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LINKING WORDS

Exercise 1: Classify the following linking words in the table below. Examples are given to you also=too=as well such as so as to because of besides therefore in brief before # after although= though as a result to sum up while /when in addition to in conclusion on the contrary in order to however = nevertheless despite = in spite of consequently finally first/second/third yet as soon as for example = for instance due to= thanks to moreover so that namely furthermore

Addition

Time

Cause Reason because

and

now

Consequenc e Result Effect so

Conclusion Summarizi ng in brief

Contrast Opposite Concession but

Example

like

Exercise 2: Fill in blanks with the appropriate linking word from the list. If as a result in order to because due to although however while -

1. Ali couldnt concentrate in class today.......................................he didnt sleep well last night . 2. Selma is practising sports everyday.........................................lose weight. 3. ...........................our neighbour is rich, he doesnt help poor people. 4. Houda worked hard all year long;.............................................,she got excellent grades. 5. ..........you work hard, you will get high marks. 6. .................I was revising my lesson, my friend called me. 7. Many African babies die every year ......................................hunger and illnesses such as Cholera. 8. The team played well; ..................................,they didnt win the match. Exercise 3: Choose one suitable linking word to complete each sentence below. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. They dont realize they are rude . . . . . . . . . . . . . nobody tells them about it. We had to identify ourselves . . . . . . . . . . . . . our host knew us very well. We couldnt go to Robertas party. . . . . . . . . . . . .her insisting on it. You can interrupt the meeting . . . . . . . . . . . . . ., our boss may not like it. He managed to dial Anitas number. . . . . . . . . . . . .he couldnt find her home. Theyve tried harder. . . . . . . . . . . . . . ,they were not able to win the race. I got to the bus station. . . . . . . . . . . . . the rain started.

LINKING WORDS

8. Always start to eat a meal. . . . . . . . . . . . . your guests. 9. She did keep smoking in the room, . . . . . . . . . . . . . she realized that her behavior was impolite. 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . the hurry in big cities, some people act politely most of times. 11. The children rushed to sit at the table. . . . . . . . . . . . . lunch was being served. 12. Mom is receiving some people for dinner tonight. . . . . . . . . . . . . . avoid behaving noisily. 13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . all his mothers efforts Fred is still a bad kid. 14. Be polite. . . . . . . . . . . . . you call someone on the telephone, OK? 15. . . . . . . . . . . . . . we were tired, we went to Anas house. 16. The car isnt good. I liked its color, . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 17. Ill offer this gift to Ana. . . . . . . . . . . . . ., she may not accept it. Exercise 4: Read the following composition about the role of work in society. Your job is to choose the best linking word for each case. Consider In modern society, work has already been a necessary means by which all the people live in the world, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . a few exceptions. First of all, people must work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . get the money to live. . . . . . . . . . . . . . ., there are some more reasons that are also important for people's working, of which making continuous progress is what I mostly want to emphasize. As we all know, the human being is an animal greatly more advanced, and greatly different in many aspects from other common animals in the world such as cats, horses and so on. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . feeding is not the only aim that people live for, as it is said in a Chinese saying, human beings are not living for only living. People also need to make continuous progress in the modern and continually changing world. And all kinds of work give people one of the most effective ways to make progress, which can be illustrated by some reasons below. First of all, people can learn varieties of basic knowledge and abilities that they need to deal with all kinds of problems they may meet in study, life, or work in current society. All the abilities, except for physiological functions, are not innate, . . . . . . . . . . . . . family and school could supply only a small part, and most of them must be given by work. . . . . . . . . . . . . . ., proper relationship in work is the basic warranty of your working successfully. . . . . . . . . . . . . . in work, you will learn how to deal with the relationship between you and your boss, if you are an ordinary employee, or the relationship between you and your followings if you are a director mastering the company. . . . . . . . . . . . . . ., this rule can also be used when you relate to other people you meet in society. . . . . . . . . . . . . . ., while they are making continuous progress, people usually can't control themselves correctly in two basic aspects: the direction and motivation of progress. . . . . . . . . . . . . . ., there are various kinds of reasons that people need to work, some of which usually combine to each other. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ., making continuous progress is one the most important reasons because it is people's one of the most expected aims in their life, and work gives people a very effective approach to reach their aims.