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SPECIAL PRODUCTS (Obtaining a Product Without Really Multiplying) 1.

Product of a Sum and Difference of Two Terms Form: ( a + b )( a b ) Product : a2 b2 (difference of two squares) Example: (3 x2 y3 + 4z)(3 x2 y3 4z) Solution: (3 x2 y3 )2 (4z)2 Answer: 9x4y6 16z4 1. Product of a Sum and Difference of Two Terms Teachers Tip: When multiplying the sum and difference of the expressions a and b simply square a then subtract the square of b. 2. The Square of a Binomial Form: ( a b )2 Product: a2 2ab + b2 Example: (2xy2 3z)2 Solution: (2xy2)2 2(2xy2)(3z) + (3z)2 Answer: 4x2y4 12xy2z + 9z2 2. The Square of a Binomial Teachers Tip: When squaring a binomial, obtain the perfect squares of both terms in the binomial. Then, obtain twice the product of both terms and ADD to the perfect squares if the terms are added in the binomial. Otherwise, SUBTRACT from the sum of the perfect squares. 3. The Cube of a Binomial Form: ( a b )3 Product: a3 3a2b + 3ab2 b3 Example: 1. (X2 2y3)3 Solution: (x2)3 3(x2)2(2y3) + 3(x2)(2y3)2 (2y3)3 Answer: x6 6x4y3 + 12x2y6 8y9 3. The Cube of a Binomial Otherwise, the terms are alternately positive and negative. Try this: (2x2 + yz3)3 Do it yourself and check your answer with the answer below. Are you through? Did you get this? 8x4 + 12x4yz3 + 6x2y2z6 + y3z9 3. The Cube of a Binomial Teachers Tip: When obtaining the cube of a binomial: 1. Arrange term a in descending power and term b in increasing power. 2. Prefix the 2nd and 3rd terms with the coefficient 3. 3. Signs of the terms are all positive, if sign between a and b is positive. 4. The Product of Dissimilar Binomials Form: ( ax + b )( cx + d ) Product: acx2 + (ad + bc )x + bd Example: (3x + 2)(x 3) Solution: (3x)(x) + [(3x)(-3) + (2)(x)] +(2)(-3) Answer: 3 xs2 7x - 6 4. The Product of Dissimilar Binomials Teachers Tip

1. Algebraically multiply the first terms of both binomials. 2. Multiply the first term of the first binomial with the second term of the other binomial. 3. Multiply the second terms of both binomials. 5. Square of a Trinomial/Polynomial Form: (a + b + c )2 Product: a2 + b2 + c2 + 2ab + 2bc + 2ac Example: (2x2 + 3y z3)2 Solution: (2x2)2 + (3y) 2 + (-z3)2 + 2(2x2)(3y) + 2(3y)(z3) + 2(2x2)(-z3) Answer: 4x4 + 9y2 + z6 + 12x2y 6yz3 - 4x2z3 Teachers Tip When you square a trinomial (or even a polynomial of n terms), the resulting product consists of the following: 1. The first three (or n) terms are the perfect squares of the terms of the given trinomial (or polynomial). 2. The remaining terms are TWICE the product of the terms of the trinomial/polynomial taken TWO at a time. Try this: ( p 3q2 + 2r 4s3 )2 Remember: The first n terms are the perfect squares of the terms of the polynomial. FACTORING (Where to Apply the Different Factoring Types) 1. The COMMON FACTOR For any given polynomial, the search for the common factor among the terms is the first thing to be performed before applying any of the succeeding factoring types. (ab + ac ad) = a (b + c d) 2. BINOMIALS a2 b2 = ( a + b )( a b ) a3 + b3 = ( a + b)( a2 ab + b2 ) a3 b3 = ( a b )( a2 + ab + b2 ) an + bn = ( a + b)( an-1 an-2b + + abn-2 +bn-1) terms alternately positive and negative an bn = ( a + b)(an-1 + an-2b + + abn-2 + bn-1) Special Case A sum of squares, a2 + b2, may be factored by the ADDITION AND SUBTRACTIONOF A PERFECT SQUARE if: 1. The exponents of the literal coefficients are divisible by 4. 2. The numerical coefficients are squares of real numbers. 3. TRINOMIALS a2 + 2ab + b2 = ( a + b )2 a2 - 2ab + b2 = ( a b )2 acx2 + ( ad + bc ) x + bd = (ax + b)(cx + d) ADDITION and SUBTRACTION of a PERFECT SQUARE ( applicable if there are two perfect squares) 4. GROUPING 4 Terms a. Common Factor b. Difference of Two Squares

6 Terms a. Common Factor b. Difference of Two Squares c. General Quadratic Trinomial d. Square of a Trinomial Get More from Fractions (How to Operate on Rational Expressions Easily) Multiplication of Rational Expressions When multiplying rational expressions, factor completely every numerator and denominator in the operation. Cancel the factors common in the numerator and denominator. Division of Rational Expressions When dividing rational expressions, obtain the reciprocal of the denominator and perform multiplication. Addition/Subtraction of Rational Expressions When adding/subtracting rational expressions, before determining theLeast Common Denominator, simplify first all rational expressions to beaded or subtracted. Series of Multiplication and Division of Rational Expressions Case 1. No grouping symbols in the operation: F1 F2 F3 (Multiply F1 by F2 first. The product is divided by F3.) F1 F2 F3 (Divide F1 by F2 first. The quotient is multiplied by F3.) Series of Multiplication and Division of Rational Expressions Case 2. Grouping symbols in the operation: F1 (F2 F3) (Divide F2 by F3 first. The quotient is multiplied by F1.) F1 (F2 F3) (Multiply F2 by F3 first. The product is the divisor of F1.)

Complex Rational Expressions When simplifying a complex rational expression, first identify the longest dividing line. The algebraic expression above the longest dividing line is the numerator of the complex rational expression. The algebraic expression below the longest dividing line is the denominator of the complex rational expression. The numerator is expressed as a simple fraction first. Next, the denominator is also expressed as a simple fraction . Perform the division operation. The complex rational expression is simplified. MULTIPLICATION of RADICALS (Shortcuts) 1. Type: Same index Process: Multiply the radicands.Retain the index. Product: 2. Type: Same radicand, different indices Process: Retain the radicand and raiseto the SUM of the indices. Resulting index is theproduct of the given indices. Product: 3. Type: Different indices, differentradicands Process: a. Resulting index is theproduct of the given indices. b. The radicand is the productof the given radicands but each israised to the index of the other. Product:

Does God Exist? Thy 1 - Edited by JAQ 2010 What are the reasons & arguments of those who do not believe in the existence of God? n If there is God, why does he allow innocent people to suffer? n Science & Religion are contradictory. n To see is to believe. n The Bible is just made by man. n There are so many world religions. n I seem to manage without God. Job 34:12 - Surely, God cannot act wickedly, the Almighty cannot violate justice. God did not make death, nor does he rejoice in the destruction of the living. The book of Wisdom proclaims God as the Lord of life. God does not intend men and women for corruption: n Wisdom 1:13-15;2:23-24 - God did not make death, nor does he rejoice in the destruction of the living. For he fashioned all things that they might have being; and the creatures of the world are wholesome & there is not a destructive drug among them nor any domain of the netherworld on earth, for justice is undying. For God formed man to be imperishable; the image of his own nature he made him. But by the envy of the devil, death entered the world, and they who belong to his company experience it. Jn 16:22-23 - You are now very sad, but I shall see you again; that your hearts will rejoice with a joy no one can take away from you. On that day you will have no questions to ask me. Mk. 4:35-41 (excerpt) - A violent squall came up and waves were breaking over the boatThey woke Jesus and said to him, Teacher, do you not care that we are perishing? He woke up, rebuked the wind, and said to the sea, Quiet! Be still! The wind ceased & there was great calm. Then he asked them, Why are you terrified? Do you not have faith? They were filled with great awe & said to one another, Who then is this who even the wind and sea obey? James 1:13-14 - No one experiencing temptation should say, I am being tempted by God; for God is not subject to temptation to evil, and he himself tempts no one. Rather each person is tempted when he is lured and enticed by his own desire. James 1:27 - Religion that is pure and undefiled before Godis this: to care for orphans and widows in their affliction and to keep oneself unstained by the world. What are the reasons & arguments of those who believe in the existence of God? n Miracles n Limits of Science n Religion & science do not contradict n Scientific, & medical proofs n Historical, archeological documents & testimonies n Lives of Saints [example: St. Augustine] & Martyrs n Personal experiences n Arguments of Reason (5 Ways of St. Thomas) n Experience -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Images of God 1. WHAT ARE YOUR IMAGES OF GOD? (Who is God for you?) 2. WHY do you see God that way? --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------[ From: Sir Richard Pazcoguin : Our thoughts and feelings towards God create in our minds an image. The image of God that we have determines the way we deal with him, and the way we conduct our lives. Reflect on the following points:

1. Who is God for me? 2. Is my perception of God sound? 3. Does my "image of God" drive me closer to Him, or does it push me away from Him? 4. Is my perception of God distorted? What caused the distortion and what should I do to rectify it? 5. Has my perception of God matured as I matured? ] ___________________________________________________________________________ BEWARE OF dIsToRtEd Images of God n Our images of God may not be the same as the doctrinal affirmation about God the teachings of the Catholic Church . n Images have both strengths & limitations. An image may be manipulated & distorted. n We are constantly tempted to make God into our own image. -Gerard Hughes THEREFORE: We need to have a correct image of God; Correct understanding of Gods Revelation; Correct knowledge & understanding of the teachings of the Catholic Church. EVANGELIZATION Initial proclamation of the Good News --PURPOSE: Initial Conversion CATECHESIS Instruction on the Faith -- PURPOSE: Maturity in the faith THEOLOGY Attempt to explain the teachings of the Church. - PURPOSE: Deepening in B.O.W. through a better, meaningful, relevant explanation of theFaith. _________________________________________________________________________ What is TOTAL FAITH? General Goals of Theology: ORTHODOXY -correct understanding of the Faith. ORTHOPRAXIS -is the correct application of the Faith in moral living and in worshipping. Living the challenges & demands of faith with the support of prayer & sacraments. -- Integration of: Doctrine, Morals, Worship (Believing, Obeying, Worshipping) OBJECTIVE DIMENSIONS OF FAITH BASED ON GODS REVELATION: 1. DOCTRINE what we believe based on Gods Revelation; as summarized in the Apostles Creed. 2. MORALS 10 Commandments, the 8 Beatitudes and other moral teachings of Jesus Christ. 3. WORSHIP the official PUBLIC worship and personal private worship/prayer life. SUBJECTIVE DIMENSIONS OF THE FAITH: (My Response to what was revealed) 1. BELIEVING I Believe 2. OBEYING I Obey 3. WORSHIPPING I Worship (privately and together with the People of God as one community) and I entrust myself and everything to the Almighty God.



Obeying Worshipping *If one or two dimensions are missing, it is not yet a total faith, there is a paralysis in ones faith. This is a life time journey, a process. Faith is a Total BOW to God. Read also: Salva Vida p.7 on Paradoxical Characteristics of Faith. See explanation from Catechism of the Catholic Church paragraphs #141-144

__________________________________________________________________________ IS THERE A GOD? (Prepared by Sir Pazcoguin) Our hearts are restless until they rest in Thee - St. Augustine of Hippo St. Augustine once found himself in search for a deep sense of joy. Though he was extraordinarily intelligent, he realized that his brilliant mind could not give him satisfaction for anything. He lived a life of vices and carnal pleasure, thinking that happiness can be found in the world, but he found himself mistaken. He searched for meaning in different religions and philosophies, only to be disappointed, until he finally became Christian, and realized that the only one who could give satisfaction to mans search for joy and meaning is this Person we call GOD. Man's Natural Longing For God - Clive Staples Lewis : There are many things that are beyond the capacity of reason. Confronted by things beyond human control (e.g. death, calamities), man looks for meaning in a higher power often called GOD History proves that people everywhere have a sense of Divine Longing i.e. an innate desire to know God.

__________________________________________________________________________ ST. THOMAS AQUINAS: 5 WAYS OF PROVING THE EXISTENCE OF GOD USING HUMAN REASON: ARGUMENT ON MOTION Objects are in motion Something that is moving cannot move by itself and thus requires a mover A mover is also moved by another mover, otherwise it cannot cause movement There can be no infinite chain of movers There must be a first mover existing before all movement The first mover acts on his own will, not moved by any other mover The unmoved mover is GOD God as Prime Mover, the First Principle ARGUMENT ON CAUSALITY A thing cannot cause itself. Its cause is outside of itself There can be no infinite chain of causes and effects There must be a first cause which is not caused by anything

The uncaused cause is GOD God as the First Cause, the First Principle

ARGUMENT ON CONTINGENCY Something that exists was first non-existent If everything exists then everything was non-existent BUT, IF everything was non-existent, nothing will cause existence There must be a being who is not contingent (does not fail to exist) The non-contingent being brings existence out of non-existence This necessary being is GOD God is the Necessary Being

ARGUMENT ON GRADATION / PERFECTION Characteristics of objects come in greater or lesser extents If an object has lesser degrees of one characteristic, then there must be someone who has a greater degree, and ultimately the maximum possible degree Therefore, there is someone who has all characteristics in the maximum possible degree This Absolute Being is GOD, the Perfect Being God is the greatest Being thinkable. St. Anselm

ARGUMENT ON DESIGN AND GOVERNANCE A conscious mind brings a being to its end or purpose Not all beings have minds but even beings without minds are able to reach their end or purpose There must be an intelligent mind who designs and governs those without minds such that they reach their end or purpose This designer and governor is GOD God is the Intelligent Being. He is the Chief Architect. ________________________________________________________ PEOPLE IN THE FIELD OF SCIENCE AFFIRM GOD'S EXISTENCE! Science & Faith

Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin, as they journeyed back home from the moon, beamed a TV program to earth, during which Aldrin quoted verses 3-4 of Psalm 8: When I look at thy heavensLord, the work of thy fingers, the moon and the stars which thou has established, I cry: what is man that thou art mindful of him -- The Astronauts, out there in the vast space, chose God, not chance. The Apollo 8 astronauts: Borman, Lovell, and Anders, attributed to God the success of their mission to go beyond the moon, which meant that they would be out of contact from earth for a full forty-five minutes. On December 24, 1968, the three astronauts gave a moving testimony of faith when they read in turn the story of creation in Genesis, to which Borman added this prayer: Give us, O God, the vision which can see thy love in the world in spite of human failure. Give us the faith, the trust, the goodness, in spite of our ignorance and weakness. Give us the knowledge that we may continue to pray with understanding hearts. To me, science and religion are very similar. If we compare how great scientific ideas arrive, they look remarkably like religious revelation viewed in a non-mystical way. The great scientific discoveries, the real leaps, do not come from so-called scientific method but by revelations which are just as real. -- Dr. Charles Townes -- Nobel Prize Winner for his work on the Laser and Maser While science is not religion, it is a religious activity by its presuppositions, its methods of working, and its search for truth. - Dr. Wernher von Braun -- Leading U.S. Space Expert Perhaps we shall end by perceiving that the great object unconsciously pursued by science is nothing else than the discovery of God. - Rev. Teilhard de Chardin - Jesuit Priest-Scientist Science is helping us put a face on God. -- Charles Coulson -- Theoretical Chemistry Expert. Coulson believed religious faith was essential for the responsible use of science. Science without Religion is LAME. Religion without science is blind. Albert Einstein. SOURCES:

AQUINAS and ANSELMs Arguments ARGUMENT FROM DIVINE LONGING CROSSING THE BRIDGE TAKE OF YOUR SHOES 1972, p.55 Edmond Barbotin FAITH FOR TODAY 1973, p.13 Erlinda Bragado and Arnold Monera KALOOB: Interweavings on the Christian Story Manila: De La Salle University Press, 1998 GODS REVELATION (Gods Self-Disclosure) [Prepared by: Sir Pazcoguin; edited parts by JAQ]


Eternal life is this: to know you, the only true God, and him whom you have sent, Jesus Christ. John 17:3 Introducing ones self to another is basic in initiating friendship. This is sustained by constant communication through which the unfolding of self takes place. Knowing, Communicating, Loving, & Communicating God, in his desire to enter into a loving relationship with humanity, took the initiative of introducing himself to us, and of communicating with us both through natural and supernatural means. Gods self-disclosure of himself is called REVELATION.

Revelation is Gods personal loving communication to us of who He is and His plan to save us all in His love. It is Gods reaching out to us in friendship, so we get to know and love Him. - CFC no.101 THE LIMITATION OF HUMAN REASON: The fact that natural reason can prove Gods existence is in itself revelation. But while human reason can tell us that God exists, it cannot tell us WHO GOD IS. In order for us to know who God is, we have to pay attention to the different avenues by which God communicates with us. KINDS OF REVELATION: 1. GENERAL/NATURAL - Creation & SPECIAL Bible 2. PUBLIC Gods self disclosure in salvation history & his saving plan for all humanity known as DIVINE REVELATION & PRIVATE Church-recognized messages from apparitions to some privileged men & women. Regarding Private Revelations For these messages to be deemed authentic, they must be in consonance with public revelation and must lead us closer to Christ and help us become faithful followers of Christ. An authentic Catholic devotion must lead us closer to Jesus. Otherwise, it is not an authentic Catholic devotion. --PCPII Some private revelations may be declared as worthy, but not obligatory of belief. Private revelations do not add to Christs public revelation. They do not belong to the deposit of faith. They may help us to appreciate public revelation more clearly and grow in our spiritual life. AVENUES OF GODS COMMUNICATION: Rev. Fr. Ian Knox, C.S.Sp. GOD: 1. EVENTS Creation, History, Prophets 2. PERSONS Jesus Christ, Church REVALATION THROUGH CREATION: The heavens declare the glory of God, and the firmament proclaims His handiwork Psalm 19:1 The beauty of nature awakens our religious sense. Realizing that we cannot be responsible for the grandeur of creation, we end up concluding: there must be a God who is the cause of everything. CREATION IS THE FIRST ACT OF GODS REVELATION. Ever since the creation of the world, his eternal power and divine nature, invisible though they are, have been understood and seen through the things he has made. Romans 1:19 -20 REVELATION THROUGH HISTORY: For history to be revelatory, we have to learn looking at history with the eyes of faith. We have to realize that God is not merely watching us from a distance. Rather, he is actively involved in the story of our lives, both as individuals and as a people.

Even the most secular historical events, when seen with faith, become evidences of Gods divine plan gradually unfolding through time. x But it does not mean that God is like the Greek gods who control and manipulate our lives. Our Loving God: guides us, enlightens us, helps us, strengthens & encourages us, heals us, forgives ussaves us REFLECT: What moment(s) in your lifeyour personal history (the happy ones and the sad ones, your inner struggles & battles) that you are now able to recognize Gods presence? REFLECT: What do you mean by: God writes straight in crooked lines. God is Lord of history. He will not let evil triumph. The factor of grace and the factor of freedom meet. God can transform situations. REVELATION THROUGH THE PROPHETS: ETYMOLOGY o o o o From the Greek: Prophetes PRO for, on behalf of PHETES speak TO SPEAK ON BEHALF OF Historians enable us to remember significant events. The PROPHETS of God, both ancient and modern, help us to see historical events with Gods own eyes. While prophets may tell future events, prediction of the future is just incidental to prophecy. The main task of a prophet is to convey the message of God by interpreting the SIGNS OF THE TIMES. The meaning of historical events as revealed by God through the prophets are at times unpalatable. Often, prophets speak the uncomfortable truth, hence they are often persecuted. REVELATION THROUGH JESUS CHRIST: In times past God spoke in varied ways to our fathers through the prophets; in this, the final age, He has spo ken to us through His Son Hebrews 1:1-2 No one has ever seen God, but the only Son, who is the same as God, made Him known John 1: 18 JESUS CHRIST IS THE FULLNESS OF GODS REVELATION By becoming man like us, he revealed to us everything we need to know about God, using a language that we can understand and relate to. JESUS CHRIST: GOAL, CONTENT, AND AGENT OF REVELATION As goal, Jesus is the key, the center and the purpose of the whole of mans history (GS 10), in whose image we all are to be conformed (cf. Rom 8:29).

As goal, Jesus is the key, the center and the purpose of the whole of mans history (GS 10), in whose image we all are to be conformed (cf. Rom 8:29). Christ is revealer through his part in creation, through his becoming man, through his hidden and public life, and especially through his passion, death and resurrection. After his resurrection, the Risen Christ continues his revelation by sending us his Holy Spirit, the Spirit of truth (cf. DV 4). CFC nos. 77-79 To summarize: CHRIST as GOAL of Revelation means we are to be like Christ in His love for God and neighbor. CHRIST as CONTENT HE is the MESSAGE CHRIST as AGENT HE is the mediator. REVELATION THROUGH THE CHURCH: God speaks to us in and through the life of the church. God speaks to us through the lives of holy people who have evidently taken Jesus message to heart and serve as an example to all. As we participate in the life of the church, we participate in revelation. We believe that Jesus is still speaking and acting through the church, that is through us and our participation in the life of the community. We believe that we as a church, continue Jesus preaching and mission to the world. (Fr. Ian Knox - THEOLOGY FOR TEACHERS, p.88) ______________________________________________________________________ MODELS OF REVELATION: By: Avery Cardinal Dulles, SJ Each model presents a definition for revelation and faith, and presents the role of God and the recipients of revelation. 1. Revelation as DOCTRINE REVELATION Divinely authoritative doctrine inerrantly proposed by Gods word in the Bible or by official church teaching FAITH Firm assent to the revealed truths contained in the written or transmitted word of God ROLE OF GOD TEACHER who communicates knowledge by speech or writing ROLE OF RECIPIENTS Pupils who are expected to be attentive and docile 2. Revelation as HISTORY REVELATION Manifestation of Gods saving power by His great deeds in history FAITH Trust in God as the Lord of history who has repeatedly proven his power, goodness and fidelity on those who rely on Him ROLE OF GOD TRANSCENDENT AGENT who brings about revelatory events of signs to his people ROLE OF RECIPIENTS Discernment and interpretation of signs given in salvation history 3. Revelation as INNER EXPERIENCE

REVELATION Self-manifestation of God by His intimate presence in the depths of the human spirit FAITH Prayer of the heart, pious affections, or some such loving and devout response ROLE OF GOD DIVINE VISITOR, the guest of the soul ROLE OF RECIPIENTS Openness to Gods presence. 4. Revelation as DIALECTICAL PRESENCE REVELATION Gods address to those whom he encounters with His word in Scripture and Christian proclamation FAITH Personal acceptance of ones status as a forgiven sinner, thanks to Gods mercy in Jesus Christ ROLE OF GOD MERCIFUL JUDGE who pronounces sentence of condemnation and pardon ROLE OF RECIPIENTS Obedient submission to the power of the word 5. Revelation as AWARENESS REVELATION A breakthrough to a higher level of consciousness as humanity is drawn to a fuller participation in the divine creativity FAITH A commitment to / and participation in, the movement where the divine Spirit continually leads creation forward to its ultimate fulfillment. ROLE OF GOD ATTRACTING the imagination to envision the world in a new way ROLE OF RECIPIENTS Responsive to the call to build a fully human world ____________________________________________________________________________________ Revelation is both a gift and a task. Revelation is Gods free, undeserved act of love by which he enables us to have knowledge of him and of the salvation that he offers. Revelation likewise challenges us to interpret the events in our lives in the light of the life-changing Gospel of Jesus, that we might know and obey Gods will and thus become tangible signs of Gods loving presence. ________________________________________________________________________ THE DEPOSIT OF GODS REVELATION Gods Revelation is contained in: 1. Sacred Scriptures and 2. Sacred Tradition God, the one and only source of revelation, so willed that his revelation be transmitted to us through two modes: Sacred Scriptures and Sacred Tradition, two phases of the same revelation forming one sacred deposit of the word of God entrusted to the Church

REVELATION AS THE WORD OF GOD n The Hebrew term dabar, means word, & also event or reality. WORD OF GOD: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. The events in salvation history The message of God proclaimed through the prophets The person of Jesus, who himself is the Word of God. The preaching of the Christian faith The general message of God to humanity The Bible.

____________________________________________________________________________________ Our response to Gods Revelation is : FAITH ACT OF FAITH: O MY GOD, I FIRMLY BELIEVE ALL THE TRUTHS WHICH THE HOLY CATHOLIC CHURCH TEACHES BECAUSE YOU HAVE REVEALED THEM WHO NEVER DECEIVE, NOR CAN BE DECEIVED. AMEN. Many of the truths revealed by God to us are beyond the power of our human comprehension. Yet because we believe that God, who is all good "cannot deceive nor be deceived we say AMEN even to things we do not fully understand.