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‘Third Edition WP a st oss) Ba it) Rey pa] = 508 problems solved step by step re 694 additional practice problems Includes computerized solutions to hundreds of problems Complements all leading textbooks Perfect for self-study T latratarion by Statabes Use with these Courses: cf teasran Sestss 5p i heveartam 1 Eapleraty Batt Anat (OF betas iy Prekaisiy and Suictes Vitienatcal Sines SCHAUM'S OUTLINE OF Theory and Problems of STATISTICS Third Edition MURRAY R. SPIEGEL, Ph.D. Former Professor and Chairman Maihematus Department Rensselaer Polvtechinn Institute Hartford Gracuate Comer LARRY J. STEPHENS Full Professor Mathematies Department Uneversid, of Nebraska ar Omaha Schaum’s Outline Seri MeGRAW-HILA New York Si Louis San Franciseo Auckhind Bogota Caracas Lisbon London Mand Mexio City. Milan Monteeal New Delhi San hun Singapore Sydney Tokyo Toronto, The late MURRAY R. SPIEGEL received the M.S. devree in Physics and the Ph.D. in Mathematics from Cornell University. He had positions at Harvard University. Columbia University. Oak Ridge and Rensselaer Poly- technic Institute, and served as a mathematical consultant at several large companies. His last position was Professor und Chairman of Mathematics at the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Hartford Graduate Center, He was interested in most bran jally those whieh applications to physics and engineering problems. He was the author of numerous journal articles and 14 books on various topics in mathematics of mathemation, ex ra LARRY J. STEPHENS is Professor of Matheanatics at the University of Nebraska at Omaha, He received his bachelor’s degree in Mathematics from Mainphis State University, his master’s degree in Mathematics (rom the University of Arizona, and his Ph.D. degree in Statistics from Oklahoma, State University, Professor Stephens has over 40 publications in professional journals. and over 25 years of experience teaching sttisties. He has taught at the University of Arizona, Christian Brothers College, Gonzaga University. Oklahoma State University, the University of Nebraska at Kearney, and the University of Nebraska at Omaha, He has published numerous computer- ized test banks to accompany elementary statistics texts. He has worked for NASA, Livermore Radiation Laboratory, and Los Alamos Laboratory Since 1989, Dr. Stephens has consulted with and conducted statistics semi nnars for the engineering group at 3M, Valley, Nebraska phint, Schaum's Outline of Theory and Problems of STATISTICS, CCopyrignt «199%, 9 961 by HE MeGv-Htl Compan Ine All rights reserved Pte in the United States of Amerss. Esp! ss permitod under the Copyright Act of 197, 9 pat 4 data base or retreval system, without she prior wntien petmision ofthe pablsher 234567890 PRS'PRS 9032109 ISBN 0.07-000281-6 Produetion Supervisor, Pamela Pelton Library of Congress Cataloging-ia-Publiction Data Spiegel, Murray R Schaum's outline of theory and problems of sates Murray R Spiegel. Larry J Sepnens— inde . cm.”(Schaus outline series) ISBN 0-07-06028146 1. Staite Problems. cxerenes ce. 1 Stephens Lary UTive, IL Title: Theory and problems, IV. Tile, Stanitisk QA2762865. 199% 5195 aert xsd cr McGraw-Hill A Don of the MeGraw il ong MINITAB is a registered trademark of Minitab Inc. aaa UOT uC In preparing this third edition of Schaum's Outline of Statisties, | have replaced dated problems with problems that reflect the technological and sociological changes that have occurred since the frst edition ‘was published in 1961, One problem in the second edition dealt with the lifetimes of radio tubes, fo example. Since most people under thirty probably do not know what radio tubes are, this problem as \well as many others have been replaced by problems involving current topics such as health care issues, AIDS, the Internet, cellular phones, and so forth, The mathematical and statistical aspects have not changed, but the areas of application and the computational aspects of statistics have changed. Another important umprovement is the introduction of statistical software into the text, The devel ‘opment of statistical software packages such as SAS, SPSS, and MINITAB has dramatically changed the application of statisties to real-world problems. One of the most widely used statistical packages in academia as well as in industrial settings is the package called MINITAB (Minitab Inc., 308] Enterprise Drive, State College, PA 16801-3008), | would like to thank Minitab Inc. for granting me permission to include Minitab output throughout the text, Many modern statistical textbooks include computer sof \ware output as part of the text, | have chosen to include Minitab because itis widely used and is very friendly, Once a student learns the various data file structures needed to use MINITAB, and the structure of the commands and subcommands, this knowledge is readily transferable to other statistical sofiware, With the introduction of pull-down menus and dialog boxes. the software has been made even friendlier. [ include both commands and pull-down menus in the Minitab discussions in the text Many of the new problems discuss the important statistical concept of the p-value for a statistical test. When the first edition was introduced in 1961, the p-value was not as widely used as it is today, hecause it is afien difficnlt to determine without the aid of computer software. Today pavalues are routinely provided by statistical software packages since the computer Software computation of p-values ic often a trivial matter A new chapter entitled “Statistical Process Control and Process Capability” has replaced Chapter included in the text. The inclusion of the techniques of statistical process control and process capability in modern software packages has facilitated the implementation of these techniques in many industeia settings. The software performs all the computations, which are rather burdensome. 1 chose to use Minitab because | feel that it is among the best software for SPC applications, T wish to thank my wife Lana for her understanding during the preparation of the book; my friend Stanley Witeman for all the compater help he has given me; and Alan Hant and the staff at Keyword Publishing Services Ltd., London, England, for their fine production work. Finally, I wish to thank the Fat McGraw-Hill for their cooperation and helpfulness Lawiy J. Siemens rea Sey Statistics, or statistical methods as it is sometimes called, is playing an increasingly important role in nearly ail phases of hurnan endeavor. Formetiy deating only with affuits of the ste, thus aecounting for its name, the influence of statistics has now spread to agriculture, biology, business. chemistry, commu njeations, economics, education, electronics. medicine, physics, political science, psychology, Sociology and numerous other fields of science and engineering The purpose of this book 1s to present an introduction to the general statistical principles which will be found useful (o all individuals regardless of thei fields of specialization. I¢ has been designed for use either as a supplement to ail current standard texts or as a textbook for a formal course in statistics, It should also be of considerable value as a book of reference for those presently engaged in applications of statistics to their own special problems of research, Each chapter begins with clear statements of pertinent definitions, theorems and principles together with illustrative and other descriptive material, This is followed by graded sets of solved and supple- ‘mentary problems which in many instances use data drawn from actual statistical situations, The solved problems serve to illustrate and amplify the theory, bring into sharp focus those fine points without Which the student continually feels himself on unsafe ground. and provide the repetition of basic principles so vital to effective teaching. Numerous derivations of formals are included among the solved Problems. The large number of supplementary problems with answers serve ns # ‘material of each chapter. The only mathematical background needed for an understanding of the entire book is arithmetic and the elements of algebra, A review of important mathematical concepts used in the book is presented in the first chapter which may either be reud at the beginning of the course oF referted to later as the need arises The caily part of the book deals with the analysis of frequency distributions and associated measures of central tendency, dispersion, skewness und kurtosis. This leads quite naturally to x discussion of eiementary probability dieory and applications, wiieit paves die way for a study of saupiing tieory Techniques of large sampling theory, which involve the normal distribution, and applications to stai tical estimation and ests of hypotheses and significance are treated first. Small sampling theory, invo- ving Student’s + distribution, the chi-square distribution and the F distribution together with the applications appear In & later chapter. Another chapter on curve fitting and the method of least squares leads logically to the topics of correlation and regression involving two variables. Multiple and partial correlation involving more than two variables are treated in a separate chapter. ‘These are followed by chapters on the analysis of variance and nonparametric methods, new in this second edition. Two final chapters deal with the analysis of time series and index numbery respectively Considerably more material has been included here than can be covered in most first courses. This has been done to make the book more flexible. to provide a more useful book of reference and to stimulate further interest in the topics. In using the book itis possible to change the order of many later chapters or even to omit certain chapters without dificully, For example, Chapters 13-15 and 18-19 can, for the most part, be introduced immediately after Chapter 5. if it is desired to treat correlation, regression, times series, and index numbers before sampling theory. Simitarly, most of Chapter 6 may be omitted if one does not wish to devote too much time to probability. Ina first course all of Chapter 15 ‘may be omitted, The present order has been used because there is an inereasing tendency in modern courses 19 introduce sampling theory and statistical influence ns early as possible Tlwish to thank the various agencies, both governmental and private, For their cooperation in supply- ing dara for tables. Appropriate references to such sources are given throughout the hook. In particular, vamplete raview of the