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EU COST C13

FINAL REPORT

GLASS & INTERACTIVE BUILDING ENVELOPES

Research in Architectural Engineering Series Volume 1 ISSN 1873-6033

EU COST C13

FINAL REPORT

GLASS & INTERACTIVE BUILDING ENVELOPES

Edited by Michel Crisinel, Mick Eekhout, Matthias Haldimann, Ronald Visser

IOS PRESS

2007 IOS Press and the authors. All rights reserved All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted, in any form or by any means, without prior permission from the publisher. Published and distributed by IOS Press under the imprint Delft University Press PRINTED IN THE NETHERLANDS Publisher & Distributor IOS Press Nieuwe Hemweg 6b 1013 BG Amsterdam Netherlands fax: +31-20-687 0019 email: info@iospress.nl www.iospress.nl www.dupress.nl Legal Notice The publisher is not responsible for the use which might be made of the following information ISBN 978-1-58603-709-3 Editors Michel Crisinel, Mick Eekhout, Matthias Haldimann, Ronald Visser Review Committee Lambis Baniotopoulos (GR) Jan Belis (BE) Michel Crisinel (CH) Laurent Daudeville (FR) Martina Elisova (CK) Wolfgang Gollner (AT) Matthias Haldimann (CH) Ruth Kasper (DE) Alexander Kott (CH) Ulrich Knaack (DE) Stephen Ledbetter (UK) Andreas Luible (CH) Jrgen Munch-Andersen (DK) Jrgen Neugebauer (AT) Frank Schneider (DE) Jens Schneider (DE) Sini Uuttu (FIN) Frank Wellershoff (DE) Ture Wester (DK)

Contents
Mick Eekhout, Ulrich Knaack, Ronald Visser, Michel Crisinel, Matthias Haldimann Foreword Michel Crisinel Scientific Report 3 5

WORKING GROUP 1 ARCHITECTURE AND DESIGN INTEGRATION


Mick Eekhout Zappi Structures And Constructions In Blob Architecture Michael Wigginton Glass Architecture and the Interactive Building Envelope: Principles and Precedent 19 27

WORKING GROUP 2 QUALITY OF INTERIOR SPACE


Marcelo Blasco Acoustical Performances of Ventilated Double Glass Faades Henk De Bleecker, Marc Zobec, Alberto Franceschet From Energy Rating towards a more Holistic Approach for the Selection of the most Suitable Advanced Faade System Jan Hensen, Martin Bartak, Frantisek Drkal Modeling and Simulation of a Double-Skin Faade System Ale Krainer, iva Kristl Harmonization of Optical and Thermal Behaviour of Buildings Ale Krainer, Joe Peternelj, iva Kristl, Vito Lampret Luminous Efficacy Based on Fuzzy Controlled Roller Blind Positioning A. Simonella, A. Franceschet, H. De Bleecker, M. Zobec Carbon Emissions Calculation for Non-Residential Buildings: Integration of Daylighting Analysis in Dynamic Energy Simulation Software Annemie Wyckmans, yvind Aschehoug, Anne Grete Hestnes Intelligent Building Envelopes Application in the Field of Daylighting 33

41 49 57 67

75 85

WORKING GROUP 3 STRUCTURAL ASPECTS OF GLASS


Fabrice Bernard, Laurent Daudeville Is Prestressing Control Possible for Tempered Glass Structures? Martina Eliov, Sbastien Floury, Frantiek Wald Glass in Contact with Different Inserts Matthias Haldimann Design of Glass Members A Critical Review of the Present Knowledge Alexander Kott, Thomas Vogel Structural Behaviour of Broken Laminated Safety Glass Jrgen Munch-Andersen, Randi Kruse Vestergaard Proposal for a code calibration procedure 95 101 109 123 133

Jrgen Neugebauer To Increase the Residual Bearing Capacity of Glass with a Local Reinforcement Frank Schneider, J.-D. Wrner Inelastic Material Behaviour of Soda-Lime-Silica Glass Jens Schneider Glass Strength in the Borehole Area of Annealed Float Glass and Tempered Float Glass Jan Belis, Rudy Van Impe Buckling-related problems of glass beams Ruth Kasper, Gerhard Sedlacek Stability of Laminated Glass Beams Klaus Kreher Contribution to the Use of Reinforced Glass Loaded on its Strong Axis Andreas Luible, Michel Crisinel Stability of Load Carrying Elements of Glass Peter Hof, Jens Schneider Fastening of Glass Panes with Undercut Anchors FEA and Experimental Investigations Ruth Kasper, Gerhard Sedlacek Point Bearing Elements Research Investigations Jrgen Neugebauer Pre-design of Discretely Supported Glass under Uniform Loading with the Help of Interpolation Frank Wellershoff, Gerhard Sedlacek Glued Joints in Glass Structures Charalambos C. Baniotopoulos, Konstantinos T. Chatzinikos Glass Faades of Mid-rise Steel Buildings under Seismic Excitation Mick Eekhout Design, Engineering, Production & Realisation of Glass Structures for Free-Form Architecture Rudolf Hess Glass Canopy for the Office Center of the DZ Bank in Berlin Wilfried Laufs All-Glass Staircase, Notting Hill, London Hans Schober, Hannes Gerber, Jens Schneider Glass House Badenweiler Olavi Tenhunen, Sini Uuttu, Aki Vuolio Designing Double Glazed Faade Constructions Ture Wester Shaping Glass Plate Structures Philip Wilson Construction Practice in Glass Structures

141 149 157 169 177 189 195 209 215 221 229 239 247 255 265 271 277 287 295

APPENDIX
Working Group 3 Activity Report 303

EU COST C13 Glass and Interactive Building Envelopes. M. Crisinel, et al. (Eds.). IOS Press, 2007. 2007 IOS Press and the Authors. All rights reserved.

Foreword
The main objective of the COST Action C13 was to increase the knowledge of properties and possibilities of glazing in order to increase the performance of building envelopes, to reduce the energy consumption and to improve the quality of life with respect to interior space, impact on the environment and human welfare. This collection of papers presented at meetings and workshops of the COST C13 working groups 1 (Architectural Aspects and Design Integration), 2 (Quality of Interior Space) and 3 (Structural Aspects of Glass) are the result of 5 years of exchange of ideas, experiences and know-how between members, delegates and experts. It represents the body of knowledge from a restricted but representative group of professionals in Europe on the subject of glass building envelopes. The Steel Structures Laboratory at Ecole Polytechnique Fdrale de Lausanne (CH) and the research group Faades of the faculty of Architecture at Delft University of Technology (NL) have taken the initiative to publish these COST C13 papers in order to disseminate the knowledge to the world of glass faade professionals and to contribute to the development of a new generation of high-performance glass building envelopes. One of the main conclusions of COST Action C13 is that the three worlds of Architecture, Building Physics and Structural Engineering are today by far not sufficiently integrated. Additional efforts are clearly required to align these three worlds into a holistic entity that is able to design building envelopes that are optimised with regard to all three points of view. The reader is encouraged to read the separate articles, to reflect on the content and to contribute to the future development of innovative building envelopes by writing novel contributions in the field. Preferably these contributions are interdisciplinary and try to integrate all facets of the subject, from fundamental research topics via technology development issues through to the application in architecture. All of these domains are supposed to stimulate each other rather than living apart together.

Delft, August 2006

Prof. Dr. Mick Eekhout, Prof. Dr. Ulrich Knaack, Ronald Visser Delft University of Technology, the Netherlands Michel Crisinel, Matthias Haldimann Ecole Polytechnique Fdrale de Lausanne (EPFL), Switzerland

Lausanne, August 2006

EU COST C13 Glass and Interactive Building Envelopes. M. Crisinel, et al. (Eds.). IOS Press, 2007. 2007 IOS Press and the Authors. All rights reserved.

Scientific Report
Michel Crisinel, Chairman COST C13 WG3 Ecole polytechnique fdrale de Lausanne (EPFL) Steel Structures Laboratory (ICOM) CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland

I. WORKING GROUP 1 ARCHITECTURE AND DESIGN INTEGRATION


The main activity of Working Group 1 of COST Action C13 was dedicated to consideration of the design processes involved in interactive building envelopes made of glass, in the functional design of the facade as well as the overall architectural implications of glazed facades on the local environment. Presentations were made during the working group meetings by members, delegates and experts on topics that can be classified in three categories: design methodology, case studies and smart materials. This report comprises the original programme of the working group as described in the Technical Annex of the Memorandum of Understanding for Working Group 1 and the list of the papers reflecting the work of the group during the action period. The programme described in the technical annex of the Memorandum of Understanding for the Working Group 1 was very ambitious and consequently not followed strictly. Here are some extracts from the programme. (...) It can be said safely that the rapid development of glass has not allowed architects to

gain experience and to analyse the possibilities thoroughly. Consequently, there is a need to establish a databank of examples of glass buildings individual buildings or galleries and atriums covering public or semi public urban spaces, glass walls as protection against noise, wind, etc. to evaluate and discuss their architectural quality and their visual impact on the surroundings. Modern glass buildings may stand individually or as parts of existing urban environments. Often these buildings are located in old, sometimes even historical urban areas where the urban architecture is vulnerable to the special architectural properties of glass buildings. Typical areas of cities where glass buildings are located should be studied and recorded, and criteria for the different kinds of settings and the architectural expression of different types of glass buildings should be established. The purpose of this is to establish architectural guidelines for the use and design of glass buildings, to develop appropriate methods of architectural evaluation and to disseminate the experience gathered concerning glass building envelopes for new applications.

TABLE 1: FINAL REPORT PAPERS WG1 Mick Eekhout Zappi Structures And Constructions In Blob Architecture Michael Wigginton Glass Architecture and the Interactive Building Envelope: Principles and Precedent

II. WORKING GROUP 2 QUALITY OF INTERIOR SPACE


The main activity of Working Group 2 of COST Action C13 was dedicated to give answers concerning building performance and comfort aspects in buildings with glass facades Presentations were made during the working group meetings by members, delegates and experts on topics that can be classified in the two above mentioned categories: building performance and comfort aspects. This report comprises the original programme of the working group as described in the Technical Annex of the Memorandum of Understanding for Working Group 2 and the list of the papers reflecting the work of the group during the action period. The programme described in the technical annex of the Memorandum of Understanding for the Working Group 2 was very ambitious and consequently not followed strictly. Here are some extracts from the programme. (...) In order to improve the comfort of the occupants by an increase in the quality of interior space and optimisation of natural resources, it is necessary to conceive of a building with an "interactive" envelope. The control over these natural resources is dependent upon building usage and results in a minimisation of the resources used for construction, maintenance and demolishing. This can be done by means of the tools for Life Cycle Analysis that is presently dealt with all over the world. The term "interactive" building implies an "interactive" building envelope. There must be numerous further developments in order to establish the "interactive" envelope concept: definition of spatial, social and environmental problems, definition of the type of construction (renovation or new construction), definition of physics and energy problems, definition of building automation, which includes the "interactive" envelope. 6

These developments will result in the formulation of theoretical models that integrate notions of energy and building automation, as well as space, comfort and environmental impact, while permitting the conception and analysis of a basic "interactive" building envelope. The foreseeable technological advances is further improvement of the thermal insulation of glass, smart glazing with adjustable transmissivity, and integration of solar cells in the glass envelope. Also transparent insulation material will become available soon. These new technologies will greatly improve the possibilities to create glazed building envelopes with low environmental impact and high comfort, contributing significantly to the possibilities of ensuring good quality of life. Mechanical solar shading will presumably still be one of the major issues when attempting to reduce the need for cooling. The development of simple but effective systems will therefore be of great importance. Research is needed both to improve the technologies on their own but especially in developing concepts for building envelopes where the properties of glass are used in the optimal way, with respect to both economy and environmental impact on a life cycle basis. Future developments must not increase the life cycle energy consumption, and neutral waste products with respect to environmental impacts must be ensured. The concept of double skin envelopes is already being used, but the potentials need to be further investigated, together with other concepts, perhaps not yet invented. Promotion of daylight conscious building design has large energy saving potentials through greater utilisation of natural light. Such fenestration systems should seek to cover visual, architectural and environmental aspects. Utilisation of daylight in new and exciting buildings can aggregate large electric saving potentials in all types of buildings and thereby reduce the need

for active cooling. Test, evaluation and development of different innovative systems for daylight utilisation and solar control should be subject to massive R&D over the coming years. It is important that the new glazing and window technologies do not conflict with user requirements. As existing knowledge about user preferences is very limited, this area clearly needs to be refined. Links to the ongoing European research programmes

will be ensured. High insulating glazing suffers from outside condensation during cold nights and cold bridges that form along the edges of the glazing. These phenomena need to be solved in order to improve the utility value of the windows. Furthermore, it should be insured that the extensive use of glazed facades does not cause noise problems inside the building.

TABLE 2: FINAL REPORT PAPERS WG2 Marcelo Blasco Acoustical Performances of Ventilated Double Glass Faades Henk De Bleecker, Marc Zobec, Alberto Franceschet From Energy Rating towards a more Holistic Approach for the Selection of the most Suitable Advanced Faade System Jan Hensen, Martin Bartak, Frantisek Drkal Modeling and Simulation of a Double-Skin Faade System Ale Krainer, iva Kristl Harmonization of Optical and Thermal Behaviour of Buildings Ale Krainer, Joe Peternelj, iva Kristl, Vito Lampret Luminous Efficacy Based on Fuzzy Controlled Roller Blind Positioning A. Simonella, A. Franceschet, H. De Bleecker, M. Zobec Carbon Emissions Calculation for Non-Residential Buildings: Integration of Daylighting Analysis in Dynamic Energy Simulation Software Annemie Wyckmans, yvind Aschehoug, Anne Grete Hestnes Intelligent Building Envelopes Application in the Field of Daylighting

III. WORKING GROUP 3 STRUCTURAL ASPECTS OF GLASS


The main activity of Working Group 3 of COST Action C13 was dedicated to establish the present state of research on glass as a structural element. Presentations were made during the working group meetings by members, delegates and experts on topics that can be classified in four categories: glass (material) strength, design of members, glass connections and applications & systems. They represent the different topics of research ongoing in Europe on glass used as loadcarrying members and structures. This report comprises the original programme of the working group as described in the Technical Annex of the Memorandum of Understanding for Working Group 3, the list of the papers reflecting the work of the group during the action period and a conclusion containing a list of future research needs on glass as a structural element. Keywords: structural aspect, glass material, glass strength, design of members, glass connections, applications, systems

A. Introduction
The general objective of COST C13 WG3 (Structural Aspects of Glass Working Group) was to coordinate the research on glass as a structural element in the field of building envelopes. Secondary objectives were to increase knowledge on glass construction within the group, to prepare a design guide and propose a course on structural glass at a master level.

Initial initiative was to invite members to present the state of knowledge and research in each member country of COST C13. During the first meetings, presentations were made on the following topics: - Design considerations - Similarities/differences with steel codes - Stability of glass elements, - Connections. Many other presentations were made on general subjects like: case studies and built examples, current structures, design of glass faades, European standardization, double skin faades, glass and wood in structural glazing, remaining structural capacity, numerical modelling, glass girders, etc. At the end of the action, a list of research needs in the framework of glass as structural elements was established. Thank to the intensive work done during the meetings, several collaborations were initiated between members and groups of researchers that were followed by new research projects. The papers contained in this report reflect most of the presentations made during the working group meetings. They are classified in four categories: - Glass (material) strength, - Design of members, - Glass connections - Applications & systems The following table give the titles and the author's names of the 25 papers.

TABLE 3: FINAL REPORT PAPERS WG3

Category 1 Glass strength (Material)

Contribution
Bernard Fabrice, Daudeville Laurent (FR) Is prestressing control possible for tempered glass structures? Eliov Martina, Floury Sbastien, Wald Frantisek (CZ) Glass in Contact with Different Inserts Haldimann Matthias (CH) Design of Glass Members A Critical Review of the Present Knowledge Kott Alexander (CH) Structural Behaviour of Broken Laminated Safety Glass Munch-Andersen Jrgen, Vestergaard Randi Kruse (DK) Proposal for a code calibration procedure Neugebauer Jrgen (AT) To increase the residual bearing capacity of glass with a local reinforcement Schneider Frank, Wrner J.-D. (DE) Inelastic material behaviour of Soda-Lime-Silica Glass Schneider Jens (DE) Glass Strength in the Borehole Area of Annealed Float Glass and Tempered Float Glass Belis Jan, Van Impe Rudy (BE) Buckling-related problems of glass beams Kasper Ruth, Sedlacek Gerhard (DE) Stability of laminated glass beams Kreher Klaus (CH) Contribution to the use of reinforced glass loaded on its strong axis Luible Andreas, Crisinel Michel (CH) Stability of load-carrying elements of glass Hof Peter, Schneider Jens (DE) Fastening of Glass Panes with Undercut Anchors FEA and experimental investigations Kasper Ruth, Sedlacek Gerhard (DE) Point bearing elements - Research investigations Neugebauer Jrgen (AT) Pre-design of discrete supported glass under uniform loading with the help of interpolation Wellershoff Frank, Sedlacek Gerhard (DE) Glued Joints in Glass Structures Baniotopoulos C. C., Chatzinikos, K. T. (GR) Glass faades of mid-rise steel buildings under seismic excitation Eekhout Mick (NL) Design, Engineering, Production & Realisation of Glass Structures for Free-Form Architecture Hess Rudolf (CH) Glass Canopy for the Office Center of the DZ Bank in Berlin Laufs Wilfried (DE) All-Glass Staircase, Notting Hill, London Schober Hans, Gerber Hannes, Schneider Jens (DE) Glass House Badenweiler Tenhunen Olavi, Uuttu Sini, Vuolio Aki (FIN) Designing Double Glazed Faade Constructions Wester Ture (DK) Shaping Glass Plate Structures Wilson Philip (UK) Construction Practice in Glass Structures

2 Design of Members

3 Glass Connections

4 Applications / Systems

B. Programme
The programme described in the technical annex of the Memorandum of Understanding for the Working Group 3 was very ambitious and consequently not followed strictly. Here are some extracts from the programme. (...) A structural study of faades must be initiated through a clear definition of the effects acting on the faade; this would include the determination of load models and a subsequent risk analysis. In the interest of uniformity with the structural design philosophies used for other building components, it will be necessary to outline the ultimate and serviceability limit states for faades. Also the effect that the faade might have on the design of secondary or support elements must be examined. Other research on the development of probabilistic design models for window systems (glass layers, coatings) will also be indispensable. Design models will allow for a quasi-infinite combination of the various window sub-systems, and also for the direct definition of the global behaviour of a window. Furthermore, the development of new envelope materials, such as glass and carbon fibre composites, possessing physical and mechanical capacities with more potential than those of glass and giving more flexibility to the conception process must be envisioned. Research on the realisation of the structural support and framework for the faade will also be necessary, as well as the study of tubular, cold formed and cable structures. This also includes the investigation of new, lighter materials that are geometrically flexible, as well as the development of new, more flexible industrial production proceduresespecially for steel and aluminium sections. The aforementioned research and development is necessary in order to achieve an "interactive" envelope and to circumvent industrial and construction constraints presently associated with the realisation of faades. Research must also address new connection 10

methods that will allow for the flexible conception of the faade and structural framework while, at the same time, reducing costs. The focus of this research must be directed towards mechanical connections, friction fastener systems or cast elementsall of which facilitate inspection of the structure and result in increased levels of safety and durability. Furthermore, connections between the building envelope and the structural framework play a crucial role in the conception of faades. Studies are required in order to define the behaviour of these connections, which must be characterised by a maximal capacity to adapt to different geometric forms. The research must define the global behaviour of the connections and the type of material to be used, and determine the local forces in the detail.

C. Conclusions and Future Needs


Comparison between the list of papers and the initial proposed programme shows that most of the envisaged research topics have been studied in Europe or are under studies at this moment. But it also appears clearly that future research must be conducted, particularly in two directions: - Towards a better knowledge of the glass material, glass elements and glass structures, - Towards the development of structural analysis and safety concepts for global systems made of glass acting compositely with other materials. The discussion concerning the future researches to be conducted in these two directions led to the following, not exhaustive list: - Lifetime prediction model for load carrying glass structures - Development of a design concept for glass structures - Stability: different boundary conditions and the influence of silicon joints, point wise fixings

Stability: plate buckling behaviour of shear panels made of glass - Durability of glass structures - Sustainability of glass structures - Different supporting systems for glass - Glued glass connections (point and linear fixing) - Design concept concerning residual stresses (edge, borehole, surface) - Long term behaviour of structural load introductions - Other interlayers than PVB (e.g. Sentry Glass by Dupont) - Possible stress control during fabrication for the purpose of a quality control - Use of glass together with other materials (concrete, steel, composite materials) - Load carrying behaviour of glass in combination with plastic/ductile materials - Development of composite structural elements made with steel and glass - Interaction between steel and glass in faades - Residual resistance of faades - Extreme loading (impact, explosion, earth quakes) on glass structures or faades - Special applications: glass floors, glass stair cases, bridges - Safety concepts for glass structures and perception of safety by users - Fail safe design - Application of research results in practice, practical approach to design. Concerning the dissemination of the results of the WG3 work, two initiatives have been proposed: - To prepare a design guide for glass structures construction, - To establish a postgraduate programme for courses on faade engineering. The provisional table of contents of the design guide is the following: 1. Glass products 2. Load cases 3. Glass strength 11

4. Stability 5. Connections 6. Special applications 7. Erection on site 8. General design principles 9. Glass structures based on 3D-design 10. Software 11. Normative rules 12. Teaching guide

D. Acknowledgments
The chairman of the Working Group 3 would like to express his gratitude to all the members, delegates, substitutes, guests, hosts and experts who have contributed to the work presented in this report. He would like to thank Dr Stephen Ledbetter, chairman of the management committee of the action COST C13, Wilfried Laufs, chairman of WG3 at the beginning of the action, as well as the three Scientific Officers, Franck Charmaison, Ilias Samaras and Jan Spousta, for their support during the five year action. A particular thank is due to his two collaborators Andreas Luible and Matthias Haldimann who were in charge of the minutes of the working group meetings and of the production of the present Final Report. The Activity Report of COST C13 WG3 is given in Appendix to the present Final Report.

E. References
List of scientific papers written by the members of COST C13 WG3 in connection to the action.

Austria
[Freytag. 2000] FREYTAG, B., Glass-Concrete-composite Members, Proceedings of 3rd PhD Symposium in Civil Engineering, pp. 163-173, Vienna, Austria, 2000. [Freytag. 2002] FREYTAG, B., Glas-Beton-Verbund Eine Anwendung von Ductal (UHPC) in der modernen Architektur, Kolloquium Zement+Beton, Sonderheft 2002. [Freytag. 2004] FREYTAG, B., Glass-Concrete Composite Technology, Structural Engineer International, Journal of IABSE, Volume 14, pp. 111-114, May 2004. [Freytag. 2004] FREYTAG, B., The Use of UHPC in Composites Ideas and realisations Proceedings of International Symposium on Ultra High Performance Concrete, Kassel 2004. [Leicht und Glasbau, 2002] Bemessung von Glaskonstruktionen, Institut fr Stahlbau, Holtbau und Flchentragwerke, Technische Universitt Graz, 2002. [Neugebauer. 2004] NEUGEBAUER, J., Methods to increase the residual bearing capacity of glass, Proceedings 5th International PhD Symposium in Civil Engineering, pp. 575580, Delft, The Netherlands, 2004. [Neugebauer. 2005] NEUGEBAUER, J., Broken laminated Glass has a risk of falling down, Proceedings of International Conference Glass in Building, pp. 109-117, Bath, UK, 7/8 April 2005. [Neugebauer. 2005] NEUGEBAUER, J., A special fixation with which the broken laminated safety glass is prevent from falling down, Conference proceedings 9th Glass processing days, pp. 105-109, Tampere, Finland, 17-20 June 2005.

ceeding Glass in Buildings d, 7/8 April 2005, pp. 89-97, Centre for Window & Cladding Technology, University of Bath, UK, ISBN 18-74-00335-1.

France
[Bernard et al. 2005a] BERNARD, F., DAUDEVILLE, L., GY, R., Une mesure des contraintes pour le contrle en service des structures en verre, Mcanique et Industries, Vol. 6, No. 1, pp. 55-64, 2005. [Bernard et al. 2005b] BERNARD, F., DAUDEVILLE, L., GY, R., Calcul des contraintes rsiduelles dans les zones dassemblage de plaques en verre tremp, Instrumentation Mesures Mtrologie, Vol. 4, No. 3-4, pp. 89104, 2005. [Bernard et al. 2004a] BERNARD, F., DAUDEVILLE, L., GY, R., Load bearing capacity of connections in tempered glass structures, Structural Engineering International, Vol. 14, No. 2, pp. 107-110, 2004. [Bernard et al. 2004b] BERNARD, F., DAUDEVILLE, L., GY, R., La birfringence du verre : une proprit remarquable pour lingnieur, Photonique, Vol. 16, pp. 46-49, 2004. [Bernard et al. 2004c] BERNARD, F., DAUDEVILLE, L., GY, R., Vers une procdure de contrle des structures en verre tremp, Mcanique et Industries, Vol. 5, No. 3, pp. 267-273, 2004. [Bernard et al. 2004d] BERNARD, F., DAUDEVILLE, L., GY, R., La photolasticit : un moyen de contrle des structures en verre, Photomcanique 2004, 4-6 May 2004, Albi, France, 2004. [Daudeville et al. 2003] DAUDEVILLE, L., BERNARD, F., GY, R., Analyse de la rupture des zones de connexion dans les structures en verre, Congrs Franais de Mcanique CFM 2003, 1-5 September 2003, Nice, France, 2003. [Bernard et al. 2003a] BERNARD, F., DAUDEVILLE, L., GY, R., Calcul par Elments Finis des contraintes rsiduelles prs des bords et des trous dans les plaques de verre tremp, Congrs Franais de Mcanique CFM 2003, 1-5 September 2003, Nice, France, 2003. [Bernard et al. 2003b] BERNARD, F., DAUDEVILLE, L., GY, R., Prediction of the load bearing capacity of joints in tempered glass structures, Glass Days 2003, 4-5 November 2003, Eindhoven, The Netherlands, 2003. [Bernard et al. 2003c] BERNARD, F., DAUDEVILLE, L., GY, R., On the design of mechanical joints in tempered glass structures, Glass Processing Days, 15-18 June 2003, pp. 754-757, Tampere, Finland, 2003.

Czech Republic
[Eliov et al. 2003] ELIOV, M., WALD, F., SOKOL, Z., roubovan ppoje konstrukc ze skla, Proceeding 20. esko-slovensk konference Ocelov konstrukce a mosty 2003, September 2003, pp. 101-106, Praha, Czech Republic, ISBN 80-01-02747-3. [Eliov et al. 2004] ELIOV, M., WALD, F., Pevnost skla v kontaktu s jinmi materily, Proceeding esko - Slovensk konference Experiment 04, 14.-16. October 2004, pp. 81-86, Brno, CERM s.r.o., ISBN 80-7204-354-4. [Eliov et al. 2005] ELIOV, M., FLOURY, S., WALD, F., Resistance of glass in contact to different materials, Pro-

12

[Daudeville et al. 2002] DAUDEVILLE, L., BERNARD, F., GY, R., Residual stresses near holes in tempered glass plates, Materials Science Forum, Vol. 404-407, pp. 43-48, 2002. [Bernard et al. 2002a] BERNARD, F., DAUDEVILLE, L., GY, R., Finite element computation of residual stresses near holes in tempered glass plates, Glass Technology, Vol. 43C, pp. 290-295, 2002. [Bernard et al. 2002b] BERNARD, F., DAUDEVILLE, L., GY, R., Sur le dimensionnement des structures en verre tremp, Revue Franaise de Gnie Civil, Vol. 6, No. 7-8, pp. 1359-1380, 2002. [Bernard et al. 2002c] BERNARD, F., DAUDEVILLE, L., GY, R., Finite element computation of residual stresses near holes and straight edges in tempered glass plates, Modelling of Glass Forming and Tempering MGFT 2002, 23-25 January 2002, pp. 234-240, Valenciennes, France, 2002.

Finland
[Mkelinen et al. 2002] MKELINEN, P., TENHUNEN, O., VUOLIO, A., LINTULA, K., VILJANEN, M., BERGMAN, J., HNNINEN, J., ALINIKULA, T., PALMI, P., Kaksoisjulkisivun suunnitteluohjeet. Espoo 2003: Helsinki University of Technology, Laboratory of Steel Structures, P.O. Box 2100, FIN-02015 HUT. Publications 26. 166 p. ISBN 951-22-6649-0. ISSN 1456-4327. http:// www.hut.fi/Yksikot/Rakennus/Teras/Julkaisut/jsarj.ht ml [Mkinen 2002] MKINEN, H., Korroosiomuodot ja -riskit kaksoisjulkisivujrjestelmiss. Espoo, 29.11.2002: Helsinki University of Technology, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Laboratory of Steel Structures, Erikoisty. http://www.hut.fi/Yksikot/Rakennus/Teras/ Tutkimus/HM-etyo-mod.pdf [Tenhunen et al. 2001.1] TENHUNEN, O., LEHTINEN, T., LINTULA, K., LEHTOVAARA, J., VUOLIO, A., UUTTU, S., ALINIKULA, T., KESTI, J., VILJANEN, M., SDERLUND, J., HALONEN, L., MKELINEN, P., Metalli-lasirakenteet kaksoisjulkisivuissa, Esitutkimus. Espoo 2001: Helsinki University of Technology, Laboratory of Steel Structures, P.O. Box 2100, FIN-02015 HUT. Publications 21. 91 p. + appendices 16 p. ISBN 951-22-5528-6. ISSN 14564327. http:// www.hut.fi/Yksikot/Rakennus/Teras/Julkaisut/jsarj.ht ml

[Tenhunen et al. 2001.2] TENHUNEN, O., LINTULA, K., LEHTINEN, T., LEHTOVAARA, J., VILJANEN, M., KESTI, J., MKELINEN, P., Double skin Facades - Structures and Building Physics, Glass Processing Days, 18-21 June 2001, pp. 306-310, Tampere, Finland, 2001. ISBN 952-91-3526-2. [Tenhunen et al. 2001.3] TENHUNEN, O., LINTULA, K., LEHTINEN, T., LEHTOVAARA, J., VILJANEN, M., KESTI, J., MKELINEN, P., Double skin Facades - Structures and Building Physics, 9th Nordic Steel Construction Conference, Helsinki, Finland. Proceedings book: NSCC 2001 Proceedings, Edited by: Mkelinen, P., Kesti, J., Jutila, A., Kaitila, O., pp. 141-148, 2001. [Tenhunen et al. 2001.4] TENHUNEN, O., VUOLIO, A., PALMI, P., Metallilasirakenteet julkisivuissa, Tersrakentamisen tutkimus- ja kehityspivt, 13.-14.6.2002, 7 p., Mikkeli, Mikkelin AMK, 2002. [Tenhunen 2003.1] TENHUNEN, O., Metalli-lasirakenteisen kaksoisjulkisivun materiaalien soveltamiskriteerit. Espoo 2003: Helsinki University of Technology, Laboratory of Steel Structures, P.O. Box 2100, FIN02015 HUT. Publications 28. 104 p. + appendices 43 p. ISBN 951-22-6780-2. ISSN 1456-4327. http://www.hut.fi/Yksikot/ Rakennus/Teras/Julkaisut/jsarj.html [Tenhunen 2003.2] TENHUNEN, O., Rakenneteknisi mittauksia kaksoisjulkisivussa, Rakenteiden Mekaniikka, Vol. 36, No. 2, pp. 41-45, 2003. ISSN 0783-6104. [Tenhunen et al. 2004.1] TENHUNEN, O., VUOLIO, A., Kaksoisjulkisivurakenteiden suunnittelu, Lasirakentaja, No. 3, pp. 4-13, 2004. [Tenhunen et al. 2004.2] TENHUNEN, O., VUOLIO, A., Kaksoisjulkisivurakenteiden suunnittelu, Tersrakenne, No. 1, pp. 38-41, 2004. [Uuttu 2001] UUTTU, S., Study of Current Structures in DoubleSkin Faades. Espoo, 21.8.2001: Helsinki University of Technology, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Laboratory of Steel Structures, Masters Thesis. 62 p. + appendices 39 p. http://www.hut.fi/ Yksikot/Rakennus/Teras/Tutkimus/tproj_mela.htm http://www.glassfiles.com/library [Vuolio 2001] VUOLIO, A., Kaksoisjulkisivujrjestelmien rakennetekniikka. Espoo 2001: Helsinki University of Technology, Laboratory of Steel Structures, P.O. Box 2100, FIN-02015 HUT. Publications 22. 72 p. ISBN 951-22-5624-X. ISSN 1456-4327. http:// www.hut.fi/Yksikot/Rakennus/Teras/Julkaisut/jsarj.ht ml

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[Vuolio 2003] VUOLIO, A., Structural Behaviour of Glass Structures in Facades. Espoo 2003: Helsinki University of Technology, Laboratory of Steel Structures, P.O. Box 2100, FIN-02015 HUT. Publications 27. 127 p. + appendices 34 p. ISBN 951-22-6843-4. ISSN 14564327. http:// www.hut.fi/Yksikot/Rakennus/Teras/Julkaisut/jsarj.ht ml

Germany
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of Drilled Holes. Proceedings 7th Glass Processings Days 2001, Tampere Finland, pp 157, 2001. [Schneider 2001] SCHNEIDER, J., Festigkeit und Bemessung punktgelagerter Glser und stobeanspruchter Glser. Dissertation (PhD-thesis), Institut fr Statik, TU Darmstadt, 2001. [Schneider 2002] SCHNEIDER, J., Gussglas mit Profil. Hochwertige Fassaden aus billigem Profilglas. Deutsche Bauzeitung (db) Nr. 3/2002, Seite 89-96, 2002. [Schneider et al. 2002] SCHNEIDER, J., BOHMANN, D., Glasscheiben unter Stobelastung Experimentelle und theoretische Untersuchungen fr absturzsichernde Verglasungen bei weichem Sto. Bauingenieur Nr. 77, H. 12, S. 581 592, 2002. [Schneider et al. 2002] SCHNEIDER, J., HOF, P., BLOCK, C., Fastening of Glass Panes with Undercut Anchors. Numerical tempering simulation, experiments, load-bearing capacity. Proceedings of the 2nd International Colloquium on Modelling of Glass Forming and Tempering (M.G.F.T.), University of Valenciennes, France, 23.01.-25.01.2002, pp.247-254, 2002. [Schneider 2002] SCHNEIDER, J., Glass Strength in the Borehole Area. Proceedings of the 2nd International Colloquium on Modelling of Glass Forming and Tempering (M.G.F.T.), University of Valenciennes, France, 23.01.-25.01.2002, , pp.224-241, 2002. [Schneider et al. 2002] SCHNEIDER, J., HOF, P., Fastening of Glass Panes with Undercut Anchors. IABSE Symposium Report Melbourne 2002, Vol. 86., 2002. [Schneider 2002] SCHNEIDER, J., Faade Structures with Channel Shaped Glass. IABSE Symposium Report - Melbourne 2002, Vol. 86., 2002. [Schneider 2004] SCHNEIDER, J., Glass Strength in the Borehole Area of Annealed Float Glass and Tempered Float Glass. International Journal of Forming Processes (IJFP), Special Issue on Glass, Vol. 7, No.4, pp. 523541, 2004. [Schneider et al. 2005] SCHNEIDER, J., SCHOBER, H., KRSCHNER, K., Innovative Applications of Glass in Structures. Plenary speech at Glass Processing Days (GPD) 2005, Tampere, Finland, 2005. [Schneider et al. 2005] SCHNEIDER, J., SIEGELE, K., Glasecken. Konstruktion, Gestaltung, Beispiele. ISBN 3-42103414-1, DVA-Verlag, Mnchen, 2005. [Schneider 2005] SCHNEIDER, J., 150 Kilo auf Zehenspitzen. Konstruktion von berkopfverglasungen. Deutsche Bauzeitung (db) Nr. 6, Juni 2005.

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[Schneider 2005] SCHNEIDER, J., Auf den Punkt gebracht. Konstruktion punktgehaltener Glasfassaden. Fachmagazin phase5 Nr. 1, Juni 2005. [Schneider 2005] SCHNEIDER, J., Joseph Paxton - Ingenieurportrt Deutsche Bauzeitung (db) Nr. 12, Dezember 2005. [Schober et al. 2003] SCHOBER, H., SCHNEIDER, J., Ganzglaskonstruktion Glaspool Cyberhelvetia. Glas als interaktives Medium. GLAS 04/2003, S.5 7, 2002. [Schober et al. 2004] SCHOBER, H., SCHNEIDER, J., Developments in Structural Glass and Glass Structures. Structural Engineering International, Vol. 14, No. 2, pp. 84-87, 2004. [Schober et al. 2004] SCHOBER, H., SCHNEIDER, J., There Not there. Structural Glass and Glass Structures. Proceedings Symposium on transparency in architectural and structural design. Faculty of Architecture, TU Delft, November 2004. [Schober et al. 2004] SCHOBER, H., GERBER, H., SCHNEIDER, J., Ein Glashaus fr die Therme in Badenweiler. Stahlbau Nr. 73, H.11, S. 886-892, 2004. [Seldacek et al. 2001] SEDLACEK, G., LAUFS, W., WELLERSHOFF, F., Reliability Aspects for Glass in Structural Design, IABSE Report Safety, Risk and Reliability Trends in Engineering, pp. 143-147, 2001. [Sedlacek et al. 2004.1] SEDLACEK, G., WELLERSHOFF, F., KASPER, R., Basis of design and codes for glass structures, Intelligent Publication Limited, Intelligent Glass Solutions, Issue 1-2004, pp. 47-49, 2004. [Sedlacek et al. 2004.2] SEDLACEK, G., WELLERSHOFF, F., NAUMES, J., Development of hybrid steel-glass-beams in respect to structural and architectural criteria, KICT research report 09-2004, 2004. [Sedlacek et al. 2004.3] SEDLACEK, G., WELLERSHOFF, F., KASPER, R., Basis of design and codes for glass structures, ISAAG Conference Proceedings Chapter 4, Munich, 2004. [Wellershoff et al. 2003.1] WELLERSHOFF, F., STIEF, U., Lehrter Bahnhof Berlin Zustimmung im Einzelfall der Glasanwendungen, Ernst & Sohn Verlag, Heft 1 2003, Seite 29-33, 2003. [Wellershoff et al. 2003.2] WELLERSHOFF, F., SEDLACEK, G., Characteristic Strength and Failure Probability of Channel Shaped Glass, Glass Processing Days 2003, pp. 9498, Tampere Finland, 2003.

[Wellershoff et al. 2003.3] WELLERSHOFF, F., SEDLACEK, G., Glass Pavilion Rheinbach Stability of Glass Columns, Glass Processing Days 2003, pp. 316-318, Tampere Finland, 2003. [Wellershoff et al. 2003.4] WELLERSHOFF, F., SEDLACEK, G., Structural Use of Glass in Hybrid Elements: Steel-Glass-Beams, Glass-GFRP-Plates, Glass Processing Days 2003, pp. 268-270, Tampere Finland, 2003. [Wellershoff et al. 2003.5] WELLERSHOFF, F., SEDLACEK, G., Steel and Glass Transparency and Openness, Window Days Rosenheim 2003, pp. 131-135, 2003. [Wellershoff et al. 2003.6] WELLERSHOFF, F, SEDLACEK, G., DSTER, H., Bemessungsschubmodul fr PVB-Folien in Verbundsicherheitsglas, Forschungsbericht G 2003/10-06 Lehrstuhl fr Stahlbau, RWTH Aachen, 2003. [Wellershoff et al. 2003.7] WELLERSHOFF, F., SEDLACEK, G., Wirtschaftliche Aussteifung von Stahlkonstruktionen mit Glas zur Schubbertragung und zur Erhhung der Filigranitt der Konstruktion, AIF Forschungsbericht 12474, 19.11.2003. [Wellershoff et al. 2004.1] WELLERSHOFF, F., SEDLACEK, G., Groe glserne Gebudehllen, Cubus Verlag, Fassadentechnik, Heft 1-2004, Seite 14-18, 2004. [Wellershoff et al. 2004.2] WELLERSHOFF, F., SEDLACEK, G., Fassadentechnik, Multifunktionalitt als Herausforderung, Bau Verlag, Metallbau, Heft 22004, Seite 16-18, 2004. [Wellershoff et al. 2004.3] WELLERSHOFF, F., SEDLACEK, G., KASPER, R., Design of joint, members and hybrid elements for glass structures, ISAAG Conference Proceedings Chapter 5, Munich, 2004. [Wellershoff et al. 2005.1] WELLERSHOFF, F., SEDLACEK, G., Glued joints in glass structures, Proceedings of Glass in Buildings 2; 7-8.05.2005, Bath, UK, pp. 159-168, 2005. [Wellershoff et al. 2005.2] WELLERSHOFF, F., SEDLACEK, G., Employing the glazing for the stabilisation of building envelopes, Proceedings of Glass in Buildings 2; 7-8.05.2005, Bath, UK, pp. 343, 2005. [Wellershoff et al. 2005.3] WELLERSHOFF, F., SEDLACEK, G., Glued connections for new steel glass structures, Proceedings of Glass Processing Days 2005, pp. 340-343, Tampere Finland, 2005. [Wellershoff et al. 2005.4] WELLERSHOFF, F., SEDLACEK, G., Stabilisation of building envelopes with the use of the glazing, Proceedings of Glass Processing Days 2005, pp. 281283, Tampere Finland, 2005.

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The Netherlands
[Nijsse 2003] NIJSSE, R., Glass in structures, Birkhauser, Basel, Switzerland, ISBN 3-7643-6439-4. [Nijsse 2003.1] NIJSSE, R., Tragendes Glass, Birkhauser, Basel, Switzerland, ISBN 3-7643-6440-8. [Nijsse et al. 2005] NIJSSE, R., BOS, F., VEER,F., ROMEIN,T., The evaluation of the all transparent Pavilion project, Glass Processing Days, 17-20 June 2005 pp. 396400, Tampere, Finland, 2005. [Nijsse et al. 2005] NIJSSE,R., BOS, F., VEER, F., ROMEIN, T., BELIS, J., LOUTER, C., VAN NIEUWENHUYZEN, E., Designing and planning the World's Biggest Experimental Glass structure, Glass Processing Days, 17-20 June 2005, pp. 401405, Tampere, Finland, 2005. [Nijsse 2004] NIJSSE, R., Special Steel and Adhesively Bonded Connections for Glass Structures, Structural Engineering International, Volume 14, number 2, May 2004, pp. 104-107, IABSE, Zurich, Switzerland.

Switzerland
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[Haldimann 2005] HALDIMANN, M., Fracture Mechanics Modelling and time-dependent Reliability of Structural Glass Elements. In: Proceedings of Glass in Buildings 2, 78 April 2005, Centre for Window & Cladding Technology (CWCT), Bath, UK, 2005. URL http://icom.epfl.ch/publications/pubinfo.php?pubid=5 19. [Haldimann 2005.2] HALDIMANN, M., Flexible, Consistent and Safe Design of Structural Glass Elements. In: Proceedings of Glass Processing Days 2005, 17-20 June, Tampere, Finland, pp. 515-519, 2005. URL http://icom.epfl.ch/publications/pubinfo.php?pubid=5 26. [Haldimann et al. 2006] HALDIMANN, M., HIRT, M.A., Extending the Field of Application of Structural Glass Design Concepts. In: Proceedings of the IABSE Symposium 2006 "Responding to Tomorrow's Challenges in Structural Engineering", 13-15 Sept., Budapest, Hungary, 2006. [Hess 2004] HESS, R., Einfhrung in den Baustoff Glas, Bemessungshilfen fr Vertikal- und berkopfverglasungen, Entwurfshilfen fr Architekten und Bauingenieure, pp. 115 - 139 Bauwerk Verlag GmbH, Berlin 2004, ISBN 3934369-03-0. [Hess 2004] HESS, R., Material Glass, Structural Engineering, SEI Vol. 14, No. 8, pp. 76 - 79. [Hess et al. 2005] HESS, R., SCHADOW T., WELLER B., GlasbauPraxis in Beispielen, Bauwerk Verlag GmbH, Berlin 2005, ISBN 3-934369-47-2. [Laufs et al. 1999] LAUFS, W., LUIBLE, A., MOHREN, R., Voruntersuchung zur konstruktiven Typisierung von Gebudehllen aus Glas. Rapport ICOM 403, Ecole polytechnique fdrale de Lausanne (EPFL), 1999. [Laufs et al. 2001.2] LAUFS, W., LUIBLE, A., MOHREN, R., tude prliminaire sur le verre comme lment de construction dans le btiment. Rapport ICOM 403F, Ecole polytechnique fdrale de Lausanne (EPFL), 2001. [Laufs et al. 2003] LAUFS, W., LUIBLE, A., Introduction on Use of Glass in Modern Buildings. Rapport ICOM 462, Ecole polytechnique fdrale de Lausanne (EPFL), 2003. [Laufs et al. 2003.1] LAUFS, W., LUIBLE, A., CRISINEL, M., Introduction l'utilisation du verre comme lment porteur dans les btiments. Construction mtallique, No. 2, pp. 15-32, Centre Technique Industriel de la Construction Mtallique (CTICM), St-Rmy-lsChevreuse, 2003. [Luible 2002]

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LUIBLE, A., Stability of Load Carrying Elements of Glass. In: Proceedings of the 4th International Ph.D. Symposium in Civil Engineering, 19-21 September, Munich, pp. 493-498, Springer-VDI-Verlag GmbH & Co. KG, Dsseldorf, 2002. [Luible 2004.1] LUIBLE, A., Stabilitt von Tragelementen aus Glas. Thse EPFL 3014, Ecole polytechnique fdrale de Lausanne (EPFL), 2004. URL http://icom.epfl.ch/publications/pubinfo.php?pubid=4 99. [Luible 2004.2] LUIBLE, A., Lasteinleitungsversuche in Glaskanten. Rapport ICOM 463, Ecole polytechnique fdrale de Lausanne (EPFL), 2004. [Luible 2004.3] LUIBLE, A., Beulversuche an quadratischen Glsern. Rapport ICOM 477, Ecole polytechnique fdrale de Lausanne (EPFL), 2004. [Luible 2004.4] LUIBLE, A., Kippversuche an Glastrgern. Rapport ICOM 478, Ecole polytechnique fdrale de Lausanne (EPFL), 2004. [Luible 2004.5] LUIBLE, A., Knickversuche an quadratischen Glasscheiben. Rapport ICOM 479, Ecole polytechnique fdrale de Lausanne (EPFL), 2004. [Luible et al. 2002.1] LUIBLE, A., CRISINEL, M., Auf Biegen und Brechen. tec21 Nr. 12/2002, pp. 29-36, SIA, Zrich, 2002. [Luible et al. 2002.2] LUIBLE, A., Stabilitt von tragenden Glaselementen. In: Informationstagung Stahl und Glas, 19-20. Mrz 2002, ETH Hnggerberg, Zrich, 2002. [Luible et al. 2004] LUIBLE, A., CRISINEL, M., Buckling Strength of Glass Elements in Compression. Structural Engineering International, Vol. 2, No. 14, pp. 120-125, IABSE, 2004. [Luible et al. 2005.1] LUIBLE, A., CRISINEL, M., Design for Structural Stability of Glass Compression Members. In: Proceedings of the 4th European Conference on Steel and Composite Structures, 8-10 June, Maastricht, The Netherlands, 2005. [Luible et al. 2005.2] LUIBLE, A., CRISINEL, M., Plate Buckling of Glass Panels. In: Proceedings of Glass Processing Days 2005, 17-20 June, Tampere, Finland, pp. 476-479, 2005. [Luible et al. 2005.3] LUIBLE, A., CRISINEL, M., Stability of Load Carrying Elements of Glass. In: Proceedings of the Conference Eurosteel 2005, 8-10 June, Maastricht, Volume B, Paper 172, 2005. [Luible et al. 2005.4]

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