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PART V

SIMPLE CIRCULAR CURVES

Figure 1

Assume t h a t AV and VD are two straight portions o f a proposed highway and t h a t t h e curve BC i s t o be used a s a gradual change o f direction between them.
The curve has a constant radius R and i s called a simple c i r c u l a r curve.

The curve starts a t B and ends a t D

,'.

< A00 = < DCO =

9 0 '

P o i n t V i s referred t o as the vertex or Point o f Intersection ( P . I . ) .

One of t h e values we must always know, or be a b l e t a determine, f o r any simple curve i s the d e f l e c t i o n angle a t the vertex. This angle i s designated by either I or A I n the case o f Figure 1, the survey i s assumed t o be progressing from A towards 0. I f this i s t h e case the d e f l e c t i o n angle a t the v e r t e x i s a s shown. 0 v

0
I n Figure 2 t h e quadrilateral BOCV has c e r t a i n qualities o f syrrnnetry,

fol 1 ows :
OB = <VBO =
<BVC =

as

OC because both are radii <VCO = 900 and, from t h i s 1800 - A and
A

<SOC

We can also say t h a t BV = VC. BV and VC are referred t o as t h e subtangent distances and are abbreviated S.T. or, q u i t e often, T.
Note a1 so t h a t , i f we join OV, we create two r i g h t - a n g l e d triangles, BOV and COV, t h a t are similar i n a l l respects. W e also apply names t o p o i n t B , where t h e curve begins, and p o i n t C, where t h e curve ends. W e have three choices and the v a r i o u s names are paired a s shown.

B Name
Beginning o f Curve P o i n t o f Curvature Tangent-Curve Point

Abb.
B.C. P.C.

C Name
End o f Curve PointofTangency Curve-Tangen t P o i n t

Abb.

T. C .

E.C. P.T. C.T.

1.

Derivation of Formulae
0

I n A BOV
<VBO

9 0 '

BV -

BO

= =

Tan a

BV

BO

Tan

But BV = T and
BO = R
From t h i s

Figure 3
Referring t o Figure 4, on the f o l l o w i n g page, there are c e r t a i n dimensions associated w i t h a simple c i r c u l a r curve t h a t are important and we w i l l derive expressions for them t h a t relate them t o R or T.

0 Figure 4
The s t r a i g h t l i n e BC i s called the Long Chord, abbreviated L.C.

In

A BEO, < BEO = go0

BE = I30

Sin A 2

or BE = BO Sin T
R

But BE =

L'C' and 00 = 2

The line EF i s called t h e Middle Ordinate, abbreviated M.O.

In

A BE0

and sector BFO


OE b u t Cos
A

M. 0 =

-OE OB
OF

OF

R and
=

7 but OB

Substituti-ng the values of OF and OE i n the o r i g i n a l expression f o r t h e


M.O.

we get; M.O.
=

- R CDS

The expression, (1-Cos $) i s known as the Versine o f $ and t a b l e s g i v i n g values o f the Versine are publ~shed. This i s why we often see the above equation
i n the f o r m .

i s referred rnal and i s

Figure 5

In the right-triangle OBV and t h e Sector BFO

OV

- OF b u t

OV - Sec d - or 2 -

OV =

OB Sec
R Sec

6 2

but 0 0 '
=

R R

so

OV =

Z. A also OF

The o r i g i n a l expression was;

OV

OF;

i f we make

the above s u t s t i t u t i o n s then

E =

R (set A

1)

------------------ ( a
T =
RTan$

F r o m E g u a t i o n (1);
R =
. -

or

Tan

-'

Substitute t h i s value o f R i n ( a ) above


Sec
A

T A --(Sec A Tan Z-

1)
A

E = T
Cos

1 Cos 2

,--S i nA2

Cos 2

Sin7

There i s an identity in trigonometry o f the form Tan

A =

1
1

COS A Sin A

I n the case o f ( b ) above i t would have the form

Tan 4 =

Sin

Cos 2A

From t h i s ;

62
2.

Radius of C u r v a t u r e and Degree of Curve

There a r e three methods by means of which we can designate


t h e Hsharpnesstq of

curvature of a curve.

SHARP CURVE

FLAT CURVE
a)

Radius

The sharpness of c u r v a t u r e is i n v e r s e l y proportional to the


radius, ie. a reduction in r a d i u s increases t h e sharpness.
b)

Degree of Curve, chord d e f i n i t i o n

- Dc

Degree of curve according t o the chord definition, Dc, is


d e f i n e d as the angle subtended by a chord having a length of one

full s t a t i o n or 100 St. in the foot system and a 100 meters in


t h e metric system.
The radius of

This method i s followed i n railroad practice.

such a curve may be computed by t h e following

expression:

Note t h a t t h e r a d i u s o f c u r v a t u r e varies i n v e r s e l y as the degree


o f c u r v e and t h e r a d i u s o f l o curve according t o t h e chord d e f i n i t i o n i s 5729.651 u n i t s o f measurements.

c ) Deqree o f Curve, arc d e f i n i t i o n

-D ,

The c u r v a t u r e i s expressed by s t a t i n g the "degree of curve"


Da
which has t r a d i t i o n a l l y been d e f i n e d as the angle subtended

a t the c e n t r e o f t h e curve by an a r c 100 f t . l o n g .


system, D , i s d e f i n e d as the a n g l e by a 100 m arc. a

I n t h e metric

S m a l l e r values of

D , decreases the sharpness o f c u r v a t u r e .

The arc d e f i n i t i o n f o r degree o f curve i s most frequently


followed i n highway p r a c t i c e .

When d e s i g n i n g a c u r v e , Da, is u s u a l l y selected on the b a s i s


of design speed, superel e v a t i o n and road surface f r i c t i o n factor.

Figure 7
I f a 100 f t or meter arc subtends an a n g l e o f l o , the r a d i u s

o f curve i s 5729.578 u n i t s .

W e refer to this as a "one degree

curve' .

3.

Length o f Curve

a)

Lenqth o f Curve Chord D e f i n i t i o n

LC

The l e n g t h o f curve on the chord b a s i s , is t h e s u m a t i o n o f chords

which approximate the curve and, i s t h e r e f o r e , an i n e x a c t expression.


The LC obtained w i l l always be l e s s than the t r u e a r c l e n g t h .
d i f f e r e n c e w i 11 i n c r e a s e as

The

D , increases.

Where C

= 100,

A = Deflectoin angle o f curve

b)

Length o f Curve A r c D e f i n i t i o n

FIGURE 8

1 ,

The length o f curve or a r c l e n g t h f o r corresponding r a d i u s

varies d i r e c t l y t o t h e central angle subtended by the a r c .


Figure 7.

See

This

is an exact expression.

Note t h a t t h e length of curve ( o n t h e chords b a s i s ) L C , i s somewhat

less t h a n the a c t u a l a r c l e n g t h La.


as

T h i s difference w i l l increase

Da

or D

increases.

65
The Arc Basis is Used
f o r t h e Calculations Presented in T h i s

Chanter.
Actually

both

chords

and

arc

methods

a r e used i n North

America.

For long gradual curves, which are commor! in railroad

practice, t h e chord basis (arc length considered to b e same as chords)

is

normally used.

For highway curves and c u r v e d p r o p e r t y

boundaries, t h e arc b a s i s is more common.

In f i e l d p r a c t i c e , field measurements of

t h e curve

are l a i d

o u t with t a p e , along the chord and not along t h e a r c , r e s u l t i n g


i n error.
T h i s error can be r e d u c e d when the a r c b a s i s is used

by using short a r c ( " c h o r d ' f ) length or applying t h e difference


between t h e arc length and t h e chord length.

For example, for a

100 meter 2'


10'

c u r v e , the chord length is 99.955 meters a n d for a


The

curve t h e chord l e n g t h i s 99.873 meters.

following

general rules a r e suggested in the m e t r i c system:


100 meter a r c s "chordsn up t o
30 meter a r c s +*chordsuup to 20 m e t e r arcs " c h o r d s " up to
10 meter

l o curves

curves

l o V curves 25
0

a r c s " c h o r d s w up to

curves

3 meter a r c s wchordslt Up t o 100' curves


4.
Example Problem f 1

THO tangents i n t e r s e c t a t Station 3


angle to t h e right is 4 0 ~ 0 0 ' 0 0 " .
highway

16.770.

The deflection

It is decided t o design t h e
90

for

maximum

speed

of

km/hr,

and

using

AASHO*

recommendation f o r superelevation and friction a mi nirnum r a d i a s


of 270 m e t e r s and a maxim~rn degree of curve, Da is to be 22'.
Calculate T, La, R and t h e stationing of t h e P.C.
20 meter a r c length.
a n d P.T.

using

American Association o f S t a t e Highway Organization

Explanatlon

66
on a c u r v e we a r e g i v e n a specific
In t h e above problem, t h e

When we speak of a station

location from t h e s t a r t of t h e survey.


P.I.

is g i v e n as Stn. 3

16.770.

What we a r e saying is t h a t

P.1.

l a 316.770 m from t h e s t a r t of t h e survey.


T h e problem also s t a t e d that A is 40'

t o t h e r i g h t , t h i s says

t h a t when we stand at t h e P.C.

and l o o k in the direction in w h i c h

t h e survey is progressing, t h e curve deflects t o the r i g h t .

Solution

Given

P.I.
A

= Stn. 3
1

16.770

40

20 meter a r c

For safety Da may b e rounded down t o ZOO.

Using a r c definition
Recompute R a n d c a l c u l a t e T and La

R tan

- -286.479
2

tan

40 2

104.270

P.I.

Station 3

16.770

P.C.

S t a t i o n 2 + 12.500 La 2 + 00.000

P.T.

Station 4

12.500

Figure 9

5.

Laying out a Curve by Deflection Angles

Curves are s t a k e d o u t usually b y the use of deflection angles


t u r n e d a t t h e P.C.
from the tangent to s t a t i o n s a l o n g the curve

together with the use of c h o r d s measured from station to s t a t i o n

along the curve.


I n the past 100 ft. chord l e n g t h c o u l d be l a i d out quite accurately, however,

in t h e metric system 100 meter chords w i l l


Most curves are presently laid out in

result in a large e r r o r .

20 meter chords or less and t h e discussion p r e s e n t e d here w i l l use 20 meter chord l e n g t h .

68
First let us consider the first 20 m e t e r past the P.C.
N o t e that the a n g l e subtended by a 20 meter arc "chord" w i l l

be proportional to the degree of curve Da.

In isosceles A ,
<BAO =
= 90

AOB

<ABO

D/2
D/2

<VAB

Figure 10

To locate p o i n t B on the curve, we measure 20 m from the P.C.


W i t h t h e transit s e t up a t t h e P.C.,

and reading

when sighted

on the v e r t e x w e turn off an angle D/2 to align the tape and

e s t a b l i s h point B.

To locate point B on the curve, we measure 20 m f r o m the P . C .


w i t h t h e transit s e t up at t h e P.C.,
and reading 0
0

when sighted

on t h e vertex, we t u r n o f f an angle D/2 to align t h e tape and


e s t a b l i s h p o i n t B.

Consider the second 20 metre chord BC

Measure 20 m from B t o C . J o i n AC. In isosceles t r i a n g l e OCA angle VAC = D. To locate p o i n t C measure 20 m from point B. With t h e transit a t the P.C., reading O0 on V, turn off angle D to a l i g n rape and e s t a b l i s h C.

FIGURE 11

FIGURE 12

From:

Figure 10:

Note t h a t deflection a n g l e D/2 centre

1 / 2 a n g l e AOB a t

Figure 11: Note t h a t deflection angle D


centre

1/2 angle a t c e n t r e

Ffgure 12: Note that deflection angle 3D/2 = 1 / 2 a n g l e AOD a t

From t h i s we c a n

deduce a general r u l e .

If we s e t a t r a n s i t up a t e i t h e r t h e P.C.

or t h e P.T.,

and

s i g h t on t h e v e r t e x with t h e plates set at zero, we can turn t h e

correct a n g l e t o any p o i n t on a c u r v e of constant r a d i u s by

merely s e t t i n g on t h e p l a t e s a n angle e q u a l to half the angle a t


the c e n t r e s u b t e n d e d by t h e chord j o i n i n g t h e i n s t r u m e n t and t h e

desired point.

PC.

V= PI.

Figure 13

Figure of D e f l e c t i o n A n g l e s on a Simple Curve

O n the

above f i g u r e let p o i n t s a , b , c , d represent s t a t i o n


Point a is an odd distance from P.C. The deflection angles

p o i n t s on a simple curve.

and distance dB is also an odd increment.

are:

U s u a l l y t h e P.C. and P.T.

d o n o t f a l l a t even s t a t i o n s but w e

are usually required t o p l a c e our stakes a t the even stations on t h e curve.

The first and l a s t odd length of arc or odd s t a t i o n ,

therefore, is u s u a l l y l e s s than 20 meters and the f i r s t and l a s t deflection angles are less than D/2.

In the case of an arc of a circle, the a n g l e subtended a t t h e


centre i s d i r e c t l y proportional t o the l e n g t h of t h e arc.

D a D
d
= = =

Angle subtended by a f u l l 100 meter station Angle subtended by a f u l l s t a t i o n (ie. may t o 100 or less) Angle subtended by an odd l e n g t h station

Length of arc of an odd s t a t i o n

S = Length

of arc of a f u l l s t a t i o n

C = Chord d i s t a n c e

The d e f l e c t i o n angle for an odd s t a t i o n = d/2

OR in more general form for an arc length, S

- -.
2

aD

D and d i n d e g r e e s

2 s

The degree of curve, Da is defined f o r a 100 rn a r c l e n g t h ,

since we are using 20 rn a r c s arc is 1 / 5 of Da namely 4'.

the

a n g l e , D subtended by t h e 20 rn

The deflection angle, D/2 for a f u l l 20.000 m station is thus


2',

The distance from P.C.

to the f i r s t f u l l station is ( 2

20.000)

- (2

12.500

7.50 m ) ,

and t h e d i s t a n c e from the l a s t

full station on t h e c u r v e to P.T,


= 12.500 rn.

is ( 4

+ 12.500)

- (4

+ 00,000)

The deflection a n g l e s f o r t h e odd increments a t t h e beginning

and t h e end of t h e curve are:

*I =

0 '

45' ( a t beginning or curve)

2 = -

1'1 5 ' (at end

of c u r v e )

Chord distances for t h e i n i t i a l and f i n a l odd increments of arc and the full station are:
C1 = 2R S i n d , / Z
= 2 r 286.479

S i n 0.75'
S i n 1.25'=

7.500 meter

C2 = 2R S i n d 2 / 2 =

2 x 286.479

12.499meter

C20

= 2R S i n D l 2 = 2 x 286.479

S i n 2'

19.996 meters

It can be seen t h a t the chords l e n g t h are n e a r l y equal t o the a r c length and no correction would have to be a p p l i e d t o a c c o u n t

f o r t h e difference.
Let us now make up a s e t of field notes f o r t h e curve.
It

73
should b e emphasized t h a t t h e form of field notes given is n o t

necessarily THE form of f i e l d notes though it s a t i s f i e s our needs


quite well.
T h e notes a r e s e t up on t h e assumption t h a t t h e transit is

s e t up a t t h e P.C,
' 0 00'
16.770).
00''
with

(Stn 2

+ 12.500)

and t h a t t h e plates read (Stn 3


+

the

i n s t r u m e n t sighted on t h e P.I.

T h e notes are designed to be absolutely complete s o t h a t t h e

man who is going to l a y o u t t h e curve d o e s n o t h a v e t o r e f e r t o


a n y o t h e r source f o r any information he may require with regard to t h e curve.
T h e bottom and t o p lines i n t h e notes relate our particular

c u r v e to the p r e c e d i n g and following c u r v e s .


The column headed "Bearingt' orients t h e c u r v e i n relation t o
t h e rest of t h e p r o j e c t as does t h e sketch.

LOCATION OF SIMPLE CURVE


1

STAT ION
9 + 18.570

POINT
P. C.

DEFLECTION ANGLE

BRG

CURVE DATA

$25'18'~

4 + 12.500 4 + 00
3 + 80 3 + 60

P.T.

20~00 ' 00"


1a045 00"

= 6/2

A=

4 0 ' 0 0

' 00"

16'45 ' 00" 1445'00" 12'45 '00" 10'45' 00" 8'45

Da = 20'

3 + 40

La = 200.000

3 + 20
3 + 00
2 + 80

' 00"
'00"

T = 104.270

5 4 ' 6

+ 60

4O45 ' 00" 2'45


0'45

D/2 = 200100"

2 t 40
2 + 20 2 + 12.500

' 00" ' 00"

d1/2 = 0 ~ 4 5 ' 0 0 "

d2/2

115'00"

P.C.

oOOO ' 00"

0 + 11.380

P.T. LEFT HAND PAGE OF FIELD

BOOK

Figure 14 Note t h a t t h e s t a t i o n i n g increases from the bottom o f the page towards the t o p so t h a t the ins-trument-man, standfng a t P - C , and l o o k i n g a t t h e notes, sees t h e notes going away from him as does the curve.

OAKHURST
L

ROAD
A-I2

PAGE 2 0
CLOUDY,2QC
ROHLFING,H

TRANSIT-SOKKISHA

30m.S T E E L TAPE N0.8

KOZ LOW, A STOf T, D

TAPE
ROD

P. 1 ,

I? c.

2+ 12.500

NORTH

RIGHT HAND PAGE

F i g u r e 15

Show :

Page No,

(The right-hand and left-hand page no.)

sheets have the same

Project

(If it is separate from t h a t on preceding and following pages)

Party; Date; Weather C o n d i t i o n s .


Sketch of curve (not necessary to scale)

Approximate o r i e n t a t i o n of curve (or correct values if known)

76.

He can check our curve by using latitudes and departures to


calculate t h e theoretical closing error a t t h e E.C.
i f a series

of chords are laid out from t h e B.C,

ASSUMED

NORTH
T=104.270

Figure 16 ( n o t t o scale)

Traverse
Side

Function
Dist

Lat.

Dept

L'
EAST

ACTUAL E.C. IGNORING A N Y ERROR I N STAKING

3
m
beyond

The a c t u a l , s t a c k e d E.C.
0.012

{neglecting errors i n l a y o u t ) falls

rn outside t h e forward t a n g e n t and 0.035

the

theoretical E.C.

This error is n o t large and greater accuracy

would be aquired by having shorter chords lengths.

78
6.

Intermediate Set-up f o r Simple Circular Curve

Sometimes,

because

of

the

length

of a c u r v e or because of

physical obstructions, t h e whole c u r v e cannot be r u n i n from e i t h e r

the P.C. o r t h e P.T.

If t h i s is the case it becomes necessary t o s e t

t h e t r a n s i t up at some station on t h e curve and to orient it in s u c h a way t h a t t h e f i e l d n o t e s can be used without modification

or f u r t h e r

calc~lation.
With

reference t o Figure 17 and u s i n g t h e f i e l d notes shown

p r e v i o u s l y we w i l l assume t h a t , w i t h t h e instrument s e t up a t the

P.C., we have

staked t h e curve t o Station 3 + 00.000 b u t

are ~ n a b l et o
+

see beyond t h a t p o i n t .

W e move t h e transit to Station 3

00.000.

Consider the curve AOB (Fig. 1 7 ) a3 being a complete c u r v e in


itself,

The c e n t r a l angle AOB


=

17~30~

Angle BAO = Angle ABO


Triangle

81 '1 5'
because

AV,B

is an isosecles d
3

the

two s u b t a n g e n t

distances (TI) * A V 1 and V,


Angle BAV,
=

are equal.
=

Angle V, BA

8'45'

W i t h t h e instrument s e t up a t B, with the p l a t e s clamped a t zero,

s i g h t back on A and clamp both motions.

Unclarnp t h e u p p e r motion and

t u r n a clockwise angle of 8'45'.


l i n e V BY
1 2

The line of s i g h t now lies along t h e

and is tangent t o t h e c u r v e a t B.
+

If B was t h e b e g i n n i n g
20 would be 2'00'

of a curve, t h e deflection a n g l e t o Stn 3

If we

plange t h e telescope we w i l l be sighting along t h e line BV


add 2'00"

and i f we

t o the 8'45'

already s e t on the p l a t e s we w i l l b e sighted on

Stn 3

+ 20 with
+

1 0 ~ 4 5 ' s e t o n t h e plates which is the v a l u e of the


20.

n o t e s f o r Stn 3

79
Let us now assume t h a t we are a b l e t o s t a k e to Stn 3
+

80 but

cannot see beyond Point C.

We move our transit to Point C.

Let us c o n s i d e r curve BOC (Fig. 1 7 ) to be complete in itself.


Angle BOC
=

1 6 00'.
2

Angle OBC = Angle OCB = 82'00'

Triangle BV C is an isosceles triangle because the two subtangent

distances (T2) BV2 and V C are equal.


2

Angle V p B C = Angle V2CB

8 Y ~ ~ *

With t h e i n s t r u m e n t s e t up a t C, with t h e plates clamped a t


8'451,

sight back on B and clamp both motlona.

Unclarnp the upper

motion and turn the instrument c l o c k ~ i s ea n additional 8O00', so t h a t


t h e plates read 16'45'

and the line of s i g h t lies along t h e l i n e V CV


2

and is t a n g e n t t o t h e curve a t P o i n t C.

If C was the beginning of a


If we plange

curve t h e deflection a n g l e t o Stn 4


t h e telescope the l i n e

00 would b e 2000tt,

of sight will

be along the subtangent

CV

and

i f we add 2O00"

to t h e 16'45'
+

a l r e a d y s e t on t h e p l a t e s we w i l l be
s e t on t h e plates which is the value

sighted on Stn 4

00 with 18'45'
+

in the notes for S t n 4

00.

Again, we can proceed to s t a k e the next portion of the curve

without changing the field notes.


The t w o statements allow us to formulate a general rule for

intermediate setups on a simple circular curve.


When we occupy an intermediate s t a t i o n on a simple c f r c u l a r curve

and sight back on some previously established station, for t h e p u r p o s e of orienting the transit, the plates of the transit must be clamped at
t h e v a l u e of t h e deflection a n g l e

f o r t h e s t a t i o n being s i g h t e d on.

After Sacksighting and clamping t h e lower motion, i f we change t h e value of t h e angle on t h e plates t o t h a t f o r t h e d e f l e c t i o n a n g l e of

80
the station that is occupied by the instrument, the line of sight will
be tangent to the curve and we can plunge t h e telescope and continue
staking the curve without making any change in the field notes.

Figure 17

Intermediate backsighting setup on a Simple Circular Curve


(not too scale)

81
On Fig. 18 there is a s l i g h t l y different application of the r u l e .

In this case, the curve has been staked from t h e P.C.

to Stn 3 + 00
The

but the instrument is oriented by sighting ahead to t h e P.T.


p r i n c i p l e is the same as that o u t l i n e d above.

Figure 18,

Intermediate f o r e s i g h t i n g s e t up on a Simple C i r c u l a r
Curve (not too scale)

82
The curve has been s t a k e d from A t o B and t h e instrument h a s been
s e t u p a t 8.

You will orient i t b y sighting ahead on the P.T.


He deduce

We will treat t h e s e c t o r BOC as an entity in itself.


t h e a n g l e BOC to be 22 30".
0

Angle OBC

Angle OCB

78 45'

In a B V , C , B V l = V I C
Angle V,BC
=

So A is
0

isosceles

Angle V I C B = 1 1 1 5 '
the

Following t h e rule s e t out on t h e previous example with

instrument s e t u p at B, s e t t h e deflection angle for C (20~00') on the


plates.
Sight on C and clamp the lower motion.

Unclamp the upper

motion and set the plates the deflection angle for point B.
Note t h a t 2g000'
a l o n g the line.

8'45'

= 11 ' 1 5 '

and t h e l i n e of sight now l i e s

BV

and we can continue staking without changing o u r

notes.

7.

F i e l d Procedure
a) S e t up a t P.I.

and l a y o u t tangents to establish P.C.

and

P. T.
b)
Set

up

at

P.C.

and

sight

back

to P . I .

Set

plates

to

OOOO'oO".

c)

Turn off f i r s t deflection a n g l e on transit and measwe out


the

first

subchord

distance,

pound

in

hub

and

write

stationing on it.
d)

Continue l a y i n g out chords and placing hubs.

When the last

83

station

(P.T.

Is reached

the

last s u b c h o r d measured out


h u b establfshed earlier.
be

should be q u i t e close t o the P.T.

If i t is not, an e r r o r has been made and t h e curve h a s t o


r u n in a l l over again.
e)

It is advisable t o use intermediate s e t u p s when s e t t i n g out


the

curve.

They p r e v e n t communication d i f f i c u l t i e s and tend

t o reduce t h e number of

errors.

PROBLEMS

1.

Calculate the radius of the curve t h a t w i l l pass through Point P , using 1a t itudes and departures. Determine the stationing o f t h e P.C. and P , T , and o f Point P on the curve.

2.

Solve for l e n g t h o f the curve i n t e r s e c t i o n distance AB, based on t h e fo1 lowing diagram.

3.

Calculate BC, area ABC (shaded) and angle d :

RADIUS

391.10 rn