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NORD - Information

Calculation Methods and Examples

Getriebebau NORD, Schlicht + Küchenmeister GmbH & Co.


Rudolf-Diesel-Str. 1, D- 22941 Bargteheide
Telefon: 04532 / 4010, Telefax: 04532 / 401 253
NORD - Information

Physical Formulae

Linear motion Rotating motion

Distance s = v ∗ t Angular ϕ = ω ∗ t

s ϕ
Velocity (speed) v = Angular velocity ω = = 2 ∗ π ∗ n
t τ
v W
Accelleration a = Angular accelleration α =
t t
Force F = m ∗ a Torque M = J ∗ r = F ∗ r

Power P = F ∗ v Power P = M ∗ ω
Work W = F ∗ s = P ∗ t Work W = M ∗ ϕ = P ∗ t
1 1
Kinetic energy Wkin = ∗ m ∗ v2 Rotating energy Wrot = ∗ J ∗ ω2
2 2

Formulae of drive engineering


2 d 
Rolling resistance, -force FR = m ∗ g ∗  ∗ (µL ∗ + f) + c : µL, f, c, s. ____ __1
tables __,_2
__,_3
__.
 D 2 
or FR = We ∗ m We for wheel / rail steel

s. diagramme 1, 2.

Sliding resitance, -force FG = m ∗ g ∗ µ µ s. table 4

Static friction-force FH = m ∗ g ∗ µO µO s. table 4

Windload F = A ∗ PW
v
Moment of inertia with refernce Jred = 91,2 ∗ m ∗   2 Translation
 nM 
 n 2
to the motor shaft or Jred = J ∗   Rotation
 nM 

v ∗ 60
Speed n =
π ∗ D

P ∗ 9550
Torque M =
n

F ∗ v
Friction power PR = Translation
1000 ∗ η
M ∗ n
or PR = Rotation
9550

m ∗ a ∗ v
Acceleration power PB = Translation
1000 ∗ η
J ∗ n2
or PB = Rotation
91,2 ∗ 1000 ∗ tB ∗ η

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m ∗ g ∗ v
Hubleistung PHub =
1000 ∗ η

9,55 ∗ v ∗ (MH ± ML)


Beschleunigung aB =
(Jred + JM + JBre + JZ) ∗ n

v
Beschleunigungszeit tB =
aB

v2
Beschleunigungsweg sB =
2 ∗ aB

9,55 ∗ v ∗ (MB ± ML)


Verzögerung av =
(Jred + JM + JBre + JZ) ∗ n

v
Verzögerungszeit tV =
aV

v2
Verzögerungsweg sV =
2 ∗ aV

1 − ML ⁄ MH
zulässige Schalthäufigkeit zzul = ∗ zo
1 + (Jred + JBre + JZ) ⁄ JM

Positioniergenauigkeit Positioniergenauigkeit = ± 0,25 * sv

(Jred + JM + JBre + JZ) ∗ n2 MB


Bremsarbeit WB = ∗
182,5 MB ± ML

Wzul
Lebensdauer der Bremsbeläge LN =
WB ∗ z

n1 M2 d2 z2
Übersetzung i = = = =
n2 M1 d1 z1

Pab
Wirkungsgrad η = η s. Tabelle 5
Pzu

1
rücktreibender Wirkungsgrad η G’ = 2 −
ηG

2 ∗ M2
Querkraft FQ = ∗ fZ ∗ ≤ FQzul fZ s. Tabelle 6
D

M2max
Betriebsfaktor fB =
M2

Jred
Massenbeschleunigungsfaktor maf =
JM + JZ + JBre

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Formulae symbols and unities

a Acceleration m/s2
aB Acceleration (start up) m/s2
av Deceleration (braking) m/s2
A Area (wind) m2

c Additional factor for secondary friction -

d Diameter (bearing spigot diameter) m


dO Pinion or sprocket diameter m
d1 Pinion diameter m
d2 Chain sprocket diameter m
D Diameter of the travelling wheel or cable drum or of the m
sprocket

f Lever arm of rolling friction m


fB Service factor -
fZ Additional factor for overhung load -
F Force, rolling resistance N
FG Sliding friction N
FH Static friction N
FQ Overhung load N
FQvorh Existing overhung load N
FQzul Permissible overhung load N
FR Rolling resistance N
FW Wind load N

g Gravity (constant: 9,81) m/s2

i Reduction -
iV Additional reduction (gear, chain, belt ...) -

J Moment of inertia kgm2


JBre Moment of inertia of the brake kgm2
JM Moment of inertia of the motor kgm2
Jred Moment of inertia with reference to the motorshaft kgm2
JZ Moment of inertia of the z-fan kgm2

LN Brake service life until readjustment h

m Weight (mass) kg
maf Inertia mass acceleration factor -
mG Mass of counter weight kg
mL Mass with full load kg
mO Mass without load kg

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M Torque Nm
MB Braking torque Nm
MH Run up torque Nm
ML Torque with full load (with reference to the motor shaft) Nm
MN Rated torque Nm
M1 Input torque Nm
M2 Output torque Nm
M2max Maximum permissible output torqe Nm

1
n Speed /min
1
nM Motor speed /min
1
nN Rated speed /min
1
n1 Input speed /min
1
n2 Output speed /min

PW Wind pressure N/m2


P Power kW
Pab Required power kW
Pzu Supplied power kW
PB Acceleration power kW
PHub Lifting power kW
PN Rated power kW
PR Fricition power kW

r Radius m

s Distance m
sB Start up distance m
sV Braking distance m

t Time s
tB Start up time s
tV Braking time s

v Velocity (speed) m/s

W Work J
We Standard rolling friction N/t
Wkin Kinetic energy J
Wrot Rotating energy J
Wzul Braking work until readjustment J
WB Braking work J

x Number of drives -

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z Starting frequency s/h


zzul Permissible starting frequency s/h
zO Starting frequency with no load s/h
z1 Number of gear teeth pinion -
z2 Number of gear teeth gear wheel -

α Angular acceleration 1/s2


η Efficiency -
ηG Efficiency of gear unit -

ηG Reverse operating efficiency -
µ Coefficient of friction -
µL Coefficient of friction for bearings -
µO Coefficient of friction (static) -
ϕ Angular °
ω Angular velocity 1/s

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Friction bearing Sliding bearings


µL 0,005 0,1

table 1: coefficient of friction for bearings µL

f
steel / steel 0,0005 m
wood / steel 0,0012 m
polymer / steel 0,002 m
hardrubber / steel 0,0077 m
hardrubber / concrete 0,01 - 0,02 m
rubber / concrete 0,015 - 0,035 m

table 2: lever arm of rolling friction f

Friction of Friction of Friction of


anti friction bearings sleeve bearings guide rollers
c 0,003 0,005 0,002

table 3: rim friction on the wheels c

Static friction µO Sliding friction µ


dry greased dry greased
steel / steel 0,11 - 0,40 0,10 0,10 - 0,30 0,01 - 0,10
steel / last iron 0,18 - 0,25 0,10 0,16 - 0,25 0,05 - 0,10
steel / wood 0,50 - 0,70 0,10 0,20 - 0,50 0,02 - 0,10
steel / polymer 0,20 - 0,50 0,10 - 0,35
steel / rubber 0,40 - 0,50
wood / wood 0,40 - 0,80 0,16 0,20 - 0,50 0,04 - 0,16

table 4: static friction and sliding friction µ

η
chain 0,90 - 0,96 per complete wrap of the rope around the drum
wire ropes 0,90 - 0,95 per complete wrap
flat polymer belts 0,93 - 0,98 per complete wrap of the rope depending on the material
V-belts 0,85 - 0,95 per complete wrap
rubber belts 0,80 - 0,85 per complete wrap
polymer belts 0,80 - 0,85 per complete wrap
helical inline gear 0,95 - 0,98 oil lubricated depending on the number of the stages
worm gear 0,30 - 0,93 oil lubricated depending on the number of starts of the worm

table 5: efficiency η

fZ
helical gears 1,1 z = 17 teeth
chain sprockets 1,4 z = 13 teeth
chain sprockets 1,2 z = 20 teeth
pulleys 1,7 by tensioning influence
pulleys 2,5 by tensioning influence

table 6: additional factor inderming overhung loads fz

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Example I.1: Drive arrangement for crane

Mass without load of the crane mO 13800 kg

Mass without load of the mk 1800 kg

Load mL 15000 kg

Velocity v 0,17 / 0,66 m/s = 10/40 m/min

Diameter of the travelling wheel D 0,4 m

Number of drives x 2

Additional reduction iv 4,24

Mounting position B3

Switching frequencies z 60 s/h

Efficiency η 0,85

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Motor arrangements

Standard rolling friction We

We = WO + 30 N/t W0 = 36 N/t s. diagram


We = 36 N/t + 30 N/t = 66 N/t 30 N/t additional for rim friction

Power P (at maximum velocity)

We ∗ m ∗ v
P =
1000 ∗ η

66 N ⁄ t ∗ (13,8 t + 1,8 t) ∗ 0,66 m⁄s


PO = = 0,80 kW (without load)
1000 ∗ 0,85

66 N ⁄ t ∗ (13,8 t + 1,8 t + 15,0 t) ∗ 0,66 m⁄s


PL = = 1,57 kW (with load)
1000 ∗ 0,85

PL mO + 2 ∗ (mK + mL ) 1,57 kW 13,8 t + 2 ∗ (1,8 t + 15 t)


Pmax = ∗ = ∗
2 mO + mK + mL 2 13,8 t + 1,8 t + 15 t

Pmax = 1,22 kW (one-sided trolley)

Motor data

Type 100 L/80-20 WU Bre16 Z (2 pieces)


Rated output power PN 0,55 / 2,2 kW
Rated speed nN 670 / 2740 1/min
Rated torque MN 7,8 / 7,7 Nm
Permissible no-load starting frequency zo 4000 / 1400 s/h
Motor moment of inertia JM 0,0060 kgm2
Additonal moment of inertia Jz 0,0113 kgm2
Brake moment of inertia JBre 0,0001 kgm2
Braking torque MB (brake 16 adjusted to 8 Nm ) 8 Nm

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Gear arrangment

Wheel speed nL
v ∗ 60
nL =
π ∗ D

0,66 m⁄s ∗ 60
nL = = 32 1⁄min
π ∗ 0,4 m

Gear output speed n2

n2 = nL ∗ iv

n2 = 32 1⁄min ∗ 4,24 = 136 1⁄min

Acceleration factor of mass maf


Jred
maf =
JM + Jz + JBre

0,0810 kgm2
maf = = 4,7
0,0060 kgm2 + 0,0113 kgm2 + 0,0001 kgm2

Starting freqeuency per hour: 180 (60 times acceleration, switching, deceleration)
⇒ Type of load C, fB = 1,6

Output torque Ma

PN ∗ 9550
Ma = ∗ fB
n2

2,2 kW ∗ 9550
Ma = ∗ 1,6 = 247 Nm
136 1⁄min

For service factor fB = 1,6 the output torque of the gear is 247 Nm.

Reduction i

nN
i =
n2

2740 1⁄min
i = = 20
136 1⁄min

Complete type: SK 22-100 L/80-20 WU Bre 16 Z


PN = 0,55 / 2,2 kW
i = 20,03
n2 = 33 / 137 1/min
Mounting position B 3
Shaft ø 30 x 60 mm
Brake 16 Nm adjusted to 8 Nm
Special provision: special rotor
high inertia fan

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Example I.2: Drive arrangement for a trolley

Mass without load mk 1800 kg

Load mL 15000 kg

Velocity v 0,08 / 0,33 m/s = 5/20 m/min

Wheel diameter D 0,3 m

Number of drives x 1

Additional reduction iv 4

Mounting position B5

Switching frequency z 60 s/h

Efficiency n 0,85

Pairing of material steel / steel

Guiding rim friction

Type of bearings (4 wheels) antifriction bearings

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Drive resistance:

2 d
FR = m ∗ g  ∗ ( µ L ∗ + f ) + c 
 

D 2

m  2 0,06 
Fro = 1800 kg ∗ 9,81  ∗ (0,005 ∗ + 0,0005 m ) + 0,003m 
s2  0,3 m 2 

Fro = 129,5 N ( without load)

m  2 0,06 
FRL = 16800 kg ∗ 9,81 ∗  (0,005 ∗ m + 0,0005 m ) + 0,003 m 
s2  0,3 m 2 

FRL = 1208,6 N (with load)

Power P (calculation for 2-poles gearmotors)

F∗V
P =
1000 ∗ η

129,5 N ∗ 0,33 m
Po = = 0,05 kW
1000 ∗ 0,85 s

1208,6 N ∗ 0,33
PL = = 0,47 kW
1000 ∗ 0,85

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Motor arrangement

Motor data

Type 100 L/8-2 WU Bre10 Z


Rated output power PN 0,4 / 1,6 kW
Rated speed nN 670 / 2740 1/min
Rated torque MN 5,7 / 5,6 Nm
Hochlaufmoment MH 9,2 / 8,6 Nm
No-load switching frequency zo 4200 / 1500 s/h
Motor moment of inertia JM 0,0045 kgm2
Moment of high inertia fan Jz 0,0113 kgm2
Brake moment of inertia JBre 0,0001 kgm2
Braking torque MB (brake 10 adjusted on 6 Nm) 6 Nm

Load torque M

P ∗ 9550
M =
x ∗ nN

0,05 KW ∗ 9550
MO = = 0,2 Nm (without load)
2740 1⁄min

0,47 kW ∗ 9550
ML = = 1,6 Nm (with load)
2740 1⁄min

Reduced moment of inertia Jred


2
1 v
Jred = ∗ 91,2 ∗ m ∗  
x  nN 
2
 0,33 m⁄s 
JredO = 91,2 ∗ 1800 kg ∗  1⁄min
= 0,0024 kgm2
 2740 
2
 0,33 m⁄s 
JredL = 91,2 ∗ 16800 kg ∗  1⁄min
= 0,0222 kgm2
 2740 

Acceleration aB

9,55 ∗ v ∗ (MH − ML)


aB =
(Jred ⁄ η + JM + JBre + JZ) ∗ nN

9,55 ∗ 0,33 m⁄s ∗ (8,6 Nm − 0,2 Nm)


aB = = 0,52 m⁄s2 (without load)
(0,0024 kgm ⁄ 0,85 + 0,0045 kgm2 + 0,0001 kgm2) ∗ 2740 1⁄min
2

9,55 ∗ 0,33 m⁄s ∗ (8,6 Nm − 1,6 Nm)


aB = = 0,19 m⁄s2 (with load)
(0,0222 kgm ⁄ 0,85 + 0,0045 kgm2 + 0,0001 kgm2) ∗ 2740 1⁄min
2

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Decceleration aV

9,55 ∗ v ∗ (MB + ML ∗ η2)


av =
(Jred ∗ η + JM + JBre + JZ) ∗ nN

9,55 ∗ 0,08 m⁄s ∗ (6 Nm + 0,2 Nm ∗ 0,852)


aVO = = 0,39 m⁄s2 (without load)
(0,0024 kgm ∗ 0,85 + 0,0045 kgm2 + 0,0001 kgm2 + 0,0113 kgm2) ∗ 670 1⁄min
2

9,55 ∗ 0,08 m⁄s ∗ (6 Nm + 1,6 Nm ∗ 0,852)


aVL = = 0,24 m⁄s2 (with load)
(0,0222 kgm ∗ 0,85 + 0,0045 kgm2 + 0,0001 kgm2 + 0,0113 kgm2) ∗ 670 1⁄min
2

Permissible switching frequency zzul

1 − ML ⁄ MH
zzul = ∗ z0
1 + (Jred + JZ + JBre) ⁄ JM

1 − 1,6 Nm ⁄ 8,6 Nm
zzul = ∗ 1500 s⁄h = 142 s⁄h
1 +(0,0222 kgm + 0,0113 kgm2 + 0,0001 kgm2) ⁄ 0,0045 kgm2
2

The perm. switching frequency is calculated for the acceptance: starting 2-pole with load (every time) is not correct
because of delay for switching and running on the 8-pole.

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Gear arrangements

Wheel speedl nL

v ∗ 60
nL =
π ∗ D

0,33 m⁄s ∗ 60
nL = = 21 1⁄min
π ∗ 0,3 m

Gear unit output speed n2

n2 = nL ∗ iv
n2 = 21 1⁄min ∗ 4 = 84 1⁄min

Mass acceleration factor maf

Jred
maf =
JM + Jz + JBre

0,022 kgm2
maf = = 1,4
0,0045 kgm2 + 0,0113 kgm2 + 0,0001 kgm2

Circuit m per hour: 180 (each 60 accelerations, switching, decelerations)


⇒ type of load B
⇒ fB ≥ 1,3

Output torque Ma

PN ∗ 9550
Ma = ∗ fB
n2

1,6 kW ∗ 9550
Ma = ∗ 1,3 = 236 Nm
84 1⁄min

For service factor fB = 1,3 the output torque of the gear is 236 Nm.

Reduction i

nN
i =
n2

2740 1⁄min
i = = 33
84 1⁄min

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Complete type: SK 22 F - 100 L/8-2 WU Bre 10 Z

PN = 0,4 / 0,16 kW
i = 34,69
n2 = 19/79 1/min
Mounting position B 5
Shaft ø 30 x 60 mm
Flange ø 160 mm oder 200 mm
Brake 10 Nm adjusted on 6 Nm

Special provision: special rotor (WU-silumin rotor)


high inertia fan

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Example II.1: Drive unit for vertical motion

Mass without load m O 50 kg

Load m L 200 kg

midle drum diameter Dm 0,208 m

Max. lifting speed v 0,24 m/s = 14,4 m/min

Operation cycle 8 h/Tag, 40 % ED

Starting frequency z 360 Hubbewegungen/h

Efficiency η 0,8

Positioning accuracy ± 1 mm

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Motor arrangement

Power P

m ∗ g ∗ v
P =
1000 ∗ η
m 2
(50 kg + 200 kg) ∗ 9,81 ⁄s ∗ 0,24 m⁄
s
PL = = 0,74 kW
1000 ∗ 0,8

To get the required accuracy of ± 1 mm we have to choose a polechanging motor.

Motor data

Typ 80 L/4-2 Bre8


Rated output power PN 0,60 / 0,75 kW
Rated speed nN 1400 / 2830 1/min
Synchronous speed nsyn 1500 / 3000 1/min
Rated torque MN 4,1 / 2,5 Nm
Run-up torque MH 7,4 / 5,7 Nm
No-load switching frequency zo 2500 / 1800 s/h
Motor moment of inertia JM 0,00165 kgm 2
Brake moment of inertia JBre 0,00007 kgm2
max. braking work until readjustment Wzul. 7 * 107 J
Brake reaktion time t2 0,015 s
(DC-connection)
Braking torque MB 8 Nm

Load torque M

P ∗ 9550
M =
nN

0,74 kW ∗ 9550
ML = = 2,5 Nm
2830 1 ⁄min

Switching torque MU

MU = 2 * MH4
MU = 2 * 7,4 Nm = 14,8 Nm

reduced moment of inertia Jred


2
 v
J red = 91,2 ∗ m ∗  
n
 N
2
 0,24 m ⁄s 
J red = 91,2 ∗ (50 kg ∗ 200 kg) ∗   = 0,00016 kgm 2
 2830 ⁄min 
1

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z0 = 2320 / 1620 s/h = max. perm. switching frequency with no load


For this application A 4-2 polemotor (Dahlander-connection) is used. Therefor the half of the zo is criteria.

Permissibleswitchingfrequencyzzul

1 − ML ⁄ MH zO
up motion: zzul = ∗
1 + (Jred + JBre) ⁄ JM 2

1 − 2,5 Nm ⁄ 5,7 Nm 1620 s⁄h


zzul = 2 2 2
∗ = 399 s⁄h (2 poles)
1 + (0,00016 kgm + 0,00007 kgm ) ⁄ 0,00165 kgm 2

1 − ML ⁄ MU zO
down motion: zzul = ∗
1 + (Jred + JBre) ⁄ JM 2

1 − 2,5 Nm ⁄ 14,8 Nm 2320 s⁄h


zzul = 2 2 2
∗ = 846 s⁄h (4 poles)
1 + (0,00016 kgm + 0,00007 kgm ) ⁄ 0,00165 kgm 2

The mechanicalbraking depends on the positioning speed.The max.braking distance depends on down motion.

Deceleration av

9,55 ∗ v ∗ nN4 ⁄ nN2 ∗ (MB − ML ∗ η2)


av =
(Jred ∗ η + JM + JBre) ∗ nN4

9,55 ∗ 0,24 m⁄s ∗ 1400 1⁄min ⁄ 2830 1⁄min ∗ (8 Nm − 2,5 Nm ∗ 0,82)


av = = 2,80 m⁄s2
(0,00016 kgm2 ∗ 0,8 + 0,00165 kgm2 + 0,00007 kgm2) ∗ 1400 1⁄min

In case of calculation the deceleration time we have to use the increased speed for the down motion.
The cause is the delay for switching and the over-synchronous speed.

Load speed nL

nL = nsyn ± ML ⁄ MN ∗ (nsyn − nN) +: down motion, -: up motion

down motion: nL = nsyn + ML ∗ η2 ⁄ MN ∗ (nsyn − nN)

2,5 Nm ∗ 0,8 2
nL = 1500 1⁄min + ∗ (1500 1⁄min − 1400 1⁄min) = 1539 1⁄min
4,1 Nm

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Increased speed during braking time ∆n

9,55 ∗ ML ∗ t2
∆n = ± +: down motion, -: up motion
Jred + JM + JBre

9,55 ∗ ML ∗ η2 ∗ t2
down motion: ∆n =
Jred ∗ η + JM + JBre

9,55 ∗ 2,5 Nm ∗ 0,82 ∗ 0,015 s


∆n = = 124 1⁄min
0,00016 kgm2 ∗ 0,8 + 0,00165 kgm2 + 0,00007 kgm2

Deceleration time tv (Braking time)

v ∗ (nL + ∆n) ⁄ nN2


tv =
a

0,24 m⁄s ∗ (1539 1⁄min + 124 1⁄min) ⁄ 2830 1⁄min


tv = m
= 0,05 s
2,80 ⁄s2

Deceleration distance sv (Brakingdistance)

2
 nL + ∆n 
v ∗  
sv =  nN2 
2 ∗ a

2
 1539 1⁄min + 124 1⁄min 
0,24 m⁄s ∗  
 2830 1⁄min 
sv = 2
= 0,004 m
2 ∗ 2,80 m⁄s

Positioning accuracy

The positioningaccuracyis about± 25 % from the deceleration distance sv.


Positioning accuracy = ± 25 % * sv = ± 0,25 * 0,004 m = ± 0,001 m

Braking work WB

(Jred ∗ η + JM + JBre) ∗ n2N4 MB


WB = ∗
182,5 MB ± ML

(0,00016 kgm 2 ∗ 0,8 + 0,00165 kgm2 + 0,00007 kgm2) ∗ (1400 1⁄min)2 8 Nm


WB = ∗ = 20 J
182,5 8 Nm ± 0

Because of the same number of up- and down-motion the load torque = 0 Nm.

Brake service life until readjustment LN

Wzul
LN =
WB ∗ z

7 ∗ 107J
LN = = 9720 h
20 J ∗ 360 1⁄h

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Gear arrangements

Gear output speed n2

v ∗ 60
n2 =
π ∗ Dm

0,24 m⁄s ∗ 60
n2 = = 22 1⁄min
π ∗ 0,208 m
^

Mass acceleration factor maf

Jred
maf =
JM + JBre

0,00016 kgm2
maf = = 0,09
0,00165 kgm 2 + 0,00007 kgm2

Switching per hour: 1080 ( each 360 accelerations, change-over, decelerations)


⇒ kind of load A, fB = 1,2

Output torque Ma

PN ∗ 9550
Ma = ∗ fB
n2

0,75 kW ∗ 9550
Ma = ∗ 1,2 = 391 Nm
22 1⁄min

Reduction i

nN
i =
n2

2830 1⁄min
i = = 129
22 1⁄min

Complete type: SK 2382 A - 80 L/4-2 Bre8


PN = 0,60 / 0,75 kW
i = 131,86
n2 = 11 / 21 1/min
Mounting position H 1
Hollow shaft ø 35 mm
Brake 8 Nm
Insolating material class F

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Example III.1: Turntable drive for processing table

Determine the size of a cd-geared motor for a tuntable with 3 work stations (α = 120°)

Tableweightwithoutload mO 500 kg Positioning accuracy = ± 1 mm


Table diameter D 2m Sprocket reduction iv 3,76
Positions of load α 120° Dutyfactor ED 60 %
Spacedatradius R 1m Pulsenumber 360 Takte/h
Ball bearingringdiameter d 2m Time of run 16 h/Tag
Cycle time for 120° turn tges 6s Efficiency η 0,8
LoadmL (3 x 750 kg) mL 2250 kg Mounting position V6

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Distance s ( at a rotation of 120° )

D∗π 2m∗π
s = = = 2,094 m
3 3

Acceleration time tB or Deceleration time tV

t B = t V = 1 s (acceptance data )

Tablespeed nT

s ges ∗ 60 2,094 m ∗ 60
nT = = = 4 1⁄ min
π ∗ D ∗ ( t − ( tB + tV ) ⁄ 2 ) π∗2m ∗(6s −(1s +1s ) ⁄ 2)

Table circumferential velocity v (Ball bearing ring)

π ∗ d ∗ nT π ∗2 m ∗ 4 1⁄min
v = = = 0,42 m⁄s
60 60

Momentofinertia J

1 1 1 1
J = ∗ m O ∗ D2 + ∗ m L ∗ d 2 = ∗ 500 kg ∗ (2 m)2 + ∗ 2250 kg ∗ (2 m)2 = 2500 kgm 2
8 4 8 4

Friction power PR (static)

(m O + m L) ∗ g ∗ µ L ∗ v (500 kg + 2250 kg ) ∗ 9,81 m⁄s2 ∗ 0,005 ∗ 0,42 m⁄s


PR = = = 0,07 kW
1000 ∗ η 1000 ∗ 0,8

with µL = 0,005 for friction bearing

Acceleration power PB (dynamic)

J ∗ nT2 2500 kgm 2 ∗ (4 1⁄min)2


PB = = = 0,55 kW
91,2 ∗ 1000 ∗ t B ∗ η 91,2 ∗ 1000 ∗ 1 s ∗ 0,8

Power P

P = PR + PB (friction + acceleration)

P = 0,07 kW + 0,55 kW = 0,62 kW

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NORD - Information

Motor data

Type 90 S/8-2 Bre 10


Rated power PN 0,25 / 1,1 kW
Rated speed nN 700 / 2810 1/min
Rated torque MN 3,4 / 3,7 Nm
Hochlaufmoment MH 4,0 / 5,7 Nm
No-load switching frequency z o 9000 / 1500 s/h
Motor moment of inertia JM 0,00235 kgm2
Brake moment of inerta JBre 0,00007 kgm2
Braking torque MB (adjusted at 8 Nm) 8 Nm

LoadtorqueML

PR ∗ 9550 0,07 kW ∗ 9550


M = = = 0,2 Nm
nN 2810 1⁄ min

Reduced moment of inertia Jred

 nT   4 1⁄min  2
Jred = J ∗   2 = 2500 kgm2 ∗   = 0,00507 kgm
2
 2810 ⁄min
n 1
 N

Permissibleswitchingfrequence zzul

1 − ML ⁄ MH 1 − 0,2 Nm ⁄ 5,7 Nm
zzul = ∗ zO = ∗ 1500 s⁄h = 453 s⁄h
1 + (Jred + JBre) ⁄ JM 1 + (0,00507 kgm2 + 0,00007 kgm2) ⁄ 0,00235 kgm2

Acceleration aB

9,55 ∗ v ∗ (MH − ML) 9,55 ∗ 0,42 m⁄s ∗ (5,7 Nm − 0,2 Nm)


aB = = = 0,90 m⁄s2
Jred ⁄ η + JM + JBre) ∗ nN (0,00507 kgm ⁄ 0,8 + 0,00235 kgm 2 + 0,00007 kgm2) ∗ 2810 1⁄min
2

Acceleration time tB (start up time)

v 0,42 m⁄s
tB = = = 0,47 s
aB 0,90 m⁄s2

Accelerationdistance sB (start up distance)

v2 0,42 m⁄s2
sB = = = 0,098 m
2 ∗ aB 2 ∗ 0,90 m⁄s2

Change-overtorque MU

MU = 2 ∗ MH8 = 2 ∗ 4,0 Nm = 8,0 Nm

At the change over the speed increased and the motor is decelet ad generator-style.

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Change-over delay aU

9,55 ∗ v ∗ (1 − nN8 ⁄ nN2) ∗ (MU + ML ∗ η2)


aU = =
(Jred ∗ η + JM + JBre) ∗ (nN2 − nN8)

9,55 ∗ 0,42 m⁄s ∗ (1 − 700 1⁄min ⁄ 2810 1⁄min) ∗ (8,0 Nm + 0,2 Nm ∗ 0,8 2)
aU = = 1,79 m⁄s2
(0,00507 kgm2 ∗ 0,8 + 0,00235 kgm2 + 0,00007 kgm2) ∗ (2810 1⁄min − 700 1⁄min)

Change-over time tU

v ∗ (1 − nN8 ⁄ nN2) 0,42 m⁄s ∗ (1 − 700 1⁄min ⁄ 2810 1⁄min)


tU = = = 0,18 s
aU 1,79 m⁄s2

Change-overdistance sU

(v ∗ (1 − nN8 ⁄ nN2))2 0,42 m⁄s ∗ (1 − 700 1⁄min ⁄ 2810 1⁄min))2


sU = = = 0,028 m
2 ∗ aU 2 ∗ 1,79 m⁄s2

Deceleration a V

9,55 ∗ v ∗ nN8 ⁄ nN2 ∗ (MB + ML ∗ η2) 9,55 ∗ 0,42 m⁄s ∗ 700 1⁄min ⁄ 2810 1⁄min ∗ (8,0 Nm + 0,2 Nm ∗ 0,82)
aV = = = 1,80 m⁄s2
(Jred ∗ η + JM + JBre) ∗ nN8 (0,00507 kgm 2 ∗ 0,8 + 0,00235 kgm2 + 0,00007 kgm 2) ∗ 700 1⁄min

Decelerationtime tV

v ∗ nN8 ⁄ nN2 0,42 m⁄s ∗ 700 1⁄min ⁄ 2810 1⁄min


tv = = = 0,06 s
aV 1,80 m⁄s2

Deceleration distance sV

(v ∗ nN8 ⁄ nN2 )2 (0,42 m⁄s ∗ 700 1⁄min ⁄ 2810 1⁄min)2


sV = = = 0,003 m
2 ∗ aV 2 ∗ 1,80 m⁄s2

Distance s with velocity v

s = sges - sB - sU - sV = 2,094 m - 0,098 m - 0,028 m - 0,003 m = 1,965 m

Timetwithvelocity v

s 1,965 m
t = = = 4,68 s
v 0,42 m⁄s

Pulse duration tges (total cycle time)

tges = tB + t + tU + tV = 0,47 s + 4,68 s + 0,18 s + 0,06 s = 5,39 s

The required cylce time of 6s is not reached. There is a possibility of driving for a longer period in creep speed.

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NORD - Information

Positioning
accuracy

The positioningaccuracyisabout± 25% of the deceleration way sV.

Positioning accuracy = ± 0,25 * sv = ± 0,25 * 0,003 m = ± 0,00075 m = ± 0,75 mm

Gear arrangements

Gear output speed n2

n2 = nT * iV = 4 1/min * 3,76 = 15 1/min

Massacceleration factor maf

Jred 0,00507 kgm2


maf = = = 2,1
JM+JBre 0,00235 kgm2 + 0,00007 kgm2

Switching per hour: 1080 (each 360 accelerations, change-over and decelerations)
→ kind of load B, fB = 1,5

Outputtorque Ma

PN ∗ 9550 1,1 kW ∗ 9550


Ma = ∗ fB = ∗ 1,5 = 1050 Nm
n2 15 1⁄min

Reduction i

nN 2810 1⁄min
i = = = 187
n2 15 1⁄min

Complete type: SK 43 - 90 S/8-2 Bre 8


PN = 0,25 / 1,1 kW
i = 169,86
n2 = 4/16 1/min
Mounting position V6
Shaft ø 45 x 90 mm
Brake 8 Nm

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