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Basic Grammar Overview: Parts of Speech -1.

-1. Subject: A noun or nouns in a given sentence that perform the action of the verb. 2. Object: A noun or nouns in a given sentence that receives the action of the verb. a. Noun: Any word that represents one or more people, places, things or ideas. i. Pronoun: A word that represents a noun. I You He She It We You They SUBJECTS Me You Him Her It Us You Them -- OBJECTS 3. Verb: A word or words that communicates the action performed by the subject in a given statement. The action may be visible (action verb) or invisible (non-action verb). a. Subject + Verb = SENTENCE i. Auxiliary ii. Modal 4. Preposition: A word or words that connects two or more parts of speech whilst communicating a specific relationship between them. Every preposition will have one or more Objects of the Preposition, nouns that receive the connection. Together, the preposition and the Object of the Preposition form a PREPOSITIONAL PHRASE. a. Jack ate some pancakes at a diner this morning. b. The man on the bridge was thinking about killing himself with a gun. c. My dog plays in the park with a chew toy and with a few children whom she likes to bite. Jenna is at home with Alex. Martin drinks a lot of cold beer during the summer. Jeremy is eating some incredibly spicy chicken wings. Beatrice has hardly touched her books all month! I think that Jeffrey should have talked to Sam about the issue.

5. Adjective: A word or words that describes, qualifies or otherwise modifies one or more nouns in a given statement. 6. Quantifier 7. Adverb: A word or words that describes, qualifies or otherwise modifies one or more verbs, adjectives or other adverbs. i. Erick runs quickly. ii. Erick is very quick and incredibly agile. iii. Erick has been working unbelievably hard. 1. MOST adverbs, end in LY 8. Possessive Possessive Adjective & Possessive Pronoun 9. MODIFIERS Modifier of Location Modifier of Time Modifier of Frequency Modifier of Intensity etc 10. Conjunctions: A word or words that connect two or more parts of speech or two or more sentences in order to form one compound structure.

Basic Grammar Overview: Structure Rules: In English there are only two (2) basic structure rules. They are easy, but the can be confusing for Spanish speakers who are trying to learn. Remember, English is a different language. Dont use English words with Spanish structures! Jenna is at home with Alex. o Jenna is at home. Jenna is not at home. Is Jenna at home? Martin drinks a lot of cold beer during the summer. o Martin drinks beer. = Martin does drink beer. Martin does not drink beer. Does Martin drink beer? Jeremy is eating some incredibly spicy chicken wings. o Jeremy is eating wings. Jeremy is not eating wings. Is Jeremy eating wings? Beatrice has hardly touched her books all month! o Beatrice has touched her books. Beatrice has not touched her books. Has Beatrice touched her books? I think that Jeffrey should have talked to Sam about the issue. o Jeffrey should have talked. Jeffrey should not have talked. Should Jeffrey have talked? 1. In order to form a negative statement from an affirmative one, simply add <NOT> directly after the first auxiliary or modal (1stAux/Mod) in the original statements verb phrase. 2. In order to form questions from statements, simply move the 1stAux/Mod to the beginning of the statement and change the period into a question mark. 1. NOTE: Remember that the verb BE, when used in its simple present and simple past tense forms, FUNCTIONS as an AUXILIARY despite being a verb.

Practice #01: Copy each of the following sentences in your notebooks. Then, label each part of speech. Finally, write the negative and question form of each. The first problem is solved for you.
1. Luis and Erick have been smoking marijuana all morning. Luis and Erick have been smoking marijuana all morning. Subject Aux(s) Verb Object Mod of Time i. L&E have not been smoking ii. Have L&E been smoking?

2. Ginas family was in Paris for Christmas last year.


a. b. c. d. e. f. Ginas Family Was In Paris For Christmas Last Year = Possessive Noun = Subject = Verb = Prepositional Phrase = Prepositional Phrase = Modifier of Time

i. Ginas family was not in Paris. ii. Was Ginas family in Paris?

3. The little boy on the swings saw the murder.


a. b. c. d. e. TheBoy Little On the Swings Saw The Murder = Subject = Adjective = Prepositional Phrase = Verb = Object

i. The little boy on the swings did not see the murder. ii. Did the little boy on the swings see the murder?

4. Sheila might be playing golf at the club.


a. Sheila = Subject b. Might be playing = Verb Phrase 1. Might = Modal 2. Be = Auxiliary 3. Playing = Verb c. Golf = Object d. At the Club = Prepositional Phrase

i. Sheila might not be playing. ii. Might Sheila be playing?