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J. Sleep Res.

(2007) 16, 111

Train driving eciency and safety: examining the cost of fatigue


J I L L I A N D O R R I A N , F R A N K H U S S E Y and D R E W D A W S O N
The Centre for Sleep Research and the School of Psychology, The University of South Australia, Adelaide, SA 5000, Australia

Accepted in revised form 3 October 2006; received 8 February 2006

ABSTRACT

This study investigated the eects of fatigue on train driving using data loggers on 50 locomotives operated by pairs of male train drivers (2456 years) on an Adelaide Melbourne corridor. Drivers work history was used to calculate a fatigue score using Fatigue Audit Interdyne Software. Trains were assigned to one of three groups, based on drivers maximum fatigue score: low (n 15), moderate (n 22) or high (n 13) fatigue. Changes in driving parameters at dierent fatigue levels were investigated. A signicant (P < 0.05) increase in fuel use was observed. Drivers in the moderate fatigue group used 4% more, and drivers in the high group used 9% more fuel than drivers in the low group. As these trains run daily, taking horsepower into account, this represents an approximate extra weekly cost of AUD$3512 using high compared with low fatigue drivers. High fatigue-group drivers used less throttle and dynamic brake and engaged in more heavy brake and maximum speed violations. Comparison of three, 100 km track sub-sections with undulating, at, and hilly grade indicated that fuel use increases occurred primarily during the undulating sub-section, and heavy brake and maximum speed violations occurred primarily in the at sub-section. Fatigued driving becomes less well-planned, resulting in reduced eciency (e.g. increased fuel consumption) and safety (e.g. braking and speeding violations). Fatigue may manifest dierentially depending on track grade. In certain areas, fatigue will cause increased fuel use and economic cost, and in others, reduced safety through driving violations. These factors should be carefully examined in future railway operator research. keywords cost, eciency, fatigue, safety, train driving

INTRODUCTION Sleep loss and fatigue are serious issues for train drivers, whose work hours are often long and uncertain and involve night and early morning shifts (Foret and Latin, 1972; Ha rma et al., 2002; Pilcher and Coplen, 2000; Pollard, 1991, 1996; Roach et al., 2003). Studies collecting subjective reports kerstedt et al., 1983) and polysomnographic sleep measures (A kerstedt, 1987) have (Cabon et al., 1993; Torsvall and A recorded periods of drowsiness and even microsleeps while driving. Rail accident reports in numerous countries, including Australia, China, Japan and the US have cited work-related fatigue (Pearce, 1999; Zhou, 1991) and the ability of the driver
Correspondence: Jillian Dorrian, Lecturer in Psychology, The Centre for Sleep Research, The University of South Australia, 7th Floor Playford Building (P7-35), City East Campus, Frome Rd, Adelaide, SA 5000, Australia. Tel.: +61 8 8302 6624; fax: +61 8 8302 6623; e-mail: jill.dorrian@unisa.edu.au 2007 European Sleep Research Society

to maintain wakefulness (Kogi and Ohta, 1975; Lauber and Kayten, 1988) as contributing agents. While sleepiness has been simply dened as a drive towards sleep (Dement and Carskadon, 1982), dening the concept of fatigue has proved to be more complex. Recent attempts have focused on dualistic approaches (i.e. acute versus chronic, physiological versus psychological) (reviewed in Shen et al., 2006). While there may be merit for specically dened dierences between the concepts of sleepiness and fatigue, it is generally acknowledged that these concepts are highly interrelated (Shen et al., 2006). Based on previous work (Brown, 1994; Bartley and Chute, 1947; Cameron, 1974; Yoshitake, 1971), this paper will use a working denition of fatigue as a subjective phenomenon that is connected with the desire to rest and is associated with unpleasant psychological and physiological sensations. Further, like sleepiness, fatigue is conceptualized as the result of inadequate restorative sleep and rest and excessive time awake, and is modulated by time of day.

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they could apply the brakes late and incorrectly (by making large, single, heavy reductions in brake pipe pressure). In this case, the speed violation would still be minimized to some degree, however a braking violation would occur. Finally, they could fail to apply the brakes at all. This would likely result in a serious speed violation (Fig. 1, top panel). Drivers at a moderate fatigue level tended to follow the second option. Those at a high level of fatigue were more likely to follow the third option. In simple terms, fatigue lead to a reduction in planning (i.e. a failure to anticipate and prepare for upcoming track features) and, depending on the drivers braking behaviour, there would be one of two negative outcomes braking error or speed violation. Braking errors primarily result in reduced eciency, causing increases in fuel use and wheel, coupler and cargo damage. Speed violations, particularly at high levels are more likely to manifest in terms of safety, increasing derailment risk. Therefore, the decrease in fuel use and braking errors at a high, compared with a moderate fatigue level, can be interpreted as a risk transfer, or a shift in cost from eciency to safety (Fig. 1, lower panel). In the simulator used in this study (Dorrian et al., in press a,b; Roach et al., 2001), it was impossible to derail the virtual train. In contrast, the real world consequences of speed violations are severe. As such, it could be suggested that these simulator ndings would not be observed in a real train. Rather, when there are substantial safety consequences, fatigue may be more likely to manifest in terms of reduced eciency as opposed to safety.

In the last decade, high-delity rail simulator studies have been conducted to identify and quantify the specic eects of sleep loss and fatigue on train driving performance, not only in terms of safety, but also eciency. For example, Thomas and Raslear (1997) found that a backwards-rotating shift system was associated with a cumulative sleep debt. Drivers on this schedule experienced reduced alertness, increased fuel use, missed alerter signals and failures to sound the horn at grade crossings. A more recent study found an increase in the frequency and magnitude of speed violations with increasing fatigue (Dorrian et al., in press a,b; Roach et al., 2001). Drivers at a moderate level of fatigue committed more braking errors and used more fuel. Interestingly however, at a high level of fatigue, there was an apparent increase in eciency, with drivers using less fuel and making less braking errors compared with those at a moderate fatigue level. This counterintuitive nding was explained as a risk transfer from eciency to safety at a high level of fatigue (Fig. 1). It was suggested that this transfer was due, at least in part, to the limitations of the simulator environment. Specically, fatigue lead to an inability to adequately plan for upcoming track features that required a reduction in speed (e.g. curves, stations, track works). As a result, trains reached speedrestricted areas travelling too fast. Drivers in this situation faced three options. Firstly, they could apply the brakes late and correctly (using medium-level split reductions in brake pipe pressure). This would minimize the speed violation without applying the brakes too quickly or heavily. Secondly,

Figure 1. Flow-charts describing ndings of simulator studies (adapted from Dorrian et al., 2005). The upper panel displays the potential impact of operator fatigue on brake use and the consequences in terms of speed violations. The lower panel displays a simplied version of this model whereby operator fatigue aects brake use, the consequences of which manifest primarily in terms of eciency (increased fuel use due to poor brake use) or safety (speed violations). 2007 European Sleep Research Society, J. Sleep Res., 16, 111

The cost of fatigue in train driving


Indeed, given the complex nature of fatigue, its eects on performance may manifest in many ways. To date, much of our knowledge in this area has been generated by laboratory studies involving computer-based performance assessments. While these provide a controlled environment in which to test specic eects, laboratory studies are unable to incorporate all of the variables that may intervene in a work place, and ndings are often limited in operational relevance. Although simulator studies have greater face-validity, they are usually also limited, particularly in terms of perceived risk, or consequences of sub-optimal performance. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to investigate the eects of fatigue on driving performance in real trains using downloads from data loggers (on-board devices that record drivers actions in detail). This was an exploratory, retrospective protocol using downloads from freight trains traversing a MelbourneAdelaide corridor. Further, ndings of the previously described simulator study (Dorrian et al., in press b) also indicated that driving performance in track sections with varying track characteristics were likely to be aected dierentially by fatigue. Therefore, a secondary aim of the current study was to investigate smaller sections of this corridor that diered substantially in terms of track grade prole.

METHODS Procedure Data from 50 trains travelling from Dimboola, Victoria to Adelaide Freight Terminal (AFT), South Australia were collected between January 2004 and May 2005. One particular type of train scheduled on this corridor was chosen due to the fact that the length and loading tend to be relatively consistent. The railway operator downloads data for trains on this corridor at random intervals to monitor train handling for quality control and training purposes. Researchers were given access to these downloads, enabling random sampling of trains on this corridor. On average, trains in this study were 1365.1 m (SD 84.3) in length, with three locomotives hauling 2980.2 tonnes (SD 451.8), consisting of 64.7 wagons (SD 4.1). The loading consisted primarily of 20 or 40 foot shipping containers. The carriage of liquid, which adds an extra element of complexity in terms of train handling due to additional train

forces, was minimal. Liquid tanks constituted only a very small percentage of the load (there was a maximum of two liquid carrying tanks, per train). This train operates as a land bridge between the Melbourne and Adelaide Ports. Drivers took 7.3 h (SD 0.86 h) to traverse this section of track. The total distance was 422.1 km (SD 5.8 km). Variation in distance travelled occurred as some trains did not stop at AFT, but continued to a station 6 km away. Trains typically departed Dimboola between 11:00 hours and midnight and arrived at AFT between 7:00 and 8:00 hours. This track section was specically chosen due to the dierences in track grade (Fig. 2), which allowed sampling of long, monotonous areas of track as well as steep and undulating sections, which may require a higher degree of interaction with the train to maintain adequate control. Drivers, all male (age range: 2456 years), were from two Australian depots (Dimboola and AFT). The experience level of the drivers was relatively homogenous. All drivers were regularly rostered to scheduled trains on this corridor. Drivers were from a group who had been working this corridor for 12 years. Two drivers were in the cabin at all times. Drivers often worked using a buddy system, working with the same partner each trip. Short-term absences (e.g. sick leave, recreation leave) were lled by o-duty regular drivers. Typically, drivers split the drive into four, roughly 2-h alternating blocks of continuous driving. It should be noted that, from the data collected, it was not possible to determine which of the pair was driving the train at any particular time during the trip. Data loggers Train driver performance was recorded and processed using the Pulse Train TraxTM Recording System and Analysis Program (Version 1.1, 1997; Pulse Electronics Inc., Rockville, MD, USA). This includes a data logging device, tted to a single locomotive on each train, which records details of drivertrain interaction once per second. Measures recorded by or calculated from the data loggers include: Fuel consumption (L) Fuel rate (L km GT). It is important to note that the logger measures train parameters on one locomotive per train (5000 hp). As described above, these trains typically have three locomotives

Figure 2. Track prole (adapted from Dorrian et al., 2005). 2007 European Sleep Research Society, J. Sleep Res., 16, 111

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kerstedt, 1981). Predicted fatigue deprivation (Gillberg and A level was found to correlate well across a range of measures including psychomotor vigilance performance, subjective performance ratings, sleepiness and tiredness (Fletcher and Dawson, 2001a). In addition, the model has been used in rail simulator studies investigating similar performance measures to the current study. In these studies, there was a clear relationship between fatigue as indicated by model output, train driving performance, psychomotor vigilance performance and subjective alertness levels (Dorrian et al., in press a,b). For further model information, the reader is directed to Dawson and Fletcher (2001), Fletcher and Dawson (2001b) and Roach et al. (2004a,b). Track sections In order to investigate the inuence of track characteristics on the relationship between fatigue and driving performance, 100 km sections were chosen in the track from comparison of the undulating, at and hilly territory. As can be seen in Fig. 2, given that the total length of track studied was 420 km, this leaves 120 km of track that was not included in the track section analyses. Statistical analyses Based on the maximum fatigue score reached by either driver during each trip, trains were classied into one of three groups: (1) low fatigue, encompassing fatigue scores from 35 to 65 (n 15), (2) moderate fatigue, encompassing scores from 65 to 80 (n 22), and (3) high fatigue, encompassing scores of 80 and above (n 13). Group classications were based on maximum fatigue score in order to capture the worst-case scenario in each train. Due to the buddy system, drivers on a particular train often had the same fatigue score. Indeed, for 57% of trains, fatigue scores for both drivers were within the same fatigue group range. The mean fatigue score dierence was 12 points (95% CI: 7.616.4). As outlined above, sample size was primarily dictated by operational constraints, and prospective power analysis was dicult given the lack of available real world data. To assist interpretation of means testing, although somewhat controversial (Thomas, 1997), retrospective power analyses was conducted. Based on the primary outcome variable (fuel) this analysis indicated that a sample of this size would achieve a power of 0.71 for dierences between low and high fatigue, 0.43 for dierences between low and moderate fatigue and 0.60 for dierences between moderate and high fatigue. Therefore overall, the study was moderately powered. A larger sample size would certainly have improved robustness of results. Dierences between fatigue groups were assessed using mixed eects model analysis. When the data were split into the fatigue groups, ve pairs appeared more than once. In addition, there was a degree of variation in train parameters (see Table 1). Number of wagons, train length and load are
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(2 5000 hp, 1 3000 hp). Therefore, fuel consumption in litres for the train as a whole is approximately 2.6 times the values reported. Fuel rate is a standardized measure used by several Australian Rail Operators. It is calculated by dividing fuel use (L) by distance travelled (km) and total train weight (Gross Tonnes). Target fuel rates are calculated for dierent train corridors and drivers are given a maximum limit that they should not exceed. As actual fuel consumption was only available for one locomotive during this study, total fuel rate was estimated by correcting fuel consumption to take into account the number and horsepower of locomotives on each train. Other driving measures included: Variation in brake pipe pressure (kPa), which is an indicator of air brake use (lower kPa indicates a heavier brake application) Heavy brake violations (when an air brake application of greater than 100 kPa is applied while the train is in motion at a speed of greater than 20 km h) Time spent in dynamic brake (min) Number of throttle changes Average train speed (km h) Maximum train speed (km h) Time spent in violation of maximum train speed (the maximum track speed for this type of train is 110 km h) (min). Fatigue level A maximum fatigue score was calculated for each trip a driver took using the Fatigue Audit Interdyne (FAID) software [commercially available version of the Dawson and Fletcher (2001) fatigue model]. This model is used extensively in the Australian Rail Industry to estimate the degree of sleep loss, and by inference the level of fatigue, associated with a particular pattern of work. In line with the working denition of fatigue previously described, the basis of this model is the principle that the opposing forces of work and rest inuence fatigue. The magnitude of fatigue production and recovery is dependent on the duration, circadian timing and recency of work and rest periods. That is, the model uses information about work shifts and time o (duration, time of day and distribution across days) to estimate fatigue production and recovery. As such, using subjects 7-day prior work history, the model assigned values to work and recovery (non-work and sleep) periods, and an expected fatigue output was calculated using a fatigue algorithm. As previously explained, the model takes into account the recency of work shifts, attributing greater importance to those occurring most recently, and has a saturation function, ensuring that a recovery period will not be attributed a greater recovery value than is possible, given the amount of fatigue incurred during the preceding shifts. This model has been validated using data from studies of both cumulative partial sleep deprivation (Dinges et al., 1997; Carskadon and Dement, 1981), and continuous acute sleep

The cost of fatigue in train driving


Table 1 Means and standard deviations of train descriptive variables across operator fatigue categories Low Mean Wagons Length (m) Load Distance 66.7 1395.1 3527.0 421.3 SD 3.0 61.6 318.5 6.8 Moderate Mean 63.5 1338.9 2918.38 422.8 SD 5.2 105.3 460.9 5.6 High Mean 65.3 1376.4 2896.9 422.4 SD 3.0 62.8 344.3 1.6

intercorrelated (wagons-load: r 0.42, wagons-length: r 0.99, load-length: r 0.45). Therefore, mixed eects models specied random eects of pair ID (i.e. taking into account repeated contributions by the same pair of drivers), distance and load, with a xed eect of fatigue group, and train driving parameters as dependent variables. Models were also constructed to investigate dierences in the eects of fatigue during areas of track with dierent characteristics. These models specied xed eects (main and interaction) of fatigue group and track section. Finally, individual models for fatigue group dierences in each track section were then constructed to specically examine changes across fatigue group within track sections. Denominator degrees of freedom were calculated using Satterthwaite approximation. RESULTS Overall track analyses Mixed model analysis indicated a signicant increase in fuel use across fatigue groups (F2,4.6 6.3, P 0.05), with factor level contrasts revealing signicant dierences between fuel use at a high compared with low and moderate fatigue levels (P 0.05). This translates to an increase in mean fuel consumption of 4% between low and moderate fatigue levels, and 9% from low to high fatigue levels (Fig. 3). While the between-group variation in fuel rate was not statistically signicant, an operationally meaningful dierence was observable. Specically, Fig. 3 shows a clear increase across fatigue groups such that at high levels of fatigue, fuel consumption exceeded the maximum target fuel rate (indicated by the dotted line). Variation between fatigue groups for the other overall track driving parameters was not signicant. Figs 3 and 4 display trends. Average air brake use (as indicated by brake pipe pressure) remained constantly high across fatigue groups, as would be expected on trains with ecient dynamic brakes. However, there was an observable increase in the time spent in heavy brake violation with a corresponding decrease in dynamic brake use with increasing fatigue. There was also a decrease in the number of throttle changes and a concurrent increase in average speed, speed variability and time over maximum train speed (i.e. >110 km h)1). Overall, however, drivers in all groups maintained speed within 10% of the maximum limit.
2007 European Sleep Research Society, J. Sleep Res., 16, 111 Figure 3. Train driving parameters at low, moderate and high operator fatigue categories. Fuel consumption (L), fuel rate (L km)1 GT)1), air brake use (kPa), heavy brake violations, dynamic brake use (min) and throttle use (number of changes) in each fatigue group. The dotted line on the fuel rate graph indicates the target maximum fuel rate for this corridor specied by the rail operator.

Track sections Mixed model analysis investigated main and interaction eects of track section and fatigue level. There was a signicant (P 0.05) eect of track section on all aspects of driving performance (Table 2, Fig. 5). As would be expected, the largest degree of fuel was used in the hilly section (45.6%), which was also where the largest degree of dynamic brake (71.2% of total dynamic brake time) and throttle use (38.6% of all throttle changes) was required. The majority of heavy braking occurred in the at section (60% of violations), as did an increase in the time spent above maximum train speed (64.5% of the total time). Violations were spread throughout the 100 km section. Analysis indicated a signicant (P 0.05) main eect of fatigue for fuel use and time spent over maximum speed, and a signicant (P 0.05) interaction eect of track section and fatigue for all driving parameters. To further investigate this, individual models for fatigue group dierences in each track section were then constructed. There was a signicant increase in fuel use during the undulating track section (F2,4.8 6.0, P 0.05), with fuel use at a high fatigue level signicantly (P 0.05) greater than that at a low level. This translated to a

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either the moderate or low groups. This was mirrored by increases in the amount of time spent over the maximum train speed (Table 2, Fig. 5). DISCUSSION This study aimed to explore the eects of fatigue on driving performance in freight trains on a MelbourneAdelaide corridor, and to examine potential dierences in fatigue eects during dierent types of track grade. Results indicated signicant increases in fuel consumption with increasing predicted fatigue. While overall air brake use remained unchanged across fatigue groups, there was an observable increase in heavy brake violations and a decrease in dynamic brake use and throttle manipulation. There was a concurrent trend towards increased speed, particularly time spent over maximum train speed (>110 km h)1). However, overall, maximum train speed remained within 10% of the maximum speed limit. Investigations of 100 km undulating, at and hilly sections of track revealed, as expected, changes in driving parameters with varying track grade. Drivers used more fuel, throttle and dynamic brake in the hilly section and committed more heavy brake and speed violations during the at section. However, the overall increases in fuel use occurred primarily during the undulating section. Overall track analyses

Figure 4. Train speed parameters at low, moderate and high operator fatigue categories. Average speed (km h)1), time over maximum speed (s) and maximum speed (km h)1) in each fatigue group. The dotted line on the maximum speed graph indicates 10% above the speed limit (i.e. 120 km h)1).

Table 2 Track section analysis with main eects of track section and predicted fatigue score, and their interaction Section Performance variables F2,108.1 P Fuel* Heavy brake Dynamic brake Throttle Average speed Speed > 110 km h)1 Maximum speed 337.8 3.1 1355.6 187.4 632.1 25.0 36.8 0.01 0.05 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 Fatigue score F2,63.5 P 3.31 0.7 1.5 2.1 0.7 3.5 1.8 0.05 NS NS NS NS 0.05 NS Section* fatigue F4,105.3 P 4.4 7.3 6.0 2.5 3.3 3.4 3.6 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.01

df: section 2,103.3; fatigue 2,62.1; section*fatigue 4,100.9. NS, non-signicant. *Six observations were missing for fuel use.

dierence of 21% (107 L). As with the overall track analyses, increases in fuel use during this section were mirrored by reductions in dynamic brake and throttle use. There was a signicant increase in maximum speed during the at track section (F2,4,8 11.8, P 0.05), with maximum speed in the high fatigue group signicantly (P 0.01) higher than that in

The most notable nding was the increase in fuel across fatigue category groups. Specically, a 4% increase in fuel use between low and moderate groups, and a 9% increase (a mean increase of 193 L) between low and high groups was found. These gures can be used to approximate the economic cost of high fatigue on trains on this section of the corridor (i.e. Dimboola to AFT). Specically, the price of fuel is roughly AUD$1 per litre, and these trains run daily, typically with three locomotives. As explained in the Methods section, the loggers record data for one locomotive only. Based on horsepower, the total fuel consumption for the train is 2.6 times the amount for the locomotive with the data logger. Therefore, the weekly cost of drivers in the high fatigue range is an extra AUD$3512 [193 L 2.6 $1 7 days], compared with low fatigue drivers. This translates to an additional yearly cost of AUD$182 655. Further, drivers in the high group exceeded the maximum target fuel rate for this track (fuel use/distance/ total train weight). These ndings indicate that the direct operational cost of fatigue is potentially substantial. The increase in fuel consumption can be explained by the changes in the other driving parameters with increasing fatigue. Specically, there was a decrease in dynamic brake use and throttle manipulation. This suggests a less ne-tuned approach to speed control. Rather than using the dynamic brake and throttle changes to smoothly control train speed as it passes over changing terrain, drivers at moderate and high levels of fatigue display a reduction in their interaction with the train. This suggestion is supported by the increase in heavy
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The cost of fatigue in train driving

Figure 5. Fuel consumption (L), dynamic brake use (min), number of throttle changes, time spent over maximum speed and maximum speed during each track section (km h)1) at each fatigue level.

brake violations. Concurrent with the decrease in ne-tuned speed control, fatigued drivers appear to apply the air brake heavily while the train is still in motion. This would typically occur when drivers are trying to make sudden, safety-critical speed reductions as a result of failure to adequately plan for an upcoming track feature requiring the train to slow (i.e. curves, track works, stations). Taken together, these changes indicate a switch from a wellplanned, prospective driving style, to a more reactive, less ecient pattern of train interaction. During training, drivers
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on this track are instructed that the most ecient driving approach for this type of train on this particular corridor is to use the dynamic brake (as opposed to the air brake) to slow the train. However, the dynamic brake must be applied gradually, and therefore earlier than the air brake. Sudden application of the dynamic brake causes high bu forces (run-in, or bunching, between wagons) as the stopping force is concentrated on the front of the train (on the locomotive). In contrast, the air brake is designed to more evenly distribute the stopping force along the length of the train (Armstrong, 1996). For these

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amount of train interaction. The driver is required to carefully modulate train speed under conditions where the train may be crossing several dierent ascending and descending grades. Slack action can be severe, as, aided by gravity, wagons on descending grades tend to roll faster than those on ascending grades. As such, it is clear how reduced train interaction while fatigued can decrease driving eciency in undulating territory. In this context, the increases in fuel use by fatigued drivers in undulating territory are not surprising. On the other hand, it is interesting that there was no increase in fuel use among fatigued drivers during the hilly section, particularly as this section generally required the highest degree of fuel consumption, due to the large grade changes and associated necessity for train interaction to control speed. However, track grade was not the only factor that diered in the three track sections. There were dierences in time-on-task and time-of-day that cannot be isolated from the dierences in grade in this study. For example, these trains traverse the undulating section just after midnight, in darkness, whereas they typically reach the hilly section as the sun is rising. Thus, the eect of fatigue on their performance during the hilly section could have been mitigated by sunlight or the knowledge that they were close to the end of their journey. Alternatively, fatigue eects may have been mitigated by the drivers perception of the level of attention required in each section. That is, the hilly section is a focus during training for this corridor due to its relative diculty resulting from quite severe gradients (e.g. 1 in 45, 2%). Further, while other corridors have switched to driver only (single driver) operations, this corridor remains a twodriver operation as the hills are dicult to access if there is an emergency. Drivers may have been more motivated to drive carefully in the hills. In contrast to the undulating and hilly sections, the long at section would have required very little interaction from the drivers to control train speed. In this section, drivers committed more maximum speed and heavy brake violations. It could be that the lower level of train interaction required made it easier to pay less attention to the task of driving the train during this section. Drivers may have engaged less with the task, and planning may have been aected. They may therefore have tried to slow the train down late in the necessary areas, and applied the air brake late and hard. Further, as speed was not limited by the grade in this section (i.e. there were no uphill sections to slow the train naturally), lack of attention and engagement in this area could more easily result in higher train speeds, greater than the limit for that train. Limitations This was a retrospective, exploratory study, and therefore has a number of associated limitations. First, there was the absence of information on the sleep and wake patterns of the drivers, or indeed any information about what they did during their non-work time. We could only access information that was collected and archived by the railway operator rosters and logger downloads. We used a modelling tool to estimate
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reasons, dynamic brake use requires a higher degree of planning from the driver. Not only are fatigued drivers using less dynamic brake, but they are also using the air brake in a more last-minute and potentially damaging fashion. Thus, the nding from previous simulator studies (Dorrian et al., in press a,b; Roach et al., 2001) that fatigue aects the ability to plan appropriately for speed reductions, and aects brake use, is supported by the current study. Increases in average train speed and time spent over the maximum speed for these trains are consistent with this changing pattern in speed modulation. It should be noted that the track limit is specically calculated for typical trains crossing the corridor and that drivers are trained and supervised to run to speed limits exactly. However, the fact that drivers maintained train speed within 10% of the maximum speed limit, suggests that the drivers were conscious of the speed, and were attempting to control it, at least to some extent. This is an important dierence from results of simulator studies (Dorrian et al., in press a,b; Roach et al., 2001), which found an increase in extreme speed violations at high levels of fatigue. Current results suggest that in a real train, with measurable safety consequences, fatigue may be more likely to manifest in terms of reduced eciency as opposed to safety. Indeed, the inability to simulate consequences is a well-acknowledged shortcoming of many simulator studies. However, while the specic outcomes of the current study (reduced eciency) may be dierent from the simulator studies (reduced safety), the mechanism behind these outcomes was consistent. That is, as mentioned above (Dorrian et al., in press a,b; Roach et al., 2001), ndings of both studies suggest that fatigue aects the ability to plan ahead and inuences operator braking behaviour. Track section analyses As expected, fatigue aected driving performance dierentially in dierent sections of track. The increase in fuel use observed with increasing fatigue occurred primarily in the undulating section. The dierence in fuel consumption between low and high fatigue groups in this track section was 21% (107 L). This translates to an additional weekly cost of AUD$2022 [107 L 2.6 $1 7 days], or AUD$105 960 yearly. In fact, this track section, which represents only 24% of the total track investigated in this study, accounts for 55% of the total increase in fuel use that was observed in fatigued drivers. There are numerous factors that aect the workload and task complexity of train driving (i.e. at the driver, train, track and environmental level; for a more detailed discussion, see Dorrian et al., in press b). In this study, driver, train and environmental factors were kept as homogenous as possible given that this was a eld study. Therefore, track characteristics can be considered primary determinants of workload and task complexity in this context (Dorrian et al., in press b). In particular, the track grade dictates the level of interaction with the train that is required to appropriately control train speed. For example, undulating grade typically requires the greatest

The cost of fatigue in train driving


fatigue levels that would be generated by the drivers roster (Dawson and Fletcher, 2001). This model was chosen over other models that predict alertness and performance, as most kerstedt, 1987; Folkard et al., other models (e.g. Folkard and A 1999) rely on subjects sleep/wake histories. The specic limitations of this approach must be acknowledged. The model is open to the general criticisms of all models of fatigue, alertness and or performance. That is, model predictions are a simplication of the complex interaction of factors that produce fatigue/alertness. Such models currently cannot account for factors such as individual dierences, psychosocial inuences, work characteristics, motivatory factors that can inuence the way fatigue aects an individual (Dinges and Acherman, 1999) or circadian phase shifts that can occur as the result of dierent work schedules. An additional study limitation was the range of fatigue scores that we were able to collect. The rail operator that participated in this study already used the FAID Software to screen their planned rosters as part of a programme to reduce highly fatiguing schedules. Therefore, the possible range of fatigue scores for this study was restricted. Indeed, of the 50 trains involved, 13 were in the high range (80+), compared with 23 in the moderate range (6580). While the highest score was 110, over 76% of trains in the high group scored a maximum of 90 or less. Further, it is important to note that the fatigue score classication, and indeed the performance recordings of the trains are based on a two-driver system. As previously outlined, trains were classied according to the maximum fatigue score of either driver on the train in order to examine a worst-case scenario. In classifying based on the maximum, this study was more likely to underestimate rather than overestimate fatigue eects on this corridor for these schedules. Unfortunately, in the current study, it was not possible to collect information about the degree to which the two drivers interacted, or the proportion of time each driver was in control of the train. That is to say, we have no specic data to conrm whether or not drivers all followed the typically reported 2-h alternating driving pattern. It must also be acknowledged that the eects of fatigue on driver performance in two-driver operations may be dierent from that in driver only operations. As the data logger software is designed primarily for investigation of driver behaviour on individual trains (e.g. during training or incident investigation), a large amount of data processing was necessary to render the data viable for research purposes. This resulted in a relatively slow data collection process. The 50 trains presented here were collected over a 15-month period. Organizational and/or seasonal changes over time may have aected the data to some extent. Nevertheless, the authors are not aware of any major roster adjustments, stang changes or restructuring programmes during data collection. Moreover, the time taken to collect and process the data limited the number of records that it was possible to study. It would have certainly been preferable to run these analyses on a larger sample.
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As previously described, results of the track section analyses, comparing performance between sections, must be interpreted with caution as the eects of fatigue cannot be reliably discerned from potential eects of time-of-day and time-ontask. The importance of time-of-day (reviewed in van Dongen et al., 2005) and time-on-task (reviewed in Dorrian and Dinges, 2005) relative to task performance has been clearly established. In this part of the study, any bias resulting from these factors is likely to be systematic (i.e. the same track sections were always traversed by drivers in the same order, at the same time of day). However, results of these analyses are in line with research investigating the interaction between task complexity and fatigue (e.g. Wilkinson, 1964; Williams and Lubin, 1967), and with a previous simulator study that did control for these factors (Dorrian et al., in press b). Therefore, the results highlight the need for further research in this area. Finally, it should be acknowledged that ndings that are statistically signicant are not always large enough to be operationally relevant. On the other hand, meaningful operational dierences that are not statistically signicant may not be reliable. In the overall track analyses for the current study, fuel use showed an increase across predicted fatigue groups that was both meaningful and signicant. In contrast, the trends in fuel rate and other driving parameters (e.g. air brake, dynamic brake, throttle) can only be considered as tools to help describe changes in fuel use. This may be a function of the complexities of looking at a 420 km of track as a whole. Indeed, the interaction eects between fatigue and track section support this possibility. Further, without large numbers, it is dicult to demonstrate statistically signicant dierences in rare, but potentially safety-critical, events such as heavy brake violations. Similar studies conducted on a larger scale would address some of these issues. Future directions Ideally, prospective studies would be conducted to allow experimenter control over the variables collected (e.g. sleep/ wake information using sleep diaries, actigraphy or even ambulatory polysomnography). The ethical implications of this could be problematic if investigators are aware that drivers are sleepy, is it safe to allow them to drive? Further, if drivers are aware that they are participating in a study about sleepiness and fatigue, or even that their driving performance is being specically monitored, their driving could be aected (interestingly however, behavioural eects of unobstrusive cameras appeared to have worn o by the end of the rst hour in a recent car study: Dingus et al., 2006). These are the primary issues avoided by the retrospective, exploratory nature of the current study. As such, while this study has clear limitations, it represents an important rst step towards quantifying the eects of fatigue in real trains, as opposed to the controlled environment of the rail simulator. It raises numerous questions about the specic eects of fatigue on driving performance. It would be benecial for future studies to investigate (among other factors):

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Dinges, D. F. and Acherman, P. Commentary: Future considerations for models of human neurobehavioral function. J. Biol. Rhythms, 1999, 14: 598601. Dingus, T. A., Klauer, S. G., Neale, V. L., Petersen, A., Lee, S. E., Sudweeks, J., Perez, M. A., Hankey, J., Ramsey, D., Gupta, S., Bucher, C., Doerzaph, Z. R., Jermeland, J. and Knipling, R. R. The 100-Car Naturalistic Driving Study: Phase II Results of the 100-Car Field Experiment. National Highway Trac Safety Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation, DOT HS 810 593, VA, 2006. van Dongen, H. P. A. and Dinges, D. F. Circadian rhythms in sleepiness and performance. In: M. H. Kryger, T. Roth and W. C. Dement (Eds) Principles and Practice of Sleep Medicine, 4th edn. Elsevier, Philadelphia, PA, 2005: 435443. Dorrian, J. and Dinges, D. F. Sleep deprivation and its eects on cognitive performance. In: T. Lee-Chiong (Ed.) Encyclopedia of Sleep Medicine. John Wiley and Sons, NJ, 2005: 139144. Dorrian, J., Hussey, F. and Dawson, D. The eects of fatigue on train driving performance: a data logger study. Proceedings of the International Conference on Fatigue Management in Transportation, Seattle, WA, USA, 2005. Dorrian, J., Roach, G., Fletcher, A. and Dawson, D. Simulated train driving: fatigue, self-awareness and cognitive disengagement. Appl. Ergon., 2007, 38: 155166. Dorrian, J., Roach, G. D., Fletcher, A. and Dawson, D. The eects of fatigue on train handling during speed restrictions. Transport. Res. F: Trafc Psychol. Behav., 2006, 9: 243257. Fletcher, A. and Dawson, D. A quantitative model of work-related fatigue: empirical evaluations. Ergonomics, 2001a, 44: 475488. Fletcher A. and Dawson D. Field-based validations of a work-related fatigue model based on hours of work. Transport. Res. F 2001b; 4: 7588. kerstedt, T. Towards a model for the prediction of Folkard, S. and A alertness and/or fatigue on dierent sleep/wake schedules. In: A. Oginski, J. Pokorski and J. Rutenfranz (Eds) Contemporary Advances in Shiftwork Research: Theoretical and Practical Aspects in the Late Eighties. Medical Academu, Poland, 1987: 231240. kerstedt, T., Macdonald, I., Tucker, P. and Spencer, M. Folkard, S., A B. Beyond the three-process model of alertness: estimating phase, time on shift, and successive night eects. J. Biol. Rhythms, 1999, 14: 577587. Foret, J. and Lantin, G. The sleep of train drivers: an example of the eects of irregular work hours on sleep. In: W. P. Colquhoun (Ed.) Aspects of Human Eciency. English Universities Press, London, 1972: 273282. kerstedt, T. Possible measures of sleepiness for the Gillberg, M. and A evaluation of disturbed and displaced sleep. In: A. Reinberg, N. Vieux and P. Andlauer (Eds) Night and Shiftwork Biological and Social Aspects. Pergamon, Oxford, 1981, 155160. Ha rma , M., Sallinen, M., Ranta, R., Mutanen, P. and Muller, K. The eect of an irregular shift system on sleepiness at work in train drivers and railway trac controllers. J. Sleep Res., 2002, 11: 141 151. Kogi, K. and Ohta, T. Incidence of near accidental drowsing in locomotive driving during a period of rotation. J. Hum. Ergol. (Tokyo), 1975, 4: 6576. Lauber, J. K. and Kayten, P. J. Sleepiness, circadian dysrythmia, and fatigue in transportation accidents. Sleep, 1988, 11: 503512. Pearce, K. Australian Railway Disasters. IPL Books, Australia, 1999. Pilcher, J. J. and Coplen, M. K. Work/rest cycles in railroad operations: eects of shorter than 24-h shift work schedules and on-call schedules on sleep. Ergonomics, 2000, 43: 573588. Pollard, J. Issues in Locomotive Crew Management and Scheduling. Federal Railroad Administration, US Department of Transportation, Washington D.C., 1991. Pollard, J. Locomotive Engineers Activity Diary. Federal Railroad Administration. US Department of Transportation, Washington D.C., 1996. 2007 European Sleep Research Society, J. Sleep Res., 16, 111

corridors with dierent train and track characteristics; the inuence of time-on-task and time-of-day; and single driver operations. Indeed, a study that was designed to tease apart the eects of track characteristics, time-on-task and time-of-day would be of benet. More detailed investigations of train handling behaviour at stations, speed restrictions, hills, curves, or indeed any combination of these characteristics would facilitate development of fatigue-risk proles for sections of track. SUMMARY Consistent with prior rail simulator studies (Dorrian et al., in press a,b; Roach et al., 2001), ndings of the current study suggest that fatigue aects driving performance through a reduced ability to plan ahead. Driving behaviour tends to become more reactive (as opposed to proactive) with resulting decreases in eciency (e.g. through reduction in train control and increased fuel consumption) and also safety (e.g. through heavy brake and speeding violations). In addition, fatigue eects may manifest dierentially depending on track grade. There are likely to be certain areas of track where fatigue will cause increases in fuel use and therefore increase economic cost, and others where fatigue will cause reduced safety through driving violations. These factors should be carefully examined in future rail operator research. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The authors wish to thank Ryan Higgins, for assistance with data processing. This work was supported by the Australian Shiftwork and Workload Study. REFERENCES
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