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Study Guide TEST II Psychology

Memory Sensory Memory


draw flow chart |
of memory Short Term Memory
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Long Term memory
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Procedural Memory declarative Memory
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semantic memory episodic Memory

Procedural – long term memories of conditioned responses or learned behaviors.

Declarative – contains factual information


Semantic – impersonal facts / everyday knowledge (days of week)
Episodic – personal experiences linked with specific times / places
3 basic processes system that stores, organizes, alters, and recovers information
of memory
-incoming information ENCODED
-information is STORED in the system
memories must be RECALLED, taken out of storage
3 stages of Sensory - seeing, hearing.
memory short term – holds small amounts of information briefly.
long term – remembering for a longer period of time.
Icon Icon – visual representation, after image, fleeting mental image.

echo Echo – after a sound is heard the brief continuation of the sound in the auditory
system.
chunking Putting bits of information together in groups to aid in memory recall.
maintenance Repeating information silently or out loud to prolong its presence.
rehearsal
Recall Recall – reproduce facts / information with some external cues.

Recognition Recognition – identify correctly previously learned material.

tip of the tongue Tip of tongue – the feeling that the memory is available, but not quite retrievable.

Recency effect – the last word or two still in short term memory which are
recency effect available for immediate recall.

Primacy effect - the first or last on a list is remembered more easily than those
primacy effect items in the middle of a list.
network model or Memory mode that views it as an organizational system of linked information.
organizing
memories
forgetting 1. Incoding failure – memory never formed
2. Memory traces – physical changes in neurons where memories are stored.
3. Memory decay – memory traces become weaker over time.
4. Disuse – memory traces weaken when they are not used.
repression and repression: unconsciously pushing unwanted memories out of awareness
suppression -survival strategy
-to painful, so repress to carry on
suppression: conscious effort to put something out of mind
flashbulb Memories created during times of personal tragedy, accident or other emotionally
memories significant events.
mnemonics any kind of memory system or aid. song, Every Good Boy Does Fine,
-use mental pictures, visual images
-make things meaningful
-make info. familiar; connect to what already know
-form bizarre images
memory trace Physical change in the brain, perhaps a neuron or activity between neurons.
memory decay fading of memory when memory traces occur. changes in nerve cells, routes, etc.
also disuse, route is too weak for retrieval
study guide Awake – Beta * *
consciousness - - - - - - - * *
draw the sleep Stage 1 (drowsy) – Alpha waves * *** *** *
cycle chart Stage 2 – Theta Waves * * * * * *
brain waves of Stage 3 – Delta waves * * * * * *
sleep cycle, Stage 4 – Full Delta Waves *** *** **
stages of sleep
REM / NREM REM (rapid eye movement, stage 1, dream period), 90 minutes a night,
More active if stress in life. may stimulate development of brain in infants
(8-9 hours/day)

NREM sleep, stages 2,3,4; dream free 90% of time, helps body recover from
fatigue
Insomnia Insomnia: lack of sleep, difficulty in getting to sleep or staying asleep

narcolepsy Narcolepsy – sleep seizure. Slip into REM sleep during the day. Falling asleep at
inappropriate times or places.
sleep apnea Sleep Apnea: breathing stops for 20 sec. to 2 minutes, lack of oxygen.
Repeated interruption of sleep. Causes: brain stops sending signal to diaphragm to
breath. Blockage of upper air passages
Dreams Dreams: Occur in stage one REM sleep. Voluntary muscles are paralyzed during
stage one REM sleep.

Nightmares Nightmares: bad dream that takes place in stage 1 sleep REM

night terrors Night terrors: during stage 4 sleep NREM. Body not immobilized. Panic,
hallucinate images into bedroom. Sit up, scream, get out of bed, etc. Mostly in
childhood

sleep walking Sleepwalking (somnambulists) wake – like activity. Walking, sitting up, eating, etc.
Occurs in stage 4 sleep.

Sleep talking Sleeptalking: these are mostly harmless, occur during stage 3 and 4
psychoanalytic Freud (psychodynamic theory): wish fulfillment (expression of unconscious
dream theory desires). Internal conflicts, unresolved issues, unfinished business, etc. Dream
symbols: images that serve a signs of hidden ideas, desires, impulses, emotions.
“sometimes a cigar is just a cigar”

activation Activation-Synthesis Hypothesis: some parts of brain are turned on and some
synthesis dream turned off, brain manufactures dream from stored memories to make sense of
theory information

Cartwright Dream Cartwright: dreams are “feeling statements” -overall emotional tone of dream is
theory major aspect. comical, threatening, joyous, depressing, lonely, jealous, in love,
anger.

gestalt dream Gestalt (Perls): message about what is missing from our lives. -what we avoid
theory doing, feelings that need to be “re-owned” -feeling gaps in our personal
experience. *take the part of each character/object in a dream and speak for it.
e.g. self, person behind door, and door

Activation Using meaningful bits and pieces of a person’s experiences from the last day or two
Information rather than random items from memory
Mode (AIM)
dream theory
things to know help one relax; brain waves more like sleep pattern; accept suggestions easier; must
about hypnosis: cooperate to be hypnotized

An Altered State of Consciousness characterized by narrowed attention and


increased suggestibility

Hypnotic susceptibility: one’s capacity for becoming hypnotized


-one must cooperate to be hypnotized

*hypnotist merely helps another person to follow a series of suggestions, these in


turn alter sensations, perceptions, thoughts, feelings, behaviors.

You are aware and in control. Basic suggestion effect: tendency to carry out
suggested actions as if they were involuntary

Memory: enhance memories but create false ones too


Amnesia: some brief memory loss seems to occur when told not to remember
Pain relief: yes, effective with phantom limb pain
Age regression: most feel that subjects are just acting out
Sensory changes: altered greatly

Helps people relax, feel less pain, better progress in therapy

Hypnosis stage tricks:


-people are cooperative because they don’t want to spoil the show
-anyone who doesn’t yield to instructions is removed
-be silly w/o embarrassment; takes away personal responsibility
-brings out the ham in people; star of the show

CAN: relax, reduce pain, make better progress in therapy


CANNOT: acts of superhuman strength, produce age regression, force you to do
things against your will.
Meditation: concentrative meditation: attention paid to a single focal point. Relax/less stress

mantra: word or sound repeated during concentrative meditation. Most often


verbal “OM” (sound of creation, according to Hindu)

receptive meditation: widen attention span to become more aware of everything


experienced at a given moment.

physiological benefits: lower heart rate, unique brain waves (like sleep), lower
blood pressure, less muscle tension, deep breathing, improved immune system,
stress reduction.

A mental exercise used to alter consciousness


-focuses attention and interrupts the typical flow of thoughts, worries, analysis
-EEG patterns become unique during this period

Concentrative: you attend to a single focal point, object, thought, breathing


Receptive: open; expansive; widen attention
e.g. losing all self-consciousness while walking in the wilderness with a
quiet and receptive mind; more difficult

using a single thought, object, to rule out all others,


mantra: repeated word, phrase

relaxation response to meditation:


-lowered heart rate
-lowered blood pressure
-less muscle tension
-EEG patterns
-deep breathing
-signs of improved immune system

Hinduism, Buddhism, Taoism: rooted in these religions


-seek enlightenment
-freedom from illusory world
Drugs:
stimulant Stimulant: increases activity in the body and nervous system

depressant Depressant: decreases activity in the body and nervous system

-drugs influence the activity of brain cells


-imitate or alter neurotransmitters, or block receptors, increases time duration, etc.
-may cause extra release of these or inhibit

drug tolerance, Drug tolerance: larger and larger doses to get same effect
dependence
Physical dependence: person compulsively uses a drug to maintain bodily comfort

Psychological dependence: person feels that a drug is necessary to maintain


feelings of comfort or well being

know which Caffiene – stimulant


category caffeine, Nicotine – stimulant
nicotine, cocaine, Cocaine – amphetamines
alcohol, Alcohol – depressant
marijuana fall Marijuana – hallucinogen
under Ecstasy – stimulant
ecstasy, rofynol Rofynol - depressant

#1 and #2 drugs 1. caffeine


in America 2. nicotine