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NETWORKING FOR BEGINNERS - DICTIONARY OF NETWORK TERMINOLOGY..........6 10.0.0.1..................................................................................................................................................6 127.0.0.1................................................................................................................................................6 192.168.0.0............................................................................................................................................6 192.168.1.0............................................................................................................................................6 192.168.1.1............................................................................................................................................7 192.168.1.100........................................................................................................................................7 192.168.1.101........................................................................................................................................7 192.168.1.254........................................................................................................................................7 192.168.2.1............................................................................................................................................

8 802.11....................................................................................................................................................8 802.11A..................................................................................................................................................8 802.11B..................................................................................................................................................8 802.11G..................................................................................................................................................9 802.11N..................................................................................................................................................9 ACCESS POINT, WIRELESS.......................................................................................................................9 WHAT IS AD-HOC MODE IN WIRELESS NETWORKING?......................................................................10 ADAPTER..............................................................................................................................................10 NETWORK ADDRESS.............................................................................................................................10 ADSL - ASYMMETRIC DIGITAL SUBSCRIBER LINE.............................................................................11 AIM.....................................................................................................................................................11 PROXY SERVERS TUTORIAL - ABOUT PROXY SERVERS......................................................................12 a) Introduction to Proxy Servers....................................................................................................12 a) Key Features of Proxy Servers..................................................................................................12 b) Proxy Servers, Firewalling and Filtering..................................................................................12 c) Connection Sharing with Proxy Servers....................................................................................12 d) Proxy Servers and Caching.......................................................................................................12 e) Proxy caching with John and Jane............................................................................................13 f) Drawbacks of Proxy Caching.....................................................................................................13 g) Proxy Servers and Browsers......................................................................................................14 h) Host Identifiers and Ports..........................................................................................................14 i) Automatic Proxy Configuration..................................................................................................15 j) Proxy Servers and Microsoft Internet Explorer.........................................................................15 k) Proxy Servers and Netscape Navigator.....................................................................................16 l) Conclusion..................................................................................................................................17 APACHE................................................................................................................................................18 API - APPLICATION PROGRAMMING INTERFACE.................................................................................18 APIPA - AUTOMATIC PRIVATE IP ADDRESSING.................................................................................18 ARES LITE............................................................................................................................................18 ARP - ADDRESS RESOLUTION PROTOCOL...........................................................................................19 ASP - APPLICATION SERVICE PROVIDER.............................................................................................19 Common ASP Applications...........................................................................................................19 Networking Issues for Application Service Providers..................................................................19 ATM - ASYNCHRONOUS TRANSFER MODE.........................................................................................20 ACCEPTABLE USE POLICY - AUP........................................................................................................20 Why Acceptable Use Policies Are Important................................................................................20 What Should an Acceptable Use Policy Contain?........................................................................20 Use Cases for an AUP...................................................................................................................21 AUTOSENSING.......................................................................................................................................21 AZUREUS FREE P2P FILE SHARING CLIENT........................................................................................21 BACKBONE...........................................................................................................................................23 BANDWIDTH.........................................................................................................................................23 BAUD....................................................................................................................................................23 BIT........................................................................................................................................................23 BITTORRENT........................................................................................................................................23 BLUETOOTH.........................................................................................................................................24 BPL - BROADBAND OVER POWER LINE..............................................................................................24 BPS / BPS..............................................................................................................................................25 BRIDGE - NETWORK BRIDGES...............................................................................................................25

BROADBAND.........................................................................................................................................25 BROADBAND MODEM...........................................................................................................................25 BROADBAND ROUTER...........................................................................................................................26 BYTE.....................................................................................................................................................26 CARNIVORE..........................................................................................................................................27 CAT5, CAT5E.....................................................................................................................................27

CAT6...................................................................................................................................................27 CCIE....................................................................................................................................................27 CCNA..................................................................................................................................................28 CCNP...................................................................................................................................................28 CISCO...................................................................................................................................................28 CIDR - CLASSLESS INTER-DOMAIN ROUTING....................................................................................29 CLUSTER..............................................................................................................................................29 CROSSOVER CABLE (ETHERNET)..........................................................................................................29 DARKNET..............................................................................................................................................31 DATAGRAM, PACKET............................................................................................................................31 DB - DBM - DECIBEL...........................................................................................................................31 DDNS - DYNAMIC DNS......................................................................................................................31 DEADAIM............................................................................................................................................32 DHCP - DYNAMIC HOST CONFIGURATION PROTOCOL.......................................................................32 DIAL UP................................................................................................................................................32 DIVX....................................................................................................................................................33 DMZ - DEMILITARIZED ZONE.............................................................................................................33 DNS - DOMAIN NAME SYSTEM...........................................................................................................33 DONGLE................................................................................................................................................34 DOS - DENIAL OF SERVICE..................................................................................................................34 DOWNLOAD / UPLOAD.........................................................................................................................34 DSL - DIGITAL SUBSCRIBER LINE.......................................................................................................34 DSL MODEM........................................................................................................................................35 DWDM................................................................................................................................................35 ETHERNET............................................................................................................................................36 EV-DO.................................................................................................................................................36 a) What Is EV-DO?........................................................................................................................36 m) How Fast Is EV-DO?................................................................................................................36 EXEEM AND EXEEM LITE....................................................................................................................36 EXTRANET ...........................................................................................................................................37 FASTTRACK.........................................................................................................................................38 FAST ETHERNET...................................................................................................................................38 FIBER OPTIC CABLE..............................................................................................................................38 FIBRE CHANNEL - FIBER CHANNEL.....................................................................................................38 FIREWALL.............................................................................................................................................39 a) Network Firewalls and Broadband Routers..............................................................................39 n) Network Firewalls and Proxy Servers.......................................................................................39 FIREWIRE IEEE 1394.......................................................................................................................39 FIRMWARE............................................................................................................................................39 FOIP - INTERNET FAX OVER IP...........................................................................................................40 FRAME RELAY.....................................................................................................................................40 FTP - WHAT DOES FTP STAND FOR?.................................................................................................40 GATEWAY.............................................................................................................................................41 GBPS, KBPS / KBPS, MBPS...................................................................................................................41 GHZ AND MHZ - GIGAHERTZ AND MEGAHERTZ................................................................................41 GIGABIT - KILOBIT MEGABIT.............................................................................................................41 GIGABIT ETHERNET.............................................................................................................................41 GIGABYTE, KILOBYTE, MEGABYTE ......................................................................................................42 GNUTELLA...........................................................................................................................................42 GROKSTER - P2P CLIENT.....................................................................................................................42 GROUPWARE........................................................................................................................................42 H.323 PROTOCOL.................................................................................................................................44 HDSL...................................................................................................................................................44 HOP......................................................................................................................................................44

HOSTING...............................................................................................................................................44 HOSTS FILE...........................................................................................................................................45 HOTSPOT...............................................................................................................................................45 HSDPA - HIGH-SPEED DOWNLINK PACKET ACCESS..........................................................................45

HTTP...................................................................................................................................................45 HUB - ETHERNET HUB..........................................................................................................................46 a) Working With Ethernet Hubs.....................................................................................................46 o) Characteristics of Ethernet Hubs..............................................................................................46 p) When To Use an Ethernet Hub..................................................................................................46 IANA...................................................................................................................................................47 ICMP...................................................................................................................................................47 ICQ......................................................................................................................................................47 ICS - INTERNET CONNECTION SHARING..............................................................................................47 IEEE 1394...........................................................................................................................................48 IIS........................................................................................................................................................48 INFINIBAND.........................................................................................................................................48 INFRARED.............................................................................................................................................48 INTERNET.............................................................................................................................................49 INTERNET EXPLORER...........................................................................................................................49 IP - INTERNET PROTOCOL....................................................................................................................49 INTRANET.............................................................................................................................................50 IPSEC....................................................................................................................................................50 IPTV....................................................................................................................................................50 IPV6.....................................................................................................................................................50 IP ADDRESS..........................................................................................................................................51 a) Common IP (IPv4) Addresses....................................................................................................51 ISDN - INTEGRATED SERVICES DIGITAL NETWORK...........................................................................51 ISP - INTERNET SERVICE PROVIDERS..................................................................................................52 KAZAA - KAZZAA................................................................................................................................53 KAZAA LITE K++................................................................................................................................53 KBPS / KBPS, MBPS, GBPS...................................................................................................................53 KEYLOGGER.........................................................................................................................................53 KILOBIT - MEGABIT GIGABIT.............................................................................................................54 KILOBYTE, MEGABYTE, GIGABYTE.......................................................................................................54 LAN - LOCAL AREA NETWORK..........................................................................................................55 LDAP...................................................................................................................................................55 LEASED LINE........................................................................................................................................55 MAC - MEDIA ACCESS CONTROL AND ADDRESS...............................................................................57 MIMO..................................................................................................................................................57 MODEM.................................................................................................................................................57 MTU....................................................................................................................................................57 MULTIHOMING......................................................................................................................................58 NAGLE ALGORITHM.............................................................................................................................59 NAPSTER..............................................................................................................................................59 NAS.....................................................................................................................................................59 NAT - NETWORK ADDRESS TRANSLATION.........................................................................................59 NETBIOS.............................................................................................................................................60 NETMEETING - MICROSOFT NETMEETING..........................................................................................60 NETWARE............................................................................................................................................61 NIC......................................................................................................................................................61 NODE....................................................................................................................................................61 NOS - NETWORK OPERATING SYSTEM...............................................................................................61 NTP - NETWORK TIME PROTOCOL......................................................................................................61 NULL MODEM CABLE............................................................................................................................62 OCTET...................................................................................................................................................63 OSI MODEL - OPEN SYSTEMS INTERCONNECTION MODEL.................................................................63 P2P.......................................................................................................................................................64 PACKET.................................................................................................................................................64 PAN.....................................................................................................................................................64 PASSPHRASE.........................................................................................................................................64

PASV - PASSIVE MODE FTP................................................................................................................65 PATCH CABLES.....................................................................................................................................65 PCI.......................................................................................................................................................65 PCMCIA - PERSONAL COMPUTER MEMORY CARD INTERNATIONAL ASSOCIATION..........................66 PEER GUARDIAN AND PEERGUARDIAN 2 P2P SOFTWARE..................................................................66 q) Peer Guardian vs Peer Guardian 2...........................................................................................66 PING.....................................................................................................................................................67 PING OF DEATH....................................................................................................................................67 PORT NUMBER......................................................................................................................................67 PORTAL................................................................................................................................................67 PPPOE..................................................................................................................................................68 PPTP....................................................................................................................................................68 PROTOCOL (NETWORK)........................................................................................................................68 a) Internet Protocols......................................................................................................................68 r) Routing Protocols.......................................................................................................................69 s) How Network Protocols Are Implemented.................................................................................69 PROXY SERVERS TUTORIAL - ABOUT PROXY SERVERS......................................................................69 PSTN...................................................................................................................................................69 QOS......................................................................................................................................................70 RADSL................................................................................................................................................70 REPEATER.............................................................................................................................................70 RFC.....................................................................................................................................................70 RFID - RADIO FREQUENCY IDENTIFICATION......................................................................................71 RJ45.....................................................................................................................................................71 ROUTER................................................................................................................................................71 RPC - REMOTE PROCEDURE CALL......................................................................................................72 RS-232.................................................................................................................................................72 SAMBA.................................................................................................................................................73 SAN.....................................................................................................................................................73 SATELLITE INTERNET...........................................................................................................................73 SONET - SYNCHRONOUS OPTICAL NETWORK....................................................................................73 SDSL...................................................................................................................................................74 SEGMENT..............................................................................................................................................74 SERIAL PORT.........................................................................................................................................74 SERVER.................................................................................................................................................75 SHDSL................................................................................................................................................75 SIP - SESSION INITIATION PROTOCOL.................................................................................................75 SMB.....................................................................................................................................................75 SNIFFER................................................................................................................................................75 SNMP..................................................................................................................................................76 SOCKET.................................................................................................................................................76 SPANNING TREE....................................................................................................................................76 SS7 - SIGNALING SYSTEM 7................................................................................................................76 SSH......................................................................................................................................................77 SSID - SERVICE SET IDENTIFIER.........................................................................................................77 SSL - SECURE SOCKETS LAYER..........................................................................................................77 SUBNET.................................................................................................................................................77 SWITCH (NETWORK SWITCH)................................................................................................................78 TCP/IP - TRANSMISSION CONTROL PROTOCOL / INTERNET PROTOCOL.............................................79 TELEPHONY..........................................................................................................................................79 TORRENTS............................................................................................................................................79 TRACEROUTE.......................................................................................................................................79 TROJAN.................................................................................................................................................79 UDP.....................................................................................................................................................81 UNC.....................................................................................................................................................81 UPNP - UNIVERSAL PLUG AND PLAY..................................................................................................81 URI......................................................................................................................................................81 URL.....................................................................................................................................................82 USB - UNIVERSAL SERIAL BUS...........................................................................................................82 VDSL...................................................................................................................................................84

VIRUS...................................................................................................................................................84

VNC.....................................................................................................................................................84 VOIP - VOICE OVER INTERNET PROTOCOL..........................................................................................85 VPN - VIRTUAL PRIVATE NETWORK..................................................................................................85 WAN - WIDE AREA NETWORK...........................................................................................................86 WAP - WIRELESS ACCESS POINTS AND WIRELESS APPLICATION PROTOCOL....................................86 WARDRIVING - WAR DRIVING...............................................................................................................86 WEP - WIRED EQUIVALENT PRIVACY.................................................................................................86 WHOIS................................................................................................................................................87 WI-FI - WIRELESS FIDELITY................................................................................................................87 WIMAX................................................................................................................................................87 WINS - WINDOWS INTERNET NAMING SERVICE................................................................................88 WINSOCK - WINDOWS SOCKETS.........................................................................................................88 WISP - WIRELESS INTERNET SERVICE PROVIDER...............................................................................88 WLAN.................................................................................................................................................89 WML - WIRELESS MARKUP LANGUAGE.............................................................................................89 WOL - WAKE-ON-LAN.......................................................................................................................89 WORKGROUP........................................................................................................................................90 WORM - COMPUTER WORM...................................................................................................................90 WPA - WI-FI PROTECTED ACCESS......................................................................................................90 WWW - WORLD WIDE WEB...............................................................................................................91 X.25.....................................................................................................................................................92 XBOX...................................................................................................................................................92 XML-RPC...........................................................................................................................................92 ZONEALARM - ZONEALARM PRO........................................................................................................92

Networking for Beginners - Dictionary of Network Terminology


10.0.0.1
Definition: The IP address 10.0.0.1 is a default for some types of network routers including Cisco brand routers. This address may also be used by network servers. 10.0.0.1 is sometimes called a default gateway address as it typically represents the local side of a router's connection to the Internet. 10.0.0.1 is more commonly found in business networks than in homes, which tend to use routers having default addresses in the 192.168.x.x series. Both the 10.x.x.x and 192.168.x.x series are private IP address ranges. For students: in classful IP networks, 10.0.0.1 is a class A address with default subnet mask 255.0.0.0.

127.0.0.1
Definition: The IP address 127.0.0.1 is a special purpose address reserved for use on each computer. 127.0.0.1 is conventionally a computer's loopback address. Network software and utilities can use 127.0.0.1 to access a local computer's TCP/IP network resources. Messages sent to loopback IP addresses like 127.0.0.1 do not reach outside to the local area network (LAN) but instead are automatically re-routed by the computer's own network adapter back to the receiving end of the TCP/IP stack. Typically all IP addresses in the range 127.0.0.1 - 127.255.255.255 are reserved for private use, but 127.0.0.1 is by convention the loopback address in almost all cases.

192.168.0.0
Definition: The IP address 192.168.0.0 is the start of the Class C private range. By convention, network routers and other gateways use 192.168.0.0 to reference a private network generically. You should not attempt to set 192.168.0.0 as a static IP address for any host, becuase it is reserved for use as a network address. The extent of the 192.168.0.0 network depends on the network mask configured. For example, 192.168.0.0/24 represents the private network with IP address range 192.168.0.0 192.168.255.255. Broadband routers more often use the Class C default 192.168.0.0/16 mask with range 192.168.0.0 - 192.168.0.255. Routers on these networks conventionally use IP address 192.168.0.1. Being private, 192.168.0.0, 192.168.0.1 and all other addresses within this network cannot be used on the Internet.

192.168.1.0
Definition: The IP address 192.168.1.0 represents the 192.168.1.x range of addresses where x is between 1 and 255. 192.168.1.0 is a private IP network. It is the default network (but not the default address) for Linksys brand home broadband routers. 192.168.1.0 is not a valid IP address for a network router or other host, and no device on your network should be configured to own this address. Instead, 192.168.1.0 is used in routing tables and by the Internet Protocol internally to identify the 192.168.1.x network as a whole. A router or other network gateway device on these networks is typically installed at 192.168.1.1, and other hosts use higher numbers in the range. 6

192.168.1.1
Definition: The IP address 192.168.1.1 is the default for Linksys brand home broadband routers. This address is set by the manufacturer at the factory, but you can change it at any time using the network router's administrative console. 192.168.1.1 is a private IPv4 network address. Any brand of network router, or any computer on a local network for that matter, can be set to use this address. As with any IP address, however, only one device on the network should use 192.168.1.1 to avoid address conflicts.

192.168.1.100
Definition: 192.168.1.100 is the beginning of the default dynamic IP address range for Linksys home network routers. This means the first computer (or other device) you attach to a Linksys router will typically be assigned the address 192.168.1.100 by DHCP. You can change the DHCP range of a router through its configuration utility to either use or not use 192.168.1.100. Additionally, this address is a private IP address that you can assign manually (statically) to a computer on the local network. To avoid address conflicts, do not use 192.168.1.100 as a static IP address if it is also part of the router's DHCP range.

192.168.1.101
Definition: 192.168.1.101 is part of the IP address range typically used on home computer networks having Linksys broadband routers. One of the computers on your home network will often be assigned 192.168.1.101 automatically via a router's DHCP configuration. The DHCP range on many Linksys routers starts one number earlier, at 192.168.1.100 by default. The first computer you connect to the router will receive this address, and the second one will receive 192.168.1.101 subsequently. 192.168.1.101 is a private (non-routable) IP address. Therefore, you will not find any hosts on the public Internet with this address. If you see messages from your network router pertaining to 192.168.1.101, you can expect those are originating from one of your own local computers.

192.168.1.254
Definition: The IP address 192.168.1.254 is the default for certain home broadband routers and broadband modems, including

some 3Com OfficeConnect routers Netopia / Cayman Internet gateways Billion ADSL routers Linksys SRW2024 managed switches Westell modems for Bellsouth DSL Internet service in the U.S.

This address is set by the manufacturer at the factory, but you can change it at any time using the vendor's management software. 192.168.1.254 is a private IPv4 network address. Any device on a local network can be set to use it. As with any IP address, however, only one device on the network should use 192.168.1.254 at a time to avoid address conflicts.

192.168.2.1
Definition: The IP address 192.168.2.1 is the default for certain models of home broadband routers principally SMC and Belkin brands. This address is set by the manufacturer at the factory, but you can change it at any time using the network router's administrative console. 192.168.2.1 is a private IPv4 network address. Home routers can use it to establish the default gateway. On such routers, you can access its administrative console by pointing a Web browser to http://192.168.2.1. Any brand of network router, or any computer on a local network for that matter, can be set to use 192.168.2.1. As with any IP address, however, to avoid address conflicts only one device on the network should use it.

802.11
Definition: 802.11 is the generic name of a family of standards for wireless networking. The numbering system for 802.11 comes from the IEEE, who uses "802" for many networking standards like Ethernet (802.3). 802.11 standards define rules for communication on wireless local area networks (WLANs). Popular 802.11 standards include 802.11a, 802.11b and 802.11g. 802.11 was the original standard in this family, ratified in 1997. 802.11 defined WLANs that operate at 1-2 Mbps. This standard is obsolete today. Each extension to the original 802.11 appends a unique letter to the name.

802.11a
Definition: 802.11a is a WLAN communication standard. 802.11a is one of the wireless Ethernet standards in the 802.11 series. 802.11a wireless networks support a maximum theoretical bandwidth of 54 Mbps. 802.11a's principal advantage over 802.11b, that supports 11 Mbps, is improved performance. However, 802.11a access points (APs) and adapters also cost significantly more than their 802.11b counterparts. 802.11a transmits radio signals in the frequency range above 5 GHz. This range is "regulated," meaning that 802.11a gear utilizes frequencies not used by other commercial wireless products like cordless phones. In contrast, 802.11b utilizes frequencies in the unregulated 2.4 GHz range and encounters much more radio interference from other devices. Examples: Though it helps improve network performance and reduce interference, the range of an 802.11a signal is limited by use of the high 5 GHz frequency. An 802.11a AP transmitter may cover less than one-fourth the area of a comparable 802.11b AP. Brick walls and other obstructions affect 802.11a wireless networks to a greater degree than they do comparable 802.11b networks.

802.11b
Definition: 802.11b is a WLAN communication standard. 802.11b is one of the wireless Ethernet standards in the 802.11 series. Compared to alternatives like 802.11a and 802.11g, 802.11b network equipment costs less. Its relatively low cost naturally resulted in many home and small business networks adopting 802.11b. 8

802.11b LANs support a maximum data rate of 11 Mbps. Although 802.11b performs much better than traditional dial-up networking, the performance of 802.11b is still significantly less than 802.11a and other, newer standards. Also Known As: Wi-Fi Examples: 802.11b transmits in the 2.4 Ghz frequency range. This range is "unregulated," meaning that radio transmitters built into other products may use the same frequency and interfere with the 802.11b network. These products include some cordless telephones, microwave ovens, garage door openers, and baby monitors.

802.11g
Definition: 802.11g was ratified in 2003 as the latest in the series of IEEE 802.11 standards for wireless LAN (WLAN) communications. 802.11g extends and improves on the earlier 802.11b standard. 802.11g supports a maximum bandwidth of 54 Mbps compared to the 11 Mbps of 802.11b. To achieve backward compatibility, 802.11g uses the same communication frequency range 2.4 Ghz - as 802.11b. As with the other 802.11 standards, 802.11g supports Ethernet networking exclusively.

802.11n
Definition: 802.11n is an upcoming industry standard for high-speed Wi-Fi networking. 802.11n is designed to replace the 802.11a, 802.11b and 802.11g Wi-Fi standards for local area networking. 802.11n will work by utilizing multiple wireless antennas in tandem to transmit and receive data. The associated term MIMO (Multiple Input, Multiple Output) refers to the ability of 802.11n and similar technologies to coordinate multiple simultaenous radio signals. MIMO increases both the range and throughput of a wireless network. An additional technique employed by 802.11n involves increasing the channel bandwidth. As in 802.11a/b/g networking, each device uses a preset Wi-Fi channel on which to transmit. Each 802.11n channel will use a larger frequency range than these earlier standards, also increasing data throughput. Once finalized, 802.11n will support bandwidth greater than 100 Mbps and perhaps even greater than 200 Mbps. Some manufacturers offer pre-N wireless equipment based on preliminary drafts of the standard. However, this equipment may not be fully compatible with 802.11n equipment that will meet the final standard.

access point, wireless


Definition: Wireless access points (APs or WAPs) are specially configured nodes on wireless local area networks (WLANs). Access points act as a central transmitter and receiver of WLAN radio signals. Access points used in home or small business networks are generally small, dedicated hardware devices featuring a built-in network adapter, antenna, and radio transmitter. Access points support Wi-Fi wireless communication standards. Although very small WLANs can function without access points in so-called "ad hoc" or peer-to-peer mode, access points support "infrastructure" mode. This mode bridges WLANs with a wired Ethernet LAN and also scales the network to support more clients. Older and base model access points allowed a maximum of only 10 or 20 clients; many newer access points support up to 255 clients. 9

Also Known As: base station

What is Ad-Hoc Mode in Wireless Networking?


On wireless computer networks, ad-hoc mode is a method for wireless devices to directly communicate with each other. Operating in ad-hoc mode allows all wireless devices within range of each other to discover and communicate in peer-to-peer fashion without involving central access points (including those built in to broadband wireless routers). To set up an ad-hoc wireless network, each wireless adapter must be configured for ad-hoc mode versus the alternative infrastructure mode. In addition, all wireless adapters on the adhoc network must use the same SSID and the same channel number. An ad-hoc network tends to feature a small group of devices all in very close proximity to each other. Performance suffers as the number of devices grows, and a large ad-hoc network quickly becomes difficult to manage. Ad-hoc networks cannot bridge to wired LANs or to the Internet without installing a special-purpose gateway. Ad hoc networks make sense when needing to build a small, all-wireless LAN quickly and spend the minimum amount of money on equipment. Ad hoc networks also work well as a temporary fallback mechanism if normally-available infrastructure mode gear (access points or routers) stop functioning.

adapter
Definition: A network adapter interfaces a computer to a network. The term "adapter" was popularized originally by Ethernet add-in cards for PCs. Modern network adapter hardware exists in several forms. Besides traditional PCI Ethernet cards, some network adapters are PCMCIA devices (also know as "credit card" or "PC Card" adapters) or USB devices. Some wireless network adapter gear for laptop computers are integrated circuit chips pre-installed inside the computer. Windows and other operating systems support both wired and wireless network adapters through a piece of software called a "device driver." Network drivers allow application software to communicate with the adapter hardware. Network device drivers are often installed automatically when adapter hardware is first powered on. A few network adapters are purely software packages that simulate the functions of a network card. These so-called virtual adapters are especially common in virtual private networking (VPN). Also Known As: NIC, LAN card

network address
Definition: A network address serves as a unique identifier for a computer on a network. When set up correctly, computers can determine the addresses of other computers on the network and use these addresses to send messages to each other. One of the best known form of network addressing is the Internet Protocol (IP) address. IP addresses consist of four bytes (32 bits) that uniquely identify all computers on the public Internet.

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Another popular form of address is the Media Access Control (MAC) address. MAC addresses are six bytes (48 bits) that manufacturers of network adapters burn into their products to uniquely identify them.

ADSL - Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line


Definition: ADSL is a form of Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) Internet service. ADSL provides greater bandwidth for downloads at the expense of upload speeds. ADSL is the most common form of DSL used in home networking. ADSL is designed to support the typical home user who frequently downloads large amounts of data from Web sites and P2P networks but upload relatively less often. ADSL works by allocating a majority of the available phone line frequencies for communication of downstream traffic. In other respects, ADSL possesses all of the characteristics one associates with DSL, including "high-speed" service, an "always on" combination of voice and data support, and availability and performance that is limited by physical distance. ADSL is technically capable of up to 6 Mbps (roughly 6000 Kbps), but ADSL customers in practice obtain 2 Mbps or lower for downloads and up to 512 Kbps for uploads. Also Known As: Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line

AIM
Definition: AIM is a peer to peer instant messaging (IM) application and service supplied by America Online (AOL). The AOL AIM client application is a free download that runs on Windows, Linux, Macintosh, other computers, and cell phones. The AOL IM client download contains optional adware components. AIM supports basic "chat" based instant messaging as well as file sharing. Local folders can be shared in AIM and a "Get File" option allows others to reach those folders. The TCP port number used for AIM file transfers can also be configured in the AIM client. Several extensions to the basic AOL AIM client exist. AIM Remote allows the AOL IM service to be utilized through a Web browser. The Dead AIM application enhances the functionality of the basic AIM client. Encrypted and other secured versions of the AIM system exist for use in business networks. Also Known As: AOL Instant Messenger, AOL AIM, AOL IM

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Proxy Servers Tutorial - About Proxy Servers


a) Introduction to Proxy Servers
Some home networks, corporate intranets, and Internet Service Providers (ISPs) use proxy servers (also known as proxies). Proxy servers act as a "middleman" or broker between the two ends of a client/server network connection. Proxy servers work with Web browsers and servers, or other applications, by supporting underlying network protocols like HTTP.

a) Key Features of Proxy Servers


Proxy servers provide three main functions: 1. firewalling and filtering 2. connection sharing 3. caching The features of proxy servers are especially important on larger networks like corporate intranets and ISP networks. The more users on a LAN and the more critical the need for data privacy, the greater the need for proxy server functionality.

b) Proxy Servers, Firewalling and Filtering


Proxy servers work at the Application layer, layer 7 of the OSI model. They aren't as popular as ordinary firewalls that work at lower layers and support application-independent filtering. Proxy servers are also more difficult to install and maintain than firewalls, as proxy functionality for each application protocol like HTTP, SMTP, or SOCKS must be configured individually. However, a properly configured proxy server improves network security and performance. Proxies have capability that ordinary firewalls simply cannot provide. Some network administrators deploy both firewalls and proxy servers to work in tandem. To do this, they install both firewall and proxy server software on a server gateway. Because they function at the OSI Application layer, the filtering capability of proxy servers is relatively intelligent compared to that of ordinary routers. For example, proxy Web servers can check the URL of outgoing requests for Web pages by inspecting HTTP GET and POST messages. Using this feature, network administrators can bar access to illegal domains but allow access to other sites. Ordinary firewalls, in contrast, cannot see Web domain names inside those messages. Likewise for incoming data traffic, ordinary routers can filter by port number or network address, but proxy servers can also filter based on application content inside the messages.

c) Connection Sharing with Proxy Servers


Various software products for connection sharing on small home networks have appeared in recent years. In medium- and large-sized networks, however, actual proxy servers offer a more scalable and costeffective alternative for shared Internet access. Rather than give each client computer a direct Internet connection, all internal connections can be funneled through one or more proxies that in turn connect to the outside.

d) Proxy Servers and Caching


The caching of Web pages by proxy servers can improve a network's "quality of service" in three ways. First, caching may conserve bandwidth on the network, increasing scalability. Next, caching can improve response time experienced by clients. With an HTTP proxy cache, for example, Web pages can load more quickly into the browser. Finally, proxy server caches increase availability. Web pages or other files in the cache remain accessible even if the original source or an intermediate network link goes offline.

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Figure 1: Web caching with a proxy server

e) Proxy caching with John and Jane


Imagine two people at a company office -- let's call them John Doe and Jane Doe -- surfing the Net for business research. Suppose John has an interest in computer networking books and, having heard of the "In A Nutshell" series by O'Reilly, visits www.oreillynet.com in an attempt to learn more about them. It turns out that "O'Reilly Network" (the title of this site) does not cover O'Reilly's networking titles as much as it does some specific non-networking technologies. After fishing around a bit longer, John finds his ultimate destination at www.oreilly.com and merrily continues on his way. Now it's Jane's turn. Jane is very interested in Python programming and hears that O'Reilly recently opened their online Python resource center. She navigates to www.oreillynet.com and, because this page was cached during John's very recent visit, she is surprised at how quickly this content-rich page pops into her browser window. With a great first impression, Jane is now ready to immerse herself in the wonderful world of Python development. The potential benefits of proxy server caching loom even larger if John and Jane have a few hundred coworkers that share the same proxied Internet access and similar interests or Net surfing patterns. Yet proxy caching is not a silver bullet. Limitations exist that can render this technology much less useful.

f) Drawbacks of Proxy Caching


It's reasonable to expect that proxy servers handling hundreds or thousands of Web clients can become a network bottleneck. In addition to using servers with power processors and large amounts of memory, administrators may also choose to deploy multiple proxies to help avoid potential bottlenecks. A proxy hierarchy creates multiple layers of caching support. Clients connect directly to a first-level caching, and if a Web page is unavailable there locally, the request "misses" and automatically gets passed to a second-level caching server, and so on. As with many caching systems, the effectiveness of a multi-proxy server hierarchy is very dependent on the pattern of traffic. In the worst case, all clients will be visiting Web pages completely unrelated to each other, and proxies (the hardware, and the additional network traffic they generate) become pure overhead. One would expect that normal traffic patterns will usually not be worst-case, but every network's use pattern will be different. Proxy caching differs from browser caching. Browsers automatically cache pages on the client computer, whereas proxies can also cache pages on a remote Web server. Because browsers already perform their own caching, introducing proxy caching into a network will have only a second-order effect. Proxy caches don't help much with refreshed pages. On some sites, Web pages are set with HTML META tags to expire quickly; expired pages force the proxy cache to reload that page. Similarly, caching is rendered ineffective by pages that change content frequently, such as those on news sites, or weblogs. 13

Proxy caches also introduce measurement uncertainty into the Internet. Normally, a Web server log will record identifying information of visiting clients such as their IP addresses and domain names. For clients with proxy servers, all public requests are made on behalf of the server, using its IP address and identity. Web sites that carefully track the patterns of use of their visitors have much more difficulty in distinguishing unique client visits through proxies.

g) Proxy Servers and Browsers


Proxy servers work with specific networking protocols. Obviously HTTP will be the most critical one to configure for Web page access, but browsers also utilize these other protocols:

S-HTTP (also called "Secure" or "Security" in the browser) FTP SOCKS Gopher WAIS

S-HTTP (Secure Hypertext Transfer Protocol) supports encrypted HTTP communications. This protocol is becoming more and more common as ecommerce sites, for example, adopt it to make credit card transactions safer. S-HTTP should not be confused with SSL. Although S-HTTP uses SSL "under the covers," SSL is a lower-level protocol that by itself does not impact a browser's proxy setup. FTP (File Transfer Protocol) supports the download of files over the Web. Before HTTP was developed, FTP was an even more popular way to share files across the Internet. FTP treats files as either simple text or binary format, and it is still commonly used to download compressed archives of non-HTML data (like MP3 files, for example). SOCKS is a firewall security protocol implemented in some proxy configurations. Gopher and WAIS (Wide-Area Indexing Service) were two attempts before HTTP to build a standard protocol for indexing and navigating information on the Internet. Both Gopher and WAIS are effectively obsolete today. Technically, different proxy servers may be used to support these multiple protocols. For example, the hypothetical host http_proxy.about.com may serve HTTP and S-HTTP requests, and another hypothetical host other_proxy.about.com may serve FTP, GOPHER, WAIS, and any others except HTTP/S-HTTP. When manually configuring a browser, clients will need to know these details of the proxy server arrangement. Most of the time, network administrators will configure the proxies to serve all protocols to avoid any confusion.

h) Host Identifiers and Ports


To manually specify a proxy server in the browser, two pieces of information are required. First, the host identifier is either the host's network name (as configured in DNS, NIS, or similar naming service) or the host's IP address. Second, the port number is the TCP/IP port on which the server listens for requests. A single port number is generally used for all of the supported protocols above. This port should not be confused with the standard ports used by the protocols themselves (port 80 for HTTP, port 21 for FTP, and so on). This is a proxy port only, and it should never be assigned to one of the reserved numbers. Unfortunately, a single standard port number does not exist. Some numbers like 8000 and 8080 are used more commonly than others, but the number can be any unassigned value up to 65535. Users manually configuring their browsers will need to be told this port number by their network administrator. 14

i) Automatic Proxy Configuration


To make the deployment of proxy servers easier, some new technologies were developed to work with browsers in a more automated fashion. Administrators can use a special configuration file, for example, to hide details like port numbering from client users. This file contains JavaScript code and is installed on the proxy server itself or on some other Web server. Clients wishing to use this automatic configuration scheme simply enter into their browser settings the URL of this file. To the client, URLs will look like the following: http://hypothetical_proxy.about.com/proxy.pac For Internet Explorer 5, a new technology called Web Proxy Auto Discovery (WPAD) was introduced in an attempt to generalize the discovery of proxy servers as well as other network services. WPAD uses a lookup service like DNS to automatically construct an auto-configuration URL. Instead of a ".pac" file, WPAD expects a ".dat" file to be installed on a Web server as in the following example: http://wpad.about.com/wpad.dat Instead of users explicitly specifying this URL, the browser automatically constructs it using the network domain name (about.com), a default host name on that network (wpad) and a default configuration filename (wpad.dat). Administrators need only configure their name resolution services to redirect to the proper location.

j) Proxy Servers and Microsoft Internet Explorer


To take advantage of a proxy server's capabilities, Web browsers like Internet Explorer (IE) must be configured to explicitly use it. In many proxied environments, the client computers do not have direct Internet access, and browsers generally are not configured to use proxies "out of the box." Clients will be unable to access public Web sites in this scenario until proxy settings have been correctly made.

Figure 2: IE5 Tools menu For example, to configure IE5 to use a proxy server, first click on Tools to access the drop-down menu. Click on the Internet Options... menu item to raise the Internet Options dialog. This dialog is a property sheet featuring multiple tabs. Clicking on the Connections tab makes available a dialog that includes a button in the bottom-right corner named LAN Settings... . Finally, click this button to raise the Local Area Network (LAN) Settings dialog; here is where proxy information must be entered.

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Figure 3: IE5 Internet Options, Connections tab Microsoft provides Knowledge Base article Q135982 to assist in manually configuring proxy servers using other versions of Internet Explorer. Using the Automatically detect settings check box invokes the WPAD mechanism (discussed earlier) to auto-discover the proxy configuration. Finally, using the Use automatic configuration script check box allows clients to specify the URL that points to the JavaScript configuration file (also discussed earlier).

k) Proxy Servers and Netscape Navigator


Netscape Navigator (NN) may also be configured manually or automatically to work with a proxy server.

Figure: NN4 Edit menu For example, to manually configure NN4, first click on Edit to access the drop-down menu. Click on the Preferences... menu item to raise the Netscape Preferences dialog. This dialog is a property sheet featuring a hierarchical arrangement of buttons in the left channel (as compared to the tabs in IE). Double-clicking on the Advanced item (or single-clicking on the small arrow graphic to the left of this text) displays the Proxies sub-item. Finally, clicking on Proxies displays the proxy server configuration dialog within the window.

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Figure 6: NN4 Preferences, Proxies dialog Within this dialog, use the Direct connection to the Internet option to bypass proxy servers, and use the Automatic proxy configuration option to work with the automation script mechanism discussed earlier. (Navigator does not support WPAD.) To manually configure the proxy configuration, choose the middle option and click View to raise another dialog where the proxy server's host name or IP address can be entered.

l) Conclusion
Proxy servers enable safer, more efficient Internet access. They can be configured to provide firewall and filtering support, shared connections, and caching. Browsers need to be configured to take advantage of proxy servers, but this configuration can be automated to a large extent.

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Apache
Definition: Apache is generally recognized as the world's most popular Web server (HTTP server). Originally designed for Unix servers, the Apache Web server has been ported to Windows and other network operating systems (NOS). The name "Apache" derives from the word "patchy" that the Apache developers used to describe early versions of their software. The Apache Web server provides a full range of Web server features, including CGI, SSL, and virtual domains. Apache also supports plug-in modules for extensibility. Apache is reliable, free, and relatively easy to configure. Apache is free software distributed by the Apache Software Foundation. The Apache Software Foundation promotes various free and open source advanced Web technologies.

API - Application Programming Interface


Definition: An API allows computer programmers to access the functionality of pre-built software modules. An API defines data structures and subroutine calls. Networking APIs are entry points to libraries that implement network and data communication protocols. Traditionally, the primary networking APIs have been implemented in socket libraries. Berkeley sockets and Windows Sockets (Winsock) APIs have seen widespread use for many years. More recently, Java network APIs such as servlets and Web APIs like XML-RPC have emerged as newer network programming standards. Also Known As: Application Programming Interface

APIPA - Automatic Private IP Addressing


Definition: A feature of Microsoft Windows, APIPA is a DHCP failover mechanism. With APIPA, DHCP clients can obtain IP addresses when DHCP servers are nonfunctional. APIPA exists in all popular versions of Windows except Windows NT. When a DHCP server fails, APIPA allocates addresses in the private range 169.254.0.1 to 169.254.255.254. Clients verify their address is unique on the LAN using ARP. When the DHCP server is again able to service requests, clients update their addresses automatically. In APIPA, all devices use the default network mask 255.255.0.0 and all reside on the same subnet. APIPA is enabled on all DHCP clients in Windows unless the computer's Registry is modified to disable it. APIPA can be enabled on individual network adapters. Also Known As: Automatic Private IP Addressing; AutoNet Examples: Because APIPA uses IP addresses in the private Class B space, APIPA is a feature generally only useful on home or other small intranet LANs.

Ares Lite
Definition: Ares Lite is a software application for Windows computers that enables sharing of files on the Ares P2P network. The creators of the genuine Ares Lite Edition started from the Ares Regular application and adjusted it to run more efficiently on Windows 98 and other old versions of Windows. Specifically, Ares Lite was designed to consume less computer processor and memory resources than Ares Regular. Ares Lite also removed all embedded advertising logic that consume both computer resources and network bandwidth. From the networking point of view, Ares Lite Edition offers the same file searching, downloading and chat features as Regular. Ares Lite downloads can be difficult to find on the Internet, as its creators now prefer all users run Ares Regular. See the sidebar for a current Ares Lite download location. 18

ARP - Address Resolution Protocol


Definition: ARP converts an Internet Protocol (IP) address to its corresponding physical network address. ARP is a low-level network protocol, operating at Layer 2 of the OSI model. ARP usually is implemented in the device drivers of network operating systems. It is most commonly seen on Ethernet networks, but ARP has also been implemented for ATM, Token Ring, and other physical networks. RFC 826 documented the initial design and implementation of ARP. ARP works on Ethernet networks as follows. Ethernet network adapters are produced with a physical address embedded in the hardware called the Media Access Control (MAC) address. Manufacturers take care to ensure these 6-byte (48-bit) addresses are unique, and Ethernet relies on these unique identifiers for message delivery. When any device wishes to send data to another target device over Ethernet, it must first determine the MAC address of that target given its IP address These IP-toMAC address mappings are derived from an ARP cache maintained on each device. If the given IP address does not appear in a device's cache, that device cannot direct messages to that target until it obtains a new mapping. To do this, the initiating device first sends an ARP request broadcast message on the local subnet. The host with the given IP address sends an ARP reply in response to the broadcat, allowing the initiating device to update its cache and proceed to deliver messages directly to the target. Also Known As: Address Resolution Protocol

ASP - Application Service Provider


Definition: An Application Service Provider (ASP) is a business that offers software services to customers, using computer networks and the Internet as the mechanism to deliver and manage the service. Among the most well-known Application Service Providers are Clickability, Salesforce.com and WebEx. The goal of an ASP business is to reduce the cost of software distribution and maintenance. Using a client/server model (often Web-based), network software can be installed in a centrally-controlled place and hosted - accessed by the customers over remote links. This method to providing software solutions is sometimes called the software as a service (SaaS) approach.

Common ASP Applications


These classes of network applications are often hosted by ASPs:

human resources (accounting and payroll) sales (sales force automation) enterprise resource planning (ERP) office and workgroup productivity tools

ASPs have had success selling these types of applications on a subscription-based model. Smaller businesses cannot afford to pay large sums of money to acquire a full-featured ERP tool, for example, but they can very possibly afford to rent these applications on a monthly or yearly basis. In this way, Application Service Providers function much like automobile leasing services: ASPs allow businesses to use application software for a known up-front cost using a periodic payment schedule.

Networking Issues for Application Service Providers


A successful ASP must have robust technology for:

network security - protecting the business data flowing through the network network monitoring and troubleshooting - ensuring the hosted applications remaining running. Often, ASPs will be under contract to meet network uptime and performance goals.

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ATM - Asynchronous Transfer Mode


Definition: ATM is a high-speed networking standard designed to support both voice and data communications. ATM is normally utilized by Internet service providers on their private long-distance networks. ATM operates at the data link layer (Layer 2 in the OSI model) over either fiber or twisted-pair cable. ATM differs from more common data link technologies like Ethernet in several ways. For example, ATM utilizes no routing. Hardware devices known as ATM switches establish point-to-point connections between endpoints and data flows directly from source to destination. Additionally, instead of using variable-length packets as Ethernet does, ATM utilizes fixed-sized cells. ATM cells are 53 bytes in length, that includes 48 bytes of data and five (5) bytes of header information. The performance of ATM is often expressed in the form of OC (Optical Carrier) levels, written as "OCxxx." Performance levels as high as 10 Gbps (OC-192) are technically feasible with ATM. More common performance levels for ATM are 155 Mbps (OC-3) and 622 Mbps (OC-12). ATM technology is designed to improve utilization and quality of service (QoS) on high-traffic networks. Without routing and with fixed-size cells, networks can much more easily manage bandwidth under ATM than under Ethernet, for example. The high cost of ATM relative to Ethernet is one factor that has limited its adoption to "backbone" and other high-performance, specialized networks.

Acceptable Use Policy - AUP


An Acceptable Use Policy (AUP) is a written agreement all parties on a community computer network promise to adhere to for the common good. An AUP defines the intended uses of the network including unacceptable uses and the consequences for non-compliance. You will most commonly see AUP when registering on community Web sites or when working on a corporate intranet.

Why Acceptable Use Policies Are Important


A good Acceptable Use Policy will cover provisions for network etiquette, mention limits on the use of network resources, and clearly indicate of the level of privacy a member on the network should expect. The best AUPs incorporate "what if" scenarios that illustrate the usefulness of the policy in real-world terms. The importance of AUPs is fairly well-known to organizations like schools or libraries that offer Internet as well as internal (intranet) access. These policies are primarily geared towards protecting the safety of young people against inappropriate language, pornography, and other questionable influences. Within corporations, the scope expands to include other factors such as guarding business interests.

What Should an Acceptable Use Policy Contain?


Many policy details you should expect to find in an AUP relate to computer security. These include managing passwords, software licenses, and online intellectual property. Others relate to basic interpersonal etiquette, particularly in email and bulletin board conversations. A third category deals with overuse or misuse of resources, such as generating excessive network traffic by playing computer games, for example. If you are in the process of developing an Acceptable Use Policy, or if you already have such a policy in your organization, here are some factors to consider in evaluating its effectiveness:

Does it clearly specify the policy owner or owners? Have scenarios been documented unambiguously for the key policy issues? Descriptions of socalled "use cases" or "situational analyses" help everyone to relate the policy to real life situations especially those based on actual past experience. Are the consequences for non-compliance clear and intended to be enforced?

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An increasing number of organizations monitor their computer networks for unacceptable uses, and good Acceptable Use Policies cover network monitoring strategies such as these:

Scanning proxy server logs to find hits to inappropriate Web sites including non work-related access occurring during business hours. Installing filtering software that blocks access to certain public Web sites Scanning of incoming and outgoing emails Establishing disk space quotas on shared network drives

Use Cases for an AUP


Consider what you would do in these situations:

a co-worker asks to log into the network using your user name and password because their account is "unavailable" you receive a politically sensitive joke in email that you think is very funny and are considering forwarding it to your office mates the person sitting next to you spends all of their time at work downloading financial quotes and trading stocks online your word processor claims it has detected a virus on your computer

If you aren't certain of the action to take in cases like these, an Acceptable Use Policy should be the place you turn for answers.

autosensing
Definition: Network adapters that support both traditional and Fast Ethernet choose the speed at which they run through a procedure called autosensing. Autosensing is a feature of so-called "10/100" Ethernet hubs, switches, and NICs. Autosensing involves probing the capability of the network using low-level signalling techniques to select compatible Ethernet speeds. Autosensing was developed to make the migration from traditional Ethernet to Fast Ethernet products easier. When first connected, 10/100 devices automatically exchange information with each other to agree on a common speed setting. The devices run at 100 Mbps if the network supports it, otherwise they drop down to 10 Mbps to ensure a "lowest common denominator" of performance. Many hubs and switches are capable of autosensing on a port-by-port basis; in this case, some computers on the network may be communicating at 10 Mbps and others at 100 Mbps. 10/100 products often incorporate two LEDs of different colors to indicate the speed setting that is currently active.

Azureus Free P2P File Sharing Client


Azureus System Requirements:

Java Runtime Environment (JRE) on Windows, Linux, MacOS or other computer with sufficient CPU and RAM. JRE version 1.5 recommended.

P2P Networks Supported by Azureus:

BitTorrent

Default Azureus Network Ports:


TCP port 6881 for all Azureus downloads TCP port 6969 for incoming connections to the embedded tracker

Azureus Network Protocols: 21

BitTorrent distribution protocol I2P Tor

Azureus Networking Capabilities:


built-in download speed limiter (version 2.1.0.0 and newer) limits on number of simultaneous downloads and active torrents limit on bandwidth allocation for uploads limit on number of peer connections per torrent peer IP address filtering embedded tracker with external IP address IRC (chat) client plugin suppport for email notifications, automatic downloads, automatic speed adjustments, and remote control

Azureus Download Location:

http://sourceforge.net/project/showfiles.php?group_id=84122 for all package distributions

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backbone
Definition: In computer networking, a backbone is a central conduit designed to transfer network traffic at high speeds. Network backbones are designed to maximize the reliability and performance of large-scale, long-distance data communications. The best known network backbones have been those used on the Internet. Backbones typically consist of network routers and switches connected by fiber optic or Ethernet cables. Computers normally do not connect to a backbone directly. Instead, the networks of Internet service providers or large organizations connect to these backbones and computers access the backbone indirectly.

bandwidth
Definition: Bandwidth in computer networking refers to the data rate supported by a network connection or interface. One most commonly expresses bandwidth in terms of bits per second (bps). The term comes from the field of electrical engineering, where bandwidth represents the total distance or range between the highest and lowest signals on the communication channel (band). Bandwidth represents the capacity of the connection. The greater the capacity, the more likely that greater performance will follow, though overall performance also depends on other factors, such as latency. Also Known As: throughput Examples: A V.90 modem supports a maximum theoretical bandwidth of 56 Kbps. Fast Ethernet supports a theoretical maximum bandwidth of 100 Mbps.

baud
Definition: A baud is a unit of measure for analog signaling. At a minimum, one baud corresponds to one bit per second (bps) although at higher signaling speeds, multiple bits can be transfered in a single baud. The term baud was popular in the early days of modems, but it is no longer relevant in mainstream computer networking terminology.

bit
Definition: A bit is the smallest unit of data transfer on a computer network. Bits represent the two binary values "on" or "off." Bits are often stored on computers as the digital numbers '1' and '0', but in networking, bits can also be "encoded" by electrical signals and pulses of light. In computer networking, some network protocols send and receive data in the form of bit sequences. These are called bit-oriented protocols. Examples of bit-oriented protocols include PPP. Though sometimes written in decimal or byte form, network addresses like IP addresses and MAC addresses are ultimately represented as bits in network communications. Finally, special digital numbers called "keys" are often used to encrypt data on computer networks. The length of these keys is expressed in terms of number of bits. The greater the number of bits, the relatively more effective that key is in protecting data. In wireless network security, for example, 40-bit WEP keys proved to be relatively insecure but the 128-bit or larger WEP keys used today are much more effective. Also Known As: binary digit

BitTorrent
Definition: BitTorrent is a leading P2P network system for the download of movies, software, music and other large files over the Internet.

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The BitTorrent network is designed to support simultaneous upload and download involving many people, sometimes called "swarms." Its efficient network bandwidth utilization makes BitTorrent a great choice for those looking to download a large movie file, music file, or open software package that is currently being shared on the Internet. Like other P2P networks, Bit Torrent requires use of a software client to download a file. However, the BitTorrent client and protocol do not support searching for P2P files. Instead, BitTorrent users must search on Web sites for music, movies and other file references called torrents.

Bluetooth
Definition: BlueTooth is a specification for the use of low-power radio communications to wirelessly link phones, computers and other network devices over short distances. The name "Bluetooth" is borrowed from Harald Bluetooth, a king in Denmark more than 1,000 years ago. Bluetooth technology was designed primarily to support simple wireless networking of personal consumer devices and peripherals, including cell phones, PDAs, and wireless headsets. Wireless signals transmitted with Bluetooth cover short distances, typically up to 30 feet (10 meters). Bluetooth devices generally communicate at less than 1 Mbps. Bluetooth networks feature a dynamic topology called a piconet or PAN. Piconets contain a minimum of two and a maximum of eight Bluetooth peer devices. Devices communicate using protocols that are part of the Bluetooth Specification. Definitions for multiple versions of the Bluetooth specification exist including versions 1.1, 1.2 and 2.0. Although the Bluetooth standard utilizes the same 2.4 Ghz range as 802.11b and 802.11g, Bluetooth technology is not a suitable Wi-Fi replacement. Compared to Wi-Fi, Bluetooth networking is much slower, a bit more limited in range, and supports many fewer devices. As is true for Wi-Fi and other wireless technologies today, concerns with Bluetooth technology include security and interoperability with other networking standards. Bluetooth was ratified as IEEE 802.15.1. Also Known As: Blue Tooth

BPL - Broadband Over Power Line


Definition: BPL (Broadband over Power Line) technology makes possible high-speed Internet access over ordinary residential electrical lines. BPL offers an alternative to DSL or cable modem broadband Internet services. BPL works on a similar principle to DSL technology. Computer network information can be transmitted over the lines using signaling frequencies higher than the electrical (or voice in the case of DSL) signals. Taking advantage of otherwise unused transmission capability of the wires, computer data can be sent back and forth across the BPL network with no disruption to power output in the home. Many homeowners do not think of their electrical system as a home network. However, after installing some basic equipment, wall outlets can in fact serve as network connection points, and home networks can be run at speeds of 1 to 3 Mbps with full Internet access. Unfortunately, some limitations of BPL have greatly affected its popularity. BPL tends to generate much radio interference over the utility lines it runs. This interference negatively affects amateur radio operators and has generated much government regulatory attention around the world. Likewise, the costs for utility companies to prepare their grids to support BPL can be high. Although power lines cover much area not serviced by cable or DSL, BPL service has only been made available in limited areas thus far. Strong competition from wireless technologies like WiMax also may limit the adoption of BPL. Also Known As: Broadband over Power Line 24

bps / Bps
Definition: Network performance has traditionally been measured in units of bits per second (bps). Not too many years ago, dialup network connections routinely performed at 9600 bps. As networks have greatly improved in performance, rates are now specified in Kbps (thousands of bps) or Mbps (millions of bps). Bps (with uppercase 'B') represents bytes per second. Use of Bps, KBps, or MBps is avoided in networking as computer architectures implement a byte with differing numbers of bits; some use four bits, most use eight bits, and a few use neither. Because eight-bit byte architectures dominate today, converting from Bps to bps involves only multiplying by eight. However, it's too easy to confuse the two acronyms and best to use 'bps' consistently. Also Known As: bits per second, bits/sec, bits/s; bytes per second, bytes/sec, bytes/s

bridge - network bridges


Definition: A bridge device filters data traffic at a network boundary. Bridges reduce the amount of traffic on a LAN by dividing it into two segments. Bridges operate at the data link layer (Layer 2) of the OSI model. Bridges inspect incoming traffic and decide whether to forward or discard it. An Ethernet bridge, for example, inspects each incoming Ethernet frame - including the source and destination MAC addresses, and sometimes the frame size - in making individual forwarding decisions. Bridges serve a similar function as switches, that also operate at Layer 2. Traditional bridges, though, support one network boundary, whereas switches usually offer four or more hardware ports. Switches are sometimes called "multi-port bridges" for this reason.

broadband
Definition: The term broadband refers to any type of transmission technique that carries several data channels over a common wire. DSL service, for example, combines separate voice and data channels over a single telephone line. In DSL, voice fills the low end of the frequency spectrum and data fills the high end. In home networking, "broadband" usually refers to high-speed Internet access using this transmission technique. Both DSL and cable modem are common broadband Internet technologies. So-called broadband routers and broadband modems are network devices that support both DSL and cable. To qualify as a broadband Internet service, the technology should as a general guideline support network bandwidth of at least 256 Kbps in one direction.

broadband modem
Definition: A broadband modem is a type of digital modem used with high-speed DSL or cable Internet service. Cable modems connect a home computer (or network of home computers) to residential cable TV service, while DSL modems connect to residential public telephone service. Like the television "set top" box, both cable and DSL modems are normally supplied by the Internet service provider and not a piece of equipment individuals need to shop for on their own. Most broadband modems supply a 10 Mbps Ethernet connection for the home LAN, although broadband Internet services rarely if ever perform at those speeds. The performance of a cable modem can vary depending on the utilization of the shared cable line in that neighborhood, and DSL modem speeds also vary, but typical data rates range anywhere from 500 Kbps to 3500 Kbps. Also Known As: cable modem, DSL modem 25

broadband router
Definition: A broadband router combines the features of a traditional network switch, a firewall, and a DHCP server. Broadband routers are designed for convenience in setting up home networks, particularly for homes with high-speed cable modem or DSL Internet service. A broadband router supports file sharing, Internet connection sharing, and home LAN gaming. A broadband router follow the Ethernet standard for home networking. Traditional broadband routers required Ethernet cables be run between the router, the broadband modem, and each computer on the home LAN. The newer wireless routers also support broadband Internet access and the Ethernet standard without the need for cabling. Several manufacturers offer broadband router products to the consumer. Features that differentiate broadband router products include the number and type of ports available on the unit for cabling computers, external modems, or other network devices. Also Known As: residential gateway, home gateway

byte
Definition: A byte is a sequence of bits. In computer networking, some network protocols send and receive data in the form of byte sequences. These are called byte-oriented protocols. Examples of byteoriented protocols include TCP/IP and telnet. The order in which bytes are sequenced in a byte-oriented network protocol is called the network byte order. The maximum size of a single unit of transmission for these protocols, the Maximum Transmission Unit (MTU), is also measured in bytes. Network programmers routinely work both with network byte ordering and MTUs. Bytes are used not only in networking, but also for computer disks, memory, and central processing units (CPUs). In all modern network protocols, a byte contains eight bits. A few (generally obsolete) computers may use bytes of different sizes for other purposes. The sequence of bytes in other parts of the computer may not follow the network byte order. Part of the job of the networking subsystem of a computer is to convert between the host byte order and network byte order when needed.

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Carnivore
Definition: Carnivore is a "network diagnostic tool" created by the U.S. Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) to assist in crime investigations. It is a secure computer platform running Windows/NT or Windows 2000 and application software developed by the FBI. The technology of Carnivore does not differ substantially from other network sniffers that have been commercially available for years. Carnivore has drawn special attention, however, because of the large amount of Internet traffic it is capable of capturing. The FBI typically installs Carnivore in an ISP data center when investigating individuals suspected of federal crimes such as terrorism. Carnivore snoops essentially all data flowing through the network and saves the bits that fit a specific profile -- email sent or received from a particular user name, for example, or all data sent to Web sites from a particular IP address. Although the data of many other uninvolved people on the Net may flow through the Carnivore system, the FBI claims that the privacy of this data will not be compromised. Also Known As: Omnivore

CAT5, CAT5e
Definition: CAT5 is an Ethernet network cable standard defined by the Electronic Industries Association and Telecommunications Industry Association (commonly known as EIA/TIA). CAT5 is the fifth generation of twisted pair Ethernet technology and the most popular of all twisted pair cables in use today. CAT5 cable contains four pairs of copper wire. It supports Fast Ethernet speeds (up to 100 Mbps). As with all other types of twisted pair EIA/TIA cabling, CAT5 cable runs are limited to a maximum recommended run length of 100m (328 feet). Although CAT5 cable usually contains four pairs of copper wire, Fast Ethernet communications only utilize two pairs. A newer specification for CAT5 cable - CAT5 enhanced (CAT5e) - supports networking at Gigabit Ethernet[ speeds (up to 1000 Mbps) over short distances by utilizing all four wire pairs, and it is backward-compatible with ordinary CAT5. Twisted pair cable like CAT5 comes in two main varieties, solid and stranded. Solid CAT5 cable supports longer length runs and works best in fixed wiring configurations like office buildings. Stranded CAT5 cable, on the other hand, is more pliable and better suited for shorter-distance, movable cabling such as on-the-fly patch cabling. Though newer cable technologies like CAT6 and CAT7 are in development, CAT5 / CAT5e Ethernet cable remains the popular choice for most wired local area networks (LANs), because Ethernet gear is both affordable and supports high speeds. Also Known As: CATegory 5

CAT6
Definition: CAT6 is an Ethernet cable standard defined by the Electronic Industries Association and Telecommunications Industry Association (commonly known as EIA/TIA). CAT6 is the 6th generation of twisted pair Ethernet cabling.

CCIE
Definition: CCIE is the most advanced level of networking certification available from Cisco. CCIE is highly prestigious and renowned for its difficulty. Four different CCIE certifications can be earned, in these areas:
Routing and Switching Communications and Services Security Voice

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After choosing a specialization, one must first complete a two-hour written exam in that area, that costs $300 (USD). However, CCIE certifications then also require completing a full 8-hour long hands-on lab examination, that costs $1250 (USD) per sitting. No other certifications or training courses are CCIE prerequisites. However, in addition to the usual book study, hundreds of hours of hands-on experience with Cisco gear are generally required to adequately prepare for the CCIE. Also Known As: Cisco Certified Internetwork Expert

CCNA
Definition: CCNA is an entry or "apprentice" level networking certification. Cisco created the CCNA to recognize basic competency in computer networking, particularly for installation and support of LAN/WAN networks having 100 nodes or fewer. The CCNA covers both IP and non-IP networks including Novell IPX and AppleTalk. Obtaining the CCNA requires passing a single certification exam. The CCNA exam, newly revised in 2002, contains 55-65 questions and lasts approximately 90 minutes. It now costs $125 (USD) to sit the exam. Although the CCNA has no formal prerequisites, one must effectively complete hundreds of hours of study to prepare. Primarily, one must understand basic routing and switching as they relate to network design, performance and security. Cisco offers more advanced certifications like CCNP (Cisco Certified Network Professional) and several varieties of CCIE (Cisco Certified Internetwork Expert) for those who wish to progress beyond the basic CCNA. Also Known As: Cisco Certified Network Associate

CCNP
Definition: CCNP is a professional or "journeyman" level networking certification. Cisco created the CCNP to recognize advanced skills in computer networking, particularly for installation and support of medium-sized LAN/WAN networks (having 100-500 nodes). The CCNP focuses on routing and switching of scalable networks including intranets and campuses. To obtain a CCNP, one must complete either two or four exams that cover routing, switching, remote access, and network support. In total, the exams cost approximately $500 (USD). As with all other Cisco certification exams, it's strongly recommended to prepare for the CCNP by reading study books, taking practice exams on the Web, and getting hands-on experience with Cisco equipment. One must hold an active CCNA certification to be eligible for a CCNP. After obtaining a CCNP, one may choose to progress to the even more advanced and prestigious CCIE certification. Also Known As: Cisco Certified Network Professional

Cisco
Definition: Cisco is one of the world's leading networking companies. Cisco specializes in high-end network routers and other infrastructure networking products geared toward the business or "enterprise" market. The Cisco certification program including the CCNA, CCNP and CCIE are also world recognized.
Cisco was founded by two students in 1984 who built the first router to allow them to send personal email between two different types of computers. From there, Cisco grew quickly and today employs more than 10,000 people. Also Known As: Cisco Systems

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CIDR - Classless Inter-Domain Routing


Definition: CIDR is an efficient method for specifying IP addresses to Internet routers. CIDR was developed to cope with the surge in demand for IPv4 Internet addresses in the 1990s. Before CIDR, Internet routers used an inefficient IP addressing scheme based on classes. Organizations like ISPs reserved address blocks in large "Class A," "Class B," or "Class C" chunks that wasted much of the IP address range. In contrast, CIDR makes the IP addressing space classless. CIDR associates network masks with IP network numbers independent of their traditional class. Routers that support CIDR recognize these networks as individual routes, even though they may represent an aggregation of several traditional subnets. Also Known As: Classless Inter-Domain Routing, Classless Internet Domain Routing, supernetting Examples: CIDR shorthand notation writes an IP address and its associated network mask in the form xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx/n, where 'n' is a number between 1 and 31 that is the number of '1' bits in the mask.

Cluster
Definition: The word "cluster" is used broadly in computer networking to refer to a number of different implementations of shared computing resources. Typically, a cluster integrates the resources of two or more computing devices (that could otherwise function separately) together for some common purpose. A Web server farm (a collection of networked Web servers, each with access to content on the same site) function as a cluster conceptually. However, purists may debate the classification of a server farm as a cluster, depending on the details of the hardware and software configuration. It is important to recognize that network clustering involves a long past history of research and development with many offshoots and variations. Also Known As: Farm, Network of Workstations (NOW), distributed system, parallel system.

crossover cable (Ethernet)


Definition: A crossover cable directly connects two network devices of the same type to each other over Ethernet. Ethernet crossover cables are commonly used when temporarily networking two devices in situations where a network router, switch or hub is not present. Compared to standard Ethernet cables, the internal wiring of Ethernet crossover cables reverses the transmit and receive signals. The reversed color-coded wires can be seen through the RJ-45 connectors at each end of the cable:

Standard cables have an idential sequence of colored wires on each end Crossover cables have the 1st and 3rd wires (counting from left to right) crossed, and the 2nd and 6th wires crossed

An Ethernet crossover cable will also feature the name "crossover" stamped on its packaging and wire casing. Ethernet crossover cables should only be used for direct network connections. In particular, attempting to connect a computer to a hub with a crossover cable will prevent that network link from functioning. Home broadband routers have become an exception to this rule: modern consumer 29

routers contain logic to automatically detect crossover cables and allow them to function with other types of Ethernet devices. Also Known As: crossed cable

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darknet
Definition: A darknet is any kind of private computer network built for the purpose of person-to-person communication. Darknet does not represent any specific technology or application but rather the concept of implementing access-controlled virtual networks that run over large public networks like the Internet. Darknets have become an increasingly popular topic with the ongoing development of P2P file sharing and digital rights management (DRM) technologies. Some view darknets as a superior approach to efficient network colloboration. Others associates darknets with illicit music and movie file sharing. Many darknet network systems exist on the Internet today, most notably Grouper (see sidebar). Legitimate darknet networks strive to ensure both privacy (through encryption and other techniques) as well as legal usage.

datagram, packet
Definition: A packet is one unit of binary data capable of being routed through a computer network. To improve communication performance and reliability, each message sent between two network devices is often subdivided into packets by the underlying hardware and software. Depending on the protocol(s) they need to support, packets are constructed in some standard packet format. Packet formats generally include a header, the body containing the message data (also known as the payload), and sometimes a footer (also known as the trailer). The packet header lists the destination of the packet (in IP packets, the destination IP address) and often indicates the length of the message data. The packet footer contains data that signifies the end of the packet, such as a special sequence of bits known as a magic number. Both the packet header and footer may contain error-checking information. The receiving device is responsible for re-assembling individual packets into the original message, by stripping off the headers and footers and concatenating packets in the correct sequence. Also Known As: datagram

dB - dBm - Decibel
Definition: A decibel (dB) is a standard unit for measuring the strength of Wi-Fi wireless radio signals. Decibels are also used as a measure for audio equipment and some other radio electronics including cell phones. Wi-Fi radio antennas and transceivers both include decibel ratings as provided by the manufacturer. Home network equipment usually presents the rating in dBm units, where 'm' represents milliwatts of electric power. In general, Wi-Fi equipment with a relatively larger dBm value is capable of sending or receiving wireless network traffic across greater distances. However, larger dBm values also indicate the WiFi device requires more power to operate, which translates to decreased battery life on mobile systems.

DDNS - Dynamic DNS


Definition: DDNS is a service that maps Internet domain names to IP addresses. DDNS serves a similar purpose to DNS: DDNS allows anyone hosting a Web or FTP server to advertise a public name to prospective users. Unlike DNS that only works with static IP addresses, DDNS works with dynamic IP addresses, such as those assigned by an ISP or other DHCP server. DDNS is popular with home networkers, who typically receive dynamic, frequently-changing IP addresses from their service provider. To use DDNS, one simply signs up with a provider and installs network software on their host to monitor its IP address. Compared to ordinary DNS, the disadvantage of DDNS is that additional host software, a new potential failure point on the network, must be maintained. Also Known As: dynamic DNS 31

DeadAIM
Definition: DeadAIM is a popular add-on component to the AOL Instant Messenger (AIM) application. When installed, DeadAIM enhances the capability of AIM. DeadAIM offers user interface and networking improvements to AIM users. It allos users to more easily find, chat and record peer-to-peer conversations. DeadAIM adds the following specific features to AOL Instant Messenger:

tabbed IM windows - a single signed in user can message with multiple remote peers concurrently logging - instant message conversations can be saved to text files automatically. When buddies sign on to or off of the AIM network, these events can also be logged cloning - users can sign on to AIM with more than one identify simultaneously through separate instances of the client user interface improvements - numerous enhancements to the graphic user interface make it easier to configure and work with the client application

Several different versions of DeadAIM are available for download on the Internet. DeadAIM is not a stand-alone application; once installed, it is automatically run when AIM itself is launched. The DeadAIM and AOL Instant Messenger Express applications are not related. AOL Instant Messenger Express is a different add-on application that allows AIM messaging to be done within a Web browser. Alternate Spellings: Dead AIM, Dead AOL Instant Messenger

DHCP - Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol


Definition: DHCP allows a computer to join an IP-based network without having a pre-configured IP address. DHCP is a protocol that assigns unique IP addresses to devices, then releases and renews these addresses as devices leave and re-join the network. Internet Service Providers (ISPs) usually use DHCP to allow customers to join the Internet with minimum effort. Likewise, home network equipment like broadband routers offers DHCP support for added convenience in joining home computers to the LAN. DHCP environments require a DHCP server set up with the appropriate configuration parameters for the given network. Key DHCP parameters include the range or "pool" of available IP addresses, the correct subnet masks, plus gateway and name server addresses. Devices running DHCP client software can then automatically retrieve these settings from DHCP servers as needed. Using DHCP on a network means system administrators do not need to configure these parameters individually for each client device. Also Known As: Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol

dial up
Definition: Dial up networking technology provides PCs and other network devices access to a LAN or WAN via standard telephone lines. Dial up Internet service providers offer subscription plans for home computer users. Types of dial up services include V.34 and V.90 modem as well as Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN). Dial up systems utilize special-purpose network protocols like Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP). To use a dial up Internet connection, a client modem calls another modem located at the Internet Service Provider (ISP). The modems transfer network information over the telephone until one modem or the other disconnects. 32

When the popularity of the Internet exploded in the 1990s, dial up was the most common form of Internet access due mainly to its low cost to setup.

DivX
Definition: DivX is a popular encoding standard for digital movies (video files). DivX is based on the industry standard MPEG-4 compression format. DivX technology allows movies to be compressed to a fraction of their original size. Downloading movies on BitTorrent and other P2P networks commonly involves DivX formatted files to conserve bandwidth. Any of several available DivX players open and play back these files. Using DivX compression dramatically speeds up the download of movies on P2P networks. Typical movies or television programs with DivX compression applied may shrink by 85% or more from the original. Several available DivX compression tools generate these files. To achieve such high compression rates, DivX sacrifices some image quality. However, many people barely notice the reduction in quality of visuals. DivX compression technology found on P2P networks is not related to the Digital Video Express (Divx) rental system for DVD movies created by Circuit City in the late 1990s. Also Known As: MPEG-4

DMZ - Demilitarized Zone


In a DMZ configuration, most computers on the LAN run behind a firewall connected to a public network like the Internet. One or more computers also run outside the firewall, in the DMZ. Those computers on the outside intercept traffic and broker requests for the rest of the LAN, adding an extra layer of protection for computers behind the firewall. Traditional DMZs allow computers behind the firewall to initiate requests outbound to the DMZ. Computers in the DMZ in turn respond, forward or re-issue requests out to the Internet or other public network, as proxy servers do. (Many DMZ implementations, in fact, simply utilize a proxy server or servers as the computers within the DMZ.) The LAN firewall, though, prevents computers in the DMZ from initiating inbound requests. DMZ is a commonly-touted feature of home broadband routers. However, in most instances these features are not true DMZs. Broadband routers often implement a DMZ simply through additional firewall rules, meaning that incoming requests reach the firewall directly. In a true DMZ, incoming requests must first pass through a DMZ computer before reaching the firewall.

DNS - Domain Name System


Definition: The DNS translates Internet domain and host names to IP addresses. DNS automatically converts the names we type in our Web browser address bar to the IP addresses of Web servers hosting those sites. DNS implements a distributed database to store this name and address information for all public hosts on the Internet. DNS assumes IP addresses do not change (are statically assigned rather than dynamically assigned). The DNS database resides on a hierarchy of special database servers. When clients like Web browsers issue requests involving Internet host names, a piece of software called the DNS resolver (usually built into the network operating system) first contacts a DNS server to determine the server's IP address. If the DNS server does not contain the needed mapping, it will in turn forward the request to a different DNS server at the next higher level in the hierarchy. After potentially several forwarding and delegation messages are sent within the DNS hierarchy, the IP address for the given host eventually arrives at the resolver, that in turn completes the request over Internet Protocol. 33

DNS additionally includes support for caching requests and for redundancy. Most network operating systems support configuration of primary, secondary, and tertiary DNS servers, each of which can service initial requests from clients. ISPs maintain their own DNS servers and use DHCP to automatically configure clients, relieving most home users of the burden of DNS configuration. Also Known As: Domain Name System, Domain Name Service, Domain Name Server

dongle
Definition: In computer networking, a dongle is a short network cable that joins a PCMCIA adapter to a network cable. Dongles typically attach to either a RJ-45 connector for Ethernet networking or an RJ-11 connector for dial-up networking. Dongles tend to run no longer than about six inches. The term "dongle" also has become popular in USB networking, referring to the USB cable that extends from a USB peripheral. The term "dongle" has an older, much less common in non-network computing, pertaining to software security. Pronunciation: DONG-ul

DoS - Denial of Service


Definition: The term Denial of Service (DoS) refers to a form of attacking computer systems over a network. DoS is normally a malicious attempt to render a networked system unusable (though often without permanently damaging it). Denial of service relies on methods that exploit the weaknesses of network technology. For example, one common form of DoS is Ping of Death. Ping of Death attacks work by generating and sending certain kinds of network messages that are technically unsupported but known to cause problems for systems that receive them. Denial of service attacks like Ping of Death may crash or "hang" computers. Other DoS attacks may simply fill or "flood" a network with useless data traffic, rendering systems incapable of acting on bona fide requests. DoS attacks are most common against Web sites that provide controversial information or services. The commerical cost of such attacks can be very large. DoS may also occur unintentionally when developing or upgrading network systems. Also Known As: Denial of Service, Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS)

Download / Upload
Definition: A download involves the receipt of a file copied from a remote network location. Often, a person downloads files to their personal computer from a remote server computer. In Microsoft email networks, for example, people download their email from an Exchange server to their Outlook client. n upload involves sending a copy of a file to a remote network location. For example, Web publishers upload files to their Web server. Sending files across a computer network does not necessarily constitute an upload or a download. The terms are more commonly used in client/server networking than in peer-to-peer networking.

DSL - Digital Subscriber Line


Definition: DSL is a high-speed Internet service like cable Internet. DSL provides high-speed networking over ordinary phone lines using broadband modem technology. DSL technology allows Internet and telephone service to work over the same phone line without requiring customers to disconnect either their voice or Internet connections. DSL technology theoretically supports data rates of 8.448 Mbps, although typical rates are 1.544 Mbps or lower. 34

DSL Internet services are used primarily in homes and small businesses. DSL Internet service only works over a limited physical distance and remains unavailable in many areas where the local telephone infrastructure does not support DSL technology. Also Known As: Digital Subscriber Line, ADSL, SDSL

DSL modem
Look "broadband modem"

DWDM
Definition: In digital signal processing, DWDM is a technique for increasing the bandwidth of optical network communications. DWDM allows dozens of different data signals to be transmitted simultaneously over a single fiber. To keep the signals distinct, DWDM manipulates wavelengths of light to keep each signal within its own narrow band. DWDM is a more cost-effective alternative to Time Division Multiplexing (TDM). Electrical engineers often use a motorway analogy to explain the difference between the two. TDM relates to traffic flow on one lane of the motorway. To increase the throughput of autos, one can increase their speed, that is equivalent to time multiplexing. DWDM, on the other hand, relates to the number of lanes on the motorway. Another way to increase auto throughput is to add more travel lanes, that is equivalent to wavelength multiplexing. Also Known As: Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing

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Ethernet
Definition: Ethernet is a physical and data link layer technology for local area networks (LANs). Ethernet was invented by engineer Robert Metcalfe. When first widely deployed in the 1980s, Ethernet supported a maximum theoretical data rate of 10 megabits per second (Mbps). Later, Fast Ethernet standards increased this maximum data rate to 100 Mbps. Today, Gigabit Ethernet technology further extends peak performance up to 1000 Mbps. Higher level network protocols like Internet Protocol (IP) use Ethernet as their transmission medium. Data travels over Ethernet inside protocol units called frames. The run length of individual Ethernet cables is limited to roughly 100 meters, but Ethernet can be bridged to easily network entire schools or office buildings. Also Known As: Fast Ethernet, Gigabit Ethernet

EV-DO
Definition:

a) What Is EV-DO?
EV-DO is a high-speed network protocol used for wireless data communications, primarily Internet access. EV-DO is considered a broadband technology like DSL or cable modem Internet services. Certain classes of cellular phones support EV-DO. These phones may be available from various phone carriers around the world including Sprint and Verizon in the U.S. Additionally, various PCMCIA adapters and external modem hardware exists to enable laptops and handheld devices for EV-DO.

m) How Fast Is EV-DO?


The EV-DO protocol uses asymmetric communications, allocating more bandwidth for downloads than for uploads. The original EVDO Revision 0 standard supports up to 2.4 Mbps data rates down but only 0.15 Mbps (about 150 Kbps) up. An improved version of EV-DO called Revision A increases download speeds up to 3.1 Mbps and uploads to 0.8 Mbps (800 Kbps). EV-DO providers have gradually been upgrading their equipment from Rev 0 to support Rev A. A future version of EV-DO called Revision B (not yet widely deployed) promised to offer much higher data rates as this protocol is capable of aggregating bandwidth from multiple wireless channels. Early trials have achieved EV-DO Rev B downloads of greater than 9 Mbps. As with many other network protocols, the theoretical maximum data rates of EV-DO are not achieved in practice. Real-world networks may run at 50% or less of the rated speeds. Also Known As: EVDO, Evolution Data Optimized, Evolution Data Only

eXeem and eXeem Lite


Definition: eXeem was a free P2P client built on the BitTorrent network protocol and programming interface. eXeem supported multi-source downloads and opening of torrent files. However, eXeem did not connect directly to the main BitTorrent P2P network but rather to its own private network. eXeem Lite was a free alternative client to eXeem. Whereas eXeem installs with Cydoor adware, eXeem lite did not contain any adware. Both clients offered similar functionality in other respects. Both run only on Windows operating systems. 36

eXeem and eXeem Lite have been compared to Kazaa / Kazaa Lite. The main difference with eXeem is its use of the bit torrent protocol, that supports efficient simulataneous "swarming downloads" and uploads for noticeably better speed. Both eXeem and eXeem Lite clients were only available as released binaries (no open source). Ongoing development of eXeem has ceased.

extranet
Definition: An extranet is a computer network that allows controlled access from the outside for specific business or educational purposes. Extranets are extensions to, or segments of, private intranet networks that have been built in many corporations for information sharing and ecommerce. Most extranets use the Internet as the entry point for outsiders, a firewall configuration to limit access, and a secure protocol for authenticating users.

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FastTrack
Definition: FastTrack was once the most popular P2P file sharing network of all time. Known for its reliability, FastTrack handles millions of registered users with good performance of file uploads and downloads. FastTrack decentralizes the P2P file sharing process. Instead of relying on central indexing servers, FastTrack dynamically assigns indexing functions to connected peers, called "supernodes," as needed. This supernode mechanism enables scalable network performance. The FastTrack network officially supports both Kazaa and Grokster P2P clients. FastTrack also can be reached from the iMesh and Kazaa Lite K++ clients. The Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA) closely monitors FastTrack for illegal file sharing.

Fast Ethernet
Definition: Fast Ethernet supports a maximum data rate of 100 Mbps. It is so named because original Ethernet technology supported only 10 Mbps. Fast Ethernet began to be widely deployed in the mid1990s as the need for greater LAN performance became critical to universities and businesses. A key element of Fast Ethernet's success was its ability to coexist with existing network installations. Today, many network adapters support both traditional and Fast Ethernet. These so-called "10/100" adapters can usually sense the speed of the line automatically and adjust accordingly. Just as Fast Ethernet improved on traditional Ethernet, Gigabit Ethernet improves on Fast Ethernet, offering rates up to 1000 Mbps instead of 100 Mbps. Also Known As: 100 Mbps Ethernet

fiber optic cable


Definition: A fiber optic cable is a network cable that contains strands of glass fibers inside an insulated casing. These cables are designed for long distance and very high bandwidth (gigabit speed) network communications. Fiber optic cables carry communication signals using pulses of light. While expensive, these cables are increasingly being used instead of traditional copper cables, because fiber offers more capacity and is less susceptible to electrical interference. So-called Fiber to the Home (FTTH) installations are becoming more common as a way to bring ultra high speed Internet service (100 Mbps and higher) to residences.

Fibre Channel - Fiber Channel


Definition: Fibre Channel is a set of related physical layer networking standards. Fibre Channel technology handles high-performance disk storage for applications on many corporate networks. Fibre Channel supports data backups, clustering and replication. Like Ethernet, its main competitor, Fibre Channel can utilize copper wiring. However, copper limits Fibre Channel to a maximum recommended reach of 30 meters. When using more expensive fiber optic cables, Fibre Channel reaches to 10 kilometers. Fibre Channel operates at either 1 Gbps or 2 Gbps, with 10 Gbps versions in development. Fibre Channel networks have a reputation for being expensive to build, difficult to manage, and inflexible to upgrade due to incompatibilities between vendor products. Pronunciation: fi'-ber chan-nel Also Known As: Fibre Channel Arbitrated Loop, FC-AL Alternate Spellings: Fiber Channel

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Examples: Many storage area network (SAN) solutions use Fibre Channel technology. Gigabit Ethernet has emerged, however, as a lower cost alternative for storage networks. Gigabit Ethernet can better take advantage of Internet standards for network management like SNMP.

firewall
Definition: A network firewall protects a computer network from unauthorized access. Network firewalls may be hardware devices, software programs, or a combination of the two. Network firewalls guard an internal computer network (home, school, business intranet) against malicious access from the outside. Network firewalls may also be configured to limit access to the outside from internal users.

a) Network Firewalls and Broadband Routers


Many home network router products include built-in firewall support. The administrative interface of these routers include configuration options for the firewall. Router firewalls can be turned off (disabled), or they can be set to filter certain types of network traffic through so-called firewall rules.

n) Network Firewalls and Proxy Servers


Another common form of network firewall is a proxy server. Proxy servers act as an intermediary between internal computers and external networks by receiving and selectively blocking data packets at the network boundary. These network firewalls also provide an extra measure of safety by hiding internal LAN addresses from the outside Internet. In a proxy server firewall environment, network requests from multiple clients appear to the outsider as all coming from the same proxy server address. Also Known As: proxy, gateway

FireWire IEEE 1394


Definition: FireWire is a high performance networking standard based on a serial bus architecture similar to USB. FireWire is also known as the IEEE 1394 standard, created in 1995. People typically use FireWire to network their digital video cameras with their computers using special cables. However, FireWire theoretically supports direct networking of any two computers / computer peripherals that support the standard. The original FireWire technology provided 400 Mbps of network bandwidth, but the newer Firewire 800 (IEEE 1394b) implementations offer 800 Mbps. As those speeds far exceed typical Ethernet or WiFi connections, FireWire is therefore also well-suited for fast computer-to-computer large file transfers on home networks. Both Windows XP and Apple Mac OS support FireWire fire transfers over Internet Protocol (IP). Also Known As: IEEE 1394

firmware
Definition: In a home computer network, firmware is embedded software inside a router. Both wired routers and wireless routers contain firmware. The firmware implements a portion of the network protocols, security mechanisms and administrative capabilities of the hardware device. Router manufacturers initially install firmware at the factory. However, this firmware is designed to be freely upgraded by homeowners later as enhancements become available. Updating a router's firmware can increase its performance, security and/or reliability depending on the nature of the enhancements provided. Firmware upgrades generally need to be done infrequently, however. Firmware exists in read-only memory chips contained inside the router. Firmware does not get erased when a router is powered off nor can it be altered externally by hackers. 39

Homeowners normally only change their firmware when the manufacturer provides a new firmware version on their Web site. However, router manufacturer Linksys also provides some of its router firmware software code free to programmers on the Internet, offering them the freedom to create their own enhancements. Some of these variations have become popular with technical enthusiasts. Homeowners are normally free to download and install these firmware variants on their routers.

FoIP - Internet Fax Over IP


Definition: FoIP technology enables the transmission of fax data using Internet Protocol (IP). Three forms of fax over IP networking exist:

Real time fax using the T.38 protocol and T.38 based fax gateway devices installed on the IP network. Internet fax using fax machines compatible with the T.37 protocol. In this system, faxes can also be received as email attachments. Voice over IP (VoIP) based fax using G.711 technology to pass through VoIP gateways and the Internet.

Internet fax over IP services can give businesses substantial cost savings compared to traditional fax using long distance telephone connections.

Frame Relay
Definition: Frame relay is a data link network protocol designed to transfer data on Wide Area Networks (WANs). Frame relay works over fiber optic or ISDN lines. The protocol offers low latency and to reduce overhead, does perform any error correction, which is instead handled by other components of the network. Frame relay has traditionally provided a cost-effective way for telecommunications companies to transmit data over long distances. Frame relay has decreased in popularity as companies are gradually migrating their deployments to Internet Protocol (IP) based solutions. Also Known As: frame-relay

FTP - What Does FTP Stand For?


Definition: FTP allows you to transfer files between two computers on the Internet. FTP is a simple network protocol based on Internet Protocol and also a term used when referring to the process of copying files when using FTP technology. To transfer files with FTP, you use a program often called the "client." The FTP client program initiates a connection to a remote computer running FTP "server" software. After the connection is established, the client can choose to send and/or receive copies of files, singly or in groups. To connect to an FTP server, a client requires a username and password as set by the administrator of the server. Many public FTP archives follow a special convention for that accepts a username of "anonymous." Simple FTP clients are included with most network operating systems, but most of these clients (such as FTP.EXE on Windows) support a relatively unfriendly command-line interface. Many alternative freeware / shareware third-party FTP clients have been developed that support graphic user interfaces (GUIs) and additional convenience features. In any FTP interface, clients identify the FTP server either by its IP address (such as 192.168.0.1) or by its host name (such as ftp.about.com). FTP supports two modes of data transfer: plain text (ASCII), and binary. You set the mode in the FTP client. A common error when using FTP is attempting to transfer a binary file (such as a program or music file) while in text mode, causing the transfered file to be unusable. Also Known As: File Transfer Protocol 40

gateway
Definition: A network gateway is an internetworking system, a system that joins two networks together. A network gateway can be implemented completely in software, completely in hardware, or as a combination of the two. Depending on their implementation, network gateways can operate at any level of the OSI model from application protocols to low-level signaling. Because a network gateway by definition appears at the edge of a network, related functionality like firewalling tends to be installed on the network gateway.

Gbps, Kbps / kbps, Mbps


Definition: One kilobit per second (Kbps) equals 1000 bits per second (bps). Kbps is also written as kbps that carries the same meaning. Likewise, one megabit per second (Mbps) equals one million bps and one Gigabit equals one billion bps. Network performance is best measured in bps, but sometimes numbers are given in bytes per second (Bps). Then, one KBps equals one kilobyte per second, one MBps equals one megabyte per second, and GBps equals one gigabyte per second. Many times people write KBps, for example, when they mean Kbps, and it is important to be clear on this distinction. Examples: V.90 modems support data rates up to 56 Kbps. Traditional Ethernet supports data rates up to 10 Mbps and Fast Ethernet 100 Mbps. Gigabit Ethernet supports 1000 Mbps or 1 Gbps. Also Known As: Kb/sec, Kb/s, Mb/sec, Mb/s, Gb/sec, Gb/s

GHz and MHz - Gigahertz and Megahertz


Definition: In wireless communications, the term "Hz" (pronounced Hertz after the name of 19th century scientist Heinrich Hertz) refers to the transmission frequency of radio signals in cycles per second. 1 MHz (Megahertz) equals one million cycles per second, while 1 GHz (Gigahertz) equals one billion cycles per second or 1000 MHz. Bluetooth and WiFi networks signal in the ranges of 2.4 GHz or 5 GHz. These are bands of radio frequency open for public communication (i.e., unregulated) in most countries. WiMax wireless networks use a much larger range of GHz frequencies. A higher frequency such as 5 GHz requires more power to penetrate obstructions than a lower frequency like 2.4 GHz.

gigabit - kilobit megabit


Definition: In computer networking, a kilobit normally represents 1000 bits of data. A megabit represents 1000 kilobits and a gigabit represents 1000 megabits (equal to one million kilobits). Kilobits, megabits and gigabits traveling over a computer network are typically measured per second. One kilobit per second equals 1 Kbps or kbps (these are equivalent), one megabit 1 Mbps, and one gigabit 1 Gbps. Slow network connections such as modem links are measured in kilobits, faster links such as WiFi wireless in megabits, and very fast connections like high-speed Ethernet in gigabits. Many people less familiar with computer networking believe one kilobit equals 1024 bits. This is generally untrue in networking but may be true in other contexts. Specifications for today's adapters, routers and other networking equipment always use 1000-bit kilobits as the basis of their quoted data rates. The confusion arises as computer memory and disk drive manufacturers often use 1024-byte kilobytes as the basis of their quoted capacities.

Gigabit Ethernet
Definition: Gigabit Ethernet is an extension to the family of Ethernet computer networking and communication standards. The Gigabit Ethernet standard supports a theoretical maximum data rate of 1000 Mbps. 41

At one time, it was believed that achieving Gigabit speeds with Ethernet required fiber optic or other special cables. However, Gigabit Ethernet can be implemented on ordinary twisted pair copper cable (specifically, the CAT5e and CAT6 cabling standards). Migration of existing computer networks from 100 Mbps Fast Ethernet to Gigabit Ethernet is happening slowly. Much legacy Ethernet technology exists (in both 10 and 100 Mbps varieties), and these older technologies offers sufficient performance in many cases. Today, Gigabit Ethernet can only be found mainly in research institutions. A decrease in cost, increase in demand, and improvements in other aspects of LAN technology will be required before Gigabit Ethernet surpasses other forms of wired networking in terms of adoption. Also Known As: 1000 Mbps Ethernet

gigabyte, kilobyte, megabyte


Definition: A kilobyte equals 1024 (or 210) bytes. Likewise, a megabyte (MB) equals 1024 KB or 220 bytes and a gigabyte (GB) equals 1024 MB or 230 bytes. The meaning of the words kilobyte, megabyte, and gigabyte change when they are used in the context of network data rates. A rate of one kilobyte per second (KBps) equals 1000 (not 1024) bytes per second. One megabyte per second (MBps) equals one million (106, not 220) bytes per second. One gigabyte per second (GBps) equals one billion (109, not 230) bytes per second. To avoid some of this confusion, networkers typically measure data rates in bits per second (bps) rather than bytes per second (Bps) and use the terms kilobyte, megabyte, and gigabyte only when referring to disk space. Examples: "This eight gigabyte disk only has 200 megabytes of free space left." Also Known As: K, KB, M, MB, "meg," G, GB, "gig"

Gnutella
Definition: Gnutella is a decentralized P2P file sharing protocol established in the year 2000. Using an installed Gnutella client, users can search, download and upload files across the Internet. Popular Gnutella clients include BearShare, Limewire and Shareaza. Early versions of the Gnutella protocol did not scale well enough to match the network's popularity. Technical improvements solved these scalability issues at least partially. Gnutella remains fairly popular but less so than some other P2P networks, principally eDonkey2000 and BitTorrent. Gnutella is technically a distinct P2P network than the newer Gnutella2.

Grokster - P2P Client


Definition: Grokster is a file sharing client program offered by an organization of the same name. Both free and paid client downloads are available from the Grokster Web site. Like Kazaa, Grokster connects to the FastTrack P2P network. Grokster supports the essential networking features of FastTrack including supernodes and magnet links. In a highly publicized decision in 2005, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that the Grokster organization could be sued for copyright infringement. However, the Grokster application remains available for public downloads.

Groupware
Definition: Groupware is software designed to improve the productivity of individuals with common goals or interests. Groupware relies on computer networking to open communications channels among people and to share data. Traditional groupware systems like Lotus Notes were designed for corporate intranets and other LANs to support collaborative work. They essentially combined the functionality of email, messaging and 42

conferencing, and document management systems. More recently, groupware applications like Groove have been designed with similar functionality for the Internet. Also Known As: collaboration software

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H.323 Protocol
Definition: H.323 is a protocol standard for multimedia communications. H.323 was designed to support real-time transfer of audio and video data over packet networks like IP. The standard involves several different protocols covering specific aspects of Internet telephony. The International Telecommunication Union (ITU-T) maintains H.323 and these related standards. Most voice over IP (VoIP) applications utilize H.323. H.323 supports call setup, teardown and forwarding/transfer. Architectural elements of a H.323 based system are Terminals, Multipoint Control Units (MCUs), Gateways, an optional Gatekeeper and Border Elements. Different functions of H.323 run over either TCP or UDP. Overall, H.323 competes with the newer Session Initialization Protocol (SIP), another proven standard often found in VoIP systems. A key feature of H.323 is Quality of Service (QoS). QoS technology allows real-time prioritization and traffic management constraints to be placed on "best-effort" packet delivery systems like TCP/IP over Ethernet. QoS improves the quality of voice or video feeds.

HDSL
Definition: HDSL technology was developed in the early 1990s, making it one of the oldest forms of DSL. HDSL service provides equal bandwidth for both downloads and uploads, offering data rates up to 2,048 Kbps. Note that HDSL requires multiple phone lines to accomplish this. Like other forms of DSL, HDSL features "always on" combined voice and data services. HDSL enjoyed some popularity in years past, but the technology has effectively been replaced by alternatives like SDSL that only require one phone line and offer similar performance and reach. Also Known As: High-data-rate DSL, High-speed DSL

Hop
Definition: In computer networking, a hop represents one portion of the path between source and destination. When communicating over the Internet, for example, data passes through a number of intermediate devices (like routers) rather than flowing directly over a single wire. Each such device causes data to "hop" between one point-to-point network connection and another. In networking, the hop count represents the total number of devices a given piece of data (packet) passes through. Generally speaking, the more hops data must traverse to reach their destination, the greater the transmission delay incurred. Network utilities like ping can be used to determine the hop count to a specific destination. Ping generates packets that include a field reserved for the hop count. Each time a capable device receives these packets, that device modifies the packet, incrementing the hop count by one. In addition, the device compares the hop count against a predetermined limit and discards the packet if its hop count is too high. This prevents packets from endlessly bouncing around the network due to routing errors. Both routers and bridges are capable of managing hop counts, but other types of intermediate devices (like hubs) are not.

hosting
Definition: In computer networking, hosting refers to a site or service that maintains resources on behalf of clients. The term most commonly refers to Web sites maintained by Internet Service Providers (ISPs). Besides Web hosting services, however, other types of network hosting for files and data are common including:

FTP and other file sharing Web sites network backup systems

A personal computer can also serve as a network host. For example, sharing files or a printer for other computers on a local network constitutes hosting. 44

hosts file
Definition: A hosts file is a list of computer names and their associated IP addresses. Hosts files are used by Microsoft Windows and other network operating systems as an optional means to redirect TCP/IP traffic in special circumstances. These files are not required to use ordinary network and Internet applications. The two common reasons for an individual to set up a hosts file are: 1. To prevent access to undesirable Web servers (such as those offering tacky advertising or inappropriate content 2. To set up private, easy-to-remember "shortcut" names for servers on a local network In Windows, the hosts file is a simple text file typically named hosts (or occasionally, hosts.sam). It is normally located in the system32\drivers\etc folder. Linux, Mac and other operating systems each follow a similar approach but with different conventions for naming and locating the hosts file. A hosts file is designed to be edited by a computer administrator, knowledgeable user or automated script program. Computer hackers may also attempt to modify your hosts file, which has the effect of redirecting requests intended for standard Web

hotspot
Definition: A hotspot is any location where Wi-Fi network access (usually Internet access) is made publicly available. You can often find hotspots in airports, hotels, coffee shops, and other places where business people tend to congregate. Hotspots are considered a valuable productivity tool for business travelers and other frequent users of network services. Technically speaking, hotspots consist of one or several wireless access points installed inside buildngs and/or adjoining outdoor areas. These APs are typically networked to printers and/or a shared high-speed Internet connection. Some hotspots require special application software be installed on the Wi-Fi client, primarily for billing and security purposes, but others require no configuration other than knowledge of the network name (SSID). Wireless service providers like T-Mobile generally own and maintain hotspots. Hobbyists sometimes setup hotspots as well, often for non-profit purposes. The majority of hotspots require payment of hourly, daily, monthly, or other subscription fees. Hotspot providers strive to make connecting Wi-Fi clients as simple and secure as possible. However, being public, hotspots generally provide less secure Internet connections than do other wireless business networks.

HSDPA - High-Speed Downlink Packet Access


Definition: HSDPA is a protocol for data communications on cellular networks. HSDPA supports theoretical data rates of 1.8 Mbps and up to 14.4 Mbps maximum, although typical speeds are closer to 500 Kbps. Telecommunications companies like Cingular that have been using the slower UMTS protocol are upgrading to HSDPA as a move to so-called "3G" mobile networks. Besides being built into new cell phones, certain cellular cards (network adapters) for laptops also support HSDPA. Technology standards competing with HSDPA include EV-DO and WiMax.

HTTP
Definition: HTTP - the Hypertext Transfer Protocol - provides a standard for Web browsers and servers to communicate. The definition of HTTP is a technical specification of a network protocol that software must implement.

45

HTTP is an application layer network protocol built on top of TCP. HTTP clients (such as Web browsers) and servers communicate via HTTP request and response messages. The three main HTTP message types are GET, POST, and HEAD. HTTP utilizes TCP port 80 by default, though other ports such as 8080 can alternatively be used. The current version of HTTP in widespread use - HTTP version 1.1 - was developed to address some of the performance limitations of the original version - HTTP 1.0. HTTP 1.1 is documented in RFC 2068. Also Known As: HyperText Transfer Protocol

Hub - Ethernet hub


Definition: In computer networking, a hub is a small, simple, inexpensive device that joins multiple computers together. Many network hubs available today support the Ethernet standard. Other types including USB hubs also exist, but Ethernet is the type traditionally used in home networking.

a) Working With Ethernet Hubs


To network a group of computers using an Ethernet hub, first connect an Ethernet cable into the unit, then connect the other end of the cable to each computer's network interface card (NIC). All Ethernet hubs accept the RJ-45 connectors of standard Ethernet cables. To expand a network to accommodate more devices, Ethernet hubs can also be connected to each other, to switches, or to routers.

o) Characteristics of Ethernet Hubs


Ethernet hubs vary in the speed (network data rate or bandwidth) they support. Some years ago, Ethernet hubs offered only 10 Mbps rated speeds. Newer types of hubs offer 100 Mbps Ethernet. Some support both 10 Mbps and 100 Mbps (so-called dual-speed or 10/100 hubs). The number of ports an Ethernet hub supports also varies. Four- and five-port Ethernet hubs are most common in home networks, but eight- and 16-port hubs can be found in some home and small office environments. Older Ethernet hubs were relatively large in size and sometimes noisy as they contained built in fans for cooling the unit. Newer devices are much smaller, designed for mobility, and noiseless.

p) When To Use an Ethernet Hub


Ethernet hubs operate as Layer 2 devices in the OSI model, the same as network switches. Although offering comparable functionality, nearly all mainstream home network equipment today utilizes network switch technology instead of hubs due to the performance benefits of switches. A hub can be useful for temporarily replacing a broken network switch or when performance is not a critical factor on the network.

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IANA
Definition: IANA is one of the primary governing bodies for Internet networking. IANA oversees three key aspects of the Internet: top-level domains (TLDs), IP address allocation and port number assignments.

top-level domains. Top level domains are the trailing portion of Web domain names such as .com, .org, and .edu. IP address allocation TCP and UDP port number assignments

Also Known As: Internet Assigned Numbers Authority

ICMP
Definition: ICMP is a network protocol useful in Internet Protocol (IP) network management and administration. ICMP is a required element of IP implementations. ICMP is a control protocol, meaning that it does not carry application data, but rather information about the status of the network itself. ICMP can be used to report:

errors in the underlying communications of network applications availability of remote hosts network congestion

Perhaps the best known example of ICMP in practice is the ping utility, that uses ICMP to probe remote hosts for responsiveness and overall round-trip time of the probe messages. ICMP also supports traceroute, that can identify intermediate "hops" between a given source and destination. Also Known As: Internet Control Message Protocol

ICQ
Definition: ICQ is a software system for instant messaging originally developed in 1996 at a small company named Mirabilis. ICQ allows any two registered people on the Internet to interact either "live" (like a person-to-person chat) or disconnected (like email). Any Internet user may download ICQ and install the free client program. To register with the ICQ system, a person chooses their public username (handle) and private password. To use ICQ, a person simply logs in to the client program with that information. ICQ keep track of all the registered users logged in to the system at any given time. Therefore, people can keep buddy lists of their friends and be notified when these people log on to the system. The ICQ client software works by connecting to an ICQ server on the Internet. When the program is launched, it initially finds and connects to a server using UDP port 4000. This allows clients to discover other online clients. For person-to-person communications, ICQ sets up and tears down point-to-point TCP connections as needed. Also Known As: I Seek You

ICS - Internet Connection Sharing


Definition: ICS allows a local network of Windows computers to share a single Internet connection. Microsoft developed ICS as part of Windows 98 Second Edition. The feature has been included as part of all subsequent Windows releases, but it is not available as a separate installable program. ICS follows a client/server model. To set up ICS, one computer must be chosen as the server. The designated computer must support two network interfaces, one directly connected to the Internet and the 47

other connected to the remainder of the LAN. In a traditional home dial-up network, for example, the server computer is directly connected to the modem. When configured through Windows, the ICS server behaves as a NAT router, directing messages on behalf of multiple computers. ICS incorporates a DHCP server that allows clients to obtain their local addresses automatically rather than needing to be set manually. Compared to hardware routers, ICS has the advantage of being included with the operating system so no additional purchase is required. On the other hand, ICS lacks many of the configuration options that hardware routers possess. Also Known As: Internet Connection Sharing, Windows ICS

IEEE 1394
Look "Firewire"

IIS
Definition: IIS is Microsoft's business-class Web server. Although Apache boasts more total worldwide installations than IIS, many corporations choose IIS as their Web server because it is supported by a commercial organization. Some have criticized IIS in the past, though, for its alleged security weaknesses. IIS has improved over the years, supports many Web standards including SSL, and integrates well with other Microsoft Web technologies such as FrontPage. An admininstrator can manage IIS through a graphical console, the Internet Services Manager. Also Known As: Internet Information Server

InfiniBand
Definition: InfiniBand is a high-performance, multi-purpose network architecture based on a switch design often called a "switched fabric." InfiniBand is designed for use in I/O networks such as storage area networks (SAN) or in cluster networks. InfiniBand supports network bandwidth between 2.5 Gbps and 30 Gbps. Specifications for the InfiniBand architecture span multiple layers of the OSI model. InfiniBand features physical and data-link layer hardware like Ethernet and ATM, though with more advanced technology. InfiniBand also features connection-oriented and connectionless transport protocols analogous to TCP and UDP. InfiniBand uses IPv6 for addressing at the network layer. InfiniBand will possibly someday replace PCI as the system bus for PCs. Today's applications of InfiniBand, though are limited to cluster supercomputers and other specialized network systems. InfiniBand hasn't yet become a mainstream technology because standard network software must be modified and/or re-built to work with InfiniBand. InfiniBand bypasses traditional network protocol stacks like TCP/IP because of the performance limitations of these protocols, but in the process it breaks backward compatibility of applications. WinSock and other network programming libraries must be made InfiniBand-aware, without sacrificing the performance gains, before InfiniBand can be widely deployed.

infrared
Definition: Infrared technology allows computing devices to communicate via short-range wireless signals. With infrared, computers can transfer files and other digital data bidirectionally. The infrared transmission technology used in computers is similar to that used in consumer product remote control units. Installation and Usage - Computer infrared network adapters both transmit and receive data through ports on the rear or side of a device. Infrared adapters are installed in many laptops and handheld personal devices. In Microsoft Windows, infrared connections can be created through the same method as other 48

local area network connections. Infrared networks were designed to suppport direct two-computer connections only, created temporarily as the need arises. However, extensions to infrared technology also support more than two computers and semi-permanent networks. Range - Infrared communications span very short distances. Place two infrared devices within a few feet (no more than 5 meters) of each other when networking them. Unlike Wi-Fi and Bluetooth technologies, infrared network signals cannot penetrate walls or other obstructions and work only in the direct "line of sight." Performance - Infrared technology used in local networks exists in three different forms:

IrDA-SIR (slow speed) infrared supporting data rates up to 115 Kbps IrDA-MIR (medium speed) infrared supporting data rates up to 1.15 Mbps IrDA-FIR (fast speed) infrared supporting data rates up to 4 Mbps

Also Known As: IR

Internet
Definition: The term Internet today refers to the global network of public computers running Internet Protocol. The Internet supports the public WWW and many special-purpose client/server software systems. Internet technology also supports many private corporate intranets and private home LANs. The term "Internet" was originally coined in the 1970s. At that time, only the very meager beginnings of a public global network were in place. Throughout the 1970s, 1980s, and 1990s, a number of smaller national networks like ARPANET, BITNET, CSNET, and NSFNET evolved, merged, or dissolved, then finally joined with non-US networks to form the global Internet. Also Known As: The Net

Internet Explorer
Definition: Internet Explorer is the free, default Web browser for the Microsoft Windows family of operating systems. Internet Explorer ships pre-installed on all modern Windows computers. Microsoft Internet Explorer contains various Internet connection, network file sharing and security settings. Among other features, Internet Explorer supports:

proxy server configuration auto-dialing a dialup Internet connection FTP client capabilities remote LAN administration

Internet Explorer has received much publicity for several network security holes that have been discovered in the past, but Internet Explorer remains the most popular Web browser in use worldwide. Also Known As: IE, IE6, MSIE

IP - Internet Protocol
Definition: IP is the primary network protocol used on the Internet, developed in the 1970s. On the Internet and many other networks, IP is often used together with the Transport Control Protocol (TCP) and referred to interchangeably as TCP/IP. IP supports unique addressing for computers on a network. Most networks use the IP version 4 ( IPv4) standard that features IP addresses four bytes (32 bits) in length. The newer IP version 6 (IPv6) standard features addresses 16 bytes (128 bits) in length. Data on an IP network is organized into [ipackets. Each IP packet includes both a header (that specifies source, destination, and other information about the data) and the message data itself. 49

IP functions at layer 3 of the OSI model. It can therefore run on top of different data link interfaces including Ethernet and Wi-Fi. Also Known As: Internet Protocol

intranet
Definition: Intranet is the generic term for a collection of private computer networks within an organization. An intranet uses network technologies as a tool to facilitate communication between people or workgroups to improve the data sharing capability and overall knowledge base of an organization's employees. Intranets utilize standard network hardware and software technologies like Ethernet, WiFi, TCP/IP, Web browsers and Web servers. An organization's intranet typically includes Internet access but is firewalled so that its computers cannot be reached directly from the outside. A common extension to intranets, called extranets, opens this firewall to provide controlled access to outsiders. Many schools and non-profit groups have deployed them, but an intranet is still seen primarily as a corporate productivity tool. A simple intranet consists of an internal email system and perhaps a message board service. More sophisticated intranets include Web sites and databases containing company news, forms, and personnel information. Besides email and groupware applications, an intranet generally incorporates internal Web sites, documents, and/or databases. The business value of intranet solutions is generally accepted in larger corporations, but their worth has proven very difficult to quantify in terms of time saved or return on investment. Also Known As: corporate portal, private business network

IPsec
Definition: IPsec is a technology standard for implementing security features in Internet Protocol (IP) networking. IPsec network protocols support encryption and authentication. IPsec is most commonly used in so-called "tunnel mode" with a Virtual Private Network (VPN). However, IPsec also supports a "transport mode" for direct connection between two computers. Technically, IPsec functions at the network layer (Layer 3) of the OSI model. IPsec is supported in Microsoft Windows (Win2000 and newer versions) as well as most forms of Linux / Unix.

IPTV
Definition: IPTV technology supports the transmission of standard television video programs over the Internet and Internet Protocol (IP). IPTV allows a television service to be integrated with a broadband Internet services and share the same home Internet connections. IPTV requires high-speed Internet connectivity due to the high bandwidth requirements of digital video. Being connected to the Internet would in theory allow IPTV users more control over their television programming and ability to customize it to their preferences. More than just technology, the term "IPTV" represents a broad-based effort in the telecommunications and media industry to build a worldwide video creation and distribution environment. Also Known As: Internet Protocol Television Alternate Spellings: IP/TV, IP TV

IPv6
Definition: IPv6 is the next generation protocol for Internet networking. IPv6 expands on the current Internet Protocol standard known as IPv4. Compared to IPv4, IPv6 offers better addressing, security and other features to support large worldwide networks. 50

In IPv6, IP addresses change from the current 32-bit standard and dotted decimal notation to a new 128bit address system. IPv6 addresses remain backward compatible with IPv4 addresses. For example, the IPv4 address "192.168.100.32" may appear in IPv6 notation as "0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:C0A8:6420" or "::C0A8:6420". The most obvious benefit of IPv6 is the exponentially greater number of IP addresses it can support compared to IPv4. Many countries outside the U.S. suffer from a shortage of IP addresses today. Because IPv6 and IPv4 protocols coexist, those locales with an address shortage can easily deploy new IPv6 networks that work with the rest of the Internet. Experts believe it will take many more years before all networks fully change over to IPv6. Other benefits of IPv6 are less obvious but equally important. The internals of the IPv6 protocol have been designed with scalability and extensibility in mind. This will allow many different kinds of devices besides PCs, like cell phones and home appliances, to more easily join the Internet in future. Also Known As: IPng (Internet Protocol Next Generation)

IP address
Definition: An IP address is a logical address for a network adapter. The IP address uniquely identifies computers on a TCP/IP network. An IP address can be private - for use on a local area network (LAN) - or public - for use on the Internet or other wide area network (WAN). IP addresses can be determined statically (assigned to a computer by a system administrator) or dynamically (assigned by another device on the network on demand). Two IP addressing standards are in use today. The IPv4 standard is most familar to people and supported everywhere on the Internet, but the newer IPv6 standard is planned to replace it and starting to be deployed. IPv4 addresses consist of four bytes (32 bits) Each byte of an IP address is known as an octet. Octets can take any value between 0 and 255. Various conventions exist for the numbering and use of IP addresses.

a) Common IP (IPv4) Addresses


10.0.0.1 127.0.0.1 192.168.0.1 192.168.1.1 192.168.2.1

Also Known As: IP number

ISDN - Integrated Services Digital Network


Definition: ISDN is a network technology that supports digital transfer of simultaneous voice and data traffic. Similar to DSL in this respect, an ISDN Internet service works over ordinary telephone lines. ISDN Internet service generally supports data rates of 128 Kbps. ISDN emerged as an alternative to traditional dialup networking during the 1990s. The relatively high cost of ISDN service, though, limited its popularity with residential customers at the outset. More recently, the much higher network speeds supported by newer broadband technologies like DSL have drawn many consumers away from ISDN service. ISDN technology today has limited applications as a networking solution. Some customers who live in rural areas of the U.S. subscribe to ISDN Internet as an alternative to satellite Internet. ISDN phone service also remains fairly common in some European countries. 51

Also Known As: Integrated Services Digital Network

ISP - Internet Service Providers


Definition: An ISP is a company that supplies Internet connectivity to home and business customers. ISPs support one or more forms of Internet access, ranging from traditional modem dial-up to DSL and cable modem broadband service to dedicated T1/T3 lines. More recently, wireless Internet service providers or WISPs have emerged that offer Internet access through wireless LAN or wireless broadband networks. In addition to basic connectivity, many ISPs also offer related Internet services like email, Web hosting and access to software tools. A few companies also offer free ISP service to those who need occasional Internet connectivity. These free offerings feature limited connect time and are often bundled with some other product or service.

52

Kazaa - Kazzaa
Definition: Kazaa (sometimes spelled Kazzaa) is a free, distributed file sharing service that uses peer-topeer (P2P) network technology. Kazaa / Kazzaa is most commonly used to share and download MP3 music files over the Internet. To use Kazaa, a person downloads and installs a software client. Kazaa clients communicate with various registration servers, using Internet protocols, to identify files for sharing or download. Unlike FTP and other client-server network designs, Kazaa does not utilize file servers per se. Instead, the Kazaa network (called FastTrack) simply holds peer registration information, then brokers connections between any two distributed peer clients. Kazaa works over any speed of Internet connection. A number of Internet accelerator techniques may be used to increase the speed of Kazaa downloads. Kazaa clients run only on Windows operating systems.

See also > Kazaa Lite K++ Alternate Spellings: KaZaA, Kazaa Media Desktop (KMD), Kazzaa, original Kazaa

Kazaa Lite K++


Definition: Kazaa Lite K++ (sometimes Kazaa Light) is a free P2P file sharing software application. Kazaa Lite is a spin-off of the Kazaa application. Kazaa Lite contains no ads, a built in privacy firewall called PeerGuardian, and other features intended to improve on the original Kazaa. Kazaa Lite also sports a very good reputation in the P2P community for the committment and ethics of its users. Kazaa Lite users tend not to "leech" (download files from others without sharing their own) or post fake files, two key things that undermine the quality of any P2P file sharing system. The owners of the original Kazaa Media Desktop, Sharman Networks, have pushed to shut down Kazaa Lite, claiming that the client is an unauthorized derivative work. However, given the decentralized nature of P2P systems, disabling Kazaa Lite may be impossible to accomplish technically. Several once-popular free download locations for Kazaa Lite, including www.kazaalite.tk, have been shut down, but others remain. See also > Diet Kazaa Also Known As: K-lite, Kazaa Lite K++

Kbps / kbps, Mbps, Gbps


Look "Gbps"

keylogger
Definition: A keylogger is a hardware device or a software program that records the real time activity of a computer user including the keyboard keys they press. Keyloggers are used in IT organizations to troubleshoot technical problems with computers and business networks. Keyloggers can also be used by a family (or business) to monitor the network usage of people without their direct knowledge. Finally, malicious individuals may use keyloggers on public computers to steal passwords or credit card information. Keylogger software is freely available on the Internet. These keyloggers allow not only keyboard keystrokes to be captured but also are often capable of collecting screen captures from the computer. Normal keylogging programs store their data on the local hard drive, but some are programmed to automatically transmit data over the network to a remote computer or Web server. Detecting the presence of a keylogger on a computer can be difficult. 53

So-called anti-keylogging programs have been developed to thwart keylogging systems, and these are often effective when used properly.

kilobit - megabit gigabit


Look "gigabit"

kilobyte, megabyte, gigabyte


Look "gigabyte"

54

LAN - Local Area Network


Definition: A local area network (LAN) supplies networking capability to a group of computers in close proximity to each other such as in an office building, a school, or a home. A LAN is useful for sharing resources like files, printers, games or other applications. A LAN in turn often connects to other LANs, and to the Internet or other WAN. Most local area networks are built with relatively inexpensive hardware such as Ethernet cables, network adapters, and hubs. Wireless LAN and other more advanced LAN hardware options also exist. Specialized operating system software may be used to configure a local area network. For example, most flavors of Microsoft Windows provide a software package called Internet Connection Sharing (ICS) that supports controlled access to LAN resources. The term LAN party refers to a multiplayer gaming event where participants bring their own computers and build a temporary LAN. Also Known As: local area network Examples: The most common type of local area network is an Ethernet LAN. The smallest home LAN can have exactly two computers; a large LAN can accommodate many thousands of computers. Many LANs are divided into logical groups called subnets. An Internet Protocol (IP) "Class A" LAN can in theory accommodate more than 16 million devices organized into subnets.

LDAP
Definition: LDAP is a standard technology for network directories. Network directories are specialized databases that store information about devices, applications, people and other aspects of a computer network. LDAP is both a network protocol and a standard architecture for organizing the directory data. LDAP was created in 1995 as an academic university project, then commercialized by Netscape in the late 1990s. As a protocol, LDAP is a simplified version of the Data Access Protocol (DAP) used in the earlier standard X.500. LDAP's chief advantage over its predecessor is the ability to run over TCP/IP. As an architecture, LDAP utilizes a distributed tree structure similar to X.500. Prior to standards like X.500 and LDAP being adopted, most business networks used prioprietary network directory technology, chiefly Banyan VINES or Novell NDS. LDAP has gradually replaced all of these others as a universal standard "building block." Today's popular directory technologies like Microsoft Active Directory can use LDAP as a standard foundation to improve their performance and their maintainability. Also Known As: Lightweight Directory Access Protocol, Lightweight DAP

leased line
Definition: A leased line connects two locations for private voice and/or data telecommunication service. Not a dedicated cable, a leased line is actually a reserved circuit between two points. Leased lines can span short or long distances. They maintain a single open circuit at all times, as opposed to traditional telephone services that reuse the same lines for many different conversations through a process called "switching." Leased lines most commonly are rented by businesses to connect branch offices, because these lines guarantee bandwidth for network traffic. So-called T1 leased lines are common and offer the same data rate as symmetric DSL (1.544 Mbps). Individuals can theoretically also rent leased lines for high-speed Internet access, but their high cost (often more than $1000 USD per month) deters most. Fractional T1 lines, starting at 128 Kbps, reduce this cost somewhat and can be found in some apartment buildings and hotels. Virtual Private Networks (VPNs) are an alternative technology to leased lines. 55

Also Known As: dedicated line

56

MAC - Media Access Control and Address


Definition: MAC technology provides unique identification and access control for computers on an Internet Protocol (IP) network. In wireless networking, MAC is the radio control protocol on the wireless network adapter. MAC works at the lower sublayer of the data link layer (Layer 2) of the OSI model. MAC assigns a unique number to each IP network adapter called the MAC address. A MAC address is 48 bits long. The MAC address is commonly written as a sequence of 12 hexadecimal digits as follows: 48-3F-0A-91-00-BC MAC addresses are uniquely set by the network adapter manufacturer and are sometimes called "physical addresses" for this reason. The first six hexadecimal digits of the address correspond to a manufacturer's unique identifier, while the last six digits correspond to the device's serial number. MAC addresses map to logical IP addresses through the Address Resolution Protocol (ARP). Some Internet service providers track the MAC address of a home router for security purposes. Many routers support a process called cloning that allows the MAC address to be simulated so that it matches one the service provider is expecting. This allows households to change their router (and their real MAC address) without having to notify the provider. Also Known As: Media Access Control

MIMO
Definition: MIMO is the method of utilizing multiple antennas for wireless communications. For wireless networking, MIMO technology appears in some WiFi routers, greatly enhancing their capability over single-antenna routers. MIMO WiFi routers utilize the same network protocols and signal ranges that non-MIMO routers do. The MIMO products achieve higher performance by more aggressively transmitting and receiving data over WiFi channels. MIMO signaling technology can increase network bandwidth, range and reliability at the potential cost of interfering with other wirless equipment. The exact number of antennas utilized in a MIMO WiFi router can vary. Typical MIMO routers contain three or four antennas instead of the single antenna that is standard in all earlier forms of consumer WiFi routers. MIMO is a key element of the 802.11n WiFi networking standard. Also Known As: Multiple-Input Multiple-Output

modem
Definition: Traditional modems used in dial-up networking convert data between the analog form used on telephone lines and the digital form used on computers. Standard dial-up network modems transmit data at a maximum rate of 56,000 bits per second (56 Kbps). However, inherent limitations of the public telephone network limit modem speeds to 33.6 Kbps or lower in practice. Broadband modems that are part of cable and DSL Internet service use more advanced signaling techniques to achieve dramatically higher network speeds than traditional modems. Broadband modems are sometimes called "digital modems" and those used for traditional dial-up networking, "analog modems." Cellular modems that establish Internet connectivity through a digital cell phone also exist. Also Known As: MODulator dEModulator

MTU
Definition: The MTU is the maximum size of a single data unit (e.g., a frame) of digital communications. MTU sizes are inherent properties of physical network interfaces, normally measured in bytes. The MTU 57

for Ethernet, for instance, is 1500 bytes. Some types of networks (like Token Ring) have larger MTUs, and some types have smaller MTUs, but the values are fixed for each physical technology. Higher-level network protocols like TCP/IP can be configured with a maximum packet size, a parameter independent of the physical layer MTU over which TCP/IP runs. Unfortunately, many network devices use the terms interchangeably. On both home broadband routers and Xbox Live enabled game consoles, for example, the parameter called MTU is in fact the maximum TCP packet size and not the physical MTU. In Microsoft Windows, the maximum packet size for protocols like TCP can be set in the Registry. If this value is set too low, streams of network traffic will be broken up into a relatively large number of small packets that adversely affects performance. Xbox Live, for example, requires the value of MTU (packet size) by at least 1365 bytes. If the maximum TCP packet size is set too high, it will exceed the network's physical MTU and also degrade performance by requiring that each packet be subdivided into smaller ones (a process known as fragmentation). Microsoft Windows computers default to a maximum packet size of 1500 bytes for broadband connections and 576 bytes for dialup connections. Performance problems may also occur if the TCP "MTU" setting on the home broadband router differs from the setting on individual devices connected to it. Also Known As: Maximum Transmission Unit

multihoming
Definition: Multihoming is the configuration of multiple network interfaces or IP addresses on a single computer. Multihoming is intended to increase the reliability of network applications but it does not necessarily improve their performance. In traditional multihoming, you install a second hardware network adapter on a computer that normally possesses only one. Then, you configure both adapters to utilize the same one local IP address. This setup allows a computer to continue using the network even if one or the other network adapter stops functioning. In some cases, you can also connect these adapters to different Internet/network access points and increase the total bandwidth available to use across multiple applications. An alternate form of multihoming does not require a second network adapter; instead, you assign multiple IP addresses to the same adapter on one computer. Microsoft Windows XP and other operating systems support this configuration as an advanced IP addressing option. This approach gives you more flexibility to control incoming network connections from other computers. Combinations of the above - configurations with both multiple network interfaces and multiple IP addresses assigned to some or all of these interfaces - are also possible. The concept of multihoming is increasing in popularity as new technologies are adding more support for this feature. IPv6, for example, offers more network protocol support for multihoming than traditional IPv4. As it becomes more common to use computer networks in mobile environments, multihoming allows helps solve the problem of migrating between different types of networks while traveling.

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Nagle algorithm
Definition: The Nagle algorithm, named after engineer John Nagle, was designed to reduce LAN and other network congestion from TCP applications. TCP implementations on UNIX began using the Nagle algorithm in the 1980s, and the algorithm remains a standard feature of TCP implementations today. The Nagle algorithm works by aggregating data on the sending side of TCP applications. It accumulates sequences of small messages into larger TCP packets before data reaches the wire, thereby preventing the generation of unnecessarily large numbers of small packets. When the Nagle algorithm works as designed, TCP applications utilize network resources more efficiently. Applications can enable or disable the Nagle algorithm with the TCP_NODELAY socket option. Windows, Linux, and Java systems all normally enable the Nagle algorithm by default. However, in some cases, the Nagle algorithm has a negative effect on application performance, so network application engineers may prefer to disable it. Also Known As: nagling

Napster
Definition: Boasting millions of registered users, Napster was once one of the most popular network software applications in history. Napster allowed its members to exchange music files over the Internet for free. Napster implemented a relatively simple IP-based protocol for communicating control operations and data. Napster also implemented a custom name space similar to, but separate from, DNS. The network traffic generated by Napster downloads flooded some university networks, and a few institutions banned Napster from their networks by blocking the appropriate network ports. Legal challenges and industry pressure led to the demise of the original Napster application. However, Napster helped popularize peer-to-peer (P2P) network computing.

NAS
Definition: NAS allows files to be stored and retrieved across a computer network. A NAS includes a dedicated hardware device often called the head that connects to a local area network (usually via Ethernet). This NAS "server" authenticates clients and manages file operations in much the same manner as traditional file servers, through well-established network protocols like NFS and CIFS/SMB.
NAS systems attempt to reduce the cost associated with traditional file servers. Rather than utilize general-purpose computer hardware and a full-featured network operating system (NOS) like NetWare, NAS devices generally run an embedded operating system on simplified hardware. NAS boxes support hard drives, and sometimes tape drives, but lack peripherals like a monitor or keyboard. Designed specifically for network storage, a NAS tends to be easier to manage than a file server. The term "NAS" is often confused with the related term "SAN" (Storage Area Network). In a nutshell, NAS devices are just one type of entity that can exist on a SAN. Also Known As: Network Attached Storage

NAT - Network Address Translation


Definition: NAT allows an Internet Protocol (IP) network to maintain public IP addresses separately from private IP addresses. NAT is a popular technology for Internet connection sharing. It is also sometimes used in server load balancing applications on corporate networks. In it's most common configuration, NAT maps all of the private IP addresses on a home network to the single IP address supplied by an Internet Service Provider (ISP). This allows computers on the home LAN to share a single Internet connection. Additionally, it enhances home network security by limiting the access of external computers into the home IP network space. NAT works by snooping both incoming and outgoing IP datagrams. 59

As needed, it modifies the source or destination address in the IP header (and the affected checksums) to reflect the configured address mapping. NAT technically supports either fixed or dynamic mappings of one or more internal and external IP addresses. NAT functionality is usually found on routers and other gateway devices at the network boundary. NAT can also be implemented entirely in software. Microsoft's Internet Connection Sharing (ICS), for example, adds NAT support to the Windows operating system. By itself, NAT does not provide all the features of a true firewall, but it is often used on servers that feature other firewall and antivirus support. NAT was designed originally to conserve public Internet address space. Internet RFC 1631 contains the basic NAT specification. Also Known As: Network Address Translation

NetBIOS
Definition: NetBIOS is a software protocol for providing computer communication services on local networks. Microsoft Windows uses NetBIOS on Ethernet or Token Ring networks. Software applications on a NetBIOS network locate each other via their NetBIOS names. A NetBIOS name is up to 16 characters long and in Windows, separate from the computer name. Applications on other computers access NetBIOS names over UDP port 137. The provides name resolution services for NetBIOS. Two applications start a NetBIOS session when one (the client) sends a command to "Call" another (the server) over TCP port 139 on a remote computer. Both sides issue "Send" and "Receive" commands to deliver messages in both directions. The "Hang-Up" command terminates a NetBIOS session. NetBIOS also supports connectionless communications via UDP datagrams. Applications listen on UDP port 138 to receive NetBIOS datagrams. NetBIOS and NetBEUI are separate but related technologies. NetBEUI extends NetBIOS with additional networking capabilities. Also Known As: Network Basic Input/Output System

NetMeeting - Microsoft NetMeeting


Definition: NetMeeting is a software application for audio and video conferencing. NetMeeting offers sharing of desktop video, audio, chat and file transfer functionality. NetMeeting supports directory servers and services. NetMeeting uses may automatically register with a directory when they start their NetMeeting client. The directory then allows users to find online users by name or location. If no directory is available, NetMeeting users can also call each other directly by computer name or IP address. Once connected to other users, NetMeeting places all parties in a "call." NetMeeting tracks the call roster and allows users to share their desktop windows, to chat, transfer files, or share a VoIP feed. NetMeeting supports dozens of simulataneous users in a call. It supports users over any type of IP network connection including dialup service. However, the overall performance of a NetMeeting call generally suffers when dialup users are connected. Microsoft ships NetMeeting with the Microsoft Windows operating system. "Conf.exe" is the NetMeeting client executable. Windows XP leaves conf.exe inactive by default and requires special user configuratio to enable it. Microsoft has ceased future development of NetMeeting and announced plans to phase out this tool in favor of a new service called Office Live Meeting. 60

NetWare
Definition: The NetWare operating system was one of the first software products built for the networking of personal computers (PCs). NetWare emphasizes file and print serving capabilities, and the predominant use of NetWare is as a LAN server. Early version of NetWare appeared in the late 1980s, and today NetWare enjoys an installed base of millions of computers. NetWare is just one of many networking software products and services developed by Novell, Inc. Despite stiff competition from Microsoft and various other companies, Novell continues to offer strong network technology. Also Known As: Novell NetWare

NIC
Definition: In computer networking, a NIC provides the hardware interface between a computer and a network. A NIC technically is network adapter hardware in the form factor of an add-in card such as a PCI or PCMCIA card. Some NIC cards work with wired connections while others are wireless. Most NICs support either wired Ethernet or WiFi wireless standards. Ethernet NICs plug into the system bus of the PC and include jacks for network cables, while WiFi NICs contain built-in transmitters / receivers (transceivers). In new computers, many NICs are now pre-installed by the manufacturer. All NICs feature a speed rating such as 11 Mbps, 54 Mbps or 100 Mbps that suggest the general performance of the unit. Also Known As: NIC also stands for Network Information Center. For example, the organization named "InterNIC" is a NIC that provides information to the general public on Internet domain names.

node
Definition: A node is any device connected to a computer network. Nodes can be computers, personal digital assistants (PDAs), cell phones, or various other network appliances. On an IP network, a node is any device with an IP address. Also Known As: device

NOS - Network Operating System


Definition: A NOS is a network operating system. A network operating system implements protocol stacks as well as device drivers for networking hardware. Some network operating systems, like Windows 98 Second Edition, also add custom networking features like Internet Connection Sharing (ICS). Network operating systems have existed for more than thirty years. The UNIX operating system was designed from the beginning to support networking. In its early forms, Windows did not support networking, so Novell NetWare became the first popular network operating system for the personal computer (Windows 95 and Windows for Workgroups were Microsoft's first network operating system products). Today, nearly any consumer operating system qualifies as a NOS due to the popularity of the Internet and the obvious need to support Internet Protocol (IP) networking at a minimum. Also Known As: network operating system

NTP - Network Time Protocol


Definition: In computer networking, NTP is a system to synchronize time of day computer clocks across the Internet. NTP is based on Internet time servers, computers with access to atomic clocks such as those operated by the U.S. government. These NTP servers run a software service that provides the clock's time of day to client computers over UDP port 123. NTP supports a hierarchy of multiple server levels to handle a large load of client requests. The protocol includes algorithms to accurately adjust the time of day being reported to account for Internet network transmission delays. 61

Computers running Windows 2000 and newer can be configured to use an NTP server via the "Date and Time" option on Control Panel, Internet Time tab. Also Known As: Network Time Protocol

null modem cable


Definition: A null modem cable connects to two standard serial ports for networking two computers together. Null modem cables enable direct data transfer with a minimum of setup required. A null modem cable differs from ordinary serial cables the same way as Ethernet crossover cables differ from ordinary Ethernet cables. Null modem cables reverse the transmit and receive lines on end to enable direct two-way communication. A null modem cable for PCs ordinarily follows the RS-232 standard and uses the same serial ports as RS-232 cables. An RS-232 null modem cable transfers data at the rate of 115 Kbps. The fastest null modem cable, based on RS-422, supports up to 450 Kbps. Today, null modem cables are used primarily by engineers. USB keys, Ethernet crossover cables, and general purpose network routers have effectively made the null modem cable obsolete.

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octet
Definition: An octet represents any eight-bit quantity. By definition, octets range in mathematical value from 0 (zero) to 255. Typically in computer networking, an octet is the same as a byte. However, the term "octet" came into existence because historically some computer systems did not represent a byte as eight bits; octets and bytes are *not* the same on such systems. Octets most commonly refers to any of the four bytes of an IPv4 address. In dotted-decimal notation, an IP address appears as follows [ octet ] . [ octet ] . [ octet ] . [ octet ] like this: 192 . 168 . 0. 1 In Web browsers, the MIME type "application/octet-stream" refers to a generic HTTP byte stream. Also Known As: byte

OSI Model - Open Systems Interconnection model


Definition: The OSI model defines internetworking in terms of a vertical stack of seven layers. The upper layers of the OSI model represent software that implements network services like encryption and connection management. The lower layers of the OSI model implement more primitive, hardwareoriented functions like routing, addressing, and flow control. In the OSI model, data communication starts with the top layer at the sending side, travels down the OSI model stack to the bottom layer, then traveses the network connection to the bottom layer on the receiving side, and up its OSI model stack. The OSI model was introduced in 1984. Although it was designed to be an abstract model, the OSI model remains a practical framework for today's key network technologies like Ethernet and protocols like IP. Also Known As: Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) reference model, OSI seven layer model Examples: Internet Protocol (IP) corresponds to the Network layer of the OSI model, layer three. TCP and UDP correspond to OSI model layer four, the Transport layer. Lower layers of the OSI model are represented by technologies like Ethernet. Higher layers of the OSI model are represented by application protocols like TCP and UDP.

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P2P
Definition: The term P2P refers to "peer-to-peer" networking. A peer-to-peer network allows computer hardware and software to function without the need for special server devices. P2P is an alternative to client-server network design. P2P is a popular technology for file sharing software applications like Kazaa, WinMX and Overnet. P2P technology helps the P2P client applications upload and download files over the P2P network services. P2P technology can also be found in other places. Microsoft Windows XP (starting with Service Pack 1), for example, contains a component called "Windows Peer-to-Peer Networking." P2P is especially popular in homes where an expensive, decidated server computer is neither necessary nor practical. Finally, the P2P acronym has acquired a non-technical meaning as well. Some people have described this second meaning of "P2P" as "people-to-people." From this perspective, P2P is a model for developing software and growing businesses that help individuals on the Internet meet each other and share common interests. So-called social networking technology is an example of this concept.

packet
Definition: A packet is one unit of binary data capable of being routed through a computer network. To improve communication performance and reliability, each message sent between two network devices is often subdivided into packets by the underlying hardware and software. Depending on the protocol(s) they need to support, packets are constructed in some standard packet format. Packet formats generally include a header, the body containing the message data (also known as the payload), and sometimes a footer (also known as the trailer). The packet header lists the destination of the packet (in IP packets, the destination IP address) and often indicates the length of the message data. The packet footer contains data that signifies the end of the packet, such as a special sequence of bits known as a magic number. Both the packet header and footer may contain error-checking information. The receiving device is responsible for re-assembling individual packets into the original message, by stripping off the headers and footers and concatenating packets in the correct sequence. Also Known As: datagram

PAN
Definition: A personal area network - PAN - is a computer network organized around an individual person. Personal area networks typically involve a mobile computer, a cell phone and/or a handheld computing device such as a PDA. You can use these networks to transfer files including email and calendar appointments, digital photos and music. Personal area networks can be constructed with cables or wirelessly. USB and FireWire technologies often link together a wired PAN while wireless PANs typically use Bluetooth or sometimes infrared connections. Bluetooth PANs are also called piconets. Personal area networks generally cover a range of less than 10 meters (about 30 feet).

passphrase
Definition: In computer networking, a passphrase is one or a few small words chosen by an administrator for use as a security setting. The passphrase represents a long, but easy to remember password. Some WiFi home networking equipment utilizes passphrases to generate static WEP keys. Rather than create the long hexadecimal numbers WEP requires, an administrator may instead enter a passphrase into the setup screens of wireless routers and network adapters. That setup software then automatically sets the appropriate WEP key based on the passphrase provided. 64

WiFi passphrases can simplify wireless network setup. Because passphrases are easy to remember, administrators are less likely to enter mismatched security settings on any of their devices. However, not all WiFi gear supports passphrases. In addition, passphrases normally cannot be used on a network when mixing equipment from different manufacturers, as each manufacturer generally employs different algorithms for generating keys.

PASV - passive mode FTP


Definition: PASV is an alternative mode for establishing File Transfer Protocol (FTP) connections. PASV mode is designed for FTP clients behind firewalls. PASV mode works by allowing FTP clients to initiate sending of both control and data messages. Ordinarily, only FTP servers initiate the data requests. Because many client firewalls reject incoming messages like these FTP requests, PASV mode makes FTP "firewall-friendly." Most FTP clients, including Web browsers like Internet Explorer, support a PASV FTP option. However, configuring PASV on the client doesn't guarantee that PASV mode will work, as FTP servers may choose to deny PASV mode connections. Some network administrators disable PASV mode on FTP servers because of the additional security risks PASV entails. Also Known As: passive mode FTP Examples: To set the PASV option in Internet Explorer, check the "Use Passive FTP" box in the Advanced tab under Tools/Internet Options. This option will not work with older FTP servers that do not support PASV. Also, PASV bugs have been found in FTP servers and firewalls, so this option is not 100% reliable.

patch cables
Definition: A patch cable connects two network devices. Patch cables are typically CAT5 / CAT5e Ethernet cables linking a computer to a nearby network hub, switch or router. Ethernet patch cables are useful to those building home computer networks and also to travelers who need wired access to Internet connections such as those provided in hotel rooms. They are normally manufactured using stranded rather than solid sheathing in order to give them pliability that reduces risk of breakage when unplugging or carrying them. A crossover cable is a specific type of Ethernet patch cable used to directly connect two computers to each other. Fiber optic patch cables are also commonly used in the networking. The term patch cord is sometimes used synonymously with patch cable, although patch cords are often non-network types of cables such as those for wiring stereo components. Also Known As: patch cord

PCI
Definition: PCI (Peripheral Component Interconnect) is an industry specification for connecting hardware devices to a computer's central processor. Both Ethernet and Wi-Fi network adapters for desktop and notebook computers commonly utilize PCI. PCI defines the electrical characteristics and signal protocol used for two devices to communicate over a computer's central bus. PCI network adapters and other devices exist in several different shapes and sizes called "form factors." Besides traditional Ethernet PCI cards that manufacturers pre-install inside desktop computers, common PCI form factors for consumer network devices are:

Card Bus - either Wi-Fi or Ethernet PC Card (also known as PCMCIA or "credit card") network adapters Mini PCI - Wi-Fi network cards embedded inside notebook computers 65

Also Known As: Periperhal Component Interconnect

PCMCIA - Personal Computer Memory Card International Association


Definition: PCMCIA is an industry organization best know for developing a standard network adapter using the PC Card form factor. The PC Card form factor was designed for thinness, and PCMCIA is therefore especially well suited for notebook computers. Most notebooks contain two PCMCIA slots that hold one or two of these cards. PC Cards come in three types. All PC Cards have the same width and length - 54.0 millimeters wide and 85.6 millmeters long - but vary in thickness: Type 1 - 3.3 millimeters thick Type 2 - 5.0 millimeters thick Type 3 - 10.5 millimeters thick Ethernet PCMCIA network adapters were originally all Type 2 PC Cards. These cards feature a dualspeed or Fast Ethernet jack and sometimes a second jack for an onboard dial-up modem. Type 1 PC Cards cards generally contain computer memory and Type 3 cards generally contain disk storage. Type 2 PC Cards are too thin to fit a full-sized Ethernet (RJ-45) jack and/or a full-sized phone (RJ-11) jack. Instead, Type 2 Ethernet PCMCIA cards require proprietary jacks and short external cables called dongles that interface a proprietary jack to a standard one. However, an increasing number of PCMCIA Ethernet adapters are now being built using the Type 3 form factor. Being twice as thick as Type 2 adapters, Type 3 adapters work without dongles because they fit a full-sized Ethernet (RJ-45) jack and/or a full-sized phone (RJ-11) jack. One Type 3 ("double high") adapter fills both PCMCIA slots in a notebook computer. Also Known As: PC Card; Personal Computer Memory Card International Association; People Can't Memorize Computer Industry Acronyms

Peer Guardian and PeerGuardian 2 P2P Software


Definition: Peer Guardian is a simple software firewall designed for use with Microsoft Windows P2P file sharing clients. Peer Guardian works, first, by maintaining a database of IP addresses, logging and/or blocking incoming requests coming from those addresses. Secondly, Peer Guardian may prevent outcoming connections to fake P2P servers. The Peer Guardian IP database contains those IP addresses suspected to be used by the music industry to probe and identify MP3 music file sharing servers. These IP addresses, for example, may represent computers owned by the Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA) or the Motion Picture Association of America. The maintainers of Peer Guardian refresh its IP database regularly.

q) Peer Guardian vs Peer Guardian 2


Two different Peer Guardian applications exist. The original Peer Guardian application was packaged with some popular P2P file sharing clients like Kazaa Lite. It has since morphed into the free "ProtoWall" utility. A newer application, Peer Guardian 2, was started by members of the original Peer Guardian team who wished to provide a comparable Open Source alternative. Nomenclature notwithstanding, Peer Guardian 2 does not obsolete the original Peer Guardian system. On the contrary, both applications can be useful add-ons for today's P2P file sharing clients.

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Ping
Definition: Ping is the name of a standard network utility packaged with popular network operating systems. The utility can be used to determine if a remote device (such as Web or game server) can be reached on the network and, if so, roughly how fast the current connection is. Traditional pings are implemented with the Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP), although it is possible to achieve a similar effect with UDP or other protocols. Ping utilities send requests to the designated computer at periodic intervals and measure the time it takes for a respone packet to arrive. A number of popular "ping tools" that add features to the operating system commands are available on the Net today. By manipulating the contents of ICMP packets, hackers have also used ping utilties to take down servers in the so-called "Ping of Death" attack. Also Known As: Packet Internet Gopher

Ping of Death
Definition: In late 1996 and early 1997, a flaw in the implementation of networking in some operating systems became well-known and popularized by hackers as a way to crash computers remotely over the Internet. The Ping of Death attack was relatively easy to carry out and very dangerous due to its high probability of success. Technically speaking, the Ping of Death attack involved sending IP packets of a size greater than 65,535 bytes to the target computer. IP packets of this size are illegal, but applications can be built that are capable of creating them. Carefully programmed operating systems could detect and safely handle illegal IP packets, but some failed to do this. ICMP ping utilities often included large-packet capability and became the namesake of the problem, although UDP and other IP-based protocols also could transport Ping of Death. Operating system vendors quickly devised patches to avoid the Ping of Death. Still, many Web sites today block ICMP ping messages at their firewalls to avoid similar denial of service attacks.

port number
Definition: A port number represents an endpoint or "channel" for network communications. Port numbers allow different applications on the same computer to utilize network resources without interfering with each other. Port numbers most commonly appear in network programming, particularly socket programming. Sometimes, though, port numbers are made visible to the casual user. For example, some Web sites a person visits on the Internet use a URL like the following: http://www.mairie-metz.fr:8080/ In this example, the number 8080 refers to the port number used by the Web browser to connect to the Web server. Normally, a Web site uses port number 80 and this number need not be included with the URL (although it can be). In IP networking, port numbers can theoretically range from 0 to 65535. Most popular network applications, though, use port numbers at the low end of the range (such as 80 for HTTP). The port number is included as a field within the header of each IP packet. Note: The term port also refers to several other aspects of network technology. A port can refer to a physical connection point for peripheral devices such as serial, parallel, and USB ports. The term port also refers to certain Ethernet connection points, such as those on a hub, switch, or router. Also Known As: port number, protocol number

Portal
Definition: A portal is a kind of Web site. The term originated with large, well-known Internet search engine sites that expanded their features to include email, news, stock quotes, and an array of other 67

functionality. Some corporations took a similar approach in implementing their intranet sites, that then became known as enterprise information or corporate portals. Technically speaking, a portal site includes a start page with rich navigation, a collection of looselyintegrated features (some of which may be provided by partners or other third parties), and a diverse, large target audience. Also Known As: Web site

PPPoE
Definition: PPPoE stands for Point-to-Point Protocol over Ethernet. It is a network protocol sometimes used by broadband modems for DSL Internet service. PPPoE allows Internet Service Providers to manage access through accounts with user names and passwords. Some DSL service providers chose PPPoE as it proved a convenient technical solution for converting subscribers from dial-up Internet. While convenient for service providers, some customers of PPPoE-based Internet service have experienced problems with their connection due to incompatibility between PPPoE technology and their personal network firewalls. Contact your service provider to verify whether they use PPPoE and get any assistance needed with your firewall settings. PPPoE is documented in Internet RFC 2516.

PPTP
Definition: PPTP is a network protocol used in the implementation of Virtual Private Networks (VPN). RFC 2637 is the PPTP technical specification. PPTP works on a client server model. PPTP clients are included by default in Microsoft Windows and also available for both Linux and Mac OS X. Newer VPN technologies like L2TP and IPsec may replace PPTP someday, but PPTP remains a popular network protocol especially on Windows computers. PPTP technology extends the Point to Point Protocol (PPP) standard for traditional dial-up networking. PPTP operates at Layer 2 of the OSI model. As a network protocol, PPTP is best suited for the remote access applications of VPNs, but it also supports LAN internetworking. Also Known As: Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol

protocol (network)
Definition: A network protocol defines rules and conventions for communication between network devices. Protocols for computer networking all generally use packet switching techniques to send and receive messages in the form of packets. Network protocols include mechanisms for devices to identify and make connections with each other, as well as formatting rules that specify how data is packaged into messages sent and received. Some protocols also support message acknowledgement and data compression designed for reliable and/or high-performance network communication. Hundreds of different computer network protocols have been developed each designed for specific purposes and environments.

a) Internet Protocols
The Internet Protocol family contains a set of related (and among the most widely used network protocols. Besides Internet Protocol (IP) itself, higher-level protocols like TCP, UDP, HTTP, and FTP all integrate with IP to provide additional capabilities. Similarly, lower-level Internet Protocols like ARP and ICMP also co-exist with IP. These higher level protocols interact more closely with applications like Web browsers while lower-level protocols interact with network adapters and other computer hardware. 68

r) Routing Protocols
Routing protocols are special-purpose protocols designed specifically for use by network routers on the Internet. Common routing protocols include EIGRP, OSPF and BGP.

s) How Network Protocols Are Implemented


Modern operating systems like Microsoft Windows contain built-in services or daemons that implement support for some network protocols. Applications like Web browsers contain software libraries that support the high level protocols necessary for that application to function. For some lower level TCP/IP and routing protocols, support is implemented in directly hardware (silicon chipsets) for improved performance.

Proxy Servers Tutorial - About Proxy Servers


Look "strana 11"

PSTN
Definition: PSTN is the global collection of interconnects originally designed to support circuit-switched voice communication. The PSTN provides the traditional Plain Old Telephone Service (POTS) to residences and many other establishments. Parts of the PSTN are also utilized for DSL, VoIP and other Internet-based network technologies. The basic PSTN network link supports 64 Kbps bandwidth. In residences, the PSTN phone line carring this bandwidth is typically a copper cable. Traditional dial-up modems utilize nearly 56 Kbps of this bandwidth when connected to a phone line. The PSTN utilizes the SS7 signaling protocol. Also Known As: Public Switched Telephone Network

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QoS
Definition: QoS (Quality of Service) refers to a broad collection of networking technologies and techniques. The goal of QoS is to provide guarantees on the ability of a network to deliver predictable results. Elements of network performance within the scope of QoS often include availability (uptime), bandwidth (throughput), latency (delay), and error rate. QoS involves prioritization of network traffic. QoS can be targeted at a network interface, toward a given server or router's performance, or in terms of specific applications. A network monitoring system must typically be deployed as part of QoS, to insure that networks are performing at the desired level. QoS is especially important for the new generation of Internet applications such as VoIP, video-ondemand and other consumer services. Some core networking technologies like Ethernet were not designed to support prioritized traffic or guaranteed performance levels, making it much more difficult to implement QoS solutions across the Internet.

RADSL
Definition: RADSL is an implementation of ADSL that automatically adjusts the connection speed to adjust for the quality of the telephone line. This feature allows RADSL service to function over longer distances than does ordinary ADSL, an important feature in suburban neighborhoods. In RADSL, the broadband modem is configured at startup to test the phone line and adjust the data rate. RADSL typically operates at a lower date rate than regular ADSL. Like ADSL, RADSL provides relatively more bandwidth for downloads and less for uploads. Also Known As: Rate-Adaptive Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line

repeater
Definition: Network repeaters regenerate incoming electrical, wireless or optical signals. With physical media like Ethernet or Wi-Fi, data transmissions can only span a limited distance before the quality of the signal degrades. Repeaters attempt to preserve signal integrity and extend the distance over which data can safely travel. Actual network devices that serve as repeaters usually have some other name. Active hubs, for example, are repeaters. Active hubs are sometimes also called "multiport repeaters," but more commonly they are just "hubs." Other types of "passive hubs" are not repeaters. In Wi-Fi, access points function as repeaters only when operating in so-called "repeater mode." Higher-level devices in the OSI model like switches and routers generally do not incorporate the functions of a repeater. All repeaters are technically OSI physical layer devices.

RFC
Definition: RFC documents have been used on the Internet for more than 30 years. Researchers from universities and corporations publish these documents to solicit feedback on new technologies for the Internet. Most popular networking technologies like IP and Ethernet have been historically documented in RFCs. The very first RFC, RFC 1, was published in April 1969. Although the "host software" technology discussed has long since become obsolete, documents like this one offer a very interesting glimpse into the early days of computer networking. Even today, the plain text format of the RFC remains essentially the same as it has since the beginning. As the basic technologies of the Internet have matured, and the Internet has grown to include many nontechnical people, the need for RFCs has diminished. Yet a few RFCs are still being produced for leadingedge research in Internet-based networking. 70

Also Known As: Request for Comments

RFID - Radio Frequency Identification


Definition: RFID is a system for tagging and identifying mobile objects such as store merchandise, postal packages and sometimes living organisms (like pets). Using a special device called an RFID reader, RFID allows objects to be labeled and tracked as they move from place to place. RFID works using small (sometimes smaller than a fingernail) pieces of hardware called RFID chips. These chips feature an antenna to transmit and receive radio signals. So-called passive RFID chips do not have a power source, but active RFID chips do. RFID chips may be attached to objects, or in the case of some passive RFID systems, injected into objects. Whenever a reader within range sends appropriate signals to an object, the associated RFID chip responds with the requested information, such as an identification number or product date. (Passive RFID systems derive their energy to send responses from the incoming signal.) The reader, in turn, displays the response data to an operator. Readers may also forward data to a networked central computer system. RFID systems generally support storing information on the chips as well as simply reading data. RFID systems were created as an alternative to barcodes. Relative to barcodes, RFID allows objects to be scanned from a greater distance, supports storing of data, and allows more information to be tracked per object. RFID has raised some privacy concerns due to the invisible nature of the system and its capability to transmit fairly sophisticated messages. Also Known As: Radio Frequency Identification

RJ45
Definition: RJ45 is a standard type of connector for network cables. RJ45 connectors are most commonly seen with Ethernet cables and networks. RJ45 connectors feature eight pins to which the wire strands of a cable interface electrically. Standard RJ45 pinouts define the arrangement of the individual wires needed when attaching connectors to a cable. Several other kinds of connectors closely resemble RJ45 and can be easily confused for each other. The RJ-11 connectors used with telephone cables, for example, are only slightly smaller (narrower) than RJ45 connectors. Also Known As: Registered Jack 45

router
Definition: Routers are physical devices that join multiple wired or wireless networks together. Technically, a wired or wireless router is a Layer 3 gateway, meaning that the wired/wireless router connects networks (as gateways do), and that the router operates at the network layer of the OSI model. Home networkers often use an Internet Protocol (IP) wired or wireless router, IP being the most common OSI network layer protocol. An IP router such as a DSL or cable modem broadband router joins the home's local area network (LAN) to the wide-area network (WAN) of the Internet.

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By maintaining configuration information in a piece of storage called the "routing table," wired or wireless routers also have the ability to filter traffic, either incoming or outgoing, based on the IP addresses of senders and receivers. Some routers allow the home networker to update the routing table from a Web browser interface. Broadband routers combine the functions of a router with those of a network switch and a firewall in a single unit.

RPC - Remote Procedure Call


Definition: RPC is a network programming model for point-to-point communication within or between software applications. In RPC, the sender makes a request in the form of a procedure, function, or method call. RPC translates these calls into requests sent over the network to the intended destination. The RPC recipient then processes the request based on the procedure name and argument list, sending a response to the sender when complete. RPC applications generally implement software modules called "proxies" and "stubs" that broker the remote calls and make them appear to the programmer the same as local procedure calls (LPC). RPC calling applications usually operate synchronously, waiting for the remote procedure to return a result. RPC incorporates timeout logic to handle network failures or other situations where RPCs do not return. RPC has been a common programming technique in the Unix world since the 1990s. The Open Systems Foundation (OSF) Distributed Computing Environment (DCE) and Sun Microsystems Open Network Computing (ONC) libraries both were widely deployed. More recent examples of RPC technologies include Microsoft DCOM, Java RMI, and XML-RPC and SOAP.

RS-232
Definition: RS-232 is a telecommunications standard for connecting certain types of electronic equipment. In computer networking, RS-232 cables were commonly used to connect modems to the compatible serial ports of personal computers. So-called null modem cables could also be connected directly between the RS-232 ports of two computers to create a simple network interface suitable for transferring files. Today, most uses of RS-232 in computer networking have been replaced by USB technology. Some computers and network routers possess RS-232 ports to support modem connections. RS-232 also continues to be used in some industrial devices, including newer fiber optic cable and wireless implementations. Also Known As: Recommended Standard 232

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Samba
Definition: Samba is a client/server system that implements network resource sharing for Linux and other UNIX computers. With Samba, UNIX files and printers can be shared with Windows clients and vice versa. Samba supports the Session Message Block (SMB) protocol. Nearly all Windows computers include SMB support with their internal network subsystems (NetBIOS in particular). With an appropriately-configured Samba server on Linux, Windows clients can map drives to the Linux filesystems. Likewise, the Samba client on UNIX can connect to Windows shares by their UNC name. Although differences among various operating systems (such as filesystem naming conventions, end-ofline conventions, and authentication) can limit interoperability, Samba offers a generally serviceable mechanism for resource sharing on a heterogenous network. Also Known As: NetBIOS for UNIX

SAN
Definition: A storage area network (SAN) is a type of local area network (LAN) designed to handle large data transfers. A SAN typically supports data storage, retrieval and replication on business networks using high-end servers, multiple disk arrays and Fibre Channel interconnection technology. SAN technology is similar but distinct from network attached storage (NAS) technology. While SANs traditionally employ low-level network protocols for transfering disk blocks, a NAS device typically works over TCP/IP and can be integrated fairly easily into home computer networks. The term SAN can sometimes refer to system area networks instead of a storage area network. System area networks are clusters of high performance computers used for distributed processing applications requiring fast local network performance. Storage area networks, on the other, are designed specifically for data management. Also Known As: Storage Area Network, System Area Network

satellite Internet
Definition: Satellite Internet is a form of high-speed Internet service. Satellite Internet services utilize telecommunications satellites in Earth orbit to provide Internet access to consumers. Satellite Internet service covers areas where DSL and cable access is unavailable. Satellite offers less network bandwidth compared to DSL or cable, however. In addition, the long delays required to transmit data between the satellite and the ground stations tend to create high network latency, causing a sluggish performance experience in some cases. Network applications like VPN and online gaming may not function properly over satellite Internet connections due to these latency issues. Older residential satellite Internet services supported only "one-way" downloads over the satellite link, requiring a telephone modem for uploading. All newer satellite services support full "two-way" satellite links. Satellite Internet service does not necessary utilitize WiMax. WiMax technology supplies one method to deliver high-speed Internet service over wireless links, but satellite providers may implement their systems differently.

SONET - Synchronous Optical Network


Definition: SONET is a physical layer network technology designed to carry large volumes of traffic over relatively long distances on fiber optic cabling. SONET was originally designed by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) for the USA public telephone network in the mid-1980s. SONET possesses several characteristics that make it appealing on the Internet today: 73

SONET defines clear interoperability standards between different vendors' products SONET can carry nearly any higher-level protocol (including IP), and SONET includes built-in support for ease of management and maintenance.

Generally speaking, SONET performs at very high speeds. At the base signalling level called "STS-1," SONET supports 51.84 Mbps. The next level of SONET signalling, STS-3, supports triple the bandwidth, or 155.52 Mbps. Higher levels of SONET signalling increase the bandwidth in successive multiples of four, up to approximately 40 Gbps! The speed and cost of SONET make the technology competitive with alternatives like ATM and Gigabit Ethernet. Also Known As: Synchronous Optical NETwork

SDSL
Definition: SDSL is a form of Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) service that provides equal bandwidth for both uploads and downloads. Originally developed in Europe, SDSL was one of the earliest forms of DSL to not require multiple telephone lines. SDSL possesses all of the common characteristics of DSL, including an "always on" combination of voice and data services, availability limited by physical distance, and high speed access compared to analog modems. SDSL supports data rates up to 3,088 Kbps. Also Known As: Symmetric Digital Subscriber Line, Single-line DSL

segment
Definition: A segment is a specially-configured subset of a larger network. The boundaries of a network segment are established by devices capable of regulating the flow of packets into and out of the segment, including routers, switches, hubs, bridges, or multi-homed gateways (but not simple repeaters). Network designers create segments to physically separate related computers into groups. This grouping can improve network performance and security. In Ethernet networks, for example, computers send many broadcast packets onto the network, but only other computers on the same segment receive them. Network segments and subnets serve similar purposes; both create a grouping of computers. The difference between a segment and a subnet is as follows: a segment is a physical network construction, whereas a subnet is simply a higher-level software configuration. In particular, one cannot define a single IP subnet that functions correctly across multiple segments. Also Known As: network segment

serial port
Definition: In computer networking, a serial port enables external modems to connect to a PC or network router via a serial cable. The term "serial" signifies that data sent in one direction always travels over a single wire within the cable. The prevailing standard for traditional serial port communications historically has been RS-232. These serial ports and cables are the same used for PC keyboards and other computer peripheral devices (see sidebar). Serial ports and cables for RS-232 PCs generally feature 9-pin DE-9 connectors, although 25pin DB-25 and other variations exist on specialized hardware. The alternative RS-422 standard applies on many Macintosh computers. Both of these standards are gradually becoming obsolete in favor of USB or FireWire standard ports and serial communication. Also Known As: COM port

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server
Definition: A network server is a computer designed to process requests and deliver data to other (client) computers over a local network or the Internet. Network servers typically are configured with additional processing, memory and storage capacity to handle the load of servicing clients. Common types of network servers include:

Web servers proxy servers FTP servers online game servers

Numerous systems use this client / server networking model including Web sites and email services. An alternative model, peer-to-peer networking enables all computers to act as either a server or client as needed.

SHDSL
Definition: SHDSL technology can transport data symmetrically at data rates from 192 Kbps to 2,320 Kbps. SHDSL utilizes a single copper wire pair, making it an affordable DSL option attractive to small businesses. Also Known As: Symmetric High-Bit-Rate Digital Subscriber Loop, G.shdsl

SIP - Session Initiation Protocol


Definition: SIP - Session Initiation Protocol - is a network communications protocol commonly employed for Voice over IP (VoIP) signaling. In VoIP networking, SIP is an alternative approach to signaling using the H.323 protocol standards. SIP is designed to support the calling features of traditional telephone systems. However, unlike the traditional SS7 technology for telephone signaling, SIP is a peer-to-peer protocol. SIP is also a generalpurpose protocol for multimedia communications not limited to voice applications.

SMB
Definition: SMB is a network file sharing protocol. Communication over SMB occurs mainly through a series of client requests and server responses. SMB client and server software exists within nearly all versions of Microsoft Windows. File sharing systems using SMB, such as LAN Manager for UNIX, have also been produced for many non-Windows operating environments SMB runs at a higher level on top of other network protocols such as TCP/IP, NetBEUI, or IPX. A new version of SMB, Common Internet File System or CIFS, has been developed by Microsoft for "open" use on the Internet. Also Known As: Server Message Block, Session Message Block, CIFS

sniffer
Definition: Sniffers monitor network data. A sniffer can be a self-contained software program or a hardware device with the appropriate software or firmware programming. Sniffers usually act as network probes or "snoops." They examine network traffic, making a copy of the data without redirecting or altering it. Some sniffers work only with TCP/IP packets, but the more sophisticated tools can work with many other protocols and at lower levels including Ethernet frames. Years ago, sniffers were tools used exclusively by network engineers. Today, however, these utilities have become popular on the Internet with hackers and the merely curious. The U.S. Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) has utilized a famous sniffer system called "Carnivore" to help detect illegal Internet communications. Also Known As: network monitor 75

SNMP
Definition: SNMP is a standard TCP/IP protocol for network management. Network administrators use SNMP to monitor and map network availability, performance, and error rates. To work with SNMP, network devices utilize a distributed data store called the Management Information Base (MIB). All SNMP compliant devices contain a MIB which supplies the pertitent attributes of a device. Some attributes are fixed or "hard coded" in the MIB while others are dynamic values calculated by agent software running on the device. Enterprise network management software, such as Tivoli and HP OpenView, uses SNMP commands to read and write data in each device MIB. "Get" commands typically retrieve data values, while "Set" commands typically initiate some action on the device. For example, "system reboot" command are often implemented by defining a particular MIB attribute and issuing an SNMP Set from the manager software to write a "reboot" value into that attribute. Developed in the 1980s, the original version of SNMP, SNMPv1, lacked some important functionality and only worked with TCP/IP networks. An improved specification for SNMP, SNMPv2, was developed in 1992. SNMP suffers from various flaws of its own, so many networks remained on the SNMPv1 standard while others adopted SNMPv2. More recently, the SNMPv3 specification was completed in an attempt to address the problems with SNMPv1 and SNMPv2 and allow administrators to move to one common SNMP standard. Also Known As: Simple Network Management Protocol

socket
Definition: A socket represents a single connection between two network applications. These two applications nominally run on different computers, but sockets can also be used for interprocess communication on a single computer. Applications can create multiple sockets for communicating with each other. Sockets are bidirectional, meaning that either side of the connection is capable of both sending and receiving data. Programmers often use sockets in network programming, albeit indirectly. Programming libraries like Winsock hide many of the low-level details of socket programming. Sockets have been in widespread use since the early 1980s. Also Known As: software object

spanning tree
Definition: Spanning trees are a standard technique used in local area network (LAN) switching. Spanning tree algorithms were developed to prevent redundant transmission of data along intermediate hops between a source and destination host on a mesh network topology. Without spanning trees, a mesh network can be flooded and rendered unusable by messages circulating in an infinite loop between hosts. The primary Spanning Tree Protocol (STP) is IEEE standard 802.1D, an algorithm commonly used on Ethernet networks. This algorithm works by limiting the paths messages can travel at any given time to a fully connected tree rather than a mesh. As hosts join and leave the network, this protocol dynamically updates the tree accordingly. A variant of STP called Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol (RSTP) is also now part of the IEEE standard and is the recommended version for use today. RSTP improves the performance of spanning tree updates when the network configuration changes.

SS7 - Signaling System 7


Definition: SS7 supports the exchange of special-purpose messages on public telephone networks. For example, using SS7, telephone companies can implement modern consumer telephone services such as call forwarding. 76

SS7 messages pass over a separate channel than that used for voice communication. This technique is commonly referred to as "out of band" signaling. Out-of-band communication techniques like those in SS7 are commonly utilized in computer networking. The File Transfer Protocol (FTP), for example, communicates out-of-band by utilizing two different channels and TCP port numbers, one for data traffic and one for "control" information. Also Known As: Signaling System 7

SSH
Definition: SSH is a remote login technology useful for making command line connections between two computers. Common applications of SSH include file transfer and network system administration. Several different SSH packages are available for Windows, Linux and other operating systems. SSH offers improved security over older Unix-oriented utilities such as rlogin or telnet. As a network protocol, SSH also provides secure tunneling facilities that can be used to create a type of Virtual Private Network (VPN).

SSID - Service Set Identifier


Definition: An SSID is the name of a wireless local area network (WLAN). All wireless devices on a WLAN must employ the same SSID in order to communicate with each other. The SSID on wireless clients can be set either manually, by entering the SSID into the client network settings, or automatically, by leaving the SSID unspecified or blank. A network administrator often uses a public SSID, that is set on the access point and broadcast to all wireless devices in range. Some newer wireless access points disable the automatic SSID broadcast feature in an attempt to improve network security. SSIDs are case sensitive text strings. The SSID is a sequence of alphanumeric characters (letters or numbers). SSIDs have a maximum length of 32 characters. Also Known As: Service Set Identifier, Network Name Examples: Wardrivers sometimes scan for the SSIDs being broadcast by wireless LANs, then set that SSID on their client to attempt to join that WLAN. Knowing the SSID name does not necessarily mean that rogue clients will be able to join the network. It depends on how the network administrator has configured their WLAN, particularly WEP security.

SSL - Secure Sockets Layer


Definition: SSL security technology helps to improve the safety of Internet communications. SSL is a standard for encrypted client/server communication between network devices. A network protocol, SSL runs on top of TCP/IP. SSL utilizes several standard network security techniques including public keys, symmetric keys, and certificates. Web sites commonly use SSL to guard private information such as credit card numbers. Also Known As: Secure Sockets Layer

subnet
Definition: A subnet is a logical grouping of connected network devices. Nodes on a subnet tend to be located in close physical proximity to each other on a LAN. Network designers employ subnets as a way to partition networks into logical segments for greater ease of administration. When subnets are properly implemented, both the performance and security of networks can be improved. In IP networking, devices on a subnet share contiguous ranges of IP address numbers. A mask (known as the subnet mask or network mask) defines the boundaries of an IP subnet. The correspondence between 77

subnet masks and IP address ranges follows defined mathematical formulas. IT professionals use subnet calculators to map between masks and addresses. Also Known As: subnetwork

switch (network switch)


Definition: A network switch is a small hardware device that joins multiple computers together within one local area network (LAN). Technically, network switches operate at layer two (Data Link Layer) of the OSI model. Network switches appear nearly identical to network hubs, but a switch generally contains more "intelligence" (and a slightly higher price tag) than a hub. Unlike hubs, network switches are capable of inspecting data packets as they are received, determining the source and destination device of that packet, and forwarding it appropriately. By delivering each message only to the connected device it was intended for, a network switch conserves network bandwidth and offers generally better performance than a hub. As with hubs, Ethernet implementations of network switches are the most common. Mainstream Ethernet network switches support either 10 Mbps, 100 Mbps, or 10/100 Mbps Ethernet standards. Different models of network switches support differing numbers of connected devices. Most consumergrade network switches provide either four or eight connections for Ethernet devices. Switches can be connected to each other. Such "daisy chaining" allows progressively larger number of devices to join the same LAN.

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TCP/IP - Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol


Definition: Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and Internet Protocol (IP) are two distinct network protocols, technically speaking. TCP and IP are so commonly used together, however, that TCP/IP has become standard terminology to refer to either or both of the protocols. IP corresponds to the Network layer (Layer 3) in the OSI model, whereas TCP corresponds to the Transport layer (Layer 4) in OSI. In other words, the term TCP/IP refers to network communications where the TCP transport is used to deliver data across IP networks. The average person on the Internet works in a predominately TCP/IP environment. Web browsers, for example, use TCP/IP to communicate with Web servers. Also Known As: Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol

telephony
Definition: The term telephony refers to the technology behind voice communications (typically, telephone networks). Telephony ordinarily involves analog electrical signaling over copper wire. Newer IP telephony technology converts analog voice into digital data packets to support telecommunication over Internet Protocol networks. So-caled "voice over IP" (VoIP) solutions today support IP telephony. The deployment of Internet telephony allows both voice and data to share the same networks. The telecommunications industry is moving toward this "convergence" for largely financial reasons. However, traditional telephone networks are extremely reliable, and IP telephony must first achieve a similiar level of capability before it can completely replace older telephony systems.

Torrents
Definition: In peer-to-peer networking, Bit Torrents are small text files. A torrent contains the location of data files that can be download from the Bit Torrent peer to peer network. The torrent file also contains some identifying information about P2P files. Torrent files can be found on numerous Web sites. Bit Torrents can be loaded into the BitTorrent P2P client to initiate the actual download. When saved on a computer they also serve as bookmarks to available files, for future reference. The Bit Torrent P2P network has become extremely popular for sharing television and movie video files. Torrents makes it possible to search for these very large files while using minimal network bandwidth. Torrents conserve bandwidth on the Bit Torrent network for the actual file swapping itself.

Traceroute
Definition: Traceroute is a utility program that monitors the network path of test data sent to a remote computer. On Unix and Linux computers, the "traceroute" application is available in the shell, while on Windows computers, the "tracert" program can be accessed from DOS. Traceroute programs take the name or IP address of a remote computer on the command line. When run, traceroute sends a series test messages over the network (using ICMP) to each intermediate router progressing until the last message finally reaches its destination. When finished, traceroute displays the ordered list of routers that represent the path from that computer to the destination.

trojan
Definition: Named after the Trojan Horse of ancient Greek history, a trojan is a network software application designed to remain hidden on an installed computer. Trojans generally serve maliciious purposes and are therefore a form of malware, like viruses. Trojans sometimes, for example, access personal information stored locally on home or business computers, then send these data to a remote party via the Internet. Alternatively, trojans may serve merely 79

as a "backdoor" application, opening network ports to allow other network applications access to that computer. Trojans are also capable of launching Denial of Service (DoS) attacks. A combination of firewalls and antivirus software protect networks against trojans. Trojans are similiar to worms. In contrast to worms and viruses, however, trojans do not replicate themselves or seek to infect other systems once installed on a computer. Also Known As: malware

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UDP
Definition: UDP is a lightweight transport built on top of IP. UDP squeezes extra performance from IP by not implementing some of the features a more heavyweight protocol like TCP offers. Specifically, UDP allows individual packets to be dropped (with no retries) and UDP packets to be received in a different order than they were sent. UDP is often used in videoconferencing applications or games where optimal performance is preferred over guaranteed message delivery. UDP is one of the oldest network protocols, introduced in 1980 in RFC document 768. Also Known As: User Datagram Protocol

UNC
Definition: UNC provides a naming convention for identifying network resources. UNC names consist of three parts, a server name, a share name, and an optional file path, that are combined using backslashes as follows \\server\share\file_path The server portion of a UNC path refers to names maintained by a network naming service such as DNS or WINS. Share names can be defined by a system administrator or, in some cases, exist automatically within the local operating system. For example, in Windows 2000 and earlier versions of Windows, the built-in share name admin$ refers to the root directory of the operating system installation (usually C:\WINNT or C:\WINDOWS). (Predefined share names in Windows generally end with a $, but this convention is not required for any new shares an administrator defines.) Using Windows Explorer or the DOS command prompt, a person can map to the \\computername\admin$ UNC share and (with proper security credentials) can remotely access the directory tree under C:\WINNT or equivalent on that computer. A person can also connect to subdirectories beneath admin$ by specifying the optional portion of the UNC name. For example, \\computer-name\admin$\system32 is the UNC name referring to C:\WINNT\system32 or equivalent on that computer. UNC notation is used primarily for mapping network drives in the Microsoft Windows family of operating systems, although support for UNC appears in related technologies like Samba. UNC names are most commonly used to reach file servers or printers on a LAN. Also Known As: Universal Naming Convention, Uniform Naming Convention

UPnP - Universal Plug and Play


Definition: UPnP is a technology framework for simplifying the connection of network devices. The UPnP Forum is an industry body coordinating activities related to UPnP standardization and adoption. UPnP is based on Internet Protocol (IP) addressing and Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP). UPnP does not require any particular type of network connection; it works with Ethernet, Wi-Fi, Bluetooth and other physical media. UPnP also is designed to work across many different types of network devices and operating systems. Many home network routers offer UPnP support. UPnP is not related to the older "Plug and Play" industry initatives for connecting periperhal devices to PCs.

URI
Definition: A URI is a standard global identifier for an Internet resource that may be local or remotelyaccessible. URIs follow the same general syntax as URLs; in fact, URLs are one type of URI. 81

Whereas URLs always refer to network addresses (including a protocol specification, host name or address, and local path), a URI does not necessarily refer to a remote resource. For example, the URI file:///c:/ specifies a local directory. Because file does not refer to any specific network protocol, this URI is not also a URL. Also Known As: Uniform Resource Identifier

URL
Definition: A URL is a specially-formatted text string that defines a location on the Internet. URL strings contain three parts or substrings: 1. network protocol 2. host name or address 3. file location The network protocol substring determines the underlying Internet protocol to be used in reaching the location. These strings consist of a standard protocol name followed by the :// characters. Typical protocols found in URLs include http://, ftp://, and mailto://. The host substring immediately follows the protocol defintion. Hosts may be defined by Internet-standard naming (DNS) or by IP address. For example, a URL of of http://compnetworking.about.com or, equivalently, http://209.143.212.20 contains the protocol and host information needed to access this Web site. The file location portion of a URL defines the location of a network resource. Resources are files that can be plain text files, documents, graphics, or programs, and resource names are relative to a local root directory. Technically, a URL like http://compnetworking.about.com contains an implied file location of /, that Web servers like Apache automatically translate to a specific file name like index.htm. All other specific files exist in a hierarchy or directory tree underneath the root, such as the following: RELATIVE FILE LOCATION /library/glossary/blglossary.htm COMPLETE URL http://compnetworking.about.com/library/glossary/blglossary.htm When creating HTML pages, the author can choose to use either the relative file locations or complete URLs. A user of the Internet generally works with complete URLs. Also Known As: Uniform Resource Locator

USB - Universal Serial Bus


Definition: USB is a high-performance networking standard based on a serial bus architecture. Most new computers and associated periperhal devices like printers and scanners support USB. USB hubs for file and printer sharing also exist. To build a USB network, one connects special USB cables to the USB ports on those devices. USB is "plug and play" compatible; the operating system USB driver software automatically detects and configures connections. One USB network supports up to 127 devices. The first commercial incarnations of USB - USB 1.0 and USB 1.1 - supported a maximum data rate of 12 Mbps. The current version - USB 2.0 - supports a much faster rate of 480 Mbps. USB 2.0 competes with FireWire as the most advanced computer peripheral networking standard. 82

As an alternative to local area networking with USB, a USB key can be used instead to transfer files between devices. You can manually copy files from one computer onto a USB key (also known as a memory stick), then physically carry the stick to a different computer and copy the files onto that device. Also Known As: Universal Serial Bus Examples: All popular home or small office printers support USB connections to a computer. This same USB connection can support a USB hub and linking of more than just two devices.

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VDSL
Definition: VDSL was developed to support exceptionally high-bandwidth applications such as HighDefinition Television (HDTV). VDSL is not as widely deployed as other forms of DSL service. However, VDSL can achieve data rates up to approximately 51,840 Kbps, making it the fastest available form of DSL. To perform at this speed, VDSL relies on fiber optic cabling. VDSL is designed to work more as a business service that uses ATM internetworking rather than as a consumer service that utilizes IP. VDSL supports both voice and data communication on the same line, like other forms of DSL. Also like most DSL technology, the performance of VDSL depends significantly on the physical distance traversed by wires: Shorter distances mean faster networking. The technology was originally named VADSL ('A' for asymmetric), but VDSL has now been improved and can operate in either symmetric and asymmetric modes. Also Known As: Very-high-speed Digital Subscriber Line, VADSL, BDSL

virus
Definition: In computer technology, viruses are malicious software programs, a form of malware. By definition, viruses exist on local disk drives and spread from one computer to another through sharing of "infected" files. Common methods for spreading viruses include floppy disks, FTP file transfers, and copying files between shared network drives. Once installed on a computer, a virus may modify or remove application and system files. Some viruses render a computer inoperable; others merely display startling screen messages to unsuspecting users. Advanced antivirus software programs exist to combat viruses. By definition, antivirus software examines the contents of local hard drives to identify patterns of data called "signatures" that match known viruses. As new viruses are built, antivirus software manufacturers update their signature definitions to match, then deliver these definitions to users via network downloads. Also Known As: malware

VNC
Definition: VNC is a technology for remote desktop sharing. VNC enables the desktop display of one computer to be remotely viewed and controlled over a network connection. This technology is useful on home computers, allowing someone to access their desktops from another part of the house or while traveling. It is also useful for network administrators in business environments. VNC was created as an open source research project in the late 1990s. Since that time, several mainstream remote desktop solutions have been created based on VNC. The original development team produces the RealVNC package (see sidebar). Other popular derivatives include UltraVNC and TightVNC. VNC works similarly to the Remote Desktop appplication built into newer versions of Microsoft Windows. Unlike Windows Remote Desktop, VNC runs on older Windows computers, Linux/Unix and other non-Windows operating systems. VNC applications, however, are generally regarded as slower and offering fewer features and security options than Windows Remote Desktop. Also Known As: Virtual Network Computing

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VoIP - Voice over Internet Protocol


Definition: VoIP is a technology that allows telephone calls to be made over computer networks like the Internet. VoIP converts analog voice signals into digital data packets and supports real-time, two-way transmission of conversations using Internet Protocol (IP). VoIP calls can be made on the Internet using a VoIP service provider and standard computer audio systems. Alternatively, some service providers support VoIP through ordinary telephones that use special adapters to connect to a home computer network. Many VoIP implementations are based on the H.323 technology standard. VoIP offers a substantial cost savings over traditional long distance telephone calls. The main disadvantage of VoIP is, like cell phones, a greater potential for dropped calls and generally lesser voice quality. Also Known As: Voice over Internet Protocol (IP) Common Misspellings: Voice over Internet Protocal

VPN - Virtual Private Network


Definition: A VPN utilizes public telecommunications networks to conduct private data communications. Most VPN implementations use the Internet as the public infrastructure and a variety of specialized protocols to support private communications through the Internet. VPN follows a client and server approach. VPN clients authenticate users, encrypt data, and otherwise manage sessions with VPN servers utilizing a technique called tunneling. VPN clients and VPN servers are typically used in these three scenarios: 1. to support remote access to an intranet, 2. to support connections between multiple intranets within the same organization, and 3. to join networks between two organizations, forming an extranet. The main benefit of a VPN is the lower cost needed to support this technology compared to alternatives like traditional leased lines or remote access servers. VPN users typically interact with simple graphical client programs. These applications support creating tunnels, setting configuration parameters, and connecting to and disconnecting from the VPN server. VPN solutions utilize several different network protocols including PPTP, L2TP, IPsec, and SOCKS. VPN servers can also connect directly to other VPN servers. A VPN server-to-server connection extends the intranet or extranet to span multiple networks. Many vendors have developed VPN hardware and software products. Some of these do not interoperate due to the immaturity of some VPN standards. Also Known As: virtual private network

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WAN - Wide Area Network


Definition: A WAN spans a large geographic area, such as a state, province or country. WANs often connect multiple smaller networks, such as local area networks (LANs) or metro area networks (MANs). The world's most popular WAN is the Internet. Some segments of the Internet, like VPN-based extranets, are also WANs in themselves. Finally, many WANs are corporate or research networks that utilize leased lines. WANs generally utilize different and much more expensive networking equipment than do LANs. Key technologies often found in WANs include SONET, Frame Relay, and ATM. Also Known As: wide area network

WAP - Wireless Access Points and Wireless Application Protocol


Definition: WAP - the Wireless Application Protocol - defines a network architecture for content delivery over wireless networks. Central to the design of WAP is a network stack based on the OSI model. WAP implements several new networking protocols that perform functions similar to the well-known Web protocols HTTP, TCP, and SSL. WAP includes the concepts of browsers, servers, URLs, and gateways. WAP browsers are intended to be implemented on small mobile devices such as cell phones, pagers, and PDAs. Instead of developing content in HTML and JavaScript, WAP developers use WML and WMLScript. Many WAP-enabled devices exist today, although their capability is generally limited to news feeds, stock quotes, and similar basic applications. WAP is in the early stages of development relative to other networking technologies, and its future viability remains unclear. The term "WAP" also is used to refer to wireless access points. Also Known As: Wireless Application Protocol, wireless access point

wardriving - war driving


Definition: Wardriving is the practice of searching for wireless LAN (WLAN) signals within a geographic area. Peter Shipley coined this term. He pioneered the practice of using an automobile, a Global Positioning System, and a mounted antenna to identify unsecured WLANs in neighborhoods. Some computer hackers are content to simply map any open, unsecured WLANs they find. Others have adopted the practice of warchalking, tagging nearby pavement to allow others to tap in and steal bandwidth from those hotspots. Wardriving is a controversial practice, but it has helped raise awareness of the importance of WLAN security. For example, many home networkers now configure Wireless Encryption Privacy (WEP) on their WLANs to block public access by wardrivers. Alternate Spellings: war driving

WEP - Wired Equivalent Privacy


Definition: WEP is a protocol that adds security to wireless local area networks (WLANs) based on the 802.11 Wi-Fi standard. WEP is an OSI Data Link layer (Layer 2) security technology that can be turned "on" or "off." WEP was designed to give wireless networks the equivalent level of privacy protection as a comparable wired network. WEP is based on a security scheme called RC4 that utilizes a combination of secret user keys and systemgenerated values. The original implementations of WEP supported so-called 40-bit encryption, having a key of length 40 bits and 24 additional bits of system-generated data (64 bits total). Research has shown that 40-bit WEP encryption is too easy to decode, and consequently product vendors today employ 12886

bit encryption (having a key length of 104 bits, not 128 bits) or better (including 152-bit and 256-bit WEP systems). When communicating over the wire, wireless network equipment uses WEP keys to encrypt the data stream. he keys themselves are not sent over the network but rather are generally stored on the wireless adapter or in the Windows Registry. Regardless of how it is implemented on a wireless LAN, WEP represents just one element of an overall WLAN security strategy. Also Known As: Wired Equivalent Privacy

WHOIS
Definition: WHOIS is a network protocol and client/server system used on the Internet to look up the names, IP addresses and owners of server computers. Several Web sites allow you to search the WHOIS database for information about Internet servers. Depending on the type of search, you will need to choose a site appropriately. The following Internet organizations offer official WHOIS lookup support:

arin.net for searching North American IP addresses InterNic and Uwhois for searches by domain name lacnic.net for other searches involving Latin American / Caribbean servers ripe.net for other searches involving European servers apnic.net for other searches involving Asia servers

Unix based computers also include a built-in whois command line client that provides the same information as Web site searches. No equivalent client ships with Microsoft Windows or Macintosh computers. However, you may prefer to download and use any of the various free command line or graphical (GUI) 'whois' clients available for free on the Internet.

Wi-Fi - Wireless Fidelity


Definition: Wi-Fi is the industry name for wireless LAN (WLAN) communication technology related to the IEEE 802.11 family of wireless networking standards. To some, the term Wi-Fi is synonymous with 802.11b, as 802.11b was the first standard in that family to enjoy widespread popularity. Today, however, Wi-Fi can refer to any of the established standards: 802.11a, 802.11b, 802.11g and 802.11n. The Wi-Fi Alliance (see sidebar) certifies vendor products to ensure 802.11 products on the market follow the various 802.11 specifications. Unfortunately, 802.11a is not compatible with 802.11b/g, so the Wi-Fi market remains somewhat fragmented. Also Known As: wireless fidelity

WiMax
Definition: WiMax is the industry term for a long-range wireless networking standard. WiMax technology has the potential to deliver high-speed Internet access to rural areas and other locations not serviced by cable or DSL technology. WiMax also offers an alternative to satellite Internet services. WiMax technology is based on the IEEE 802.16 WAN communications standard. WiMax signals can function over a distance of several miles / kilometers. Data rates for WiMax can reach up to 75 megabits per second (Mb/s). A number of wireless signaling options exist ranging anywhere from the 2 GHz range up to 66 GHz. 87

WiMax equipment exists in two forms. WiMax base stations are installed by service providers to deploy the technology in a coverage area. WiMax antennas must be installed at the home or other receiving location. As WiMax evolves, these antennas will change from being mounted outdoors, to smaller varieties set up indoors, and then finally to built-in versions integrated inside mobile computers. Similar to other types of Internet access, consumers will subscribe and pay a recurring fee to connect to the Internet via WiMax. WiMax is developed by an industry consortium, overseen by a group called the WiMax Forum. The WiMax Forum certifies WiMax equipment to ensure it meets the technology standards. WiMax is not a replacement for Wi-Fi hotspot and home networking technologies primarily for cost reasons. Also Known As: Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access

WINS - Windows Internet Naming Service


Definition: The Windows Internet Naming Service (WINS) supports name resolution, the automated conversion of computer names to network addresses, for Windows networks. Specifically, WINS converts NetBIOS names to IP addresses on a LAN or WAN. Like DNS, the Windows Internet Naming Service employs a distributed client/server system to maintain the mapping of computer names to addresses. Windows clients can be configured to use primary and secondary WINS servers that dynamically update name/address pairings as computers join and leave the network. The dynamic behavior of WINS means that it also supports networks using DHCP. Also Known As: Windows Internet Naming Service

WinSock - Windows Sockets


Definition: WinSock is the standard sockets programming API for the Windows operating system. WinSock has been the standard sockets library shipped with all versions of Windows starting with Windows 95. WinSock was created to allow different Microsoft Windows TCP/IP software applications to communicate. WinSock borrowed and expanded on the concept of sockets and socket programming first made popular on Unix computer systems in the 1980s. WinSock most closely matches the Berkeley implementation of Unix sockets. Two major versions of WinSock exist for Windows. All implementations of WinSock are packaged in a single Windows dynamic-link library (DLL). The current version of Windows WinSock, version 2.2, is contained in the WS2_32.DLL library. Older Winsock version 1 libraries are named either WINSOCK.DLL or WSOCK32.DLL. Newer releases of Windows WinSock have retained backward compatibility with the older WinSock versions. Also Known As: Windows Sockets

WISP - Wireless Internet Service Provider


Definition: A WISP offers public wireless network services. WISPs typically install Wi-Fi wireless hotspots in airports, hotels and other public businessplaces. These hotspots provide Internet access and local area network (LAN) printing for mobile network devices like laptops, handheld computer and cell phones. To use a WISP, a person must subscribe to their wireless service. Some WISPs offer free Internet service, but many others charge fees and/or require service contracts. When choosing a WISP, a person should ensure the provider's equipment and software is compatible with their own gear. WISPs also vary in the speed and security features they offer. Also Known As: Wireless Internet Service Provider

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WLAN
Definition: WLANs provide wireless network communication over short distances using radio or infrared signals instead of traditional network cabling. A WLAN typically extends an existing wired local area network. WLANs are built by attaching a device called the access point (AP) to the edge of the wired network. Clients communicate with the AP using a wireless network adapter similar in function to a traditional Ethernet adapter. Network security remains an important issue for WLANs. Random wireless clients must usually be prohibited from joining the WLAN. Technologies like WEP raise the level of security on wireless networks to rival that of traditional wired networks. Also Known As: wireless LAN Examples: For WLANs that connect to the Internet, Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) technology allows Web content to be more easily downloaded to a WLAN and rendered on wireless clients like cell phones and PDAs.

WML - Wireless Markup Language


Definition: WML is a tag-based markup language designed after the model of HTML for Web content. The designers of WML (and its companion scripting language, WMLScript) created an environment that demands less memory and processing power from browsers than HTML and JavaScript. WML also includes features that tailor it for the relatively small display sizes of today's wireless devices. WML and HTML differ in significant ways. Although WML strips some features from HTML and coopts others, WML also incorporates some powerful programming constructs not found in HTML like variables, tasks, and events. WML implements a stricter tag syntax than HTML and includes a DTD for use with XML parsers. Also Known As: Wireless Markup Language

WoL - Wake-on-LAN
Definition: Wake-on-LAN (WoL) is a network technology that allows you to power on a computer remotely. This feature was originally designed for use by professional administrators of local area networks (LANs), but it can be set up to work with any modern PC. Using Wake-on-LAN Wake-on-LAN is employed when needing to establish a network connection with a computer that has been shut off. One computer initiates a WoL request to another that involves sending specially-formatted messages. The messages identify the target computer by its MAC address and associated IP address. Although the PC is in a powered off state, internally its network adapter is maintained with sufficient power from the PC motherboard to service Wake-on-LAN requests. Wake-on-LAN Requirements A computer capable of being powered on via Wake-on-LAN must be connected to the network via Ethernet. Computers connected via Wi-Fi or other methods cannot be activated using this feature. Any computer (whether connected by Ethernet, Wi-Fi or other link) can initiate a Wake-on-LAN request. However, initiating such requests often requires specific application software. Business network administrators typically use an enterprise software program having this option. Standalone Wake-on-LAN software utilities designed for individual use are also available for free download on the Internet. To receive Wake-on-LAN requests requires not only an Ethernet connection and reachable IP address but often also special configuration of the computer's BIOS and operating system. In Microsoft Windows, for example, an Ethernet adapter's Properties page normally contains Power Management options including enabling (or disabling) of WoL. 89

In Microsoft Windows, after a computer is powered on via Wake-on-LAN, it will normally (by design) return to a powered down state after two minutes of network inactivity.

workgroup
Definition: In computer networking, a workgroup is a collection of computers on a local area network (LAN) that share common resources and responsibilities. Workgroups provide easy sharing of files, printers and other network resources. Being a peer-to-peer (P2P) network design, each workgroup computer may both share and access resources if configured to do so. The Microsoft Windows family of operating systems supports assigning of computers to named workgroups. Macintosh networks offer a similiar capability through the use of AppleTalk zones. The Open Source software package Samba allows Unix and Linux systems to join existing Windows workgroups. Workgroups are designed for small LANs in homes, schools, and small businesses. A Windows Workgroup, for example, functions best with 15 or fewer computers. As the number of computers in a workgroup grows, workgroup LANs eventually become too difficult to administer and should be replaced with alternative solutions like domains or other client/server approaches.

worm - computer worm


Definition: Computer worms are malicious software applications designed to spread via computer networks. Computer worms are one form of malware along with viruses and trojans. A person typically installs worms by inadvertently opening an email attachment or message that contains executable scripts. Once installed on a computer, worms spontaneously generate additional email messages contaning copies of the worm. They may also open TCP ports to create networks security holes for other applications, and they may attempt to "flood" the LAN with spurious Denial of Service (DoS) data transmissions. Being embedded inside everyday network software, computer worms easily penetrate most firewalls and other network security measures. Antivirus software applications attempt to combat worms as well as viruses. Also Known As: malware

WPA - Wi-Fi Protected Access


Definition: WPA is a security technology for wireless networks. WPA improves on the authentication and encryption features of WEP (Wired Equivalent Privacy). In fact, WPA was developed by the networking industry in response to the shortcomings of WEP. One of the key technologies behind WPA is the Temporal Key Integrity Protocol (TKIP). TKIP addresses the encryption weaknesses of WEP. Another key component of WPA is built-in authentication that WEP does not offer. With this feature, WPA provides roughly comparable security to VPN tunneling with WEP, with the benefit of easier administration and use. One variation of WPA is called WPA Pre Shared Key or WPA-PSK for short. WPA-PSK is a simplified but still powerful form of WPA most suitable for home Wi-Fi networking. To use WPA-PSK, a person sets a static key or "passphrase" as with WEP. But, using TKIP, WPA-PSK automatically changes the keys at a preset time interval, making it much more difficult for hackers to find and exploit them. Also Known As: Wi-Fi Protected Access

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WWW - World Wide Web


Definition: The term WWW refers to the World Wide Web or simply the Web. The World Wide Web consists of all the public Web sites connected to the Internet worldwide, including the client devices (such as computers and cell phones) that access Web content. The WWW is just one of many applications of the Internet and computer networks. The World Web is based on these technologies:

HTML - Hypertext Markup Language HTTP - Hypertext Transfer Protocol Web servers and Web browsers

Researcher Tim Berners-Lee led the development of the original World Wide Web in the late 1980s and early 1990s. He helped build prototypes of the above Web technologies and coined the term WWW. Web sites and Web browsing exploded in popularity during the mid-1990s. Also Known As: World Wide Web, The Web

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X.25
Definition: X.25 is a standard suite of protocols used for packet switching across computer networks. The X.25 protocols works at the physical, data link, and network layers (Layers 1 to 3) of the OSI model. Each X.25 packets contains up to 128 bytes of data. The X.25 network handles packet assembly at the source device, delivery, and then disassembly at the destination. X.25 packet delivery technology includes not only switching and network-layer routing, but also error checking and re-transmission logic should delivery failures occur. X.25 supports multiple simultaneous conversations by multiplexing packets and using virtual communication channels. X.25 was originally designed more than 25 years ago to carry voice over analog telephone lines (dialup networks). Typical applications of X.25 today include automatic teller machine networks and credit card verification networks. X.25 also supports a variety of mainframe terminal/server applications. With the widespread acceptance of Internet Protocol (IP) as a standard for corporate networks, many X.25 applications are now being migrated to cheaper solutions using IP as the network layer protocol and replacing the lower layers of X.25 with Ethernet or ATM hardware.

Xbox
Definition: The Xbox is a modern video game console system produced by Microsoft. Xbox supports traditional single-player and multiplayer gaming using Compact Disc (CD) games and handheld controllers. The Xbox also supports true Ethernet networking to home LANs and the Internet for expanded multiplayer gaming choices. Xbox consoles are the first video game system to feature a built-in Ethernet port. Two Xboxes can be networked directly using a System Link Cable (that is simply an Ethernet crossover cable). Alternatively, multiple Xboxes can be connected to the hub, switch, or router of a home network using regular Ethernet cables. The Xbox also supports wireless home networking with a Xbox Wireless Adapter that connects to its Ethernet port and communicates with wireless base stations. To play Xbox games over the Internet, you must subscribe to the Xbox Live service. Not all Xbox games are available on Xbox Live. Likewise, only games that support the System Link feature can be played across two direct-connected Xboxes.

XML-RPC
Definition: XML-RPC is a network programming technique for making remote procedure calls (RPC) to software running on remote devices. XML-RPC uses XML coding for calls and sends messages using the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP). Developers commonly use XML-RPC to develop Web services. Reusable XML-RPC libraries are widely available for Windows, Java, modern scripting languages like Perl and Python, and other enviroments. Because XML-RPC uses HTTP, these XML-RPC libraries function in firewall or proxied environments. XML-RPC serves a similar function to Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP), that supports remote object method invocations using XML over HTTP. Alternate Spellings: xmlrpc

ZoneAlarm - ZoneAlarm Pro


Definition: ZoneAlarm is a popular network security software utility created by Zone Labs. ZoneAlarm is a free download, and ZoneAlarm Pro is an enhanced version with a low purchase price. Primarily, ZoneAlarm / Pro acts as a firewall when installed on a LAN. It can filter incoming packets or outgoing requests on a per-port basis. 92

ZoneAlarm also supports higher-level features that ordinary firewalls do not. For example, ZoneAlarm scans email attachments for viruses, and the Pro version also supports ad blocking, cookie management, and Internet cache management. Also Known As: ZoneAlarm Pro

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