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Cognitive and Motor Development - Stages of Development -

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There is a strong relationship between human intellectual function and movement: Any intellectual change is also accompanied by a change in motor function

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Four Domains
Affective Cognitive Motor Physical

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Domains
Categorizing human behavior into domains evolved because it is useful in organizing and simplifying the study of human development Cognitive and motor development interact continually throughout the lifespan as they reciprocally inhibit or facilitate each other

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Interaction
The mind (psych) and human movement (motor) are related

Cognitive Development

Motor Development

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Psychomotor or Motor?
Motor
Refers to any form of human movement behavior
Reflex movement Psychomotor

Psychomotor
Movements initiated by an electrical impulse from higher brain centers
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How does our gradually changing motor ability affect our cognitive development? How does our evolving cognitive development affect our motor development? What are some significant areas of integration?

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Cognitive Development
Jean Piaget
Swiss psychologist Interested in the process of thinking Established the clinical method of research
Collected data during question-and-answer sessions

1896-1980

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Cognitive Development
Piagets Theory
Four major stages of cognitive development
Sensorimotor Preoperational Concrete operational Formal operational

Interaction of cognitive and motor development is found in Piagets Theory

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Stages of Piagets Theory


Stage
Sensorimotor Preoperational Concrete operational Formal operational

Age/Period of Occurrence
Birth to 2 years 2 to 7 years 7 to 11 years Early to midadolescence 11 to 12 years

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Piagets Theory
Adaptation
Cognitive development occurs thorugh this process Adjusting to the demands of the envirnoment and intellectualizing those adjustments Two facets of adaptation
Assimilation Accommodation

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Piagets Theory - Adaptation Assimilation


Process by which children attempt to interpret new experiences based upon their present interpretation of the world

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Piagets Theory - Adaptation Accommodation


Adjustments or modifications in the thinking process which will become a part of a childs new cognitive repetoire

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Component Assimilation

Accommodation

Process Children try to interpret new experiences based on their present interpretation of the world Children try to adjust existing through structures to account for (accommodate) new experiences

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Adaptation
Assimilation Child tries to grabs a large ball with one hand His experiences of the past tell him that he can use one hand to grab hold of an object because it worked with rattles and smaller objects The child assimilates his past experiences

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Adaptation
Accommodation
Using the same example, when the child is unable to grasp the football, he may try to adjust or accommodate by using two hands or even adapting the one-handed grasp

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Adaptation
Assimilation & Accommodation always work together
Adaptation

Assimilation

Accommodation

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Infancy ~ Sensorimotor Stage


Intelligence develops as a result of movement actions and their consequences Movement is critical to thought processes Six substages

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Infancy ~ Sensorimotor Stage


Substage
Exercise of reflexes
Primary circular reactions Secondary circular reactions Secondary schemata Tertiary circular reactions Invention of new means through mental combinations
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Age of Occurrence
Birth to 1 month
1 to 4 months 4 to 8 months 8 to 12 months 12 to 18 months 18 to 24 months

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Infancy ~ Sensorimotor Stage


EXERCISE OF REFLEXES substage
Birth through 1 month Repetition of reflexes helps child to form the foundation for cognitive understanding Reflexive movements are innate Reflexive movements lead to new behaviors

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Infancy ~ Sensorimotor Stage


PRIMARY CIRCULAR REACTIONS substage
Onset of increased voluntary movement End of month 1-month 4 Called circular and primary because movements always occur in close proximity to the infant
Conscious effort to repeat movements

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Infancy ~ Sensorimotor Stage


SECONDARY CIRCULAR REACTIONS substage
4 month - 8 months Continuation of primary circular reactions The infants interaction with the environment expands Child begins to integrate vision, hearing, grasping and movement behaviors Can imitate behaviors No permanence remove object object is gone

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Infancy ~ Sensorimotor Stage


SECONDARY SCHEMATA substage
8 months to 1 year Past movement actions applied to new situations New behaviors emerge New behaviors are facilitated by increasing movement capabilities such as crawling and creeping which allow exploration of the environment
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Infancy ~ Sensorimotor Stage


Secondary schemata substage
Repetition of experimentation and trial-and-error exploration continue

Child can predict some actions and situations


Roll ball to child she crudely roles it back she anticipates you rolling the ball to him again The ability to predict (Piaget) is the onset of intellectual reasoning

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Infancy ~ Sensorimotor Stage


TERTIARY CIRCULAR REACTIONS substage
1 year -11/2 years

Use of active experimentation to learn


Child realizes that discovery of an object and use of the object are separate entities First level of visualizing an object beyond its immediate use
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Infancy ~ Sensorimotor Stage


Tertiary circular reactions substage
Child sees the ball and knows she can have fun, but also realizes she does not have to play with it right now it will be there later Can distinguish self from others Seeks immediate family members for help
Social and emotional development

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Infancy ~ Sensorimotor Stage


INVENTION OF NEW MEANS THROUGH MENTAL COMBINATIONS substage
11/2 years - 2 years Child recognizes objects and others as independent from himslef Child is beggining to understand properties of objects
Size, shape, color, texture, weight, use, etc.

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Infancy ~ Sensorimotor Stage


Invention of new means through mental combinations substage
Semimental functioning
thinking with the body is replaced with thinking with the mind

Child reflects

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Summary: Infancy ~ Sensorimotor Stage


Increasing awareness of the difference between the self and others Recognition that objects continue to exist even though they are no longer in view Production of the mental images that allow the contemplation of the past, present, and future

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Childhood ~ Preoperational Stage


Preoperational stage (2-7 years)
Verbal communication begins to emerge Language development is the most important aspect of Preoperational Stage Linked to motor abilities Children are unable to think logically

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Childhood ~ Preoperational Stage


Preconceptual substage (2-4 years)
Ability to use symbols to represent someone or something in the childs life

Pretend play common


Role play

Egocentrism
A serious deficiency in the Preconceptual substage
Play helps child to socialize and work with others

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Childhood ~ Preoperational Stage


Preconceptual substage (2-4 years)
Flawed thinking
Drooping flower is sad unrealistic flawed thinking

Transductive reasoning
A form of flawed thinking Incorrect assumptions Missed breakfast, so it cant be morning

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Childhood ~ Preoperational Stage


Intuitive substage (4-7 years)
Reduced egocentrism Improvement in the use of symbols Child is incapable of conservation
Ability to realize that certain properties of a substance remain unchanged when the appearance is rearranged

Child cannot consider multiple aspects of a problem


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Later Childhood ~ Concrete Operational Stage


Concrete operations stage (7-11 years)
Must gain ability to conserve first Enhanced ability to decenter attention from one variable in a problem solving situation Reversibility ~ Able to mentally modify, organize, or even reverse thought processes

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Later Childhood ~ Concrete Operational Stage


Children in the concrete operation stage can reverse the order of the ball as they go through the tube
Preoperational stage children will see no difference in ball order

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Reversibili ty

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Later Childhood ~ Concrete Operational Stage


Seriation
Ability to arrange a set of variables by a certain characteristic
Childs height can determine position in a game of basketball Piaget emphasized that learning can be enhanced through movement

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Later Childhood ~ Formal Operational Stage


Formal operational stage (11-12 years)
Ability to consider ideas that are not based on observable objects or experiences Abstract ideas are possible

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Later Childhood ~ Formal Operational Stage


Interpropositional thought
Applicable to complex movement A logical relationship exists between two propositions

Enhanced level of cognitive ability


Allows child to relate one or more parts of a proposition or situation to another part to arrive at a solution to a problem

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Later Childhood ~ Formal Operational Stage


Hypothetical-deductive reasoning
A problem-solving style that allows child to choose between possible solutions and then pick the best one Aids in emotional development and emerging values

Child ponders do I follow the crowd; do I want to be fit in

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Criticisms of Piagets Theory


Theory lacks scientific control Piaget used his own children to study Subjects were not studied across the lifespan Piaget may have underestimated a childs capabilities Theory does not discern between competency and performance Theory does not account for the influence of motivation and emotion Stages of developoment were too broad Developoment is described, but never explained

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Criticisms of Piagets Theory


If a child performed poorly on a task, Piaget attributed this to a lack of intellectual competency However, there are a other reasons for not performing a task well: Social influences Lack of motivation Peers Verbal ability Teachers Memory Siblings Lack of familiarity with Childs emotional state task Peer pressure

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Criticisms of Piagets Theory


Most criticized aspect of the theory is that formal operational thought can be achieved as early as 11 years of age
Did not account for adolescent & adult development in his theory

Now known that cognitive development continues throughout adulthood

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Questions???

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