebel iev edto ha v ereq u ireda bo u t3 2mil l io n po u n ds o f a cetica cidin 1987 .
Themo s tco mmo n o f thes a l ts is s o diu ma ceta te, u s edin ha n dwa rmers a n dbo ttl ewa rmers , a s wel l a s in
bl o o ddia l y s is u n its , tex til edy ein g , pho to g ra phy , a n do rg a n ics y n thes is . In 1986, pro du ctio n o f s o diu m
a ceta tewa s 41mil l io n po u n ds , req u irin g 3 0mil l io n po u n ds o f a cetica cid. Po ta s s iu ma ceta tereq u ired
a n o ther1. 2mil l io n po u n ds o f a cetica cid. M a n y o thermeta l l ics a l ts a repro du ced, in cl u din g a mmo n iu m
a ceta tea n dz in ca ceta te, bu treq u ireo n l y s ma l l q u a n tities o f a cetica cid( l es s tha n a mil l io n po u n ds ) .
In 1988, a pro mis in g n ewa ppl ica tio n f o ra n a ceta tes a l ts u rf a ced. Ca l ciu mma g n es iu ma ceta teis bein g
u s eda s a ro a ddeicerin s pecia l a ppl ica tio n s wheres o diu mchl o rideco rro s io n is a s ig n if ica n tpro bl em
( prima ril y bridg es ) . In 1988, a n es tima ted16mil l io n po u n ds o f a cetica cidwerereq u iredf o rthis pu rpo s e.
Go o dg ro wthis ex pectedf o rthis n ewpro du ct. Al tho u g hca l ciu mma g n es iu ma ceta teis v ery ex pen s iv e
co mpa redwiths o diu mchl o ride, redu cedco rro s io n ma in ten a n ceco s ts repo rtedl y ma kethis pro du ctco s t-
ef f ectiv e. En v iro n men ta l l eg is l a tio n cu rren tl y u n derco n s idera tio n co u l da l s o in crea s edema n df o rthis
pro du ctif en a cted.
Acetica cidis u s edeitherdirectl y o rin directl y in s ev era l herbicides , mo s tn o ta bl y L a s s o a n dpro pa chl o r,
bo tha mideherbicides ma deby M o n s a n to . Thes epro du cts , whicha rel a rg el y keten eba s ed, a rees tima ted
to req u irea bo u t25 mil l io n po u n ds o f a cetica cid.
Acetica cidis a l s o u s edto ma n u f a ctu rea ceta n il ide, whichis then chl o ro s u l f o n a tedto pro du ce
s u l f o n a midedru g s . Pha rma ceu tica l u s es in g en era l a rebel iev edto req u irea bo u t25 mil l io n po u n ds o f
a cetica cid. Keten e-diketen ederiv a tiv es , s u cha s a ceto a cety l a n il ideco mpo u n ds , a reu s edto pro du cea
v a riety o f y el l o wpig men ts . Keten e-diketen ederiv a tiv es a rea l s o u s edby thepha rma ceu tica l in du s try a n d
f o rthepro du ctio n o f s o rbica cid.
M is cel l a n eo u s a ppl ica tio n s f o ra cetica cidin ciu deu s ein g ra in f u mig a n ts , pha rma ceu tica l s , ru bber
chemica l s , a n dex pl o s iv es
. Acetica cidha s been u s eda s a f u n g icideto reta rds po il a g ein brea da n din
s il a g eu s eda s a n ima l f eed. In du s try s o u rces in dica temedica l a ppl ica tio n s a s a po ten tia l n ewa rea o f
g ro wth .
PRICE
Thef o l l o win g ta bl es ho ws U . S . l is tprices a n du n its a l es v a l u es f o ra cetica cid:
~

~
~
~
~
1988by theChemica l Eco n o mics H a n dbo o k-S RIIn tern a tio n a l ~p.
~
00
http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/hhj82e00/pdf
DEC2mber1988ACETICACIDAceticAcid
602. 5 021B
U. S . L is tP ricea n dUn itS a l es V a l u ef o rAceticAcid'
( cen ts p erp o u n d)
Co mmercia l
80%
Gl a cia l
S y n th etic, CP
Tech n ica l
S y n th etic
Un itS a l es
V a l u e, S y n th eticb
195 5 10. 4 5 15 . 00 10. 0 8
195 6 10. 4 5 15 . 00 10. 0 8
195 7 10. 4 5 22. 00 10. 0 8
195 8 10. 4 5 22. 00 10. 0 8
195 9 10. 4 5 7. 2. 00 10 . 0 9
1960 10 . 4 5 22. 00 10 . 0 9
1961 10 . 4 5 18. 75 10 . 0 8
1962 10 . 4 5 18. 75 10. 0 8
1963 10 . 4 5 18. 75 10 . 0 7
1964 10 . 4 5 18. 75 10. 0 7
1965 10 . 4 5 18. 75 10. 0 7
1966 9. 4 1 18. 75 9. 0 7
1967 9. 4 1 18. 75 9. 0 7
1968 9. 4 1 18. 75 9. 0 6
1969 9. 4 1 18. 75 9. 0 6
1970 9. 4 1 18. 75 9. 0 6
1971 9. 4 1 18. 75 9. 0 6
1972 9. 4 1 18. 75 9. 0 5
1973 - - - 9. 0 5
1974 - - - 9. 0 9
1975 - - 14 . 0 11
1976 - - - - 16 . 0 13
1977 - - - - 17 . 0 14
1978 - - - - - 18. 0 15
1979 - - - - 19. 0 16
1980 - - - - 24 . 5 18
1981 - - - - 26 . 5 18
1982 - - - - 26 . 5 16
1983 - - - - 23 . 0 16
1984 - - - - 27 . 0 16
1985 - - - - 27 . 0 14
1986 - - - - 27 . 0 12
1987 - - - - 28. 0 13
1988 - - - - 28. 0- 31. 0 n a
a . P rices a rel is tp rices ta k en o n o rn ea rJ u l y 1o f ea ch y ea r. Wh en evera ra n geo f p rices wa s given in th e
s o u rce, th el o wes twa s u s ed. P riceba s es a rea s f o l l o ws :
COMMERCIAL 80%
195 5 - 1972B a rrel s .
GL ACIAL S YNTHETIC, CP
195 5 - 1960Dru ms , del ivered
1961- 1972Dru ms , ca rl o ts , del iveredEa s t.
TECHNICAL S YNTHETIC
195 5 - 1960Ta n k s , del ivered
1961- 1988Ta n k s , del iveredEa s t.
01988by th eCh emica l Eco n o mics Ha n dbo o k - S RIIn tern a tio n a l
http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/hhj82e00/pdf
December1988ACETICACIDAceticAcid
602.5021C
M o s ts y n th eticma teria l s o l din recen ty ea rs is a ctu a l l y g l a cia l ( o v er99% ) a cetica cid.
h Da ta a reca l cu l a tedfro mro u n dedda ta o n s a l es a n dv a l u eo fs a l es a n da rea cl o s ea ppro xima tio n o fth e
priceo fl a rg eq u a n tities s o l du n derco n tra ct.
SOURCES: ( A) Ch emica l M a rk etin g Repo rter, midy ea ris s u es ( L ISTP RICEda ta fo r1955- 1984 ) .
( B) Sy n th eticOrg a n icCh emica l s , U .S.P ro du ctio n a n dSa l es , U .S.In tern a tio n a l Tra de
Co mmis s io n ( UNITSAL ESVAL UE, SYNTHETICda ta ) .
( C) CEHes tima tes in co n j u n ctio n w ith in du s try s o u rces ( a l l o th erda ta ) .
Itma y ben o tedth a tu n its a l es v a l u eis s u bs ta n tia l l y l o w erth a n q u o tedl is tprice.Th is differen ce: is
expl a in edby th efa ctth a tth ema j o rity o fmerch a n ta cidis s o l du n derco n tra ctto a few l a rg eco n s u mers .
TRADE
Sta tis tics o n U.S.impo rts a n dexpo rts o fa cetica cids in ce1965a res u mma rizedin th efo l l o w in g ta bl e.
Impo rta n dexpo rts ta tis tics a rea v a il a bl efo r1955- 1964 , bu timpo rts du rin g th a tperio dn ev erexceeded9
mil l io n po u n ds , a n dexpo rts n ev erexceeded0 .9mil l io n po u n ds .
U.S.Tra deIn AceticAcid
( mil l io n s o fpo u n ds )
Impo rts ' Expo rts b
1965 9
1966 9
1967 15
1968 15
1969 9
1970 7
1971 4
1972 n eg
1973 13
1974 22
1975 2 4
1976 29 9
1977 3 1 7
1978 56 17
1979 14 50
1980 0.5 4 0
1981 0.5 115
1982 25 13 2
1983 60 110
1984 159 202
1985 4 4 23 7
1986 4 9 176
1987 3 5 102
1988 96d n a
SeeM ANUAL OFCURRENTINDICATORSfo ra dditio n a l in fo rma tio n .
1988by th eCh emica l Eco n o mics Ha n dbo o k - SRIIn tern a tio n a l
http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/hhj82e00/pdf
December2988ACETICACIDAceticAcid
602.5021D
a .Da ta a rereportedbythesourceunderimportcode#425 .7000.
ixDa ta for1975-1977a rereportedbythesourceunderexportcode#
512.0966; for1978-1988, theexportcodeis#43 1 .2810.From1965
to1974, exportsw erenotreportedsepa ra tel y, buttheya rebel iev edto
ha v ebeennegl igibl e.
c.Industrysourcesindica teexportsma yha v ebeenundersta tedby3 0
mil l ionpoundsin1987 .
d.Da ta a reforJ a nua rythroughM a y .
SOURCES:(A)U.S.ImportsforConsumptiona ndGenera l Imports,
FT246, U.S.Depa rtmentofCommerce, Burea uofthe
Census(IM PORTSda ta for1965-1976).
(C)
(B)U.S.ImportsforConsumption, IM 146, U.S.
Depa rtmentofCommerce, Burea uoftheCensus
(IM PORTSda ta for1977-1988).
US.Exports, FT410, U.S.Depa rtmentofCommerce,
Burea uoftheCensus(EX PORTSda ta for1975-1977) .
(D)U.S.Exports, EM 546, U.S.Depa rtmentofCommerce,
Burea uoftheCensus(EX PORTSda ta for1978-1987) .
In1987, thev a l ueofU.S.a cetica cidimportsw a s$ 4, 756, 647, ora na v era geimportpriceof13 .59cents
perpound.About3 3 %ofthe1987importsw erefromM exicoa nd53 %fromtheUnitedKingdom, w ith
mostoftherema inderfromtheUSSR(12%) .The1988regul a rdutyis1 .8%a dv a l orem; freefor
designa tedbeneficia rydev el opingcountries, sucha sM exico ; a nd16%fortheSov ietBl oca ndsomeFa r
Ea sterncountries(Ta riffSchedul esoftheUnitedSta tesAnnota ted[ 1988] , USITCPubl ica tion203 0, U .S.
Interna tiona l Tra deCommission).
Thev a l ueofa cetica cidexportsin1987w a s$ 15, 676, 484, ora na v era geexportpriceof15 .3 6centsper
pound.About24%ofthe1987exportv ol umew enttoTa iw a n, 18%toJ a pa n, 9%totheN etherl a nds, 7%
totheRepubl icofKorea , a nd6%totheUnitedKingdom.
Beca useofthera w ma teria l a ndenergycosta dv a nta gesofthemetha nol ca rbonyl a tionprocessfor
ma nufa cturinga cetica cida ndbeca usetheUnitedSta tesha dthegrea testca pa cityforthisprocess, exports
ofa cetica cidfromtheUnitedSta tesincrea sedsha rpl yduring1980-1984 .How ev er, importsa l so
increa sedv eryra pidl yduringthisperiod, l a rgel ya sa resul toftheshutdow nofUnionCa rbide's
Brow nsv il l e, Texa spl a nt.Exportspea kedin1985a t23 7mil l ionpoundsbutha v estea dil ydecrea sed
sincetha ttime.Exportsa reexpectedtorema inl ev el a sBPInterna tiona l expa ndsca pa cityintheUnited
Kingdoma ndnew ca pa citycomesonstrea mintheFa rEa sta ndEa sternEurope.Importsdecrea sedin
1985toa bout45mil l ionpoundsa nddecrea 'sedfurtherto3 5mil l ionpoundsin1987a sproducers
increa sedexistingca pa city .Importsjumpedtempora ril yto90mil l ionpoundsbymidyea r1988,
suppl ementingca pa cityl ostinl a te1987a ttheHoechstCel a nesePa mpa , Texa sfa cil ity .By1992, imports
w il l ha v edecrea sedtoa bout20mil l ionpoundsifa l l projectedU.S.ca pa cityisopera tiona l .
1988bytheChemica l EconomicsHa ndbook-SRIInterna tiona l
http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/hhj82e00/pdf

~~~~~
~~~~~
~~~~~~~~~~~
~
~ ~

~






~ ~
~




~ ~
~ ~ ~
~

~~
~
~~~~
~ ~~~~
~ ~
~

~
~





~
~~ ~~
~~ ~~
~ ~ ~
~ ~
~~~~~ ~ ~ ~~
~~~~~~ ~
~ ~~
http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/hhj82e00/pdf
December1988ACETICACIDAceticAcid
602 .5021F
MexicanSupply/DemandforAceticAcid
(thousandsofmetrictons)
Production Imports Exports Consumption
1983 96 - - 11 85
1984 122 - - 27 95
1985 121 - - 25 96
1986 113 - - 21 92
1987a 110 - - 15 95
a.In1987,anadditiona144thousandmetrictonsofaceticacidwererecovered.
SOURCES :(A)WorldPetrochemicalsProgram,SRIInternational .
(B)CEHestimates(dataforPRODUCTIONfor1986and1987) .
CONSUMPTION
In1987,Canadianconsumptionofaceticacidwasprimarilyforthemanufactureofvinylacetate
monomer(48%)andaceticanhydride(40%),withthree- fourthsoftheaceticanhydrideusedforthe
productionofcelluloseacetate.
InMexico,aceticacidisconsumedprimarilyinthemanufactureofaceticanhydride(65%),withthe
majorityoftheanhydrideusedtoproducevinylacetate.About15%isusedintheproductionof
terephthalicacid,andanother11%isconsumedintheproductionofacetateesters .
TRADE
Canadiantradeinaceticacidisnegligible,withsmallq uantitiesofaceticacidimported- about0 .3
thousandmetrictons- andnoexports .Canadaexportsaboutone- halfofitsaceticacidderivatives .
Mexicodoesnotimportaceticacid.Exportswereabout15thousandmetrictonsin1987andincreasedto
about3 0millionpoundsin1988tosupplementtheU.S .shortageofacidcausedbytheexplosionat
HoechstCelanese'sPampa,Texasplant.
WESTERNEUROPE
PRODUCINGCOMPANIES
Thefollowingtablesummariz esthevirginaceticacidcapacitylocatedinWesternEuropeasofJ anuary1,
1988:
~
~
~
~
W.-
.
~
1988bytheChemicalEconomicsHandbook - SRIInternational +~
~
W
http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/hhj82e00/pdf
~~~~~~~~~ ~ ~

~ ~ ~



~ ~




~
~
~

~ ~


~
~ ~~
~
- ~ -
~
~
- ~~

~ -

~~ -

~
~


~ ~
~~~
~-







~
~
~
~
~
~

~ ~
~ ~ - ~ ~~~
http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/hhj82e00/pdf
Deccmber1988ACETICACID
W es t ern Eu ro p ea n P ro d u cers o f Acet i cAci d ( co n t i n u ed )
An n u a lCa p a ci t y
a s o f
J a n u a ry1, 1988
Co mp a n ya n d ( t ho u s a n d s o f
P la n t Lo ca t i o n met ri ct o n s ) P ro ces s
Acet i cAci d
602.5021H
Swi t zerla n d
Lo n za AG
Vi s p 45 Acet a ld ehyd eo x i d a t i o n
Un i t ed Ki n gd o m
BP Chemi ca ls Lt d .
Hu ll 200 N a p ht ha o x i d a t i o n
200d Met ha n o lca rbo x yla t i o n
To t a l 1, 3 10
a .Ex p a n d ed t o a bo u t 165t ho u s a n d met ri ct o n s i n 1988a t Fra n kf u rt .
b.Ex p a n d ed t o 70t ho u s a n d met ri ct o n s i n 1985 .
c.P la ced o n s t a n d byi n 1985, bro u ght ba cko n s t rea mi n 1988.P la n t i s ex p ect ed t o clo s e
a ga i n by1990 .
d P la n s t o a d d a n a d d i t i o n a l200t ho u s a n d met ri ct o n s o f a cet i ca ci d equ i va len t , f lex i ble
ra t i o o f a cet i ca ci d a n d a cet i ca n hyd ri d e, i n t hef i rs t qu a rt ero f 1989.
SOURCE: W o rld P et ro chemi ca ls P ro gra m, SRIIn t ern a t i o n a l.
SALIEN TSTATISTICS
In 1988, W es t ern Eu ro p ea n mercha n t s u p p li es o f a cet i ca ci d weret i ght , a s s o mep ro d u cers ex p o rt ed
hi gher- p ri ced p ro d u ct t o t heUn i t ed St a t es .
Thef o llo wi n gt a bles u mma ri zes t o t a ls u p p lya n d d ema n d es t i ma t es f o rW es t ern Eu ro p e( bo t hEECa n d
n o n - EECco u n t ri es ) :
W es t ern Eu ro p ea n Su p p ly/Dema n d
f o rAcet i cAci d - 1987
( t ho u s a n d s o f met ri ct o n s )
P ro d u ct i o n 1, 093
N et Ex p o rt 3 2
Co n s u mp t i o n 1, 068
SOURCE: W o rld P et ro chemi ca ls P ro gra m,
SRIIn t ern a t i o n a l.
~
~
~
~
~
~
~
1988byt heChemi ca lEco n o mi cs Ha n d bo o k- SRIIn t ern a t i o n a l ~
~~
http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/hhj82e00/pdf


~~~~~~~~





~~

~
~
~
~
~
~ ~

~

~
~

~~~

~~~ ~~~~
~
~
~~

~
~

~

~
~
~ ~ ~
~ ~
~ ~
~ ~
~
~
~
~ ~
~~ ~
~ ~ ~

~ ~

~~ ~

http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/hhj82e00/pdf
Decembet1988ACETICACIDAceticAcid
602. 5 021J
SOURCES: ( A) In ter n a tio n a l F in a n cia l Sta tis tics , In ter n a tio n a l
Mo n eta r yF un d( da ta fo r EXCHANGERATE) .
( B) CEHes tima tes ( a l l o ther da ta ) .
J APAN
PRODUCINGCOMPANIES
Thefo l l o w in g ta bl es umma r iz es a cetica cidca p a cityin J a p a n a s o fJ a n ua r y1, 1988:
J a p a n es ePr o ducer s o fAceticAcid
o mp a n ya n d
Pl a n tL o ca tio n
An n ua l Ca p a city
a s o f
J a n ua r y1, 1988
( tho us a n ds o f
metr icto n s ) r o ces s
Da icel Chemica l In dus tr ies L td.
Ohta ke, Hir o s hima Pr efectur e 35 Na p htha o xida tio n
Kyo do Sa kus a n K . K.
Himej i, Hyo g o Pr efectur e 24 0'
a n dp er a cetica cid
Metha n o l
TheNip p o n Syn theticChemica l
In dus tr yCo . ( Nip p o n Go hs ei)
Miz us hima , Oka ya ma Pr efectur e 14 8 Aceta l dehyde
Sho w a Acetyl Chemica l s Co . , L td.
Ts ur us a ki, Oita Pr efectur e 130b Aceta l dehyde
To ta l 5 5 3
a . Kyo do Sa kus a n K . K. in cr ea s edca p a cityto 260tho us a n dmetr icto n s bydebo ttl en eckin g
in J un e1988.
b. Sho w a Acetyl Chemica l s ha s a n n o un ceda ca p a cityin cr ea s eto 14 0-15 0tho us a n dmetr ic
to n s . No da teo fco mp l etio n ha s been a n n o un ced.
SOURCE: W o r l dPetr o chemica l s Pr o g r a m, SRIIn ter n a tio n a l .
PRODUCTION
Pr o ductio n a n ds a l es s ta tis tics fo r a cetica cida r es ho w n in thefo l l o w in g ta bl e:
~
~
G~t
~
~.
~
~. ~
1988bytheChemica l Eco n o mics Ha n dbo o k-SRIIn ter n a tio n a l ~
~
http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/hhj82e00/pdf
December1988ACETICACID
J a p a n es eP ro d u ct i o n a n d S a l es o f Acet i cAci d
( t h o u s a n d s o f met ri ct o n s )
P ro d u ct i o n ' S a l es
1973 526 290
1974 509 295
1975 443 273
1976 550 343
1977 544 316
1978 518 293
1979 502 293
1980 418 332
1981 365 n a
1982 353 n a
1983 328 n a
1984 350 n a
1985 344 n a
1986 300 n a
1987 367 n a
a . Ex cl u d i n g recy cl ed a cet i ca ci d i n p o l y v i n y l a l co h o l
p ro d u ct i o n f ro mp o l y v i n y l a cet a t e.
S OURCE:CEHes t i ma t es .
CONS UMP TION
J a p a n es eco n s u mp t i o n o f a cet i ca ci d f o r1983- 1987i s s h o w n i n t h ef o l l o w i n g t a bl e :
J a p a n es eCo n s u mp t i o n o f Acet i cAci d
( t h o u s a n d s o f met ri ct o n s )
Acet i cAci . d
602. 5021K
Vi n y l
Acet a t e'
Cel l u l o s e
Acet a t eb
Terep h t h a l i c
Aci d
Acet a t e
Es t ers
Mo n o ch l o ro -
a cet i cAci d
Acet i c
An h y d ri d ec Ot h erd To t a l
1983 80 64 37 29 18 13 88 3:29
1984 92 64 40 31 19 15 94 355
1985 86 69 50 31 20 15 94 365
1986 84 58 57 31 17 14 95 356
1987 103 61 63 30 14 13 93 377
a . Ex cl u d i n g recy cl ed a cet i ca ci d i n p o l y v i n y l a l co h o l p ro d u ct i o n f ro mp o l y v i n y l a cet a t e . In 1983, 101t h o u s a n d met ri ct o n s o f
a cet i ca ci d w ererecy cl ed .
b. Us eo f a cet i ca ci d f o rcel l u l o s ea cet a t ep ro d u ct i o n v i a a cet i ca n h y d ri d ea n d ex cl u d i n g recy cl ed a cet i ca ci d .
c. Fo ru s es o t h ert h a n cel l u l o s ea cet a t e.
d In cl u d es u s es f o rmo n o s o d i u mg l u t a ma t ep ro d u ct i o n , t ex t i l ei n d u s t ry co n s u mp t i o n , a n d co n s u mp t i o n i n f o o d s ,
p h a rma ceu t i ca l s , a n d p h o t o g ra p h i ca n d mi s cel l a n eo u s ch emi ca l s .
S OURCE:Wo rl d P et ro ch emi ca l s P ro g ra m, S RIIn t ern a t i o n a l .
1988by t h eCh emi ca l Eco n o mi cs Ha n d bo o k - S RIIn t ern a t i o n a l
00
http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/hhj82e00/pdf
DecemberI988ACETICACIDAceticAcid
602. 5 021 L
Th ep rima ry rea s o n a cetica cidco n s u mp tio n in crea s edin 1 987 w a s th es tro n g dema n df o rp o l y v in y l
a l co h o l , w h ich ref l ectedba ck to in crea s edv in y l a ceta tedema n d. To ta l dema n df o ra cetica cidin J a p a n
w il l in crea s ea t0 . 5 % p ery ea rf o rth en ex ts ev era l y ea rs . Dema n df o ra cetica cidf o rv in y l a ceta teis
ex p ectedto decl in ea s v in y l a ceta teimp o rts in crea s e. So meo f th ev in y l a ceta temo n o merw il l be
co n v ertedto p o l y v in y l a l co h o l , a n drecy cl eda cetica cidw il l h el p meeta cetica cidreq u iremen ts . Th e
dema n df o ra cetica cidto beu s edto ma k emo n o s o diu mg l u ta ma te( M SG ) is u n certa in beca u s emo l a s s es is
a l s o u s eda s a f eeds to ck f o rp ro du ctio n .
PRICE
Th ef o l l o w in g ta bl es h o w s l is tp rices f o ra cetica cidin J a p a n :
J a p a n es eL is tPrices f o rAceticAcid
( y en p erk il o g ra m)
L is tPrice
Un it
Sa l es V a l u e
Ex ch a n g eRa te
( y en p erdo l l a r)
1 97 9 1 3 8- 1 5 9 1 09 23 0
1 980 21 7 - 3 26 1 4 5 21 7
1 981 21 2- 21 7 1 4 4 228
1 982 220- 225 1 4 5 25 0
1 983 200- 21 0 1 3 6 23 6
1 984 21 5 - 23 0 1 28 25 4
1 985 21 5 - 23 0 1 28 23 8
1 986 21 5 - 23 0 1 1 4 1 68
1 987 1 80- 1 90 1 05 1 4 7
a . Da ta a ref o rmidy ea r.
SOURCES : ( A) Ch emica l Da il y ( da ta f o rL ISTPRICE) .
( B) Yea rbo o k o f Ch emica l In du s tries Sta tis tics ,
M in is try o f In tern a tio n a l Tra dea n dIn du s try ( da ta
f o rUNl TSAL ESV AL UE) .
Th ecu rren tco n tra ctp riceis es tima tedto bebetw een 1 4 0a n d1 80y en p erk il o g ra mby dru m.
TRADE
In 1 987 , 5 4 % o f a cetica cidimp o rts w eref ro mth eUn itedK in g do ma n d3 7 % f ro mth eUn itedSta tes .
Ex p o rts w erep rima ril y to Ta iw a n ( 3 8% ) , th eRep u bl ico f K o rea ( 3 5 % ) , a n dIn do n es ia ( 1 6% ) .
J a p a n es eTra dein AceticAcid
( th o u s a n ds o f metricto n s )
Imp o rts Ex p o rts
1 983 20 1 2
1 984 3 6 1 6
1 985 4 5 1 3
1 986 5 3 1 7
1 987 5 0 3 9
SOURCE: Wo rl dPetro ch emica l s Pro g ra m,
SRIIn tern a tio n a l .
cr:
01 988by th eCh emica l Eco n o mics H a n dbo o k - SRIIn tern a tio n a l
http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/hhj82e00/pdf
December1988ACETICACIDAceticAcid.
602. 5021M
BIBLIOGRAPHY
ChemicalEconomicsHandbookThefollowingCEHmarketingresearchreports,productreviewsand
datasummariescontainadditionalinformationthatispertinenttothesubj ectofthismarketingresearch
report:
Acetaldehyde
ButylAcetates-UnitedStates
CelluloseAcetateandCelluloseEsterPlastics
CelluloseAcetateandTriacetateF ibers
ChloroaceticAcid-SalientStatistics
DimethylTerephthalateandTerephthalicAcid
EthylAcetate-UnitedStates
Glycerin
GlycolEthers
Methanol
PolyvinylAcetate
PolyvinylAlcohol
TerephthalatePolyesterResinsandF ilms
V inylAcetate
ProcessEconomicsProgram-ThefollowingProcessEconomicsProgramreportsandreviewscontain
moredetailedinformationonthemanufacturingprocesses,processdesign,andprocess-&onomicsof
chemicalsdiscussedinthisreport. AddressinquiriesconcerningthisinformationtotheProcess
EconomicsProgram,SRIInternational,MenloPark,California94025 .
AceticAcidandAceticAnhydride,ReportN os . 3 7 and3 7 A,March1968andMarch197 3 .
AceticAcidbyLowPressureCarbonylationofMethanol,ReviewN umberPEP7 8-3 ,J anuary1980,
pp. 55-7 5 .
AceticAcidfromCarbonMonox ideandHydrogen,ReviewN umberPEP7 5-3 -3 ,April197 6,pp . 2-
14 .
TerephthalicAcidandDimethylTerephthalate,ReportN os . 9,9A,9B,and9C,F ebruary1966,
J anuary1967 ,September197 0,andAugust197 8.
V inylAcetate,ReportN o . 15A,J une197 2 .
OtherReferences-Thefollowinglistofadditionalreferencesissuggestedforsupplementalreading :
"AceticAcidProducersPlantoBoostProductionCapacity,"J apanChemicalWeekJ une3 0,1988,p . 2 .
"BPChemicalsInternational,"CP1Purchasing,April1988,p . 5 .
"BPDivision,SterlingF ormV enturetoBoostAceticAcidCapacity,"J ournalofCommerce,March3 0,
1988,p. 9b.
"BP,K emiraBoostProductionatHull,"J ournalofCommerce,J une1,1988,p . 9b.
"ChemicalsfromCoalPlantUnveiled,"Oil&GasJ ournal,Apri123 ,1984,pp . 56-57 .
O1988bytheChemicalEconomicsHandbook-SRIInternational
http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/hhj82e00/pdf
December1988ACETICACIDAceticAcid
602 . 5 021N
"CPIDataandTrends :Chemforecasts :AceticAcid,"CPIPurchasing,March1988,p . 3 3 .
"F ormicAcidW oodpul pingCoul dY iel dV al uabl eChemical Products,"Pul p& Paper,S eptember1983 ,
pp . 102- 104 .
"Heal thyGainsforJapaneseExports,"Chemical W eekMarch2,1988,p . 13 .
"HoechstCel aneseExpandsAceticAcidandV AM,"Chemical W eek,June1,1988,p . 4 3 .
"International :AdhesivesPriceF ears,"W orl dTobacco,March1988,p . 7 .
"JCW S potl ighton . . . AceticAcid,"JapanChemical W eek,F ebruary4 ,1988,pp . 6- 7 .
Kirk- OthmerEncycl opediaofChemical Technol ogy,3 ded. ,vol . 1,JohnW il ey& S ons,Inc. ,N ewY ork,
197 8,pp . 124 - 17 7 .
"Ti02L ooserby' 93 ; OtherR awMaterial MarketsDiscussed,"AmericanPaintandCoatingsJournal ,
June13 ,1988,pp . 4 6- 4 7 .
W il son,C. 0 . ,O . Grisvol d,andR . F . Doerge,TextbookofOrganicMedicinal andPharmaceutical
Chemistry,7 thed. ,J . B . L ippincottCo . ,Phil adel phia,197 7 ,pp . 203 ,7 11- 7 16 .
1988bytheChemical EconomicsHandbook- S R IInternational
http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/hhj82e00/pdf